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HW02 - 2D and 3D kinematics - Jan 25: 4P6, 4P17, 4P23, 4P28, 4P32, 4P35, 4P39, 4P67, 4P80; 5P8,

5P12.

Chapter 4, problem 6: An electrons position is given by
2
2

(3.00 ) (4.00 ) (2.00 )
m m
s
s
ti t j m k = + r , with t in seconds and in
meters. (a) In unit-vector notation, what is the electrons velocity? At t = 2.00 s, what is v (b) in unit-vector notation? we
simply take a time-derivative,

2
2.00

(3.00 ) (8.00 ) ( ) (3.00 ) (16.00 ) (2.00 ) ;
t s
m m m m
s s s
s
d
i tj t i j s
dt
=
= = = = =
r
v v v (1.1)

and as (c) a magnitude and (d) an angle relative to the positive direction of the x-axis? The speed (magnitude of velocity) at t =
2.00 s is,

2 2
(2.00 ) (2.00 ) (3.00 m/s) ( 16.0 m/s) 16.3 m/s ; v s s = = + = v (1.2)

The angle the tangent-line makes with the +x axis is,

1 1
(2.00 )
16.0 /
(2.00 ) tan tan 79.4 ;
(2.00 ) 3.00 /
y
x
v s
m s
s
v s m s
u

| |
= = =
|
\ .
(1.3)

WARNING: Since the y-component is negative, and the x-component is positive, the velocity points towards the 4
th
quadrant.
That is the interpretation of the negative sign on the velocity.

chapter 4, problem 17: A cart is propelled over an xy-plane with acceleration components a
x
= 4.0 m/s
2
, and a
y
= -2.0 m/s
2
.
Its initial velocity has components v
0x
= 8.0 m/s and v
0y
= 12 m/s. In unit-vector notation, what is the velocity of the cart when it
reaches its greatest y-coordinate? Solution: When the cart reaches its greatest y-coordinate, position is extremized. The
derivative of an extremized function (evaluated at the critical, extreming value of its argument) is 0; the derivative of position
is velocity. So, we find the unknown time as,

( )
0,
2
*
*
12
2.0
* 2 * *
1
0 0, 0, 2
*
at extreme
( ) 0 6.0 ;
y-value at time
m
y s
m
y
s
v
a
y y y y
t t
t t
dy d
v t y v t a t v a t t s
dt dt t
=
=
=
=
(
= = = + + = + =
(

(1.4)

Meanwhile, the velocity at any time is,

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 2
0, 0,

( ) ( ) ( ) 8.0 4.0 12 2.0 ;
m m m m
x y x x y y s s
s s
t v t i v t j v a t i v a t i t i t i = + = + + + = + + + v (1.5)

Subsequently, the velocity at this critical time comes from plugging (1.4) into (1.5) (although, one can be lazy [encouraged] and
realize hey, the y-velocity is 0, so I just have to evaluate the x-one),
( ) ( )( )
* 2

( ) (6.0 ) 8.0 / 4.0 / 6.0 32 / (6.0 ) 32


m
x x s
v t v s m s m s s m s s i = = + = = v (1.6)

chapter 4, problem 23: A projectile is fired horizontally from a gun that is 45.0 m above flat ground, emerging from the gun
with a speed of 250 m/s. (a) How long does the projectile remain in the air? (b) At what horizontal distance from the firing
point does it strike the ground? (c) What is the magnitude of the vertical component of its velocity as it strikes the ground?

(a) The time of flight is,

solve for t 2 2
1 1
0 0, 2 2 2
2( ) 2 2(45.0 m)
0 0 ( ) 3.03 s.
9.80 m/s
y y
h h
y h y v t a t g t t
g g

= = + + = + + = = = =

(1.7)

(b) The horizontal distance traveled is given by motion at constant velocity at a time t, (1.7); lets see if we get anything
interesting by plugging in the symbolic expression for t,

2
2
1
0 0, 0, 0, 0, 2
2 2(45.0 )
0 0 (250 ) 758 ;
9.80
m
x x x x x s
m
s
h m
x x v t a t v t v t v m
g
= + + = + + = = = = (1.8)

(c) The projectile constantly accelerates at
y
a g = for a time (1.7), yielding,

2
0,
0 ( ) (9.80 m/s )(3.03s) 29.7 m/s ;
y y y
v v a t g t gt = + = + = = = (1.9)

chapter 4, problem 28: In Fig. 4-34, a stone is pro-
jected at a cliff of height h with an initial speed of 42.0 m/s
directed at angle
0
60.0 u = above the horizontal. The
stone strikes at A, 5.50 s after launching. Find (a) the
height h of the cliff, (b) the speed of the stone just before
impact at A, and (c) the maximum height H reached above
the ground.

Solution: (a) compute y = h by noting the y-coordinate is given at all times by
2
1
0 0, 2 y y
y y v t a t = + + , in which we use
0, 0 0
sin
y
v v u = (as indicated in the schematic, taken from the book but augmented),
( ) y y t = =
2
0 0 0
1
sin
2
h y v t gt u = +
2
2
1
2
0 42.0 sin60.0 5.50 ( 9.81 )(5.50 ) 51.8
m m
s
s
s s m = + + = (1.10)

(b) The horizontal motion is steady, so v
x
= v
0x
= v
0
cos u
0
, but the vertical component of velocity varies according to Eq. 4-23.
Thus, the speed at impact, using the two components of
0
t = + v v a , is computed as,

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
0, 0, 0 0 0 0
2
2
0 cos sin ( )
42.0 cos 60.0 42.0 sin60.0 9.81 (5.50 ) 27.4 m/s ;
x y x x y y
m m m
s s
s
v v v v a t v a t v v g t
s
u u = + = + + + = + + +
= + =
(1.11)

(c) We use Eq. 4-24 with v
y
= 0 and y = H, which is a consequence of
2 2
0
2 V V a d = + ,

2 2 2 2
0, 0 0
2 0 ( sin ) 2( ) ( 0)
y y y y
v v a d v g H u = + = = + (1.12)






chapter 4, problem 32: You throw a ball toward a wall
at speed 25.0 m/s and at angle 40.0 above the horizontal.
The wall is distance d = 22.0 m from the release point of
the ball. (a) How far above the release point does the ball
hit the wall? What are the (b) horizontal and (c) vertical
components of its velocity as it hits the wall? (d) When it
hits, has it passed the highest point on its trajectory?


H
v
g
= =
0 0
2
2
675
sin
.
u b g
m.
The coordinate origin is at the release point (the initial position for the ball as it begins projectile motion in the sense of 4-5),
and we let u
0
be the angle of throw (shown in the figure). Since the horizontal component of the velocity of the ball is v
x
= v
0

cos 40.0, the time it takes for the ball to hit the wall is,

2
1
0 0, 0, 2
,0
22.0 m
0 1.15 s;
(25.0 m/s) cos 40.0
x x x
x
x
x x x v t a t v t t
v
A
A = = + = + = = =

(1.13)

(a) The vertical distance comes from an invocation of (1.13), but in the y-direction,

2 2 2
0 0
1 1
( sin ) (25.0 m/s)sin 40.0 (1.15 s) (9.80 m/s )(1.15 s) 12.0 m.
2 2
y v t gt u A = = = (1.14)

(b) The horizontal component of the velocity when it strikes the wall does not change from its initial value: v
x
= v
0
cos 40.0 =
19.2 m/s.

(c) The vertical component becomes,

2
0, 0 0
sin ( ) (25.0 m/s)sin40.0 (9.80 m/s )(1.15s) 4.80 m/s ;
y y y
v v a t v g t u = + = + = = (1.15)

(d) Since v
y
> 0 when the ball hits the wall, it has not reached the highest point yet.

chapter 4, problem 35: A rifle that shoots bullets at 460
m/s is to be aimed at a target 45.7 m away. If the center of
the target is level with the rifle, how high above the target
must the rifle barrel be pointed (e.g., the angle) so that the
bullet hits dead center? We can draw a schematic:
exaggerate the parabolic shape of the trajectory,


If the target is a distance d away, then its coordinates are x = d, y = 0. The projectile motion equations lead to,

2 2 2
1 1 1
0 0, 0 0 0 0, 0 0 2 2 2
( cos ) 0; 0 sin ;
x x y y
x x d v t a t v t y y v t a t v t gt u u = = + = + = = + = (1.16)

By the x-equation of (1.16), the time at which the bullet strikes the target is
0 0
/( cos ) t d v u = . Using this to eliminate t of the
y-equation leads to,

2
2 2
1 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2
0 0 0 0
0 sin sin 2 sin cos 0
cos cos
d d
v t gt v g v gd
v v
u u u u
u u
| |
= = =
|
\ .
(1.17)

Using sin cos sin u u u
0 0
1
2 0
2 = b g(which follows from trigonometry
1
), we obtain,

2
2 1 1
0 0 0 2 2
0
1 1 (9.80 m/s )(45.7 m)
sin (2 ) sin sin 0.0606 ;
2 2 (460 m/s)
gd
v gd
v
u u

| |
= = = =
|
\ .
(1.18)
If the gun is aimed at a point a distance above the target, then tan u
0
= d so that ,

0
tan (45.7 m) tan(0.0606 ) 0.0484 m 4.84 cm; d u = = = = (1.19)
Note that due to the downward gravitational acceleration, in order for the bullet to strike the target, the gun must be aimed at a
point slightly above the target.


1
The same trigonometry from the footnote in Step 8 of my Problem-Solving Algorithm sheet! In fact, this problem runs completely
parallel to this.
chapter 4, problem 39: In Fig. 4-37, a ball is thrown leftward from the left edge of the roof, at height h above the ground.
The ball hits the ground 1.50 s later, at distance d = 25.0 m from the building and at angle 60.0 u = with the horizontal.
Draw a schematic before attempting anything,
(1.20)

(a) Find h. (Hint: One way is to reverse the motion, as if on video.) Following the hint, we have the time-reversed problem with
the ball thrown from the ground, toward the right, at 60 measured counterclockwise from a rightward axis. We see in this time-
reversed situation that it is convenient to use the familiar coordinate system with +x as rightward and with positive angles
measured counterclockwise.

(a) The x-equation (with x
0
= 0 and x = 25.0 m) leads to
25.0 m = (v
0
cos 60.0)(1.50 s),

so that v
0
= 33.3 m/s. And with y
0
= 0, and y = h > 0 at t = 1.50 s, we have y y v t gt
y
=
0 0
1
2
2
where v
0y
= v
0
sin 60.0.
This leads to h = 32.3 m.

What are the (b) magnitude and (c) angle relative to the horizontal of the velocity at which the ball is thrown?

(b) We find the x-component of the velocity, v
x
= v
0x
= (33.3 m/s)cos 60.0 = 16.7 m/s (this is trivial). Subsequently, we use the
y-velocity equation,
v
y
= v
0y
gt = (33.3 m/s)sin 60.0 (9.80 m/s
2
)(1.50 s) = 14.2 m/s.

The magnitude of v is given by

2 2 2 2
| | (16.7 m/s) (14.2 m/s) 21.9 m/s.
x y
v v v = + = + =

(c) The angle is

1 1
14.2 m/s
tan tan 40.4 .
16.7 m/s
y
x
v
v
u

| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .


(d) Is the angle above or below the horizontal? (d) We interpret this result (undoing the time reversal) as an initial velocity
(from the edge of the building) of magnitude 21.9 m/s with angle (down from leftward) of 40.4.

Chapter 4, problem 67: A boy whirls a stone in a horizontal circle of radius 1.5 m and at height 2.0 m above ground level.
The string breaks, and the stone flies horizontally and strikes the ground after traveling a horizontal distance of 10 m. What is
the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration of the stone while in circular motion? This is a projectile problem grafted onto a
centripetal acceleration problem. Do the projectile part first. Compute the amount of time the stone falls the height of 1.5 m, for
0 initial y-velocity,

2
2 2
1 1
0 0, 2 2
2 2( 2.0 m) 4
1.5 m 0 0 ( ) 0.553 s;
9.81 3
y y
m
s
y
y y v t a t g t t
g

= = + + = + + = = =

(1.21)

We find from this (1.21) that we can compute the centripetal acceleration from this, given 10 m x A = , and
2 2
tangential 0,x
v v
r r r
a = = .
Also, take a moment to introduce the exact formula for a
r
in symbols/problem-givens,

2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
0, 2 tan
2 2
2 2
(9.81 )(10 m)
( / )
1.6 10 ;
2 2( 2.0 m)(1.5 m)
( )
m
x
s
r
y
g
v
v x t x x g x m
a
r r r t r yr s
r

A A A A
= = = = = = = =

(1.22)

Chapter 4, problem 80 (|| 4.79): A 200-m-wide river flows due east at a uniform speed of 2.0 m/s. A boat with a speed of 8.0
m/s relative to the water leaves the south bank pointed in a direction 30 west of north. Align our ground-coordinates so that
east corresponds to +x and north corresponds to +y.
(1.23)

The velocity of the boat is specified relative to the water; we want to compute it relative to the ground, just to keep ourselves
from getting confused. This is done by writing,

, , , ,

( 2 ) ( cos120 2 ) sin120 ;
m m
w w x w y g x g y g g s s
v i v j v i v j i j = + = + = + v v v (1.24)

In (1.24), we have the constraint that 8.0
m
w s
= v , which subsequently determines
g
v ,

( )
2
2
2
8.0 ( cos120 2 ) sin 120
m m
w g g s s
= = + v v v (1.25)

What are the (a) magnitude and (b) direction of the boats velocity relative to the ground? (c) How long does the boat take to
cross the river? Solution: This is a classic problem involving two-dimensional relative motion. We align our coordinates so that
east corresponds to +x and north corresponds to +y. We write the vector addition equation as

v v v
BG BW WG
= + . We have

v
WG
= Z ( . ) 2 0 0 in the magnitude-angle notation (with the unit m/s understood), or

v
WG
= 2 0 .

i in unit-vector notation. We
also have

v
BW
= Z ( . ) 80 120 where we have been careful to phrase the angle in the standard way (measured
counterclockwise from the +x axis), or

( 4.0i+6.9j) m/s.
BW
v =

(a) We can solve the vector addition equation for

v
BG
:

(2.0 m/s)i ( 4.0i+6.9j) m/s ( 2.0 m/s)i (6.9 m/s) j.
BG BW WG
v v v = + = + = +

Thus, we find | | .

v
BG
= 7 2 m/s.

(b) The direction of
BG
v is
1
tan [(6.9 m/s) /( 2.0 m/s)] 106 u

= = (measured counterclockwise from the +x axis), or
16 west of north.

(c) The velocity is constant, and we apply y y
0
= v
y
t in a reference frame. Thus, in the ground reference frame, we have
(200 m) (7.2 m/s)sin(106 ) 29 t t = = s. Note: If a student obtains 28 s, then the student has probably neglected to
take the y component properly (a common mistake).

chapter 5, problem 8: A 2.00 kg object is subjected to three forces that give it an acceleration
2 2

( 8.00 ) (6.00 )
m m
s s
i j = + a . If two of the three forces are
1

30.0 16.0 N i N j = + F and
2

12.0 8.00 N i N j = + F
find the third force.

We note that m

a

= (16 N) i
^
+ (12 N) j
^
. With the other forces as specified in the problem, then Newtons second law gives
the third force as,

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3
solve for
1 2 3
3 1 2

16 12 (30.0 12.0) (16.0 8.00) 34.0 12.0
i
m
m i j N i j N i j N
= + + =
= + = + + + =

F
F F F F a
F a F F
(1.26)

chapter 5, problem 12: Two horizontal forces
1
F and
2
F act on a 4.0 kg disk that slides over frictionless ice, on
which an xy-coordinate system is laid out. Force
1
F is in
the positive direction of the x-axis, and has a magnitude of
7.0 N. Force
2
F has a magnitude of 9.0 N. Figure 5-32
gives the x-component v
x
of the velocity of the disk as a
function of time t during the sliding. What is the angle
between the constant directions of forces
1
F and
2
F ?


Draw a schematic of what we are to calculate,
(1.27)

From the slope of the graph we find,

2
(5 4)
3.0 ;
(3 0)
m
x s
x
v m
a
t s s
A
= = =
A
(1.28)

Using newtons 2
nd
law in the x-direction (making it a scalar equation, in contrast to (1.26),

2
solve
for 1 1 1
1, 2, 1 2
2
(4.0 )(3.0 ) 7.0
cos cos cos 56 ;
9.0
m
x s
i x x x
kg N
ma F
F F F F F ma
F N
u
u u

| | | |
= + = + = = = =
| |
\ . \ .

(1.29)