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## Accounting and Finance for

Managers
LESSON
11
MARGINAL COSTING
CONTENTS
11.0 Aims and Objectives
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Meaning & Definition of Marginal Costing
11.3 Why Marginal Cost is called as Incremental Cost?
11.4 Why Marginal Cost is called in other words as Variable Cost?
11.4.1 Fixed Cost
11.4.2 Variable Cost
11.4.3 Semi-variable Cost
11.4.4 Method of Difference
11.4.5 Method of Coverages
11.5 Break Even Point Analysis
11.5.1 Break Even Point in Units
11.6 Verification
11.6.1 Selling Price Method
11.6.2 PV Ratio Method
11.6.3 Graph Method
11.7 Margin of Safety
11.8 Determination of Sales Volume in Rupees at Desired Level of Profit
11.9 Applications of Marginal Costing
11.9.2 Worth of Production
11.9.3 Worth of Purchase
11.10 Accepting the Export Offer
11.11 Key Factor
11.12 Selecting the Suitable Product Mix
11.13 Determining Optimum Level of Operations
11.14 Alternative Method of Production
11.15 Let us Sum up
11.16 Lesson-end Activity
11.17 Keywords
11.18 Questions for Discussion
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Marginal Costing
11.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
In this lesson we shall discuss about marginal costing. After going through this lesson
you will be able to:
(i) understand meaning and definition of marginal costing
(ii) analyse break even point analysis
(iii) discuss applications of marginal costing and selecting the suitable product mix.
11.1 INTRODUCTION
It is one of the premier tools of management not only to take decisions but also to fix an
appropriate price and to assess the level of profitability of the products/services. This is
a only costing tool demarcates the fixed cost from the variable cost of the product/
service in order to guide the firm to know the minimal point of sales to equate the cost of
production. It is a tool of analysis highlighting the relationship in between the cost, volume
of sales and profitability of the firm.
11.2 MEANING & DEFINITION OF MARGINAL COSTING
Definition: According to ICMA, London "Marginal cost is the amount at any given
volume of output, by which aggregate costs are charged, if the volume of output is
increased or decreased by one unit."
Meaning: Marginal cost is the cost nothing but a change occurred in the total cost due
to changes taken place on the level of production i.e., either an increase / decrease by
one unit of product..
The firm XYZ Ltd. incurs Rs 1000/- for the production of 100 units at one level of
operation. By increasing only one unit of product i.e. 101 units, the firm's total cost of
production amounted Rs 1010.
Total cost of production at first instance (C')=Rs. 1000/
Total cost of production at second instance (C")=Rs. 1010/-
Total number of units during the first instance (U')=100
Total number of units during the second instance (U")=101
Increase in the level of production and Cost of production:
Change in the level of production in units= U"-U'= U
Change in the total cost of production = C"-C, prime= C
Marginal Cost =
Change (Increase) in the total cost of production
Change (Increase) in the level of production
=
C
U
=
Rs. 10
1
= Rs. 10
If the same firm reduces the total volume from 100 units to 99 units. The total cost of
production Rs. 990.
Decrease in the Level of production and Cost of production:
Marginal Cost =
Change(Decrease) in the total cost of production
Change(Increase) in the level of production
=
C
U
=
Rs.10
1
= Rs. 10
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11.3 WHY MARGINAL COST IS CALLED AS
INCREMENTAL COST?
From the above example, it is obviously understood that marginal cost is nothing but a
cost which incorporates the incremental changes in the cost of production due to either
an increase or decrease in the level of production by one unit, meant as incremental cost.
11.4 WHY MARGINAL COST IS CALLED IN OTHER
WORDS AS VARIABLE COST?
From the following classifications of cost, the inter twined relationship in between the
variable cost and marginal cost is explained as below
Table 11.1: Statement of Fixed, variable and total costs and per unit
11.4.1 Fixed Cost
It is a cost remains constant or fixed irrespective level of production.
Example: Rent Rs 5,00 is to be paid irrespective level of production. It remains constant/
fixed irrespective of changes taken place on the level of production.
X'- Units
Y'- Cost in Rupees
11.4.2 Variable Cost
It is a cost which varies with level of production.
Sl.No. Units Fixed
Cost
Rs
Fixed cost
per unit
Rs
Variable
Cost
Rs
Variable
Cost per unit
Rs
Marginal
Cost Rs
?C/?U
Total
Cost
Rs
1. 1 500 500 10 10 10 510
2. 50 500 100 500 10 10 1000
3. 100 500 5 1000 10 10 1500
4. 150 500 3.333 1500 10 10 2000
Y
Total fixed Cost Line
Fixed Cost per unit Line
X

Variable Cost
Variable cost per unit
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Marginal Costing
X'- Units
Y'- Cost in Rupees
The following are the various components of variable cost.
Direct Materials: Materials cost consumed for the production of goods
Direct Labour: Wages paid to the labourers who directly involved in the production
of goods.
Direct Expenses: other expenses directly involved in the production stream.
The variable overheads is the cost involved in the procurement of Indirect materials
Indirect labour and Indirect Expenses.
Indirect Material- cost of fuel, oil and soon
Indirect Labour- Wages paid to workers for maintenance of the firm.
From the above table -1 the marginal cost is equivalent to the variable cost per unit of the
various levels of production. The fixed cost of Rs.500 is the cost remains the same at not only
irrespective levels of production but also already absorbed at the initial level of production.
The initial absorption of fixed overhead led the marginal cost to become as variable cost.
11.4.3 Semi-Variable Cost
Another major classification is semi variable/fixed cost which is a cost partly fixed /
variable to the certain level of production or consumption e-g Electricity charges, telephone
charges and so on.
It jointly discards the importance of the fixed cost and the semi- variable cost for analysis
while ascertaining the marginal cost.
Marginal Costing is defined as "the ascertainment of marginal cost and of the effect on
profit of changes in volume or type of output by differentiating between fixed and variable
costs."
In marginal costing, the change in the level of cost of operation is equivalent to variable
cost due to fixed cost component which is fixed irrespective level of outputs.
Importance of Marginal costing:
The costs are classified into two categories viz fixed and variable cost.
Variable cost per unit is considered as marginal cost of the product.
Fixed costs are charged against contribution of the transaction.
Selling price of the product = marginal cost + contribution.
Marginal costing profitability statement as follows:
Sales xxxx
Variable Cost xxxx
Contribution
Method of Difference
Sales- Variable Cost
Method of Meeting
Fixed cost+Profit
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Contribution xxxx
Fixed Cost xxxx
Profit xxxx
Sales Rs.100,000/-, variable cost Rs.25,000/- and fixed cost Rs.20,000/- find-out the
contribution and profit.
Rs.
Sales 1,00,000
Variable Cost 50,000
Contribution 50,000
Fixed Cost 20,000
Profit 30,000
11.4.4 Method of Difference
Under this method, the contribution can be computed through finding the differences in
between Sales and Variable Cost
i.e. Contribution= Sales Variable Cost= Rs.1,00,000 50,000= Rs.50,000
11.4.5 Method of Coverages
In this method, the contribution is equated with the summation of Fixed cost and Profit.
i.e. Contribution=Fixed Cost+ Profit =Rs.20000+30000=Rs.50,000
11.5 BREAK EVEN POINT ANALYSIS
This meaning of the analysis is explained through three different components viz.
Break Even Point is the point at which the Total Cost is equivalent to Total Revenue. At
the break even point the business neither earns profit nor incurs a loss. It means that the
firm's cost is recovered at the minimum level of production.
Marginal Costing(MC)
Cost Volume Profit Analysis (CVP)
Break Even Point Analysis (BEP)
Break
Even
Point
Divide
Equal
Place (or) Position
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Marginal Costing
If Sales > BEP Sales earn profit i.e. Total Sales> Total Cost which leads to earn
profit.
If Sales< BEP Sales incur loss i.e. Total Sales< Total Cost which registers incurrence
of loss.
This Break even point analysis can be interpreted into two classifications. The first
classification is narrow sense of BEP, which mainly emphasizes on BE Point.
The second segment is the broader sense which elucidates the role of BEP towards
managerial decisions
Fixation of Selling price
Acceptance of Special / Foreign order
Incremental Analysis- On cost as well as revenue
Key factor analysis
Selection of production mix
Maintaining the specified level of profit and so on
The enlisted decisions will be discussed immediately after the preliminary aspects of
marginal costing i.e. Break even analysis.
1. Marginal costing is a study on
(a) Variable costing (b) Profit
(c) Fixed costing (d) Volume of sales
2. BEP means
(a) Break even point (b) Bright even point
(c) Break event point (d) Bright even position
3. BEP is the point at which
(a) Profit & No Loss (b) No Profit & Loss
(c) No profit & No Loss (d) Profit & Loss
4. CVP analysis is the combination of three predominant factors of influence
(a) Cost, Value and Profit (b) Component, Value and Profit
(c) Cost, Volume and Profit (d) None of the above
=

Break Even Point
Total Cost Total Revenue/ Total Sales
No Profit / No Loss
Contd...
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5. In BEP analysis, which cost is to be considered to meet out
(a) Fixed cost (b) Semi variable cost
(c) Variable cost (d) None of the above
The Break even point in accordance with narrow sense can be classified into two
categories
Break Even Point in Units
Break Even Point in Sales
11.5.1 Break Even Point in Units
Illustration 1:
Assume the selling price of product Rs.20/-per unit and variable cost per unit Rs.10/-
and the fixed cost Rs.1000/- Find out the break even point.
Sales Rs.20/-
Variable Cost Rs.10/-
Contribution Rs 10/-
Fixed Cost Rs.1000/-
Profit (-) Rs. 990/-
If the firm produces only one unit, the amount of loss is Rs.990/-. To avoid the amount of
loss how many units are to be produced ?
As already highlighted, BEP is the point at which the firm neither earns profit nor incurs loss.
Profit/Loss is a resultant out of Contribution while meeting out the fixed cost volume of
the transaction. From the above example, the contribution per unit is Rs.10/ not sufficient
to meet out the fixed cost volume of Rs.1000/-. The purpose of finding out the BEP in
units is to identify the level of contribution which is not only equivalent as well as to meet
fixed cost of the transaction but also to avoid loss. To raise the volume of contribution at
par with the fixed cost volume, fixed cost has to be related to the contribution margin per
unit through the ratio given below
Fixed cost= "X" units x Contribution Margin Per Unit
"X" units can be found out from the following
"X" units =
Fixed Cost
Contribution Margin Per Unit
The total number of units "X" which equate the contribution volume of "X" units with the
total fixed cost is the Break Even Point (Units).
Break Even Point (Units) =
Fixed Cost
Contribution Margin Per Unit
=
Rs.1000/-
Rs.10/-
= 100 Units
The above illustration reveals that how many number of times the contribution margin
per unit should be equivalent to the total fixed cost volume. Hence the number of times
is nothing but the units required to have equivalent volume of contribution to the tune of
fixed cost.
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Marginal Costing
11.6 VERIFICATION
At the level of 100 units
Sales 100Rs.20 Rs.2,000/
Variable Cost 100Rs.10 Rs.1,000/
Contribution 100Rs.10 Rs.1,000/
Fixed Cost Rs.1,000/
Profit/Loss 0 d
Break Even Point ( Sales Volume Rs):
Break even point in sales can be found out in two methods.
1. Selling Price Method
2. PV Ratio Method.
11.6.1 Selling Price Method
Under this method Break even sales volume in rupees is found out through the product
of Break Even Point in Units and Selling price per unit
BEP (Rs)=Break Even Point (units) Selling price per unit
11.6.2 PV Ratio Method
Under this method, Break even sales volume in rupees can be determined through the
following ratio.
BEP(Rs) =
Fixed Cost
PV ratio
What is PV ratio?
PV ratio is Profit Volume ratio which establishes the relationship in between the profit
and volume of sales. It is a ratio normally expressed in terms of contribution towards
volume of sales. It is expressed in terms of percentage.
Utility of PV ratio:
To find out the Break Even Point in sales volume
To identify the desired level of profit at any sales volume
To determine the sales volume to earn required level of profit
To identify better product mix among the alternatives available etc.
Profit Volume Ratio (PV ratio) =
Sales-Variable Cost
Sales
=
Contribution
Sales
From the above example
PV ratio at the level of 100 units
PV ratio =
Rs.1000/-
Rs. 2000/-
100 = 50%
PV ratio at the level of one unit
PV ratio =
Rs.10/-
Rs. 20/-
100 = 50%
From the above workings, it obviously understood that every unit of sale contributes
50% towards in covering the fixed cost and profit.
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Break Even Sales:
Fixed Cost
PV ratio
At the level of 100 units In Percentage
Sales 100Rs.20 Rs. 2,000/ 100%
Variable Cost 100Rs.10 Rs.1,000/ 50%
Contribution 100Rs.10 Rs.1,000/ 50%
Fixed Cost Rs.1,000/
Profit/Loss 0 f
PV Ratio = Rs.1000/Rs.2000 = 50%
50 % of what ?
If Rs.100 is Sales ; Rs.50 is Contribution and the remaining Rs.50 variable cost.
Break even sales =
Fixed cost Rs.1000
50%
= Rs.2000/ =
Contribution Rs.1000/
50%
At Break even level, the fixed cost volume is equivalent to contribution; the later which
is related in terms of sales i.e. PV ratio will be applicable to the earlier i.e. fixed cost.
At Break even sales, Fixed Cost = Contribution;
Contribution
Contribution
Sales = Sales
is the volume which neither earns nor incurs loss.
Illustration 2:
Calculate Break Even Point from the following particulars
Fixed Cost Rs.3,00,000
Variable Cost Per Unit Rs.20/-
Selling Price Per Unit Rs.30/-
Break Even Point (Units) =
Fixed Cost
Contribution Margin Per Unit
First Step to find out Contribution margin per unit
Contribution Margin Per Unit = Selling Price Per Unit Variable Cost Per Unit
= Rs.30 Rs.20 = Rs. 10
=
Rs.3,00,000
Rs.10
= 30,000 units
Break Even (Rupees) can be found out in two ways
Method I:
= B.E.P (Units) Selling Price
= 30,000 units Rs.30= Rs.9,00,000/-
(Or)
Method II:
Under this method PV ratio component has to be found out
PV ratio =
Contribution
Sales
100
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Marginal Costing
=
Rs 10
Rs.30
100 = 33.33%
=
Fixed Cost
PV ratio
=
Rs.3,00,000/
33.33%
= 9000 100 = 900,000/-
Illustration 3:
Calculate Break even point Rs.
Sales 6,00,000/-
Fixed Cost 1,50,000/-
Variable Expenses
Direct Material 2,00,000/-
Direct Labour 1,20,000/-
First step to find out the total volume of Variable expenses
Variable Expenses = Direct Material + Direct Labour + Overhead Expenses
= Rs.2,00,000 + 1,20,000 + 80,000 = Rs.4,00,000/-
Second Step to find out the contribution
Contribution = Sales- Variable Expenses
= Rs.6,00,000- 4,00,000= Rs. 2,00,000/-
Third step to find out PV ratio
PV ratio= Contribution/ Sales= Rs,2,00,000/Rs.6,00,00= 1/3
Final Step to find out Break even sales
Break Even Point (Rupees) =
Fixed Cost
PV ratio
=
Rs.1,50,000
1/3
= Rs.4,50,000/-
Note: Break even point in units is not possible to find out due to non availability of selling
price and variable cost per unit ; which constrained the computation of contribution
margin per unit.
Illustration 4:
From the following particulars find out the BEP. What will be the selling price per unit if
BEP is brought down to 900 units?
Variable Cost Rs 75/
Fixed Cost Rs.27,000/
Selling price per unit Rs.100/
First step is to find out the Break even Point in Units
BEP (Units) =
Fixed Cost
Contribution Margin per unit
Second step is to find out Contribution margin per unit
Contribution margin per unit = Selling price per unit- variable cost per unit
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= Rs.100-75 = Rs.25
=
Rs.27,000
Rs.25
= 1080 units
If break even point is reduced to the level of 900 units; what is the new selling price?
First step to find out the contribution margin per unit; contribution margin per unit will be
computed from the BEP (units) formula.
BEP (Units) = 900 =
Rs.27,000
Contribution Margin per unit
Contribution margin per unit = Rs. 27,000/900 units = Rs.30
The second step is to determine the new selling price through the following equation
Contribution = selling price-variable cost; X = Selling Price
Rs.30 = X-Rs.75 ; X = 30+75 = Rs.105/-
The new selling price for new break even level of 900 units is Rs.105/-
11.6.3 Graph Method
Statement of Fixed, variable and total costs and per unit
11.7 MARGIN OF SAFETY
Margin of safety is the excess volume of sales over the break even sales. It is highlighted in the
form absolute sales or in percentage. It is the difference in between the actual sales and break
even sales. It elucidates the extent in which sales can be reduced without incurring a loss.
Sl.No Units Fixed Cost
Rs
Variable Cost
Rs
Sales
Rs
Total Cost
Rs
1) 1 500 10 20 510
2) 50 500 500 1000 1000
3) 100 500 1000 2000 1500
4) 150 500 1500 3000 2000

Cost/ Volume
Rs 3000 TS

2000

1500 TC
BEP
1000 Margin
of Safety
500 FC

10
50 100 150
Units
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Marginal Costing
Margin of Safety = Actual Sales - Break Even Sales
(Or)
=
Profit
PV ratio
The greater the margin of safety leads to soundness of the firm's business.
11.8 DETERMINATION OF SALES VOLUME IN RUPEES
AT DESIRED LEVEL OF PROFIT
To determine the sales volume (Rupees) at desired level of profit, the existing formula
for finding out the break even sales has to be redesigned.
Break Even Sales (Rupees) =
Fixed Cost
PV ratio
The above formula is in accordance with the method of coverage i-e covering the fixed
cost and profit.
Contribution = Fixed Cost + Profit
To earn desired level of profit, which the firm intends to earn should have to be combined
with the fixed cost, are the two different components to be covered only in order to find
out the contribution level to the tune of unchanged selling price and variable cost per unit.
New volume of Sales (Rupees) =
Fixed Cost + Desired Level Profit
PV ratio
Illustration 5:
From the following information relating to quick standards ltd., you are required to find
out i) PV ratio ii) break even point iii) margin of safety iv) calculate the volume of sales
to earn profit of Rs.6,000/
Total Fixed Costs Rs.4,500/
Total Variable Cost Rs.7,500/
Total Sales Rs.15,000/-
First step to find out the Contribution volume
Sales Rs 15,000/
Variable Cost Rs. 7,500/
Contribution Rs.7,500/
Fixed Cost Rs.4,500/-
Profit Rs.3,000
(i) Second step to determine the PV ratio
PV ratio =
Contribution
Sales
100 =
7,500
15,000
100 = 50%
Third step to find out the Break even sales
(ii) Break even sales =
Fixed cost
PV ratio
=
4,500
50%
= 9,000/-
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(iii) Margin of safety can be found out in two ways
(a) Margin of Safety = Actual sales- Break even sales
= Rs.15,000-Rs.9,000 = Rs.6,000
(b) Margin of Safety =
Profit
PVratio
=
Rs.3,000
50%
= Rs.6,000/-
(iv) Sales required to earn profit = Rs.6,000/
To determine the sales volume to earn desired level of profit
=
Fixed cost + Desired Profit
PV ratio
=
Rs.4,500 + Rs.6,000
50%
= Rs.21,000/-
Illustration 6:
Break even sales Rs.1,60,000
Sales for the year 1987 Rs.2,00,000
Profit for the year 1987 Rs.12,000
Calculate
(a) Profit or loss on a sale value of Rs.3,00,000
(b) During 1988, it is expected that selling price will be reduced by 10%. What should
be the sale if the company desires to earn the same amount of profit as in 1987 ?
The major aim to compute fixed expenses.
In this problem, the profit volume is given which amounted Rs.12,000
Profit = contribution- Fixed expenses
From the above equation, the volume of contribution only to be found out
To find out the volume of contribution, the PV ratio has to be found out
Before finding out the PV ratio, the margin of safety should be found out
Margin of safety = Actual sales - Break even sales
= Rs.2,00,000-Rs.1,60,000 = Rs.40,000
Another formula for to find out the Margin of safety is as follows
Margin of safety =
Profit
PV ratio
PV ratio =
Profit
Margin of safety
=
Rs.12,000
Rs.40,000
= 30%
What is PV ratio ?
PV ratio =
Contribution
Sales

100
30% =
Contribution
Rs.2,00,000
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Marginal Costing
Contribution = Rs.2,00,000

30% = Rs.60,000
Now with the help of the available information, the fixed expenses to be found out from
the illustrated formula
Fixed expenses = Contribution- Profit = Rs.60,000 Rs,12,000 = Rs.48,000
The next one is to find out the corresponding variable cost. The variable cost could be
found out with the help of the following formula
Sales- Variable cost = Contribution
Rs.2,00,000- Rs.60,000= Variable cost= Rs.1,40,000
(a) Profit or loss on the sale value of Rs 3,00,000
For a sale value of Rs.3,00,000 what is the contribution ?
Contribution for Rs.3,00,000 sale= Rs.3,00,000

30%= Rs.90,000
Profit or Loss= Contribution Fixed expenses= Rs.90,000Rs,48,000=
Rs 42,000 (Profit)
(b) Sales to be found out to earn same level of profit
Sale value reduced 10% from the actual
Rs. 2,00,000Rs.20,000 Rs.1,80,000
Variable cost Rs.1,40,000
Contribution Rs.40,000
For the new level of sale volume in rupees, the new PV ratio has to be found out
PV ratio =
Contribution
Sales

100 =
Rs.40,000
Rs.1,80,000

## 100 = 2/9 times

The next important step is to determine the volume of the sales to earn the desired
level of profit
=
Fixed expenses + Desired level profit
PV ratio
=
Rs.48,000 + Rs.12,000
2/9
= Rs.2,70,000
Illustration 7:
SV ltd a multi product company, furnishes you the following data relating to the year
1979
Assuming that there is no change in prices and variable costs that the fixed expenses are
incurred equally in the two half year periods calculate for the year 1979
Calculate
(a) PV ratio
(b) Fixed expenses
(c) Break even sales
(d) Margin of safety
(C.A. Inter May, 1980)
Particulars First half of the year Second half of the year
Sales Rs.45,000 Rs.50,000
Total cost Rs40,000 Rs.43,000
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(a) The first step is to find out the PV ratio
Formula for PV ratio =
Change in Profit
Change in Sales

100
To identify the change in profit, the profits of the two different periods should be
known
Profit= Sales-Total cost
Profit of the first half of the year = Rs.45,000Rs.40,000 = Rs.5,000
Profit of the second half of the year= Rs.50,000Rs.43,000 = Rs.7,000
Change in profit= Rs.7,000Rs.5,000= Rs.2,000
Change in sales= Rs.50,000Rs.45,000=Rs.5,000
PV ratio =
Rs.2,000
Rs.5,000

100 = 40%
(b) Fixed expenses, to find out the contribution should be initially found out
Contribution = Sales

PV ratio
= Rs.50,000 40% = Rs.20,000
The fixed expenses to be found out through the following equation
Contribution-Fixed expenses= Profit
Rs.20,000Rs.7,000= Rs.13,000= Fixed expenses
The fixed expenses found only for six months ; for the entire year
= Rs.13,000

2=Rs. 26,000
(c) BE Sales
=
Fixed expenses
PV ratio
=
Rs. 26,000
40%
= Rs.65,000
(d) Margin of safety
= Total sales- BE sales
The next component to be found out is total sales
Total sales = Sale of the first half of the year + Sale of the second half of the year
= Rs.45,000 + Rs.50,000 = Rs.95,000
Margin of safety= Rs.95,000 Rs.65,000= Rs.30,000
Margin of safety in percentage of sales =
Rs. 30,000
Rs. 95,000

100= 31.578%
11.9 APPLICATIONS OF MARGINAL COSTING
The firms which are routinely in need of spares, accessories are bought from the outsiders
instead of any production or manufacturing, though the requirement is at regular intervals.
Most of the automobile manufacturers are usually buying the components from outside
instead of producing them on their own. The Maruthi Udyog ltd had given a contract to
the Nettur Technical Training Foundation, Bangalore to design the tool for the panel and
to manufacture regularly to the tune of the orders.
The leading four wheeler manufacture in India is buying the panel from the NTTF on
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Marginal Costing
Why don't they manufacture in spite of buying them from the NTTF ?
The main reason of buying is cheaper than the production of an article.
Illustration 8
The management of a company finds that while the cost of making a component part is
Rs. 20, the same is available in the market at Rs. 18 with an assurance of continuous
supply.
Give a suggestion whether to make or buy this part. Give also your views in case the
supplier reduces the price from Rs. 18 to Rs. 16.
The cost information is as follows
Material Rs 7,00
Direct Labour Rs. 8.00
Other variable expenses Rs. 2.00
Fixed expenses Rs. 3.00
Total Rs.20.00
The first point to be found out that the contribution of the transaction. The cost of
manufacturing should be compared with the price of the product which is available in the
market.
To find out the worth of the transactions, first the cost of manufacturing should be found
out
Material Rs. 7.00
Direct Labour Rs. 8.00
Other variable expenses Rs. 2.00
Total Rs.17.00
The cost of manufacturing a component is Rs.17.00. While calculating the cost of
manufacturing a component, the fixed expenses was not considered. The fixed expenses
were not considered for computation. Why?
The costs will be incurred irrespective of the production status of the firm; for which the
If the company manufactures the product/ component at Rs.17 which will facilitate to
book profit Rs. 1 from the price of Rs.18 which is available from the market.
The next stage is decision criteria.
11.9.2 Worth of Production
Cost of the production < Price of the product available in the market
The firm is better advised to take the course of production rather than purchase of the
product.
11.9.3 Worth of Purchase
Cost of the production > Price of the product available in the market
The product available in the market is dame cheaper than the manufacturing of a product.
The firm is better advised to buy the product rather than the manufacturing of a product
If the product price comes down to the price of Rs.16 facilitates the firm to save Re 1
from the cost of manufacturing.
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Illustration 9
A refrigerator manufacturer purchases a certain component @ Rs.50 per unit. If he
manufactures the same product he has to incur a fixed cost of Rs.20,000 and variable
cost per unit is Rs. 40/- when can the manufacturer make on his own or when he can
When the requirements is Rs. 5,000 units, will you advise to make or buy?
The very first point to be found that Break even point in units.
The break even point in units at which the cost of buying is equivalent to the cost of
manufacturing.
The cost of purchase per unit - Rs 50/-
If the same product is manufactured, what would be the total cost of manufacture ?
Total cost of manufacture= Total fixed cost + Variable cost
The cost of buying is felt that an exorbitant one than the cost of manufacturing. Having
observed, as a manufacturer undergoes for the manufacturer of a component. If he
manufactures a component, he could save Rs.10=( Rs.50Rs.40) Which in other words
known as contribution per unit
Before finding out the Break even point in units, the contribution of the product should be
found out.
Contribution margin per unit= Selling price in the market Cost of manufacture
Contribution margin per unit is nothing but the amount of savings to the manufacture.
Amount of savings out of the manufacture = Purchase price Variable cost
Though the firm enjoys savings, it is required to additionally incur fixed cost of operations
Rs.20,000
Break even point in units =
Fixed cost
Purchase price- Variable cost
=
Rs.20,000
Rs.50Rs.40
= 2,000 units
At 2,000 units, the firm considers both alternatives are incurring equivalent volume of
Cost in manufacturing.
Cost of buying for 2,000 units
=2,000 units

## Rs.50 per unit= Rs. 1,00,000

Cost of Buying Break even in Rupees
= Rs.20,000 + 2,000 units

Rs.40 = Rs.1,00,000
From the above, it obviously understood that both are bearing equivalent amount of
costs. It means both are neither profitable nor non- profitable.
Which one is better for the firm?

No of Units Manufacturing cost Buying cost Decision
@ 2,001 units Rs.20,000+ Rs.80,0040
=Rs.1,00,040
2001 Rs.50
= Rs.1,00,050
Manufacturing
manufacture
@1,999 units Rs.20,000+Rs.79,960
=Rs.99,960
1,999 Rs.50
Rs.99,950
Manufacturing
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Marginal Costing
The next step is to identify the worth of either manufacturing the units or buying the units
at 5,000
If the manufacturer buys from the outsider= 5,000

Rs.50= Rs.2,50,000
=Rs.20,000+ Rs.2,00,000= Rs.2,20,000
From the above, the company is finally advised to manufacture the component due to
low cost of manufacture.
11.10 ACCEPTING THE EXPORT OFFER
Illustration 10
The cost statement of a product is furnished below
Direct material Rs.10.00
Direct wages Rs.6.00
Fixed Rs1.00
Variable Rs.1.00 Rs.2.00
Fixed Rs.0.50
Variable Rs.1.00
Rs.1.50
Selling price per unit Rs.24.00 Rs.21.00
The above figures are for an output of 50,000 units. The capacity for the firm is 65,000
units A foreign customer is desirous of buying 15,000 units a price of Rs.20 per unit.
Advise the manufacturer whether the order should be accepted, what will be your
advise if the order were from the local merchant?
The acceptance of the order is mainly based on the two important covenants viz Additional
more than the additional cost of the operations, the firm should have to accept the foreign
order.
Decision criteria
The acceptance of the order will generate marginal profit of Rs.30,000 which should be
accepted. The fixed portion of the factory and selling overheads were already met out
Per unit (Rs) 15,000 units
Selling price 20 3,00,000
Less:Marginal cost Rs
Direct material 10.00
Direct wages 6.00
Factory 1.00
Selling & Distribution 1.00 18 2,70,000
2 30,000
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which should not be included again in the computation of the marginal or additional cost
of the foreign order placed by the business enterprise.
Instead, If the firm accepts the local order at the rate of Rs.20 which automatically will
spoil the relationship with the very good customers who regularly purchase at the rate of
Rs.24. This will lead to cannibalization of the existing pricing strategy.
11.11 KEY FACTOR
Key factor is nothing but a limiting factor or deterring factor on sales volume, production,
labour, materials and so on.
The limiting factor normally differs from one to another
Volume of sales- the limiting factor is that production of required number of articles
Volume of production- the limiting factors are as follows in adequate supply of raw
materials, labor, inability to sell the produced articles and so on
The limiting factors are studied in the lights of the contribution. The limiting factor is
bearing the inverse relationship with the volume of contribution. To study the worth of
the business proposals among the limiting factors, the contribution is considered as a
parameter to rank them one after another.
Illustration 11
From the following data, which product would you recommend to be manufactured in a
factory, time being the key factor?
(I.C.W.A.Inter)
The product is being chosen by the manufacturer based on the ability of generating
higher contribution. The higher the contribution leads to a better the position for the firm
The worth of the product is being selected on the basis of
From the above calculation, it is obviously understood that the firm is having higher
contribution margin per hour in the case of product A over the other one, portrays the
product A is better than B.
Illustration 12
The following particulars are obtained from costing records of a factory:
Particulars Per unit of Product A Rs Per unit of Product B Rs
Direct Material 24 14
Direct Labor @ Re 1per hr 2 3
Variable overhead Rs.2 per hr 4 6
Selling price 100 110
Standard time to produce 2 Hours 3 Hours
Particulars Per unit of Product A Rs Per unit of Product B Rs
Selling price 100 110
Less :Direct Material 24 14
Direct Labor @ Re 1per hr 2 3
Variable overhead Rs.2 per hr 4 30 6 23
Contribution 70 87
Standard time to produce 2 Hours 3 Hours
Contribution per hour per product Rs.70/2 Hrs= Rs.35 Rs.87/3 Hrs= Rs 29
Particulars Per unit of Product A Rs Per unit of Product B Rs
Direct Material Rs.20 per Kg 80 320
Direct Labor @ Re 10per hr 100 200
Contd...
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Marginal Costing
Comment on the profitability of each product during the following conditions:
(a) In adequate supply of raw material
(b) Production capacity is limited
(c) Sales quantity is limited
(d) Sales value limited
The first step is to determine the Contribution per product.
According to the constraints given in the problem, contribution of two products should be
compared.
Now the contribution per unit has found out with the help of above given information the
next step is to study the contribution margin per unit to the tune of given constraints of
the firm.
(a) The first constraint is in adequate supply of the raw material: The raw materials
are considered to be precious due to insufficient supply to the requirement of the
firm. Having considered the scarcity of the raw material, the constraint in availing
the raw material is denominated in terms of ability of contribution generation.
It obviously understood that the firm enjoys greater contribution margin per k.g in
the case of Product A during the scarcity of raw material than the product B.
(b) Then the production capacity of the firm is subject to the availability of the labour and
the hours normally consumed by them for the production of a single product. Due to
shortage of the labour, the firm should identify the product which requires lesser
labour hours as well as able to generate more contribution margin per labour hour.
In the next step, Contribution margin per hour should be calculated.
Particulars Per unit of Product A Rs Per unit of Product B Rs
Selling price 400 1,000
Direct Material Rs.20 per Kg 80 320
Direct Labor @ Re 10per hr 100 200
Variable overhead 40 220 80 600
Contribution margin per unit 180 400
Particulars Per unit of Product A Rs Per unit of Product B Rs
Contribution margin per unit 180 400
Consumption of raw material
per unit
Cost of raw material per unit
Cost of material per Kg

Rs 80 = 4 Kgs
Rs.20

Rs.320 = 16 Kgs
Rs20
Contribution per Kg Rs. 180 = Rs.45
4 Kgs
Rs.400 = Rs.25
16 Kgs
Particulars Per unit of Product A Rs Per unit of Product B Rs
Contribution margin per unit 180 400
Consumption of Labor Hrs
Cost of Labor per unit
Cost of Labor per Hour

Rs100 = 10 Hrs
Rs.10

Rs.200 = 20 Hrs
Rs10
Contribution per Hr of the
product
Rs. 180 = Rs.18
10 Hrs
Rs.400 = Rs. 20
20 Hrs
Selling price 400 1,000
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Accounting and Finance for
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The contribution per hour is greater in the case of the product B, considered to be
as a better product among the given. It means that the firm has better opportunity
to earn greater contribution in the case of product B than A.
(c) The next one is that sale of the quantities is the major limiting factor. It means that
the vendor finds some what difficulties in selling the articles. While considering the
difficulties in selling the quantities, the firm should identify the product which is able
to generate greater contribution.
From the earlier calculation, it is clearly understood that, the product B is bearing
greater value of contribution margin per unit than the product.
(d) If the sales value is considered to be a limiting factor, to choose one among the
given products PV ratio is being applied as a measure. It means that the sales
value of the products are ignored for comparison in between them. To identify the
better product, irrespective of the price, PV ratio should be applied. The PV ratio
of the Product A & B are calculated as follows
Profit volume ratio =
Contribution
Sales
100
For A = 45%
For B = 40%
The PV ratio is greater in the case of product A than B. The product A has to be
chosen
1. Which is the following factor equated to the Contribution at the level of Break Even
Point ?
(a) Fixed cost (b) Sales
(c) Variable cost (d) Semi-Variable cost
2. What is the change to be made on the BEP formula to find out the volume of sales at
the desired level of profit ?
(a) Desired profit (b) Fixed cost
(c) Desired profit with Fixed cost (d) Desired cost + Fixed profit
11.12 SELECTING THE SUITABLE PRODUCT MIX
In the market, dealership is offered by the various companies to the individual intermediaries
in promoting the sale of products. Before reaching an agreement with the company to act
as a dealer, normally every individual consider the profitability of the product mix offered
by the firm. For e-g There are two different companies brought forth their advertisements
in offering the dealership to the individual trading firms viz HCL and IBM.
The profitability under the dealership banner should be appropriately considered prior to
take decision. To take rational decision, the firm should compare the profitability of both
different dealership of two different giant industrial brands. The greater the share of the
profitability in volume will be selected and vice versa.
1. If the supply of the material is considered to be scared in the market for two different
units of production of ABC ltd. How the worth of the units of production could be
studied through Key factor analysis?
Contd...
199
Marginal Costing
(a) Contribution per unit (b) Contribution per labour
(c) Contribution per hour (d) None of the above
2. While accepting export order, which component of influence should not be taken into
consideration?
(a) Direct material (b) Direct expenses
(c) Direct labour (d) Fixed cost
3. If Licon co ltd wants to induct a product B along with the existing product line, what
would be the deciding factor to undertake or reject?
(a) Composite contribution (b) Fixed cost
(c) Contribution margin per unit (d) None of the above
Illustration 13
From the following information has been extracted of EXCEL rubber products ltd
The directors want to be acquainted with the desirability of adopting any one of the
following alternative sales mixes in the budget for the next period.
(a) 250 units of A and 250 units of B
(b) 400 units of B only
(c) 400 units of A and 100 units of B
(d) 150 units of A and 350 units of B
State which of the alternative sales mixes you would recommend to the management?
The first step is to determine the contribution margin per unit of A and B.
The determination of the contribution of product A and B are through the preparation of
Marginal costing statement.
The next step is to determine the profit level of every mix.
(a) 250 units of A and 250 units of B
The first step is to determine the total contribution of the mix. Why the total
contribution has to be found out?
The main reason is to determine the profit level of the mix through the deduction of
Direct materials A Rs 16
Direct materials B Rs12
Direct wages A 24 Hrs at 50 paise per hour
Direct wages B 16 Hrs at 50 paise per hour
Selling price A Rs.50
Selling price B Rs.40
Particulars Product A Rs Product B Rs
Selling price 50 40
Less: Direct Materials 16 12
Direct wages 12 8
Variable cost 46 32
Contribution 4 8
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Accounting and Finance for
Managers
Product of A 250 units

Rs.4= Rs.1,000
Product of B 250 units

Rs.8= Rs.2,000
Contribution Rs.3,000
Profit Rs.1,500
(b) 400 units of B only
Product B Contribution 400 units

Rs.8 = Rs.3,200
Profit Rs.1,700
(c) 400 units of A and 100 units of B
Product of A 400 units

Rs.4 Rs.1,600
Product of B 100 units

## Rs.8 Rs. 800

Contribution Rs.2,400
Profit Rs.900
(d) 150 units of A and 350 units of B
Product A

150 units Rs.4 Rs.600
Product B 350 units

Rs.8 Rs.2,800
Contribution Rs.3,400
Profit Rs.1,900
The profit level among the given various mixes, the mix (d) is able to generate
highest volume of profit over the others
11.13 DETERMINING OPTIMUM LEVEL OF
OPERATIONS
Under this method, the level has to be found out which is having lesser selling price, cost
of operations and greater profits known as optimum level of operations.
Illustration 14
A factory engaged in manufacturing plastic buckets is working at 40% capacity and
produces 10,000 buckets per annum.
The present cost break up for bucket is as under
Material Rs.10
Labour Rs.3
The selling price is Rs 20 per bucket
If it is decided to work the factory at 50% capacity, the selling price falls by 3%. At 90 %
capacity the selling price falls by 5% accompanied by a similar fall in the prices of material.
Mix A B C D
Contribution Rs.1,500 1,700 900 1,900
201
Marginal Costing
You are required to calculate the profit at 50% and 90% capacities and also calculate
break even point for the same capacity productions. (C.A.Inter May,1976)
The very first step is to compute number of units at every level of capacity i.e. 50% and
90%.
But in this problem, 40 % capacity utilization given which amounted 10,000 units.
For 50% =
10,000
40
units 50 = 12,500 units
For 90 % =
10,000 units
40
90 = 22,500 units
The important information is that the changes taken place in the selling price of the
product.
Selling price = Rs.20 @ 40% i.e., 10,000 units
Selling price @ 50% i.e. 12,500 units = Rs.203% on Rs.20 = Rs.19.40
Selling price @90% i.e. 22,500 units=Rs.205% on Rs.20 = Rs.19
While preparing the marginal costing statement, the fixed cost portion should not be
included for the computation of the contribution.
The next step is to prepare the marginal costing statement.
The last step is to determine that the break even point
11.14 ALTERNATIVE METHOD OF PRODUCTION
It is a method to identify the best method of production to generate greater contribution
as well as profit. The method which is able to earn greater profit only will be considered,
known as limiting factor method.
Illustration 15
Product X can be produced either by machine A or machine B. Machine A can produce
100 units of X per hour and machine B 150 units per hour. Total machine hours available
during the year are 2,500. Taking into account the following data determine the method
of profitable manufacture.
Particulars 50 % capacity(12,500 Units) 90% capacity Rs(22,500 units
Per unit Rs Total Rs Per unitRs TotalRs
Selling price 19.40 2,42,500 19.00 4,27,500
Less: Direct Materials 10 1,25,000 9.50 2,13,750
Direct wages 3 37,500 3 67,500
Variable overheads 2 25,000 2 45,000
Variable cost 15 14.50
Contribution 4.40 55,000 4.50 1,01,250
Fixed costs 30,000 30,000
Profit 25,000 71,250
Particulars 50 % capacity 12,500 units 90% capacity 22,500 units
Break even point in units
= Fixed cost
Contribution margin per unit
Rs.30,000
Rs.4.40
=6,818 units
Rs.30,000
Rs.4.50
=.6,667units
Break even point in value
BEP in units Selling price
6,818 units

Rs 19.40
=Rs.1,32,269.2
6,667units Rs.19
=Rs.1,26,673
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11.15 LET US SUM UP
"Marginal cost is the amount at any given volume of output, by which aggregate costs
are charged, if the volume of output is increased or decreased by one unit." Marginal
Costing is defined as "the ascertainment of marginal cost and of the effect on profit of
changes in volume or type of output by differentiating between fixed and variable costs."
In marginal costing, the change in the level of cost of operation is equivalent to variable
cost due to fixed cost component which is fixed irrespective level of outputs. Break
Even Point is the point at which the Total Cost is equivalent to Total Revenue. At the
break even point the business neither earns profit nor incurs a loss. It means that the
firm's cost is recovered at the minimum level of production. PV ratio is Profit Volume
ratio which establishes the relationship in between the profit and volume of sales. It a
ratio normally expressed in terms of contribution towards volume of sales. It is expressed
in terms of percentage. Key factor is nothing but a limiting factor or deterring factor on
sales volume, production, labour, materials and so on.
The limiting factor normally differs from one to another
Volume of sales- the limiting factor is that production of required number of articles
In the market, dealership is offered by the various companies to the individual intermediaries
in promoting the sale of products. Before reaching an agreement with the company to act
as a dealer, normally every individual consider the profitability of the product mix offered
by the firm.
11.16 LESSON-END ACTIVITY
Should we evaluate a managers performance on the basis of controllable or non-
controllable costs? Why? Give your opinion.
11.17 KEYWORDS
Marginal cost: Change occurred in the cost of operations due to change in the level of
production.
B E P (Units): It is the level of units at which the firm neither incurs a loss nor earns
profit.
BEP (Volume): It is the level of sales in Rupees at which the firm neither incurs a loss
nor earns profit.
Fixed cost: It is a cost which is fixed or remains the same for irrespective level of
production.
Variable cost: It varies along with the level of production.
Contribution: It is an amount of balance available after the deduction of variable cost
from the sales.
Key factor: Factor of influence on the component of contribution.
PV ratio: Profit volume ration which is nothing but the ratio in between the contribution
and sales.
Desired profit: It is a profit level desired by the firm to earn at the given level of sales
volume.
11.18 QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
1. Define marginal cost.
2. Define marginal costing.
203
Marginal Costing
3. What is Break Even Point Analysis?
4. Explain the Graphic approach of BEP analysis.
5. Briefly explain the profit volume ratio.
6. Explain the various kinds of managerial decisions.
7. Elucidate the key factor analysis.
8. List out the advantages of marginal costing.
9. Highlight the limitations of marginal costing.