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CHAPTER 44: Astrophysics and Cosmology
Responses to Questions
1. The Milky Way appears murky or milky to the naked eye, and so before telesopes !ere used it
!as thou"ht to be loud#like. When $ie!ed !ith a telesope, muh of the murkiness is resol$ed
into stars and star lusters, so !e no lon"er onsider the Milky Way to be milky.
2. %f a star "enerates more ener"y in its interior than it radiates a!ay, its temperature !ill inrease.
&onse'uently, there !ill be "reater out!ard pressure opposin" the "ra$itational fore direted
in!ard. To re"ain e'uilibrium, the star !ill e(pand. %f a star "enerates less ener"y than it radiates
a!ay, then its temperature !ill derease. There !ill be a smaller out!ard pressure opposin" the
"ra$itational fore direted in!ard, and, in order to re"ain e'uilibrium, the star !ill ontrat.
). *ed "iants are e(tremely lar"e stars !ith relati$ely ool surfae temperatures, resultin" in their
reddish olors. These stars are $ery luminous beause they are so lar"e. When the +un beomes a
red "iant, for instane, its radius !ill be on the order of the distane from the ,arth to the +un. - red
"iant has run out of hydro"en in its inner ore and is fusin" hydro"en to helium in a shell
surroundin" the ore. *ed "iants ha$e left their main se'uene positions on the ./* dia"ram and
mo$ed up 0more luminous1 and to the ri"ht 0ooler1.
4. - star mo$in" alon" arro! 21 !ould inrease in luminosity
!hile maintainin" the same surfae temperature. %t !ould
therefore also ha$e to inrease in si3e, sine eah s'uare
meter of its surfae !ould ha$e the same olor and therefore
same ener"y output as before. - star mo$in" alon" arro! 22
!ould inrease in luminosity and derease in temperature. %t
!ould also inrease in si3e, sine it !ould need to produe a
"reater luminosity e$en thou"h eah unit area of its surfae
!ould no! be produin" less ener"y. - star mo$in" alon"
arro! 2) maintains the same luminosity !hile inreasin" its
surfae temperature. %t !ill beome smaller, sine a unit area
of this star !ill inrease its ener"y and therefore a smaller
o$erall area !ill be needed to maintain the same luminosity.
- star mo$in" alon" arro! 24 dereases in both surfae temperature and luminosity. 4inally, a star
mo$in" alon" arro! 25 !ill derease in luminosity !hile maintainin" the same surfae temperature
and dereasin" in si3e. 5ote that these arro!s do not neessarily represent natural paths for stars
on the ./* dia"ram.
5. The ./* dia"ram is a plot of luminosity $ersus surfae temperature of a star and therefore does not
diretly tell us anythin" about the ore of a star. .o!e$er, !hen onsidered in on6untion !ith
theories of stellar e$olution, the ./* dia"ram does relate to the interior of a star. 4or instane, all
main se'uene stars are fusin" hydro"en to helium in their ores, so the loation of a partiular star
on the main se'uene does "i$e us that information.
7. The fate of a star depends on the mass of the star remainin" after the red "iant phase. %f the mass is
less than about 1.4 solar masses, the star !ill beome a !hite d!arf. %f the mass is "reater than this
limit, than the e(lusion priniple applied to eletrons is not enou"h to hold the star up a"ainst its
o!n "ra$ity and it ontinues to ontrat, e$entually beomin" a neutron star or, if its mass at this
sta"e is more than t!o or three solar masses, a blak hole.
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Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics, 4
th
Edition Instructor Solutions Manual
9. :es. .otter stars are found on the main se'uene abo$e and to the left of ooler stars. %f ./*
dia"rams of lusters of stars are ompared, it is found that older lusters are missin" the upper left
portions of their main se'uenes. -ll the stars in a "i$en luster are formed at about the same time,
and the absene of the hotter main se'uene stars in a luster indiates that they ha$e shorter li$es
and ha$e already used up their ore hydro"en and beome red "iants. %n fat, the turn#off point, or
point at !hih the upper end of the main se'uene stops, an be used to determine the a"es of
lusters.
;. The baseline used in measurin" paralla(es from the ,arth is the distane from the ,arth to the +un.
0+ee 4i"ure 44#11.1 %f you !ere measurin" paralla(es from the Moon instead, you !ould need to
make a sli"ht orretion based on the position of the Moon !ith respet to the ,arth/+un line at the
time of the measurement. %f you !ere measurin" paralla(es from Mars, you !ould need to use the
distane from Mars to the +un as the baseline. %n addition, you !ould need to !ait half a Martian
year bet!een measurements instead of half an ,arth year.
8. Wath the star o$er a period of se$eral days and determine its period throu"h obser$ation. <se the
kno!n relationship bet!een period and luminosity to find its absolute luminosity. &ompare its
absolute luminosity to its apparent luminosity 0obser$ed1 to determine the distane to the "ala(y in
!hih it is loated.
1=. - "eodesi is the shortest distane bet!een t!o points. 4or instane, on a flat plane the shortest
distane bet!een t!o points is a strai"ht line, and on the surfae of a sphere the shortest distane is
an ar of a "reat irle. -ordin" to "eneral relati$ity, spae/time is ur$ed. >eterminin" the nature
of a "eodesi, for instane by obser$in" the motion of a body or li"ht near a lar"e mass, !ill help
determine the nature of the ur$ature of spae/time there.
11. %f the redshift of spetral lines of "ala(ies !ere diso$ered to be due to somethin" other than
e(pansion of the uni$erse, then the ?i" ?an" theory and the idea that the uni$erse is e(pandin"
!ould be alled into 'uestion. .o!e$er, the e$idene of the osmi bak"round miro!a$e
radiation !ould onflit !ith this $ie!, unless it too !as determined to result from some ause other
than e(pansion.
12. 5o. %n an e(pandin" uni$erse, all "ala(ies are mo$in" a!ay from all other "ala(ies on a lar"e sale.
0@n a small sale, nei"hborin" "ala(ies may be "ra$itationally bound to eah other.1 Therefore, the
$ie! from any "ala(y !ould be the same. @ur obser$ations do not indiate that !e are at the enter.
0+ee 4i"ure 44#2).1
1). They !ould appear to be reedin". %n an e(pandin" uni$erse, the distanes bet!een "ala(ies are
inreasin", and so the $ie! from any "ala(y is that all other "ala(ies are mo$in" a!ay.
14. -n e(plosion on ,arth !ould be affeted by the ,arthAs "ra$ity and air resistane. ,ah piee of
debris !ould at like a pro6etile, !ith its indi$idual initial $eloity. More distant partiles !ould not
spread at a hi"her speed. This orresponds some!hat to a losed uni$erse, in !hih the "ala(ies
e$entually stop and then all ome bak to"ether a"ain. %n the ase of the e(plosion on ,arth, most of
the partiles !ould e$entually stop. Most !ould land on the "round. +ome mi"ht esape into spae.
The partiles !ould not all reassemble, as in the bi" runh.
15. ?lak holes ha$e tremendous "ra$ity, so !e an detet them by the "ra$itational defletion of other
ob6ets in their $iinity. -lso, matter aeleratin" to!ard a blak hole "i$es off (#rays, !hih an be
deteted. %n addition, "ra$itational lensin", the bendin" of li"ht omin" from stars and "ala(ies
loated behind the blak hole, an indiate that the blak hole is present.
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12=
&hapter 44 Astrophysics and Cosmology
17. R !"M#c$, so M Rc$#!" .
M B 05.28 ( 1=
#11
10).== ( 1=
;
1CDE207.79 ( 1=
#11
1F B ).59 ( 1=
17
k"
19. ?oth the formation of the ,arth and the time durin" !hih people ha$e li$ed on ,arth are on the far
ri"ht ed"e of 4i"ure 44#)=, in the era of dark ener"y.
1;. The 2.9 G osmi miro!a$e bak"round radiation is the remnant radiation of the ?i" ?an". -s the
uni$erse e(panded, the !a$elen"ths of the ?i" ?an" radiation len"thened and beame redshifted.
The 2.9 G blakbody ur$e peaks at a !a$elen"th of about 9.)5 m, in the miro!a$e re"ion. The
temperature of this radiation is lo! beause the ener"y spread out o$er an inreasin"ly lar"e $olume
as the uni$erse e(panded.
18. The early uni$erse !as too hot for atoms to e(ist. The a$era"e kineti ener"ies of partiles !ere hi"h
and fre'uent ollisions pre$ented eletrons from remainin" !ith nulei.
2=. 0a1 Type %a superno$ae ha$e a ran"e of luminosities that an be e(trated from their obser$able
harateristis and an be deri$ed from the rate at !hih they bri"hten and fade a!ay.
0%1 The distane to a superno$a an be determined by omparin" the relati$e intensity to the
luminosity.
21. The initial ?i" ?an" !as not perfetly symmetri. >e$iations in the symmetry enabled the
de$elopment of "ala(ies and other strutures.
22. %f the a$era"e mass density of the uni$erse is abo$e the ritial density, then the uni$erse !ill
e$entually stop its e(pansion and ontrat, ollapsin" on itself and endin" finally in a bi" runh.
This senario orresponds to a losed uni$erse, or one !ith positi$e ur$ature.
2). %f there !ere 9 protons for e$ery neutron, and it takes t!o protons and t!o neutrons to reate a
sin"le helium nuleus, then for e$ery helium nuleus there !ould be 12 hydro"en nulei. +ine the
mass of helium is four times the mass of hydro"en, the ratio of the total mass of hydro"en to the
total mass of helium should be 12H4, or )H1.
24. 0a1 Ira$ity bet!een "ala(ies should be pullin" the "ala(ies bak to"ether, slo!in" the e(pansion of
the uni$erse.
0%1 -stronomers ould measure the redshift of li"ht from distant superno$ae and dedue the
reession $eloities of the "ala(ies in !hih they lie. ?y obtainin" data from a lar"e number of
superno$ae, they ould establish a history of the reessional $eloity of the uni$erse, and
perhaps tell !hether the e(pansion of the uni$erse is slo!in" do!n.
Solutions to Problems
1. &on$ert the an"le to seonds of ar, reiproate to find the distane in parses, and then on$ert to
li"ht years.
( )
( )
o
4
o
)7==
2.8 1= 1.=44
1
1 1 ).27ly
p =.85;p ).1ly
1.=44 1p
d





_

,
_

,
2. <se the an"le to alulate the distane in parses, and then on$ert to li"ht years.
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Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics, 4
th
Edition Instructor Solutions Manual
( )
1 1 ).27ly
p ).9=4p ).9=4p 12ly
=.29 1p
d


,
). &on$ert the li"ht years to parses, and then take the reiproal of the number of parses to find the
paralla( an"le in seonds of ar.
( )
1p 1
75ly 18.84p 2=p 2 si". fi". =.=5=
).27ly 18.84p



_

,
4. The reiproal of the distane in parses is the an"le in seonds of ar.
0a1
( )
1 1
=.=19;7 =.=1;
p 57p d



0%1 ( ) ( )
o
o o
7 7
1
=.=19;7 4.871 1= 5.= 1=
)7==

_

,
5. The paralla( an"le is smaller for the further star. +ine tan , d & as the distane & to the star
inreases, the tan"ent dereases, so the an"le dereases. -nd sine for small an"les,
tan
, !e
ha$e that . d & Thus if the distane & is doubled, the an"le

!ill be smaller by a fator of 2 .


7. 4ind the distane in li"ht years. That $alue is also the time for li"ht to reah us.
).27ly
;5p 299ly 2;=ly %t takes li"ht 2;=years to reah us.
1p

_

,
9. The apparent bri"htness of an ob6et is in$ersely proportional to the s'uare of the obser$erAs distane
from the ob6et, "i$en by ,'. 44#1. To find the relati$e bri"htness at one loation as ompared to
another, take a ratio of the apparent bri"htness at eah loation.
2
2 2
2
Jupiter Jupiter
,arth ,arth
2
,arth Jupiter Jupiter
2
,arth
4
1
=.=)9
5.2
4
'
% d
d d
'
% d d
d


_
_

,
,
;. 0a1 The apparent bri"htness is the solar onstant,
) 2
1.) 1= W m .
0%1 <se ,'. 44#1 to find the intrinsi luminosity.
( ) ( )
2
2 11 2 ) 2 27
2
4 4 1.487 1= m 1.) 1= W m ).9 1= W
4
'
% ' d
d
%


8. The density is the mass di$ided by the $olume.
( )
)=
) )
) )
4 1=
4
)
)
1.88 1= k"
2 1= k" m
7 1= m
M M
( r

1=. The an"ular !idth is the in$erse tan"ent of the diameter of our Iala(y di$ided by the distane to the
nearest "ala(y. -ordin" to 4i"ure 44#2, our Iala(y is about 1==,=== ly in diameter.
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currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
122
&hapter 44 Astrophysics and Cosmology
5
1 1 o
7
7
1 1 ) o
Moon ;
Iala(y diameter 1.= 1= ly
tan tan =.=42 rad 2.4
>istane to nearest "ala(y 2.4 1= ly
Moon diameter ).4; 1= m
tan tan 8.1 1= rad =.52
>istane to Moon ).;4 1= m

The Iala(y !idth is about 4.5 times the Moon !idth.


11. The )#$alue is the mass ener"y of the reatants minus the mass ener"y of the produts. The masses
are found in -ppendi( 4.
( ) [ ] ( )
[ ] ( )
4 4 ;
2 2 4
2 2 2 2
.e ?e
4 ; 12
2 4 7
2 2 2 2 2
?e .e &
.e .e ?e
2 2 4.==27=)u ;.==5)=5u 8)1.5Me$ =.=82MeK
.e ?e &
4.==27=)u ;.==5)=5u 12.====== 8)1.5Me$
9.)77MeK
) m c m c c c
) m c m c m c c c
+

+
+ +

12. The an"ular !idth is the in$erse tan"ent of the diameter of the Moon di$ided by the distane to the
+un.
( )
7
o
1 1 5 )
11
Moon diameter ).4; 1= m
tan tan 2.)) 1= rad 1.)) 1= 4.98
>istane to +un 1.487 1= m

1). The density is the mass di$ided by the $olume.


( )
)=
8 ) +un
) )
4
7
4
,arth )
)
1.88 1= k"
1.;) 1= k" m
7.); 1= m
M M
( R

+ine the $olumes are the same, the ratio of the densities is the same as the ratio of the masses.
)=
5
24
,arth ,arth
1.88 1= k"
).)) 1= times lar"er
5.8; 1= k"
M
M

14. The density of the neutron star is its mass di$ided by its $olume. <se the proton to alulate the
density of nulear matter. The radius of the proton is taken from ,'. 41#1.
( )
( )
)=
19 ) 19 )
neutron )
4
star
)
neutron neutron 19 ) 19 )
star star ;
29 8 )
!hite nulear
d!arf matter
4
)
)
1.5 1.88 1= k"
5.)54 1= k" m 5.4 1= k" m
11 1= m
5.)54 1= k" m 5.)54 1= k" m
2.8 1=
1.79) 1= k" 1.;) 1= k" m
1.2 1=
M
(

( )
)
15
2.)
m

15. WienAs la! 0,'. )9#11 says that the


L
* , !here

is a onstant, and so
L1 1 L2 2
. * * The
+tefan/?olt3mann e'uation 0,'. 18#191 says that the po!er output of a star is "i$en by
4
P A* ,
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currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
12)
Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics, 4
th
Edition Instructor Solutions Manual
!here

is a onstant, and A is the radiatin" area. The P in the +tefan/?olt3mann e'uation is the
same as the luminosity ' in this hapter. The luminosity ' is related to the apparent bri"htness % by
,'. 44#1. %t is "i$en that
1 2
=.=81 % % ,
1 2
d d ,
L1
49=nm, and
L2
92=nm.
2 L1 1 2
L1 1 L2 2 1 2 2 2
1 L2 1 2
=.=81 =.=81
4 4
M
* ' '
* * % %
* d d




( )
2 4 2 4 4 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 4 2 4 4 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2
1 2 L2
2 1 L1
=.=81 4 =.=81 =.=81 =.=81
1 =.=81
4
49=nm
=.=81 =.=81 =.=81 =.12;5
92=nm
r * d ' P A * * r
d ' P A* r * * r
r *
r *



_ _ _

, , ,
The ratio of the diameters is the same as the ratio of radii, so
1
2
=.1) .
&
&

17. WienAs la! 0,'. )9#11 says that the
L
* , !here

is a onstant, and so
L1 1 L2 2
. * * The
+tefan/?olt3mann e'uation 0,'. 18#191 says that the po!er output of a star is "i$en by
4
P A* ,
!here

is a onstant, and A is the radiatin" area. The P in the +tefan/?olt3mann e'uation is the
same as the luminosity ' in this hapter. The luminosity ' is related to the apparent bri"htness % by
,'. 44#1. %t is "i$en that
1 2
, % %
1 2
, r r
L1
95=nm, and
L2
45=nm.
2 L1
L1 1 L2 2
1 L2
4
2 4 2 4 4
1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 2 2 2 2 4 2 4 4
1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2
2
2 2 L1
1 1 L2

4

4 4 4
95=
2.;
45=
*
* *
*
' ' d ' P A * r * * *
% %
d d d ' P A* r * * *
d *
d *




_

,
_ _
_

,
, ,
The star !ith the peak at 45= nm is 2.; times further a!ay than the star !ith the peak at 95= nm.
19. The +h!ar3shild radius is
2
2
.
"M
c
( ) ( )
( )
11 2 2 24
) ,arth
,arth 2 2
;
2 7.79 1= 5 m k" 5.8; 1= k"
2
;.;7 1= m ;.8mm
).== 1= m s
"M
R
c

g
1;. The +h!ar3shild radius is "i$en by
2
2
.
"M
R
c
-n appro(imate mass for our Iala(y is
alulated in ,(ample 44#1.
( ) ( )
( )
11 2 2 41
14
2 2
;
2 7.79 1= 5 m k" 2 1= k"
2
) 1= m
).== 1= m s
"M
R
c

g
18. The limitin" $alue for the an"les in a trian"le on a sphere is
o
54=
. %ma"ine dra!in" an e'uilateral
trian"le near the north pole, enlosin" the north pole. %f that trian"le !ere small, the surfae !ould
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124
&hapter 44 Astrophysics and Cosmology
be appro(imately flat, and eah an"le in the trian"le !ould be
o
7= . Then ima"ine strethin" eah
side of that trian"le do!n to!ards the e'uator, !hile keepin" sure that the north pole stayed inside
the trian"le. The an"le at eah $erte( of the trian"le !ould e(pand, !ith a limitin" $alue of
o
1;= .
The three
o
1;= an"les in the trian"le !ould sum to
o
54= .
2=. To 6ust esape from an ob6et, the kineti ener"y of the body at the surfae of the body must be e'ual
to the ma"nitude of the "ra$itational potential ener"y at the surfae. <se ,'. ;#18.
es 2
+h!ar3hild
2 2
2
"M "M
+ c
R "M c

21. We find the time for the li"ht to ross the ele$ator, and then find ho! far the ele$ator mo$es durin"
that time due to its aeleration.
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2
17
1
2 2 2
;
8.;=m s 2.4m
M 1.) 1= m
2
2 ).== 1= m s
g , ,
t y g t
c c


5ote that this is smaller than the si3e of a proton.


22. <se ,'. 44#4, .ubbleAs la!.
9
1;5=km s
;4 Mly ;.4 1= ly
22km s Mly
+
+ -d d
-

2). <se ,'. 44#4, .ubbleAs la!.
( ) ( )
;
;
4
2
=.=15 ).== 1= m s
2=4.5Mly 2.= 1= Mly 2.= 1= ly
2.2 1= m s Mly
+
+ -d d
-

24. 0a1 <se ,'. 44#7 to sol$e for the speed of the "ala(y.
obs rest
rest
455nm 4)4nm
=.=4;
4)4nm
=.=4;)8 c
+
. + c c
c

_


,
0%1 <se .ubbleAs la!, ,'. 44#4, to sol$e for the distane.
( )
;
;
=.=4;)8 ).== 1= m s
77=Mly 7.7 1= ly
22===m s Mly
+
+ -d d
-


25. We find the $eloity from .ubbleAs la!, ,'. 44#4, and the obser$ed !a$elen"th from the >oppler
shift, ,'. 44#).
0a1
( ) ( )
4
;
22===m s Mly 9.=Mly
5.1)) 1=
).== 1= m s
+ -d
c c

( )
4
= 4
1 1 5.1)) 1=
757nm 757.)4nm 757nm
1 1 5.1)) 1=
+ c
+ c

+ +


0%1
( ) ( )
)
;
22===m s Mly 9= Mly
5.1)) 1=
).== 1= m s
+ -d
c c

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125
Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics, 4
th
Edition Instructor Solutions Manual
( )
)
= )
1 1 5.1)) 1=
757nm 758.);nm 758nm
1 1 5.1)) 1=
+ c
+ c

+ +


27. <se ,'s. 44#) and 44#4 to sol$e for the distane to the "ala(y.
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
obs rest
obs rest 2 2
obs rest
2 2
2 2 ;
obs rest
2 2 4 2 2
obs rest
) 8
1

1
42).4 nm )8).4 nm
).== 1= m s
2.2 1= m s Mly
42).4nm )8).4nm
1.= 1= Mly 1.= 1= ly
+ c
+ c
+ c
+ c
d
- -




+

+



+
+

1
]
1
]
29. <se ,'s. 44#) and 44#5a to sol$e for the speed of the "ala(y.
( )
( )
2
2
2 2
obs rest obs
rest rest
1
1
1
1 1 1.=7= 1
=.=5;2= =.=5;
1.=7= 1
1 1
1
+ c
.
+ c
. +
+ c
c
.


+

+

+
+ +


The appro(imation of ,'. 44#7 "i$es =.=7= . + .c c
2;. <se ,'s. 44#) and 44#5a to sol$e for the redshift parameter.
obs rest obs
rest rest
1 1 =.=95
1 1 1 =.=9;
1 1 =.=95
+ c
.
+ c


+ +


@r, !e use the appro(imation "i$en in ,'. 44#7.
=.=95
+
.
c

28. ,'. 44#) states
rest
1
1
+ c
+ c

+

.
( )
1D 2 1D 2 2
1 1 1
rest rest rest rest 2 2 2
1
rest rest rest rest rest rest 2
rest
1
1 1 1 1 1
1
1 2 1
+ c + + + + +
+ c c c c c c
+ + + + +
c c c c c

+
+ + +

+ + +
_ _ _ _ _

, , , , ,
_ _ _

, , ,
)=. 4or small relati$e !a$elen"th shifts, !e may use ,'. 44#7 to find the speed. We use ,'. 44#4 to find
the distane.
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127
&hapter 44 Astrophysics and Cosmology
rest rest
;
rest
M
).== 1= m s =.1=m
75Mly
22, ===m s Mly 21m
+
+ c + -d
c
+ c
d
- -



_ _


, ,
)1. WienAs la! is "i$en in ,'. )9#1.
) )
) )
L L
2.8= 1= m G 2.8= 1= m G
2.8= 1= m G 1.1 1= m
2.9 G
*
*





g g
g
)2. We use WienAs la!, ,'. )9#1. 4rom 4i"ure 44#)=, the temperature is about
1=
1= G.
) )
) 1)
L L 1=
2.8= 1= m G 2.8= 1= m G
2.8= 1= m G ) 1= m
1= G
*
*





g g
g f
4rom 4i"ure )1#12, that !a$elen"th is in the "amma ray re"ion of the ,M spetrum.
)). We use the proton as typial nulear matter.
27 )
) 29
k" 1nuleon
1= 7nuleons m
m 1.79 1= k"

_ _

, ,
)4. %f the uni$erseAs sale is in$ersely proportional to the temperature, the sale times the temperature
should be onstant. %f !e all the urrent sale 1, and kno!in" the urrent temperature to be about
) G, then the produt of sale and temperature should be about ). <se 4i"ure 44#)= to estimate the
temperature at $arious times. 4or purposes of illustration, !e assume the uni$erse has a urrent si3e
of about
1=
1= ly. There !ill be some $ariation in the ans!er due to readin" the fi"ure.
0a1 -t
7
1= yr t , the temperature is about 1=== G. Thus the sale is found as follo!s.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
)
) 1= 9
) )
+ale Temperature ) +ale ) 1=
Temperature 1===
+i3e ) 1= 1= ly ) 1= ly



0%1 -t 1 s t , the temperature is about
1=
1= G
.
( ) ( )
1= 1= 1=
1=
) )
+ale ) 1= +i3e ) 1= 1= ly )ly
Temperature 1=


0c1 -t
7
1= s t

, the temperature is about


1)
1= G
.
( ) ( )
1)
1) 1= ) 1)
1)
) )
+ale
Temperature 1=
+i3e ) 1= 1= ly ) 1= ly ) 1= m
) 1=




0d1 -t
)5
1= s t

, the temperature is about


29
1= G
.
( ) ( )
29
29
29 1= 19
) )
+ale ) 1=
Temperature 1=
+i3e ) 1= 1= ly ) 1= ly =.)m




)5. We appro(imate the temperature/ener"y relationship by
2
/* E mc
as su""ested on pa"e 1219.
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129
Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics, 4
th
Edition Instructor Solutions Manual
2
2

mc
/* mc *
/
.
0a1
( ) ( )
2 2 1)
2
12
2)
5==MeK 1.7= 1= J MeK
7 1= G
1.); 1= J G
c c
mc
*
/

4rom 4i"ure 44#)=, this orresponds to a time of


5
1= s

:
.
0%1
( ) ( )
2 2 1)
2
14
2)
85== MeK 1.7= 1= J MeK
1 1= G
1.); 1= J G
c c
mc
*
/

4rom 4i"ure 44#)=, this orresponds to a time of


9
1= s

:
.
0c1
( ) ( )
2 2 1)
2
12
2)
1==MeK 1.7= 1= J MeK
1 1= G
1.); 1= J G
c c
mc
*
/

4rom 4i"ure 44#)=, this orresponds to a time of


4
1= s

:
.
There !ill be some $ariation in the ans!ers due to readin" the fi"ure.
)7. 0a1 -ordin" to the te(t, near 4i"ure 44#)), the $isible matter makes up about one#tenth of the
total baryoni matter. The a$era"e baryoni density is therefore 1= times the density of $isible
matter.
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
$isible
baryon $isible )
4
)
11 11 )=
)
8 15
4
)
27 ) 27 )
1= 1=
1= "ala(ies 1= stars "ala(y 2.= 1= k" star
1=
14 1= ly 8.47 1= m ly
2.1 1= k" m 2.=55 1= k" m
M
R



1
]

0%1 -"ain, aordin" to the te(t, dark matter is about 4 times more plentiful than normal matter.
( )
27 ) 27 )
dark baryon
4 4 2.=55 1= k" m ;.2 1= k" m


)9. 0a1 4rom pa"e 12=1, a !hite d!arf !ith a mass e'ual to that of the +un has a radius about the si3e
of the ,arthAs radius, 7);=km. 4rom pa"e 12=2, a neutron star !ith a mass e'ual to 1.5 solar
masses has a radius of about 2=km. 4or the blak hole, !e use the +h!ar3shild radius
formula.
( ) ( )
( )
11 2 2 )=
2 2
;
2 7.79 1= 5 m k" ) 1.88 1= k"
2
;;48m ;.;5km
).== 1= m s
"M
R
c

g
0%1 The ratio is 7);= H 2= H ;.;5 921H 2.27 H 1 9== H 2 H 1.
);. The an"ular momentum is the produt of the rotational inertia and the an"ular $eloity.
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currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
12;
&hapter 44 Astrophysics and Cosmology
( ) ( )
( )
initial final
2 2
2 ;
2
initial initial initial 5
final initial initial initial 2 )
2
final final final 5
8 8

9 1= m
1re$ month
; 1= m
re$ 1month
9.77 1= re$ month 9.77 1=
month )
I I
I MR R
I MR R



_ _ _ _

, , , ,
1d 1h
285)
=d 24h )7==s
)===re$ s
re$ s

)8. The rotational kineti ener"y is "i$en by


2
1
2
I . The final an"ular $eloity, from problem 4), is
8
9.77 1= re$ month .
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
1 2
final final final final final final final 2 5
2 2 2
1 2
initial initial initial initial initial initial initial 2 5
2
) 8
8
;
; 1= m 9.77 1= re$ month
; 1=
9 1= m 1re$ month
0 I MR R
0 I MR R




_

,
_


,
4=. The apparent luminosity is "i$en by ,'. 44#1. <se that relationship to deri$e an e(pression for the
absolute luminosity, and e'uate that for t!o stars.
( )
2
2
2 2
distant +un distant distant +un +un
star star star
11 +un
distant +un 11 15
star
distant
star
4
4
4 4
1 1ly
1.5 1= m 5ly
1= 8.471 1= m
'
% ' d
d
' ' d d
l
d d
l
%
% %

_

,
41. -H The temperature inreases, the luminosity stays the same, and the si3e dereases.
?H The temperature stays the same, the luminosity dereases, and the si3e dereases.
&H The temperature dereases, the luminosity inreases, and the si3e inreases.
42. The po!er output is the ener"y loss di$ided by the elapsed time.
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 1 2
initial 2 2 5
2
2
)= ) 8
25 25
fration lost fration lost fration lost
1.5 1.88 1= k" ;.= 1= m 2 rad s 1 1=
1
1.9471= W 1.9 1= W
5 1d 24 h d )7==s h
0 I MR 0
P
t t t t





4). <se 5e!tonAs la! of uni$ersal "ra$itation.
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
41
11 2 2 2; 1 2
2 2
7 15
2;
) 1= k"
7.79 1= 5 m k" 1.7; 1= 5
2 1= ly 8.47 1= m ly
2 1= 5
mm
1 "
r





1
]
g
44. 0a1 -ssume that the nuleons make up only 2N of the ritial mass density.
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currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
128
Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics, 4
th
Edition Instructor Solutions Manual
( )
( )
( )
( )
27 )
27 )
)
29
8 ; )
27 )
; )
nuleon mass density =.=2 1= k" m
=.=2 1= k" m
nuleon number density =.12nuleon m
1.79 1= k" nuleon
neutrino number density 1= nuleon number density 1.2 1= neutrino m
=.8; 1= k" m
1.2 1= neutrino m

; 2
)5 2
29
k" 8.)15 1= eK
;.19 1= 47eK
neutrino 1.77 1= k"
c
c

0%1 -ssume that the nuleons make up only 5N of the ritial mass density.
( )
( )
( )
( )
27 )
27 )
)
29
8 ; )
27 )
; )
nuleon mass density =.=5 1= k" m
=.=5 1= k" m
nuleon number density =.)=nuleon m
1.79 1= k" nuleon
neutrino number density 1= nuleon number density ).= 1= neutrino m
=.85 1= k" m
).= 1= neutrino m

; 2
)5 2
29
k" 8.)15 1= eK
).19 1= 1;eK
neutrino 1.77 1= k"
c
c

45. The temperature of eah star an be found from WienAs la!.


)
L
) )
77= 4;= 8 8
2.8= 1= m G
2.8= 1= m G 2.8= 1= m G
4)8=G 7=4=G
77= 1= m 4;= 1= m
*
* *








g
g g
The luminosity of eah star an be found from the ./* dia"ram.
25 27
77= 4;=
) 1= W ) 1= W ' '
The +tefan/?olt3mann e'uation says that the po!er output of a star is "i$en by
4
P A* , !here

is a onstant, and A is the radiatin" area. The P in the +tefan/?olt3mann e'uation is the same as
the luminosity ' "i$en in ,'. 44#1. 4orm the ratio of the t!o luminosities.
( )
( )
2
4 2 4 2 27
4;= 4;= 4;= 4;= 4;= 4;= 4;= 77=
2 4 2 4 2 25
77= 77= 77= 77= 77= 77= 77= 4;=
4)8=G 4 ) 1= W
1.79
4 ) 1= W
7=4=G
' A * r * r ' *
' A * r * r ' *

The diameters are in the same ratio as the radii.


4;=
77=
1.79 1.9
d
d

The luminosities are fairly sub6eti$e, sine they are read from the ./* dia"ram. >ifferent ans!ers
may arise from different readin"s of the ./* dia"ram.
47. 0a1 The number of parses is the reiproal of the an"ular resolution in seonds of ar.
( )
( ) ( )
o
o
7 7
1 1 1
1== parse =.=1 ) 1=
7= 7=
2.9; 1=



_
_


,
,
0%1 We use the *aylei"h riterion, ,'. )5#1=, !hih relates the an"ular resolution to the diameter of
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currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
1)=
&hapter 44 Astrophysics and Cosmology
the optial element. We hoose a !a$elen"th of 55= nm, in the middle of the $isible ran"e.
( )
( ) ( )
8
7
1.22 55= 1= m
1.22 1.22
B B1).;)m 14m
2.9; 1= rad 1;=
&
&


1
]
The lar"est optial telesopes urrently in use are about 1= m in diameter.
49. We appro(imate the temperature/kineti ener"y relationship by /* 0 as "i$en on pa"e 1219.
( ) ( )
12 18
17
2)
1.87 1= eK 1.7= 1= J eK
2 1= G
1.); 1= J G
0
/* 0 *
/

4rom 4i"ure 44#)=, this is in the hadron era .


4;. We assume that "ra$ity auses a entripetal fore on the "as. +ol$e for the speed of the rotatin" "as,
and use ,'. 44#7.
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 "as blak
hole "as "as
"ra$ity entripetal 2
8 )=
blak
hole 11 2 2 5
"as 15
5
) )
;

2 1= 1.88 1= k"
7.79 1= 5 m k" 7.42 1= m s
8.47 1= m
7;ly
1ly
7.42 1= m s
2.14 1= 2 1=
).== 1= m s
m m
m +
1 1 "
r r
m
+ "
r
+
.
c

_

,
g
48. 0a1 To find the ener"y released in the reation, !e alulate the )#$alue for this reation. 4rom ,'.
42#2a, the )#$alue is the mass ener"y of the reatants minus the mass ener"y of the produts.
The masses are found in -ppendi( 4.
( ) [ ] ( )
2 2 2 2
& M"
2 2 12.======u 2).8;5=42 u 8)1.5Me$ 1).8)MeK ) m c m c c c
0%1 The total kineti ener"y should be e'ual to the eletrial potential ener"y of the t!o nulei !hen
they are 6ust touhin". The distane bet!een the t!o nulei !ill be t!ie the nulear radius,
from ,'. 41#1. ,ah nuleus !ill ha$e half the total kineti ener"y.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
1D ) 1D )
15 15 nuleus
=
2
nuleus 1 1
2 2
=
2
2
18
8 2 2
1
2 1D ) 1) 15
1
1.2 1= m 1.2 1= m 12
4 2
1
4 2
7 1.7= 1= &
1MeK
;.8;; 1= 5 n & 4.911MeK
1.7= 1= J 2 1.2 1= m 12
4.9 MeK
2
r A 3
r
2
0 3
r


,
g
0c1 We appro(imate the temperature/kineti ener"y relationship by /* 0 as "i$en on pa"e
1219.
( ) ( )
1)
1=
2)
4.911MeK 1.7= 1= J MeK
5.5 1= G
1.); 1= J G
0
/* 0 *
/

5=. 0a1 4ind the )#$alue for this reation. 4rom ,'. 42#2a, the )#$alue is the mass ener"y of the
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currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
1)1
Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics, 4
th
Edition Instructor Solutions Manual
reatants minus the mass ener"y of the produts.
( ) [ ] ( )
17 17 2; 4
; ; 14 2
2 2 2 2 2
@ +i .e
@ @ +i .e
2 2 15.884815u 29.897829 u 4.==27=) 8)1.5Me$
8.584MeK
) m c m c m c c c
+ +

0%1 The total kineti ener"y should be e'ual to the eletrial potential ener"y of the t!o nulei !hen
they are 6ust touhin". The distane bet!een the t!o nulei !ill be t!ie the nulear radius,
from ,'. 41#1. ,ah nuleus !ill ha$e half the total kineti ener"y.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
1D ) 1D)
15 15 nuleus
=
2
nuleus 1 1
nuleus 2 2
=
2
2
18
8 2 2
1
2 1D ) 18
15
1
1.2 1= m 1.2 1= m 17
4 2
1
4 2
; 1.7= 1= &
1eK
;.8;; 1= 5 n & 9.7=8MeK
1.7= 1= J
2 1.2 1= m 17
9.7MeK
2
r A 3
r
2
0 3
r

g
0c1 We appro(imate the temperature/kineti ener"y relationship by /* 0 as "i$en on pa"e
1219.
( )
18
7
1=
2)
1.7= 1= J
9.7=8 1= eK
1eK
;.; 1= G
1.); 1= J G
0
/* 0 *
/

_

,
51. We treat the ener"y of the photon as a rest mass, and so
2
photon photon
O . O m E c To 6ust esape
from a spherial mass M of radius R, the ener"y of the photon must be e'ual to the ma"nitude of the
"ra$itational potential ener"y at the surfae.
( )
2
photon photon photon
photon 2
photon photon

"M E c "Mm "Mm
"M
E R
R E E c

52. We use the +unAs mass and "i$en density to alulate the si3e of the +un.
( )
( )
)
4
+un )
1D )
1D ) )=
1;
+un 15 27 )
1;
9 ) +un +un
11
,arth#+un "ala(y

) 1.88 1= k"
) 1ly
).72 1= m );2ly 4==ly
4 8.47 1= m 4 1= k" m
).72 1= m );2ly
2 1= M 4 1=
1.5= 1= m 1==,===ly
M M
( r
M
r
r r
d d

1
_ _
1
, , 1
]
5). We appro(imate the temperature/kineti ener"y relationship by /* 0 as "i$en on pa"e 1219.
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currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
1)2
&hapter 44 Astrophysics and Cosmology
( ) ( )
12 18
19
2)
14 1= eK 1.7= 1= J eK
1.7 1= G
1.); 1= J G
0
/* 0 *
/

4rom 4i"ure 44#)=, this mi"ht orrespond to a time around


15
1= s .

5ote that this is 6ust a $ery


rou"h estimate due to the 'ualitati$e nature of 4i"ure 44#)=.
54. 0a1 We onsider the photon as
enterin" from the left, "ra3in" the
+un, and mo$in" off in a ne!
diretion. The defletion is
assumed to be $ery small. %n
partiular, !e onsider a small part
of the motion in !hih the photon
mo$es a hori3ontal distane
d, cdt !hile loated at 0,,y1
relati$e to the enter of the +un.
5ote that
y R
and
2 2 2
. r , y +
%f the photon has ener"y E, it !ill
ha$e a mass of
2
, m E c and a
momentum of ma"nitude
. p E c mc To find the han"e
of momentum in the y#diretion, !e
use the impulse produed by the y#omponent of the "ra$itational fore.
( )
2 2 )D 2
2 2
os
y y
"Mm d, "Mm d, "MmR d,
dp 1 dt
r c r c
R
r c
, R

+
To find the total han"e in the y#momentum, !e inte"rate o$er all , 0the entire path of the
photon1. We use an inte"ral from -ppendi( ?#4.
( ) ( )
)D 2 1D 2
2 2 2 2 2
2
2 2
y
"MmR d, "MmR , "Mm "Mp
p
c c cR c R
, R R , R


+ +

The total ma"nitude of defletion is the han"e in momentum di$ided by the ori"inal
momentum.
2
2
2
2 y
"Mp
p
"M
c R
c R p p



0%1 We use data for the +un.
( )
( ) ( )
2
11 )=
2
2 2
; ;
7
5 m
2 7.79 1= 1.88 1= k"
k" 2
).== 1= m s 7.87 1= m
1;= )7==
4.2); 1= rad =.;9
rad 1
"M
c R

_

,
_ _

, ,
g
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currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
1))

,
y R
E
p mc
c

2
"Mm
1
r

R
r

Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics, 4


th
Edition Instructor Solutions Manual
55. ?eause Kenus has a more ne"ati$e apparent ma"nitude, Kenus is bri"hter. We !rite the
lo"arithmi relationship as follo!s, lettin" m represent the ma"nitude and % the bri"htness.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
Kenus +irius 2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1
2 1
4.4 1.4
Kenus 2 2.5 2.5
2 1 2 1
1 +irius
lo" M lo" lo" lo"
5
2.5
lo" lo" =.=1
lo" 1= 1= 1= 17
m m m m
/
m / % m
m
m
m / % % / % %
m
/
% %
% %
m / % %
% %
+


+


57. %f there are 4 nuleons, !e assume that there are appro(imately
1
2
4 neutrons and
1
2
4 protons.
Thus, for the star to be neutral, there !ould also be
1
2
4 eletrons.
0a1 4rom ,'. 4=#12 and 4=#1), !e find that if all eletron le$els are filled up to the 4ermi ener"y
4
, E the a$era"e eletron ener"y is
4
)
5
. E
( ) ( )
e
2D) 2D)
2 2
e ) ) 1
e 4 5 2 5
e e
) ) 1 )
; 5 2 ; 2
E
4 h h 4
4 E 4 4
m ( m (
_ _ _


, , ,
0%1 The 4ermi ener"y for nuleons !ould be a similar e(pression, but the mass !ould be the mass
of a nuleon instead of the mass of the eletron. 5uleons are about 2=== times hea$ier than
eletrons, so the 4ermi ener"y for the nuleons !ould be on the order of 1D1=== the 4ermi
ener"y for the eletrons. We !ill i"nore that small orretion.
To alulate the potential ener"y of the star, think about the
mass in terms of shells. &onsider the inner portion of the
star !ith radius r P R and mass m, surrounded by a shell of
thikness dr and mass dM. +ee the dia"ram. 4rom IaussAs
la! applied to "ra$ity, the "ra$itational effets of the inner
portion of the star on the shell are the same as if all of its
mass !ere at the "eometri enter. Like!ise, the
spherially#symmetri outer portion of the star has no
"ra$itational effet on the shell. Thus the "ra$itational
ener"y of the inner portion/shel1 ombination is "i$en by a
form of ,'. ;#19, . d3 "
mdM
r
The density of the star
is "i$en by
)
4
)
.
M
R

We use that density to alulate the masses, and then inte"rate o$er the
full radius of the star to find the total "ra$itational ener"y of the star.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
)
) )
4 4
) ) ) )
4
)
2
2 2
) )
4
)
) 2
2
) )
4
7
)
4 4
)
)
M r
m r r M
R R
M Mr
dM r dr r dr dr
R R
r Mr
M dr
mdM "M
R R
d3 " " r dr
r r R




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currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
1)4
r
R
dr
&hapter 44 Astrophysics and Cosmology
( )
2 2 2 5 2
4 4
7 7 7
= =
) ) ) )
5 5
R R
"M "M "M R "M
3 r dr r dr
R R R R

_

,

0c1 The total ener"y is the sum of the t!o terms alulated abo$e. The mass of the star is primarily
due to the nuleons, and so
nuleon
. M 4m
2D)
2 2
total e
e
2D)
2 2 2D) 2 5D ) 2
) 4D ) 5D) 2
4
e nuleon nuleon e nuleon )
) 1 ) )
5 2 ; 2 5
) ) ) 8 ) )
;= 2 5 )2= 5
h 4 "M
E E 3 4
m ( R
h M M "M h M "M
m m m R R m m R R


+

_ _

, ,
_ _

, ,
Let
2D) 2 5D )
4D ) 5D )
e nuleon
8 )
)2=
h M
a
m m
and
2
)
,
5
% "M so
total 2
.
a %
E
R R
We set
total
= dE dR to find
the e'uilibrium radius.
2D ) 2 5D)
4D) 5D ) 2D) 2
total e nuleon
e' ) 2 4D ) 1D ) 5D )
2
e nuleon
8 )
2
)2= 2 2 8
=
)
)2
5
h M
dE m m a % a h
R
dR R R % "M m m
"M

+
We e$aluate the e'uilibrium radius usin" the +unAs mass.
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2D) 2
e' 4D ) 1D) 5D )
e nuleon
2
2D) )4
2
1D) 5D )
4D ) 11 )= )1 29
2
7 )
8
)2
8 7.7) 1= J s
5 m
)2 7.79 1= 2.= 1= k" 8.11 1= k" 1.79 1= k"
k"
9.19; 1= m 9.2 1= km
h
R
"M m m



_

,
g
g
59. There are 4 neutrons. The mass of the star is due only to neutrons, and so
n
. M 4m 4rom ,'s.
4=#12 and 4=#1), !e find that if all ener"y le$els are filled up to the 4ermi ener"y
4
, E the a$era"e
ener"y is
4
)
5
. E We follo! the same proedure as in Lroblem 57. The e(pression for the
"ra$itational ener"y does not han"e.
( ) ( )
( )
2D )
2D) 2D ) 2 5D ) 2 2
) )
n n 4 5 5 ) 4D ) ;D) 2
4
n n n n n )
) 1; ) ) )
; 4= 17=
h M h 4 M h M
E 4 E 4
m ( m m R m m R

_ _
_

,
, ,
( )
2
total n
2D)
2 5D)
4D) ;D) 2
n
)
5
) 1;
17=
"M
E E 3
R
h M
m R
+
Let
( )
2D)
2 5D)
4D) ;D)
n
) 1;
17=
a
h M
m
and
2
)
,
5
% "M so
total 2
.
a %
E
R R
We set
total
= dE dR to find the
e'uilibrium radius.
2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they
currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
1)5
Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics, 4
th
Edition Instructor Solutions Manual
( )
( )
2D )
2 5D )
2D)
2 4D ) ;D)
total n
e' ) 2 4D) 1D) ;D )
2
n
) 1;
2
1; 17= 2 2
=
)
17
5
h M
h dE m a % a
R
dR R R % "M m
"M

+
We e$aluate the e'uilibrium radius for a mass of 1.5 solar masses.
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2D )
2
e' 4D ) 1D ) ;D)
n
2
2D) )4
2
1D ) ;D)
4D ) 11 )= 29
2
4
1;
17
1; 7.7) 1= J s
5 m
17 7.79 1= 1.5 2.= 1= k" 1.79 1= k"
k"
1.=;7 1= m 11km
h
R
"M m



_
1

]
,
g
g
5;. We must find a ombination of c, ", and h that has the dimensions of time. The dimensions of c
are ,
'
*
1
1
]
the dimensions of " are
)
2
,
'
M*
1
1
]
and the dimensions of h are
2
.
M'
*
1
1
]
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
( )
) 2
) 2 2
2
5 1 1
2 2 2
11 2 2
5D 2 1D 2 1D 2
5

) 2 = M = M 2 1 5 = M 1 )
5 1 ) M M
1
7.79 1= 5 m k" 7.7
2
P
P
' ' M'
t c " * ' M *
* M* *
"
t c "
c

+ +


+ + +


1 1
1
1 1
1
]
] ]
h
g
h
h
( )
( )
)4
44
5
;
) 1= J s
5.); 1= s
).== 1= m s

g
2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they
currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
1)7