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ABE Technologies

044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM

VIBRATIONAL ENERGY HARVESTING FROM HUMAN GAIT


ABSTRACT
Over the past two decades, there has been significant interest In converting mechanical energy from human motion Into electrical energy. This electrical energy can then be used to Recharge batteries in electronic devices or directly power small scale, Low-power circuits. A number of commercial devices use human power to produce Electricity such as hand-crank generators (for powering Flashlights, radios, and recharging mobile devices), and pedal Generators (that can be used to power larger electrical devices typically generating between 100 and 1000Wand can be as high As 1000 W). However, these generators require concentrated human Effort for long periods of time, which might preclude the User from doing other tasks. It is desirable to scavenge or harvest Energy from human movement, while the user is performing His/her everyday activities. Some of the earliest work to harvest energy from human gait Dates back almost 250 years and include the self-winding Watch and closely related modern electromechanical (or so called Electrical) self-winding watches, and various shoe mounted Foot cranks Driven by the potential to power small, portable electronic devices, the first work in selfpowered electrical Energy harvesting included electromagnetic vibration in A device carried on the hip, and piezoelectric strain energy Harvesting by a device mounted in the heel of a shoe. This Initial work has lead to substantial interest in gait powered energy Harvesting. The mechanical energy generated from the movement of the human movement into electrical energy. The output of accelerometer and piezo plate is given to the ADC for analog to digital conversion and then to microcontroller in order to monitor the value of energy generated. The outputs of transducers are also given to boost controller. The obtained energy is boosted up using Boost Controller and given to DC-DC converter. The output of the DC-DC converter is stored in a storage device. The stored energy is inverted to AC voltage and is given to the relay and utilized for other purposes for lighting lamps for example. The voltage control is provided by the microcontroller.

ABE Technologies
044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM

EXISTING SYSTEM
Energy harvesting sources including solar, wind and thermal each with a different optimal size. They either waste much available energy due to impedance mismatch, or they require active digital control that incurs overhead, or they work with only one specific type of source. No more research on the vibration domain.

DISADVANTAGES
Construction cost is high in normal energy harvesting like wind, solar. Not will be compact. More storage device required.

PROPOSED SYSTEM
This paper has investigated the optimal power that can be extracted from human gait over a wide speed range using electromechanical vibration conversion from human movement. Driven by the potential to power small portable electronic devices, more recent research in energy harvesting from gait has focused on 1) increasing the power output 2) energy harvesting from the motion of backpacks during walking, and 3) minimizing energy expenditure by controlling the breaking force.

ADVANTAGES
Good output power. Easy Method. Portable Technologies. Boost level increased

ABE Technologies
044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM

PDMS MICROCANTILEVER-BASED FLOW SENSOR INTEGRATION FOR LAB-ON-A-CHIP

ABSTRACT
In this paper, a simple practical method is presented to fabricate a high aspect ratio horizontal polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro cantilever-based flow sensor integrated into a micro fluidic device. A multilayer soft lithography process is developed to fabricate a thin PDMS layer involving the PDMS micro cantilever and the micro fluidics network. A three-layer fabrication technique is explored for the integration of the micro flow meter. The upper and lower PDMS layers are bonded to the thin layer to release the micro cantilever for free deflection. A 3-D finite element analysis is carried out to simulate fluid-structure interaction and estimate cantilever deflection under various flow conditions. The dynamic range of flow rates that is detectable using the flow sensor is assessed by both simulation and experimental methods and compared. Limited by the accuracy of the 1.76-m resolution of the image acquisition method, the present setup allows for flow rates as low as 35 L/min to be detected. This is equal to 0.8-N resolution in equivalent force at the tip. This flow meter can be integrated into any type of microfluidicbased lab-on-a-chip in which flow measurement is crucial, such as flow cytometry and particle separation applications.

The performance of the flow sensor is tested by introducing various flow rates into the micro fluidic device and measuring the deflection of the cantilevers tip using an optical microscope. It will convert the mechanical energy generated from the flow sensor into electrical energy. The output of flow sensor is given to the ADC for analog to digital conversion and then to microcontroller in order to monitor the value of energy generated. The output of flow sensor is also given to boost controller. The obtained energy is boosted up using Boost Controller and given to DC-DC converter. The output of the DC-DC converter is stored in a storage device. The stored energy is inverted to AC voltage and is given to the relay and utilized for other purposes for lighting lamps for example. The voltage control is provided by the microcontroller.

ABE Technologies
044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM

EXISTING SYSTEM
Energy harvesting sources including solar, wind and thermal each with a different optimal size. They either waste much available energy due to impedance mismatch, or they require active digital control that incurs overhead, or they work with only one specific type of source. No more research on the domain.

DISADVANTAGES
Construction cost is high in normal energy harvesting like wind, solar. Not will be compact. More storage device required.

PROPOSED SYSTEM
In this paper, a high aspect ratio PDMS micro-cantilever based flow sensor is presented. The performance of the flow sensor is tested by introducing various flow rates into the micro fluidic device and measuring the deflection of the cantilevers tip using an optical microscope. Driven by the potential to power small portable electronic devices, more recent research in energy harvesting from gait has focused on 1) increasing the power output 2) energy harvesting from the motion of backpacks during walking, and 3) minimizing energy expenditure by controlling the breaking force.

ADVANTAGES
Good output power. Easy Method. Portable Technologies. Boost level increased

ABE Technologies
044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM

ELECTROMECHANICAL ENERGY SCAVENGING FROM CURRENT-CARRYING CONDUCTORS


ABSTRACT
This paper describes a novel method for scavenging energy for electric power systems sensing applications by the use of permanent magnets that couple to the magnetic field generated by an alternating current flowing through a nearby conductor. The resulting mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy using piezoelectric transduction. This electromechanical AC energy scavenging method is an attractive alternative to coil based AC energy scavengers in cases where the scavengers cannot encircle the conductor. In such cases, the electromechanical AC energy scavenger has the potential to produce significantly more power than comparable coil-based methods. The components of an electromechanical AC energy scavenger are described in detail, and experimental data from prototypes that are fabricated and tested in our laboratory are shown. The 20 cm3 prototypes generated up to 2.7 mW of power each from 20 A of nearby current. Theoretical power densities of electromechanical AC energy scavengers are compared to the power densities of representative coil-based methods, showing that in some cases the electromechanical AC scavengers can generate an order of- magnitude more power than coil-based AC scavengers. This paper demonstrates that electromechanical AC energy scavenging is a potential method for powering small size low cost stick-on wireless sensor networks The damper, placed in contact with the cantilever beam acts as source of vibration for power generation. MEMS sensor placed on the beam, it will convert the mechanical energy generated from the movement of the beam into electrical energy. The output of MEMS is given to the ADC for analog to digital conversion and then to microcontroller in order to monitor the value of energy generated. The output of MEMS is also given to boost controller. The obtained energy is boosted up using Boost Controller and given to DC-DC converter. The output of the DC-DC converter is stored in a storage device. The stored energy is inverted to AC voltage and is given to the relay and utilized for other purposes for lighting lamps for example. The voltage control is provided by the microcontroller.

ABE Technologies
044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM

EXISTING SYSTEM
Energy harvesting sources including solar, wind and thermal each with a different optimal size. They either waste much available energy due to impedance mismatch, or they require active digital control that incurs overhead, or they work with only one specific type of source. No more research on the vibration domain.

DISADVANTAGES
Construction cost is high in normal energy harvesting like wind, solar. Not will be compact. More storage device required.

PROPOSED SYSTEM
This paper has investigated the optimal power that can be extracted from human gait over a wide speed range using electromechanical vibration conversion from human movement. Driven by the potential to power small portable electronic devices, more recent research in energy harvesting from gait has focused on 1) increasing the power output 2) energy harvesting from the motion of backpacks during walking, and 3) minimizing energy expenditure by controlling the breaking force.

ADVANTAGES
Good output power. Easy Method. Portable Technologies. Boost level increased

ABE Technologies
044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM

PIEZOELECTRIC VIBRATORY-CANTILEVER FORCE SENSORS AND AXIAL SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR INDIVIDUAL TRIAXIAL TACTILE SENSING
ABSTRACT
This paper describes a novel method for scavenging energy for electric power systems sensing applications by the use of permanent magnets that couple to the magnetic field generated by an alternating current flowing through a nearby conductor. The resulting mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy using piezoelectric transduction. This electromechanical AC energy scavenging method is an attractive alternative to coil based AC energy scavengers in cases where the scavengers cannot encircle the conductor. In such cases, the electromechanical AC energy scavenger has the potential to produce significantly more power than comparable coil-based methods. The components of an electromechanical AC energy scavenger are described in detail, and experimental data from prototypes that are fabricated and tested in our laboratory are shown. The 20 cm3 prototypes generated up to 2.7 mW of power each from 20 A of nearby current. Theoretical power densities of electromechanical AC energy scavengers are compared to the power densities of representative coil-based methods, showing that in some cases the electromechanical AC scavengers can generate an order of- magnitude more power than coil-based AC scavengers. This paper demonstrates that electromechanical AC energy scavenging is a potential method for powering small size low cost stick-on wireless sensor networks The damper, placed in contact with the cantilever beam acts as source of vibration for power generation. MEMS sensor placed on the beam, it will convert the mechanical energy generated from the movement of the beam into electrical energy. The output of MEMS is given to the ADC for analog to digital conversion and then to microcontroller in order to monitor the value of energy generated. The output of MEMS is also given to boost controller. The obtained energy is boosted up using Boost Controller and given to DC-DC converter. The output of the

ABE Technologies
044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM DC-DC converter is stored in a storage device. The stored energy is inverted to AC voltage and is given to the relay and utilized for other purposes for lighting lamps for example. The voltage control is provided by the microcontroller.

EXISTING SYSTEM
Energy harvesting sources including solar, wind and thermal each with a different optimal size. They either waste much available energy due to impedance mismatch, or they require active digital control that incurs overhead, or they work with only one specific type of source. No more research on the vibration domain.

DISADVANTAGES
Construction cost is high in normal energy harvesting like wind, solar. Not will be compact. More storage device required.

PROPOSED SYSTEM
This paper has investigated the optimal power that can be extracted from human gait over a wide speed range using electromechanical vibration conversion from human movement. Driven by the potential to power small portable electronic devices, more recent research in energy harvesting from gait has focused on 1) increasing the power output 2) energy harvesting from the motion of backpacks during walking, and 3) minimizing energy expenditure by controlling the breaking force.

ADVANTAGES
Good output power. Easy Method. Portable Technologies. Boost level increased

ABE Technologies
044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM

INTEGRATION AND OPERATION OF A SINGLE-PHASE BIDIRECTIONAL INVERTER WITH TWO BUCK/BOOST MPPTS FOR DC-DISTRIBUTION APPLICATIONS
ABSTRACT
Many types of renewable energy, such as photovoltaic (PV), wind, tidal, and geothermal energy, have attracted a lot of attention over the past decade. Among these natural resources, the PV energy is a main and appropriate renewable energy for low-voltage dc-distribution systems, owing to the merits of clean, quiet, pollution free, and abundant. In the dc-distribution applications, a power system, including renewable distributed generators (DGS), dc loads (lighting, air conditioner, and electric vehicle), and a bidirectional inverter, is shown in fig. 1, in which two PV arrays with two maximum power point trackers (MPPTS) are implemented. However, the IV characteristics of the PV arrays are nonlinear, and they require MPPTS to draw the maximum power from each PV array. Moreover, the bidirectional inverter has to fulfill grid connection (sell power) and rectification (buy power)with power-factor correction (PFC) to control the power flow between dc bus and ac grid, and to regulate the dc bus to a certain range of voltages, such as 380 10 v.

Nowadays, a conventional two-stage configuration is usually adopted in the PV inverter systems. Each MPPT is realized with a boost converter to step up the PV-array voltage close to the specified dc-link voltage. The boost converter is operated in by-pass mode when the PVarray voltage is higher than the dc-link voltage, and the inverter will function as an MPPT.

The Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) 1 senses the change in the suns position and gives signal to the control circuit in order to tackle the change in the position of the solar panel. The

ABE Technologies
044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM control circuit gives signal to run the motor in forward direction. LDR 2 detects the sun set and gives signal to the control circuit to run the motor in reverse direction until the proxy switch gets activated. The position of the panel will be displayed in LCD at which LDR is absorbing the energy from the sun. the output from the panel we boost using the DC-DC booster and store in the battery through the super capacitor for the function of uniform storage purpose.

EXISTING SYSTEM
In the past years numerous MPPT algorithms have been published. They differ in many aspects such as complexity, cost or efficiency. To date, a number of MPPT algorithms have been proposed in the literature, including perturb-and- observe method (2004), open- and short-circuit method (2002), incremental conductance algorithm (1998),fussy logic (2006) and artificial neural network (1998). However, it is pointless to use a more expensive or more complicated method if with a simpler and less expensive one similar results can be obtained. This is the reason why some of the proposed techniques are not used. The main technical requirements in developing a practical PV system include which an optimal control that can extract the maximum output power from the PV arrays under all operating and weather conditions.

DISADVANTAGES
Complexity algorithms difficult and unsatisfactory Its not trusted one.

PROPOSED SYSTEM
This paper presents the hardware design and implementation of a system that ensures a perpendicular profile of the solar panel with the sun in order to extract maximum energy falling on it. Renewable energy is rapidly gaining importance as an energy resource as fossil fuel prices Fluctuate. The unique feature of the proposed system is that instead of taking the earth as its reference, it takes the sun as a guiding source. Its active sensors constantly monitor the sunlight and rotate the panel towards the direction where the intensity of sunlight is maximum.

ADVANTAGES

ABE Technologies
044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM Maximum tracking Maximum power output compare other technique

SIMULTANEOUS FAULT SECTION ESTIMATION AND PROTECTIVE DEVICE FAILURE DETECTION USING PERCENTAGE VALUES OF THE PROTECTIVE DEVICES ALARMS ABSTRACT:
Fault location is historically one of the most appealing topics for people working in Power Systems given that it involves several technical and scientific aspects, such as electromagnetic transient, material engineering, instrumentation and measurement, reliability, power electronic and so on. In the era of smartgrid, the demand of intelligent measurement systems capable of providing quickly and with high accuracy the right location of faults in power networks is growing fast.

In electrical power systems a large number of messages and alarms are transmitted to the control center after the occurrence of disturbances. The role of the fault diagnosis function is to estimate the power system section where the outage was originated, and identify relays and circuit breakers improper operations. Thus, based on the identified fault section, a rapid and accurate restoration action can be taken to minimize service interruption and limit damage to equipments. According to expert systems were the earliest attempts in artificial intelligence application to power system fault diagnosis. As shown in, an expert system can be used to perform the fault section estimation and protection failure detection. However, common drawbacks in methods based on expert systems involve knowledge-base maintenance and slow response time.

The voltage sensor, current sensor are interfaced to the microcontroller through ADC. each and every transmission line with power circuit (like step-down transformer and rectifier) are

ABE Technologies
044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM also interfaced with microcontroller. Incase high voltage goes to transmission line, that time power circuit activated automatically. The values sensed are stored in the PC in a wired manner using UART and location of the wire with fault can be displayed particular location. Additionally fault where is occurred, also message send to EB section beforly by using the GSM technology.

EXISTING SYSTEM:
In the methodologies presented in and the protection devices alarms are applied directly to the artificial neural network inputs, which means that each neural network input is associated with a specific alarm. Thus, the same intelligent system cannot be applied in different power systems. A Similar conclusion can be obtained by considering other intelligent tools, such as the aforementioned approaches. Another aspect is that the majority of the methodologies so far proposed in the literature for fault diagnosis are limited to the fault section estimation, that is, they do not accomplish the protective device failure detection.

DISADVANTAGES:
No more monitoring Uncertain information in fault diagnosis problems Convenient way to express incomplete

PROPOSED SYSTEM:
The proposed approach became a unique solution which led to a specific structure for the intelligent tool to be used to solve the problem of simultaneous fault section estimation and protective devices failure detection. Thus, two artificial neural networks have been proposed to perform the fault section estimation and three artificial neural networks to perform protection devices failure detection.

ADVANTAGES:

ABE Technologies
044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM Sensors implementation. Remote monitoring with GSM.

Two way control with fault diagnosis

FUZZY VIRTUAL REFERENCE MODEL SENSORLESS TRACKING CONTROL FOR LINEAR INDUCTION MOTORS ABSTRACT
Linear induction motors (LIMs) have characteristics such as high initial thrust force, alleviation of gear between motor and the motion devices, reduced mechanical losses, relatively Small physical size of motion devices, low audible noise, etc. Due to these advantages, the LIM is widely used in many industrial applications, e.g., transportation systems, conveyor systems, and factory material handling.

Embedded technology uses PC or MCU the specified task and the programming is done using assembly language programming or embedded C. Ours being a developing country the power consumption is increasing on large scale to meet the growing need of the people. Power generation is widely based on the non-renewable sources and these sources being depleting some means have to be found for power saving. The sensor is fixed to the induction motor which detects the power parameters of the motor. When the induction motor suffers from any abnormality like as abnormal in temperature and high voltage. Hence it can be easily detected by the sensors. The value is made to display with the help of LCD. Additionally speed sensor and current sensor are also fixed to the motor which determines the motor current and speed. The condition about the motor is sent through wirelessly to the monitoring section. The values are analyzed in the receiver end through pc. When the data level exceeds the buzzer connected to the microcontroller alarms.

ABE Technologies
044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM

EXISTING SYSTEM
The mathematical model of an LIM is similar to the conventional rotary induction motor. However, the LIMs are more complicated since we must consider the end effects, which are dependent on the speed of the mover, and electromechanical coupling constants, which are larger than conventional rotary induction motors. The aforementioned facts motivate us to improve the control for LIMs.

DISADVANTAGES

Increases the cost, weight, and complexity.

It is not reliable.

PROPOSED SYSTEM
The hardware and software design of a wireless health monitoring system for induction machine is presented in this paper. Vibration signals have been analyzed to detect the mechanical faults. The implementations of analysis technique in time and frequency domain are given. The proposed rotor imbalance detection technique is verified with different level of severity. Rotor imbalance indicator can be used to estimate the range of severity level which is very useful part of the predictive maintenance. The wireless health monitoring system is tested under various operating conditions and is found to work satisfactorily.

ADVANTAGES
Live monitoring system. Fault detection and diagnosis.

ABE Technologies
044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM DSP implementation.

HIGH-RESOLUTION PARAMETER ESTIMATION METHOD TO IDENTIFY BROKEN ROTOR BAR FAULTS IN INDUCTION MOTORS

ABSTRACT
The classical multiple signal classification (MUSIC) method has been widely used in induction machine fault detection and diagnosis. This method can extract meaningful frequencies but cannot give accurate amplitude information of fault harmonics. In this paper, we propose a new frequency analysis of stator current to estimate fault-sensitive frequencies and their amplitudes for broken rotor bars (BRBs). The proposed method employs a frequency estimator, an amplitude estimator, and a fault decision module. The frequency estimator is implemented by a zoom technique and a high-resolution analysis technique known as the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques, which can extract frequencies accurately. For the amplitude estimator, a least squares estimator is derived to obtain amplitudes of fault harmonics, without frequency leakage. In the fault decision module, the fault diagnosis index from the amplitude estimator is used depending on the load conditions of the induction motors. The fault index and corresponding threshold are optimized by using the false alarm and detection probabilities. Experimental results obtained from induction motors show that the proposed diagnosis algorithm is capable of detecting BRB faults with an accuracy that is superior to the zoom-based MUSIC algorithm. . Embedded technology uses PC or MCU the specified task and the programming is done using assembly language programming or embedded C. Ours being a developing country the power consumption is increasing on large scale to meet the growing need of the people. Power

ABE Technologies
044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM generation is widely based on the non-renewable sources and these sources being depleting some means have to be found for power saving.

The sensor is fixed to the induction motor which detects the power parameters of the motor. When the induction motor suffers from any abnormality like as abnormal in temperature and high voltage. Hence it can be easily detected by the sensors. The value is made to display with the help of LCD. Additionally speed sensor and current sensor are also fixed to the motor which determines the motor current and speed. The condition about the motor is sent through wirelessly to the monitoring section. The values are analyzed in the receiver end through pc. When the data level exceeds the buzzer connected to the microcontroller alarms.

EXISTING SYSTEM
The mathematical model of an LIM is similar to the conventional rotary induction motor. However, the LIMs are more complicated since we must consider the end effects, which are dependent on the speed of the mover, and electromechanical coupling constants, which are larger than conventional rotary induction motors. The aforementioned facts motivate us to improve the control for LIMs.

DISADVANTAGES

Increases the cost, weight, and complexity.

It is not reliable.

PROPOSED SYSTEM
The hardware and software design of a wireless health monitoring system for induction machine is presented in this paper. Vibration signals have been analyzed to detect the mechanical faults. The implementations of analysis technique in time and frequency domain are given. The proposed rotor imbalance detection technique is verified with different level of severity. Rotor imbalance indicator can be used to estimate the range of severity level which is very useful part

ABE Technologies
044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM of the predictive maintenance. The wireless health monitoring system is tested under various operating conditions and is found to work satisfactorily.

ADVANTAGES
Live monitoring system. Fault detection and diagnosis. Low power wireless system.

THEORETICAL APPROACH TO THE FEASIBILITY OF POWER-LINE COMMUNICATION IN AIRCRAFTS ABSTRACT


Power-line communication (PLC) has been recently envisaged for transportation systems. In the aeronautic sector, one of the important tendencies is the more electric aircraft, with the replacement of hydraulic energy sources by electrical ones. However, each electric system needs a power supply and a communication network. Reducing the cabling harnesses is currently a key issue that could be solved by introducing PLC technology. In, few measurements of the transfer function of a link between the left wing and the right wing and between a wing and the cockpit of a military aircraft were presented, constraints on the processing time being emphasized. In, the transfer function of a power line in a transport aircraft was modeled to optimize the communication parameters.

ABE Technologies
044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM Power-line communication (PLC) is a potential solution for long haul transmission, last mile access, and in building connection over low to high voltage power networks. By turning virtually each wired device into a target of future value-added services, PLC acts as a technological enabler spanning internet access, residential or business premises, smart grid, and other municipal applications. Moreover, it enjoys the advantages of pervasive power cable infrastructures and low implementation cost without rewiring. PLC is one of the promising communication technologies. This technology literally transmits data on electric power from a small number of sources (the generators) to a large number of sinks. PLC is very robust and can be utilized anywhere using electricity. This point approaches low installation cost since it uses existing line as communication path there is no need of using wired communication since we can use with help of Existing communication. Binary data stream is modulated by channel coding at the convolution encoder.

EXISTING SYSTEM
Power line communication (PLC) has seen a lot of interest in the past few years due to the almost omnipresent nature of the power line grid. One of the potential applications of power line communication is automatic reading of electric, gas and water meters. Even though automatic meter reading (AMR) is a low data rate application, it demands both high reliability and low computational complexity. Moreover, the power line channel proves unfavorable to reliable communication due to its multipath nature, frequency selective effects, narrowband interference and presence of strong impulse and colored background noises.

DISADVANTAGES
No flexibility High cost Source of interferences

ABE Technologies
044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM

PROPOSED SYSTEM
We propose an OFDM based modem design for using power lines as a communication medium for AMR to completely meet the reliability and the low complexity demands of AMR. Further, the power line channel manifests a very long impulse response. Hence, to maintain the orthogonality between subcarriers in OFDM and hence be able to effectively use this technology for PLC, the cyclic prefix is constrained to be longer than the long channel impulse response. A novel channel shortening algorithm is presented to reduce the effective length of any channel, which could be used in PLC.

ADVANTAGES
Multiplex network reduces harness weight. Simple installation and easy expandable Increasing reliability by reducing harness wires. Security and ubiquity

ABE Technologies
044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM

ACCURATE SAMPLING TIMING ACQUISITION FOR BASEBAND OFDM POWER-LINE COMMUNICATION IN NON-GAUSSIAN NOISE

ABSTRACT
In this paper, a novel technique is proposed to address the joint sampling timing acquisition for baseband and broadband power-line communication (BB-PLC) systems using Orthogonal-Frequency-Division-Multiplexing (OFDM), including the sampling phase offset (SPO) and the sampling clock offset (SCO). Under pairwise correlation and joint Gaussian assumption of received signals in frequency domain, an approximated form of the log-likelihood function is derived. Instead of a high complexity two-dimension grid-search on the likelihood function, a five-step method is employed for accurate estimations. Several variants are presented in the same framework with different complexities. Unlike conventional pilot-assisted schemes using the extra phase rotations within one OFDM block, the proposed technique turns to the phase rotations between adjacent OFDM blocks. Analytical expressions of the variances and biases are derived. Extensive simulation results indicate significant performance improvements over conventional schemes. Additionally, effects of several noise models including nonGaussianity, cyclo-stationarity, and temporal correlation are analyzed and simulated. Robustness of the proposed technique against violation of the joint Gaussian assumption is also verified by simulations.

PLC is one of the promising communication technologies. This technology literally transmits data on electric power from a small number of sources (the generators) to a large number of sinks. PLC is very robust and can be utilized anywhere using electricity. This point approaches low installation cost since it uses existing line as communication path There is no need of using wired communication since we can use with help of Existing communication.With of the help of PC, we can control 3 devices normally, since we can switch ON or OFF the load such as motor, fan, buzzer etc.We can monitor the value of temperature sensor in PC itself.

ABE Technologies
044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM Binary data stream is modulated by channel coding at the convolutional encoder. The channel coding compensates for the effect of channel fading. Then, the phase shift keying (PSK) modulated signal is changed serial signal to a number of parallel frames. This signal is converted to analog at the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and then transmitted via power lines. The received signal experienced a variety of noises changed to digital signal again at the analog-todigital converter (ADC). Next, channel and impulsive noise are mitigated through the clipping and equalizer block. Finally, the received signal is recovered as the original data stream via FFT and demodulator.

EXISTING SYSTEM
Power line communication (PLC) has seen a lot of interest in the past few years due to the almost omnipresent nature of the power line grid. One of the potential applications of power line communication is automatic reading of electric, gas and water meters. Even though automatic meter reading (AMR) is a low data rate application, it demands both high reliability and low computational complexity. Moreover, the power line channel proves unfavorable to reliable communication due to its multipath nature, frequency selective effects, narrowband interference and presence of strong impulse and colored background noises. In this work, we propose an OFDM based modem design for using power lines as a communication medium for AMR to completely meet the reliability and the low complexity demands of AMR. Further, the power line channel manifests a very long impulse response. Hence, to maintain the orthogonality between subcarriers in OFDM and hence be able to effectively use this technology for PLC, the cyclic prefix is constrained to be longer than the long channel impulse response. A novel channel shortening algorithm is presented to reduce the effective length of any channel, which could be used in PLC.

DISADVANTAGES The interference in the power line cable that occurs between the electric signal and data signal is not overcome in this project. The data rate is low. The impulse response is large.

ABE Technologies
044-27225742- KANCHEEPURAM

PROPOSED SYSTEM
In this paper, we propose clipping scheme and equalizer as methods to reduce the effects of impulsive noise and channel attenuation in power line communication (PLC) system. Clipping is cutting off the amplitude of the received signal over threshold level without its phase change in order to reduce noise effects. The equalizer compensates for effects of PLC channel. The performance is evaluated in terms of bit error rate (BER). From simulation results, it is confirmed that the proposed clipping scheme has slightly better performance than conventional PLC system. The results of the paper can be applied to PLC systems for smart grid. 1

ADVANTAGES It is very robust and can be utilized anywhere using electricity. It involves low installation cost since it uses existing line as communication path. It also receives high attention in smart grid industry because other technologies typically spend the high cost about 50% of the investments making network infrastructure