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P T
T D U
1 cro 2 Pega Peg Machne 4 adde
ec ngerboard 7 Top des
-or ound oes rdge 11 Ta-
pece 13 Ta-pn 1 tc of the ow
14 ow crew 1 Tp or ead of ow
16 ut or rog 17 ar nsde of the
nstrument the ass ar and ound Post
are paced. The reverse sde of the n-
strument s named the ac
01-13
D T DT
D T
chnec e 3 rbe, rbemaschnen,4, ern-
hoz oder atte, as, Grffbrett, 7 Dec e,
argen, -oder cha cher, 10 teg, 11
atenhater, 13 apfen, 13 ogenstange,4 chraube
oder nopf, 16 ptze oder opf, 1 rosch, 17
aare: m nnem des nstrumentes befnden
ch der assba en und der tmmstoc . Der
r c w rtge The des nstrumentes hesst
der oden.
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Ufa
a-z -e - Preface
to the 4 enarged and mproved German dton.
though the methods for Doube ass whch have appeared
n prnt up to the present tme have not been ac ng n ma-
ny good uates, have come to the concuson that the ma-
orty are ether not compete enough, or too compcated for
genera understandng to suppy the student wth a thorough
educaton on ths partcuar nstrument n an easy and prac-
tca manner and n accordance to present-day re urements.
n conse uence there-of, and n answer to a speca re uest
of the enna onservatory of Musc, was prompted to wrte
ths present Method and have drected my speca attenton
towards arrangng the nstructve matera contaned there-
n, n as progressve and e pct a manner as possbe.
Ths Method has been pubshed n two oo s, and the
contents have been arranged and dstrbuted as foows:
oo , desgned as a thorough schoong for orches-
tra payng, contans a the Postons,Ma or and
Mnor caes, ntervas, owngs,Grace otes
together wth necessary and approprate e ercses, a the
varous styes of rtng for the Doube ass, e -
ampes of ectatve and Meodramatc Musc,as
we as e tracts from promnent and we- nown assc
wor s.
oo : , offers a ystematc Gude for oo
Payng and have amed to present the Thumbpos-
ton, whch up to cne tme has been treated n somewhat
prmtve fason, n a reformed system, n order to broaden
and factate the doman of oo payng. urthermore
a compete course of a the armoncs s presented to
the pup, and numerous Technca ercses and tu-
des of every grade and form, preparng hm thoroughy for
oo payng, are ncuded n ths oo .
n order to offer the opportunty for sef-tuton to a
those who are not n a poston to procure the ad of an ac-
compshed teacher, have supped both oo s wth pan
and easy understood e panatory remar s, wth the hope
that they w add greaty to the practca vaue of thewor .
n concuson w add that ths Method has been n-
troduced at the ennese onservatory of Musc, has been
receved very corday by the genera pubc, and have
acheved the uc est and most satsfactory resuts n a
reatveyehort tme through ts use.
The uthor.
orwort
zur 4 .n vermehrten und verbesserten ufage.
bwoh es den bsher m Druc e erschenenen ontra -
a - chuen n veer nscht ncht an orz gch et
feht, fnde ch doch, dass de mesten entweder ncht vo-
st ndg oder ncht echtf assch genug snd, um dem ch -
er n echter und pracscher ese ene vo omtnene, der
gegenw rtgen et entsprechende usbdung zu beten.
f deses hn, und af ufforderung des ener onser-
vatorums habe ch mch veranasst gefunden, das voregen-
de er zu verfassen, und machte es mr zur besonderen uf-
gabe, den Unterrchtsgang progressv und m gchst ausfuhr,
eh zu bearbeten.
Deses er st n zwe The en herausgegeben, und der
ehrstoff fogendermassen cngethet:
Der . The, wecher den ch er vo ommen zum r-
chesterspee enschut, enth t ae agen, Dur - und
Mo - Tonetern, ntervae, trcharten, er-
zerungen nebst den n htgen bungen,femer de ver-
schedenen chrebarten, ectatve und das Me-
odram mt espeen am hervorragenden und be annten
er en.
Der . The b ene systematsche netung
Um oncertspee, und habe ch mr de ufgabe ge-
stet den Daumenensatz, wecher bsher noch prmtv
behandet wurde, zu reformtren, um dadurch das oo-
pe zu erwetern und zu erechtern. usserdem wrd der
ch er noch mt aen ageocten be annt gemayot und
durch nger bungen und enere und gr ssere
t den, weche auch mt ener avebegetung ver-
sehen snd, vost ndg zum oncertspee vorberetet.
Um aber auch den engen de ncht n der age snd enen
t chtgen ehrer zur ete zu hohen, Geegenhet M ebst-
unterrchte zu beten, versah ch bede Thee mt den echt-
fasschsten r uterungen, und hoffe, dass dese f rdernde
nrchtung freundche ufnahme fnden wrd.
Dese chue st am ener onsenatortnm engef hrt,
hat veen etfa gefunden und ch erzete durch desebe
de schersten und schnesten rfoge n verh tnssmassg
urzer et.
Der erfasser.
01- M
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Photographic hart of orrect Positions for the
Double ass Player
F irst Position: etting of fingers
F irst Position: Position of thumb on nec
C orrect Position: howing the general position of the
player, his bow and instrument, while performing.
(Posed by . I MM R M N N )
F ourth
Position:
Position of hand
and thumb
S eventh Position : orrect setting of all fingers
H olding the ow (German): orrect placing oi all fingers
H olding the ow:
F rench, also nown as
the ottesini method
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Part .
The Poston of the Payer.
n ta ng hs poston ne t to the nstrument, the payer must
stand n such away that the weght of hs body w be born
prncpay by the eft foot, the rght foot beng advanced for
the dstance of a short step, and n an outward drecton. The
body must be hed as uety as possbe, and n a perfecty
up - rght manner. The nstrument s paced n front of the eft,
n such away that t w ncne somewhat, but very sghty,
n a bac ward drecton towards the payer,and aowng ts
rght edge, formed by the bac and sdes of the nstrument
to ft nto the eft thgh of the payer. ( ee ustraton).
ow the ow s to be hed.
The bow s hed by the rght hand through means of the
fore and mdde fnger beng paced n a downward drec-
ton on the sde of the stc , and the rng and tte fnger
ghty caspng the nut.
The thumb, through whch the actua pressure s brought to
bear upon the whoe bow, s aso paced n a downward drec-
ton on the bac of the bow, opposte to the fore-fnger, the
screw comng to ay between the atter fnger and the thumb.
Through ths pressure of the thumb- as we as through the
counter - pressure of the strngs and the fucrum of the screw,
between thumb and fore-fnger, the bow receves ts ony hod
whe beng used,as the nut, n order that ease and de terty may
be acheved n payng, must never be pressed nto the pam of
the hand. ( ee ustraton).
ow the ow s to be drawn.
n order to draw the bow correcty t s prncpay neces-
sary, that the arm s hed n natura,unrestraned manner
and wthout comng n contact wth the body. The movements
of the upper arm are very sght, the ebow e ecutng the most
and the wrst beng used for the most mportant ones how-
ever the shouder- ont of the upper arm must not be aowed
to reman stff, but must be ept responsve and very fe -
be.
The bow s drawn horzontay and ts stc turned somewhat
n the drecton of the fnger-board. t must touch the strngs
n the mdde between the end of the fnger-bo rd and the
brdge however, t must be observed, that whenever the tone
s to be ncreased, the bow shoud be moved nearer to the
brdge, as n ths way, the buzzng nose, caused by the ht-
tng of the strngs aganst the fnger-board,w be entrey
avoded.
The Tunng of the Doube ass.
The Doube ass s tuned n fourths:-the hghest and thn-
nest strng to: 4 -
: the ne t to
,the thrd to:-
:, and the owest strng to:-

eethoven, herubn - . agner and many of our modern com-


posers have wrtten bass parts for some of ther wor s, whch
ma e t necessary to tune the 4th strng down to ow or
sharp. n order to brng ths about wthout e tra e ertons,
M ar tho, a member of the epzc Gewandhaus orches-
tra, has nvented an appance for the Doube ass, whch
ma es t possbe to produce the ontra upon the nstru-
ment: wth ts ad the ntentons of the composers n ths spec-
a d recton can be satsfactory fufed wthout necoss -
tatng the re-tunng of the nstrument by the payer. e has
smpy added a ffth strng to the Doube ass and the resut
has been a very successfu one. ans von ow made use of
these 5 strnged Doube asses n hs cyces of eethoven
concerts and ute a number have been ntroduced n our ar-
ger modern symphony orchestras.
01-1 1 opyrght f M by
. eferung.
De teung:
De teung des peenatm be dem nstrumente wrd der.
art genommen, dass das Gewcht des rpers vorzugswese atf
dem n en usse ruht, und der rechte enen chrtt,etwa ene
panne wet, nach vorne und aussen macht. Der rper muss
atfrecht und m gchst ruhg gehaten werden. Das nstru-
ment wrd so vor den n en uss gestet, dass es sch etwas,
edoch unbedeutend nach r c w rts gegen den pe enden
negt, und mt der rechten ante, weche der oden und de
arge bden, n den n en estenbug egt. ( ehe ustra-
ton).
atung des ogens.
Der ogen wrd derart n de rechte and genommen, dass
der ege-und Mttefnger etwas gebengt setw rts atff de
tange, der God-und ene nger echt n den rosch zu
egen ommen.
Der Daumen, mttest wechem man den egentchen Druc
auf den ganzen ogen aus bt, wrd gechfas gebeugt atf
der entgegengesetzten ete hnter dem egefnger auf den
c en des ogens aufgeegt, wobe de chraube zwschen
den Daumen und egefnger zu egen ommt. Durch den
Druc des Daumens, so we durch den Gegendruc der aten
und des t tzpun tes der chrauba zwschen Daumen und e-
gefnger,- erh t der ogen w hrend des peens senen en-
zgen at, da der rosch, um echtg et m pee zu er-
zeen, n de ohhand ncht hnengedr c t werden darf.
( ehe ustraton).
hrung des ogens.
Um den ogen rchtg zu f hren st es vor em n thg,
dass man den rm nat rch und ungezwungen, ohne dass
dersebe den rper ber hrt, herabh ngen set. De eweg-
ung des berarmes st ene gerngere, dagegen de meste m
bogen und de wchtgste m andgeen e demnngeaehtet
muss der berarm m chutergeen e ncht stef, sondern
ebenfas sehr echt bewegch sen.
Der ogen wrd waagrecht gef hrt, und de tange en we-
ng dem Grffbrette zugewendet. Dersebe strecht de aten
n der Mtte zwschen dem nde des Grffbrettes und dem
tege- zu bemer en st edoch, dass man, e st r er der Ton
werden so, desto n her mt dem ogen gegen den teg r c -
en muss, we dadurch das chnurren, weches durch das uf-
schagen der aten auf das Grffbrett entsteht, ganz ver-
meden wrd.
tmmung.
Der ontrabass wrd n uarten gestmmt und zwar: de hoch-
se und schw chste ate atf de fogende atf ,
de drtte auf :
-und de tefste ate auf.
eethoven, herubn, . agner sowe ene nzah modemer
omponsten assen n hren er en manchma de 4. ate bs
zum efen oder s herunterstmmen. Um desem ustande ab-
znhefen, hat en Mtged des epzger Gewandhaus rchester,
err ar tho, f r den onrabass ene ons truc t on erfun-
den, weche dem pn cr erm gcht, das ontra- at f dem
nstrumente hervorzubrngen, dadurch den ntentonen
der omponsten, deren nsche n deser ezehung durch
Umstmmen ncht mmer erf t werden onnten,tmchzu om-
mer. r hat den 4 aen des ontrabasses noch ene f nfte
hnzugef gt und damt en sehr g c ches esutat erzet.
err ans von ow hat desen 5-satgen onrabass f r
sene eethoven- onzerte angewendet, und snd vee derse-
ben n unseren modernen ymphone rchestern engef hrt
worden.
ar scher, ew or .
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6
panaton of the gns for the ow.
Down ow Up ow
. at the ut or rog
T. at the Tp or Pont of the ow.
M. n the Mdde
ercses on th pen trngs.
Pace the bow upon the strngs cose to the nut and draw t
up and down sowy and ghty as mar ed n the foowng
e ercses.
r rung der echen f r den ogen.
erunterstrch fnaffsrch.
r. am rosch
p. an ter ptze des ogan s.
M. n d r Mtte f
bungen auf eer n aten.
Man setze den ogen dcht be dem rosch .n, zehe hn
angsam und echt herunter and hnauf we es be den fo -
gendeu bungen angegeben st.
D trng. trng.
ate. ,, .. ate.
4
1 n 1
dt f




4
t
43
- 1

11
t

.
.
.
r.
T.
.
.
.
T.
p.
r.
p.

r.
p.
r.

G trng.
ate.

trng.
ate.

1
1.
0

the G and
1
) trng,

1
uf der G
t
u. D ate.

/ _13

2.
n
the D and
t
. trng.
1
uf der D
u. ate-
t
ff
11
n the and trng. uf der u. ate.

n

11
- .
4.
n the G and trng.
1
uf der G u. ate.
ff
- .. 1
11
1 1
t 1
5.
n the , D and G trng.
uf der ,Du.G ate.
t
TT
6,
n the D, and trng.
uf der D, u. ate.
TT

n the G, D and trng.
uf der G,Du. ate.


201 -131
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ercse on the G, D, and trng-
n hoe, af and uarter notes.
4
- -
bung auf der G, D, und ate
n Ganzen, aben und ertenoten.
etc.
TT
3
1 3 4

U
a h 4
m 0 f f-
0 0 0 0
0-0
These e ercses on the open strngs are to be practsed, t a
frm and gracefu command of the bow and ts manpuaton has
been ac ured constanty observng the rues as to poston
of the body, together wth those for the correct poston and use
of the bow.
Man be so ange atff den eeren aten, bs man sch ene
echte und schere ogerfuhrttng angeegnet hat und beobach-
te genau de egen beder teung des 5rpers,sowe der at-
ung und hrung des ogens.
The Postons.
The decded pacng of the fngers of the eft hand upon a hgh-
er or ower pont of the fnger-board s ndcated as a poston.
s the hand may be advanced to dfferent ponts of the fnger-
board we dstngush dfferent postons: commencng at the nut
or sadde and advancng n steps of one haf-tone, these are
named accordng to the hgher or ower poston of the n-
terva. or orchestra payng more than tweve postons are
sedom empoyed these beng dvded nto the usua or haf
seven whoe postons and four ntermedate postons. n
addton to these there s the Thumb-poston , whch s rarey
empoyed n the orchestra but whch s fre uenty used n soo
payng. Detaed e panaton of ths ast named poston, as
we as of the harmonc occurng n the varous postons,w
be found n the second part of ths method.
on den agen.
Das bestmmte nsetzen der nger der n en and auf e-
nem h heren oder teferen Pun te den Grffbrettes nennt man
ene age. Da de and an verschedenen Pun ten des Grff-
brettes angesetzt werden ann, gbt es auch verschedene a -
gen, weche vom ern ho e angefangen stufenwese von enem
haben Ton zum andern vorsehreten, und der he oder Tefe
nach, hre enennung erhaten. um rchesterspee werden
seten mehr as zw f agen n nwendung gebracht, weche
n ene gew hnche oder habe, seben ganze agen und ver
wtschenagon engethett werden. usser desen agen gbt
es noch den Daumenensatz, wecher setener m rehestersp/e-
e woh aber m oneertspee nwendung ommt. evon,
sowe von den tageoettonen, weche n den enzenen agen
vor ommen, wrd m T. Thee der chue de ede sen.
panaton of the sgns for the Postons.
h.P. ndcates the usua orfthaf Poston.
. .
oder h. . bsdt
tutet de gew hnche oder habe age.
.
frst Poston.
.
bedeutet .
. . . erste age.
.
second
T.
.
. . . zwete
.
thrd
.

. . . drtte
.
fourth
r.
M -
. verte
v.
ffth
.
n .
. . f nfte
.
s th
T.
.
. . . sechste
.
seventh
.
.
. . . sebente

2.

z. denotes that the note are between the seeond and thrd poston.
n n thrd fourth
t r ffth s th
t y s th seventh
t.


.y
ndcates, that those notes over whch
1 or
the sgn s paced, are to be payed n one poston.
01-1 1
r rung der echen f r de agen.
T.
. bedeutet zwschen der zweten und drtten age.
TT.
rr.
.
.
nr.
n drtten verten
f nften - sechsten a
sebenten
oder 1 bedeutet, dass de engen oten
ober wechen das echen atgebracht st, n ener age genom-
men werden.
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p
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The Poston of the eft and.


The ba of the thumb s paced aganst the nec of the nstru-
ment n such a poston, that begnnng wth the haf pos-
ton, the thumb w come to stand between the fore and mdde
fnger up to the Poston. The strngs must be pressed down
frmy wth the tps of the fngers ana n order to produce
cear and voumnous tone, the atter must be we separated and
stretched apart, partcuary n therthaf and frst poston.
he the forefnger s paced n an upward and the sma fn-
ger n a downward drecton, the two mdde fngers retan ther
natura poston n pressng down the strngs. The hodng of
the arm must be free, unrestraned, and entrey n accordance
wth whatever movements the hand s caed upon to e ecute.
The above-descrbed poston of the hand must aso be retaned
whe changng n the dfferent postons. egnnng wth the
Poston, the poston of the hand s graduay changed,and de-
taed e panaton therefore w foow ater on.
panatory emar s on ngern .
s the fnger-board of the Doube ass s so much arger than
that attached to any of the other trnged nstruments, t s
pan, that n ts dvson (mensur) the ntervas w be found
at a much greater dstance from each other, and that n conse-
uence the treatment, as far as the fngerng s concerned,must
be a radcay dfferent one.
n ths way the frst, second and fourth fnger s at the com-
mand of the payer up to the Poston, an nterva of one-haf
tone yng between the frst and second and second and fourth
fnger.
The thrd fnger serves as a supporter to the fourth and ony
comes nto actua use n the Poston,wheretsueednpace
of the fourth fnger, the atter not beng ong enough u press-
ng down a strng wth the frst fnger, the remanng unem-
poyed three fngers must be sghty rased but whe payng
wth the second, the frst fnger must reman upon the strng
and assst the second n pressng t aganst the fnger-board.
n a e manner the thrd fnger must be supported by the frst
and second and the fourth by the frst, second and thrd.
panaton of the gns for the ngers.
0 pen trng.
1 rst nger.
5 econd
Thrd ,
4 ourth
The Usua or af Poston.
f .the frst fnger s paced upon the fnger-board one haf tone
hgher han the open strng the hand w be n the Usua or af
Poston whch, n addton to these two ntervas, aso con-
tans the foowng three haf-tones:
n the G trng. uf der G ate,
. , 114 1
De atung der n en and.
Man etzt den aen des ersten Daumengedes r c w rts an den
as des nstrumentes und zwar so, dass er von der gew hnch-
en age angefangen, bs zu der . zwschen den ege- und Mt-
tefnger zu stehen ommt. De aten m ssen mt den nger-
spzen r ftg nedergedr c t und de nger gech vom n-
fang an, besonders n der gew hnchen und ersten age, aus-
enander gestrec t gehaten werden, um dadurch enen renen
und voen Ton hervorzubrngen. Der egefnger nmmt sene
chtung nach oben, w hrend der ene nger nach abw rts
gestet wrd und de beden mtteren hre nat rche age be-
behaten. De atung des rmes muss f re, ungezwungen und
der edesmagen ewegung der and entspreyoend sen. uch
bem echse der verschedenen agen so de and n hrer
berets angegebenen atung verbeben. Mt egnn der a-
ge f ngt de atung der and an, ene andere zu werden, und
wrd de ausf hrche r rung dar ber fogen.
om ngersatz.
Da de Mensur ( nthenng des Grffbrettes) des ontra-
basses den andern nstrumenten gegen ber gr sser st, so er-
rt es syo, dass de T ne auch entfernter ausenander egen,
und dass de ehandnngswese n nscht des ngersatzes
ene andere sen muss.
Demzufoge stehen dem peenden bs-zur . age der erste,
zwete und verte nger zur erf gung, so dass vom ersten
zum zweten en haber ttrd vom zweten zum verten nger
ebenfas en haber Ton egt.
Der drtte nger dent dem verten as t tze, und wrd erst
n der . age, wo der verte nger sener rze wegen ncht
verwendbar st, anstatt desseben gebraucht. ) Dr c tmande
ate mt dem ersten nger neder, so werden de dre brgen
Unbesch ftgten echt gehoben wrd dagegen mt dem zweten
gespet, so hat der erste um den Druc zu verst r en mt dem
zweten de aten durchzudr c en. benso muss der drtte
vom ersten und zweten, sowe der verte nger von den r-
steren unterst tzt werden.
r rung der echen f r de nger.
0 eere ate.
1 erster nger.
2 zweer
3 drtter
4 verter
De gew hnche oder habe age.
etzt man den 1. nger um enen haben Ton h her, as de
eere ate ngt, so befndet sch de and n der gew hn-
ehen age, n wecher noch ausser der eeren ate fogende
dre habe T ne zu grefen snd:


n the D trng. uf der D ate.
1 . 2 4 oder o
M g
D. D sharp. . sharp. D. fat. . .
d ds e es d es e f
fat.
b
oder

G. sharp. . sharp.
g gs 9 as
d. fat. .
g as
n the trng. uf der ate.
4 oder o 1 9 d. 1
a g
fat. ff-
. sharp. . 0 . . . shar
h hs a oder ho e es
hes
n the trng. uf der ate.
4 oder
T
)
. sharp. . sharp
a as hs
ee e panaton of the . Poston.
TT
sharp. P sharp. doube sharp. .
es fs fss e
ehe de eschrebung der . age.
9.
f
fat. G.
g
201-1 1
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91
m- m
/ tpuf aa a fay/ yv
en/chfa utde m en og ufa enchtaw putn ftfaa a
heurd 4tPt a awchs ap erch aot ut
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The . Poston
s separated from the Thrd by one whoe.and from the pre-
cedng ntermedate Poston by one-ha tone,and contans
the foowng ntervas:
n the G trng. uf der G ate.
.
De . age
te/ vom der Drtten enen ganten, oder von der vorhergegang-
enen wuohenage eten haben Ton entfernt, und nd da-
rn fogende T ne enthaten:
n the D trng. uf der D ate.
or
afar

D. fat. .
d 09
D. D sharp. D doube sharp. . fat. .
d ds dt a h
. sharp. doube sharp.
a a ae
n the trng. uf der ate.
- yp -
n the trng. uf der ate.
d or

d 2 or
.


fat.
gee
. sharp.
r
sharp.
ercses on the eparate trngs
n the G trng.
. . D fat. . sharp. sharp.
h e dee h ht oft
bungen auf den enzenen aten.
uf der G ate.

y n the D trng.
-te- -
f g
uf der D ate.
r-36
T 5 4
n the trng.
T
1 u 4
uf der ate.
5


n the trng.
uf dsr ate.
ft
1.
ercses n the . Poston
on a the trngs.
ta
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bungen n der . age
auf aen ver aten.
4

4


4
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-1- P-

etc.
o , r r f fry
4 etc.
201-131
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34
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36
The . Poston.
es one whoe tone hgher than the Poston, or one haf
tone hgher than the precedng ntermedate Poston.
n order to pace the hand n as convenent and practca a
poston as possbe, the short fourth fnger s not used from
ths Poston on, and the thrd fnger s empoyed n ts stead.
n ths Poston t s advsabe to press the strngs wth the
thrd fnger ony n pzzcato and fortssmo passages, as at
ths pont the ctave ( armonc) of the open strng may bp
produced by merey touchng the strng. f the strng s frmy
pressed wth the thrd fnger, the atter must be supported by
the frst and second: however f the octave s ta en as a har-
monc, the frst and second must be ghty rased.
Ths Poston contans the foowng ntervas:
n the G trng. uf der G ate-

- 3 1 1
U


De T. age.
egt enen ganzen Ton h her as de . age, oder e ne haben
Ton h her as de vorhergegangene wschen ge.
Um der and ene gef ge atung zugeben, wrd der 4.
nger sener rze wegen von deser age an ausser That g.
he gesetzt, und anstatt dessebet der . verwendet.
n deser age st es nur be pzzcato und fortssmo te-
en vorthehaft de ate mt dem . nger durchzudr c en,
da man atf desem Pun te auch be eser er hrung ( ag-
eoet) de ctave der eeren ate erh t. tTrd de ate mt
den 3. nger durchgedr c t, so m ssen denseben der 1. und
2. nger unterst tzen nmmt man dagegen de ctave m
ageoet, so snd der 1. und 2. nger echt aufzuheben.
Dese age enth t fogende T ne:
n the D trng. uf der D ate,
b. - . t
. fat. .
f gee g
sharp. sharp. doube sharp. . Dfat. D.
es fs fss des d
sharp.
hs
sharp. doube sharp.
os css
n the trng. uf der ate.
.1 . or 1 a
n the trng. uf der ate-
d. a - 1

ft g
. fat. . doube sharp. sharp. doube sharp. D. fat. . doube sharp- D sharp. D doube sharp.
g as a fss gs gsts d es e oss ds dsts
ercses on the eparate trngs.
n the G trng.
bungen auf den enzenen aten.
uf der G ate.
v
tp
t.

n the D trng.
uf der D ate.

h
n the trng.
uf der ate.
2 1 1 0
n the trng.
uf der ate.
5
1 0

ercses n the Poston
on a the trngs.
bungen n der . age
auf aen ver aten.
-fr- -4-6 -4 TT - . -1-0
3 h 4 1 4
m
201-
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40
ercses between the . and U. Poston
together wth a the precedng Postons.
bungen zwschen der . u. . age
n erbndung aer orhergehenden.
.
-
fees b feeb w
4 1
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a t 4
201-131
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1 1P 1 1 1 1 r 11
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42
The . Poston
es one whoe tone hgher than the . Poston, or one - haf
tone hgher than the precedng ntermedate Poston.
s n the precedng Poston the frst, second and thrd fn-
ger s empoyed upon the ff strng and ony the frst and sec-
ond fnger for the D and strng, as the thrd fnger s not of
suffcent ength to produce the notes corre ty. The octave
of the open strng, whch coud aso be ta en as a harmonc
n ths Poston, must be pressed aganst the fnger-board n
ths nstance by the frst fnger, n order that the second and
thrd fngers may produce ther respectve ntervas ceary
and wth precson.
The foowng ntervas occur n ths Poston:-
De . age
egt enen ganzen Ton hoher as de . age, oder um enen
haben Ton h her as de orhergegangeue wsohenage.
uch her werden atff der G ate der 1. 2. und . auf der D
und ate bos der . und 2. nger gebraucht,we de an-
ge des 3. ngers ncht hnrecht de T ne correct hervorzu-
brngen. De ctave der eeren ate, weche man auch n de-
ser age m ageoet nehmen onnte, muss her mt dem 1.
nger durchgedr c t werden, um de T ne mt dem 2. und .
nger scher zu treffen.
n deser age ommen fogende T ne vor:
n the G trng. uf der G ate.
a.
or
oder 1

2
n the D trng.
uf der D ate.
n the trng.
uf der ate.
1 or or
. fat. . doube sharp. G sharp. G doube sharp. D. fat. doube sharp. D sharp. . fat. G dou. sharp. sharp.
g as a fss gs gss d es css ds a b gst s
ercses on the eparate trngs.
n the G trng.
bungen auf den enzenen aten.
uf der G ate.
tete
te f

n the D trng. uf der D ate.

f f -
- 1 4
.
ff
n the trng. uf der ate.
f. vn
m r
t -
ercses n the . Poston
on three trngs.
bung n n der . age
auf dre aten.

f
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a
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g T
-

ercses n the . Poston


n connecton wth a the precedng Postons
. ... .
bungen n der . age
mt nschuss aer brgen.
r r r 11 m Tr fr f f 11 1 m f
gte tefe te
, , , r 1 1 1-3
1 1 1 1 r M
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ofn v tvfa 9 s uua u eures 341 h pe d s 4314.
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6 Part .
panatory emar s as to the most
mportant sgns of e presson.
s a rue every tone s sustaned e acty as ong as the va-
ue of the note cas for. owever, the necessty to devate from
ths rue arses n such cases where the orgna vaue of a
note s ncreased or decreased through certan sgns of e -
presson. The most mportant of these sgns for a strng n-
strument payer,are such as ndcate: staccato, egato and
Portamento or ppogato owng.
taccato
means detached and ndcates that the notes are to be payed
shorter than ther orgna vaue cas for. taccato s usua-
y ndcated by dots, or f the notes are to be payed e ceed -
ngy short, by tte horzonta nes above the notes. n the
atter case t s desgnated as taceatssmo.
3. eferung.
ber eng der wchtgsten ortragszechen.
n der ege wrd eder Ton so ange gehaten, at es der
erth der ote erfordert. s ommen auch e vor, wo man
von deser ege abwechen muss, ndem der vorgeschrebene
otenwerth n oge gewsser ortragszechen ver rzt oder
ver ngert wrd. De wchtgsten deser ortragszechen f r
enen trecher snd: das taccato, das egato und das Por-
tamento oder ppogato.
Das taccato
hesst absossen und bedeutendes man de T ne rzer spe t,
as es de bestmmte Dauer der oten anzegt. Das taccato wrd
gew hnch durch Pun te, oder wenn de T ne usserst urz
abgesosse-n sen seen, durch trchen ber den oten bezech-
net, und wrd m etzten ae taceatssmo genannt.
Manner of ndcatng the taccato:
ehrebart des taccato:
Manner of ndcatng the taceatssmo :-
chrebart des taceatssmo:
.
ecuton:
usf hrung:
p 1 P v g fay fayp p
egato
means ted and ndcates that the notes are to bo payed for
ther fu vaue and n such a sustaned manner,that each note
s connected wth the ne t foowng one as cosey as poss-
be. n addton to the word egato tsef, ths stye of bow-
ng s ndcated by a sur -v, connectng or embracng the
notes to be ted.
otes mar ed wth such a sur s s are aways payed n one
bow.
f .
Das egato
hesst gebunden md bezechnet, doss de oten hrem voen
erths nach ausgehaten und gebunden gespet werden, so,
dass en Ton sch an den n chstfogenden auf das nngste an-
schesst. Das egato wrd statt mt dem orte sebst auch
durch enen ogen s n bezechnet, wecher de zu verbnden-
den oten nnfasst.
De mt dem ogen. v bezechneten oten werden mmer auf
enen ogenstrch genommen.
n e cepton may be made n the case of a onger forte pass-
age here t s necessary to change the bow n order to pre-
serve the strength of the passage however,ths must be done
n such a way that the passage w not bo dsconnected too ob-
vousy.
Portamento or ppogato
means sustaned and desgnates a combnaton of taccato
and egato bowng. The ndcaton conssts of tte nes
paced above the notes, both the atter and the nes beng
connected by a shr.
ne usnahme st n dem ae gestattet, wenn ene ngere
gur m orte vor ommt da st es n othg, damt desebe
ncht an raft verere, den ogen zu wechsen, edoyo so, dass
de gur ncht auffaend zerrssen wrd.
Das Portamento oder ppogato
hesst getragen und st ene erbndung des taccato mt
dem egato. De ezechnung besteht aus enen trchen
de ber den oten stehen, weche etztere weder durch enen
egatobogen verbunden werden. z. .
he such notes, supped wth ppogato sgn are payed
n a detached manner, they must nevertheess be produced ve-
ry softy and payed n one bow.
1- 1 1
De mt dem ppoggatozechen verbundenen oten m ssen
zwar abgestossen gespet, trotzdem aber sehr wech her.
vorgebracht und auf enen ogenstrch genommen werden.
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11 . 11 tnn
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1 2 4 . 77
4
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so ono s c . ob o vd eppra 9
1 1 1 ) 1 . ob p no s 3 v d 9
o esau no uv - o op o m o ou cv uaa.w. ab
- o uu s s9 Mob (3aMob o ) .
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90 Part T .
The Grace otes.
The ong and short ppoggatura,
the Doube Grace ote, the Gruppetto,
the fter- eat, the Turn or Mordent,
the nverted Mordent and the Tr.
.) The snge Grace ote or ppoggatura s ndcated by
a sma note. f ts stem s not crossed by a tte ne, t
cams haf the tme-vaue of the foowng prncpa note.s
surred to the atter n one bow and s named ong Grace ote
or ppoggatura, f..
Manner of rtng:-
ehrcbart:-
4. eferung.
De erzerungen.
orschag, Doppevorschag,
Gruppenvorschag, achschag,
Doppeschag, Pratrer und Trer.
.) Der orschag wrd durch eme ene ote angegeben, und
wer/n desebe nyot durchgestrchen st, so hat se den haben
rth der fogenden fanptnote, wrd mt derseben verbunden
auf enen ogenstrch gespet, und anger orschag genannt.
z. .
ecuton.
peart:
f the Grace ote s paced before a dotted note,t cams two- teht d r orschag vor ener pm rten ote, so gt er zwe
thrds of the tme-vaue of the atter, f. . Drtthee derseben z. .
Manner of rtng:
chrebart:
ecuton : -
peart:
Manner of rtng:-
ehrebart:
ecuton :-
peart:-
1
m ff f

-
m
m
m


f-

0 4


1
The tte Grace ote s payed short and uc y and ted to
the ne t note, f ts stem s crossed by a tte ne n ths
case t s named short Grace ote or ppoggatura, f..
Manner of rtng:-/
chrebart:
ecuton :-
peart:
st de ene ote durchgestrchen, so wrd se urz und mt
der fogenden ote verbunden gespet) se hes.t datn urzer
orschag. z. . . .
.
f-f-
t-t t 4 13
2.) The Doube-Grace ote dffers from the snge one n-so-
far that, as ts name mpes, t conssts of two notes. ow-
ever, as the prncpa note must be payed upon an e act part
of the bar, the precedng note or pause ooses as much of ts
own tme-vaue, as the e ecuton of the grace notes necess-
tates.
2.) Der Doppevorschag unterschedet sch vom etfachen or-
schag dadurch, dass er aus zwe oten besteht. Da aber de
auptnote a f den hr entspreyoenden Ta tthe gespet wer.
den muss, so verert n desem fae de vorangehende ote
oder Pause von hrer Dauer so ve ewcrthes, as man zur
usf hrttng des orschags not h g hat. z. .
Manner of rtng:-/
chrebart:
ecuton:-
peart:
301-131
T 14 4 1 4 4 a
4
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( adduf),, sc pa rugsap s uetu
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-:f vfatdg
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/ vbauyog
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u cond o ermre
penuut be auoft/rf f utffUM v ood
uaubeo v erpamfen , /a/ous un azer enpenyo a U f/ m f
tuauta orn e d anv tyo/esbe vfyoaeddoff achv U a erff
uedue en yo aua og e fw pu 7.10 / ue e m
vchsceddor erpaf ssvp ta enyerwab na hc def tbeow /
-anv f y ayovf uvu m a fyfchsc/addoff ap umu uuvy en az
a afdstag apen o a n uu en entem onn v chsceddoff pun
/auya/azbe oa ua p. . oa atouaff ua a/un erp / er o er
tuu ab fuuoen ubeo uon vysceddog pun t,auyo azbe M f tm
a rd/o oa enuu be a ova/tg ua beo erp ftu /ysceddoff u
fog rdtw naba a v enyo aza v/ysctaddoff avp yo np uuvp avm
tya/a ayoy a/.tantz ap pun a bf vo a// ataer erp aavp ua/a /
-u/e t r a/ yaya un erd e yonv - bv ag -fyafa aw dnv f
ed yovu pun /bft a /g ama wn a apuv uap auotfdnv f de
on pun oyoy a/ fg aura au/a erp v uauo f f uaysc p
. /e pu e/ nabauvp tamz d auo fdnv f e e anv yo sbe
aon 1 o er
- h . a p uram ab a re 1 sa o s ov oa
papaaa d a ou redpuud auo o dn s u n , au ,
Mob ano puc uu s aon ondn pa d ab snn un , )
uuobuaua : s bm. u c ab m on ,
uptop a u uuo s sy uo
sc u.vou nd ce us b pa u sap s a ou )fpny a
- 1 7 . 11 ( a oby mro tun os er u ou pre
u s e fb pa sap s c s 9) u cf ny add
1 .w t ab 0 e u n , a u9 s pods v b pa vapu u
-ob fuaer p o o puooas a pre 9 ab
a ou s re ) - puren ( cc asva a osd
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opoa pre a o ab da s aon paav d s aon a . o
so ou c a ou redpufd aon o s ssuoo
t 3 enpunba af dtvog uapuaya ay
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auyr uon af dtv a p uuvp ch npom en o/ / e
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Manner of ndcatng
the Turn from beow:
chrebart
von ten:
ecuton:
peart:
as
o 1 1
Turns wth ccdentas.
n case the upper or ower au ary tone s to be rased or
owered by an accdenta, the respectve sgns are paced a-
bove or beow the sgn of the Turn, f. ..- -
Turn gn and ccdenta as wrtten
for asng the ower u ary Tone.
Doppesch ge mt ersetzungszechen.
o der obere oder untere f st on de Doppeschages durch en.
ersetzungszechen erh ht oder ernedrgt werden, to ommen
de betreffenden ersetzungszechen ber oder unter das Doppe-
schagzechen zustehen- z. .
ersetzungszechen
be der unteren fsnote.
of rtng:
chrebart:
ecuton:
peart:
Turn gn and ccdenta as wrtten
for asng the gher u ary Tone.
ersetzungszechen
he der oberen fsnote.
Manner of rtng:
chrebart:
ecuton:
peart:
g
0 1 1 4

M
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_

m
Turn gn and ccdenta as wrtten
for both u ary Tones.
ersetzungszechen
be beden fsnoten.
Manner of rtng:
chrebart:
ecuton:
peart:
r r r
4 2 1 1 10 1
Turns between the otes.
f a Turn s paced between two Prncpa notes t s payed
as ong as possbe after the frst and shorty before the en-
trance of the second note, f..:
Doppesch ge zwschen den oten.
teht en Doppeschag zwschen zwe auptuoteu,sowrd er
so sp t as m gch nach der ersten und urz vordem ntrtte-
der z weten ote ausgef hrt. z. .
Manner of rtng:
chrebart:
ecuton:
peart:
01-131
as

g
:
4 1 4 1 411 4124
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er pdf n o f ua y t/ er e / v o y s/adfog . f a s
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foua v /oauo auf a hc enyotaza t ysceddo( de v tyofg tro tun o u s a sapaoa d a ou c u
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oao f ny addn )U p o po ervu 04) u copu o ouut
yot fsen og en e )w du ,9 og eruto / sf/o/
-uebo fyatysca ser t /ffo esp n yn/ ny e/ff tyoo bo uo
uach) a// v tuap ben es . so tou enyo ass unsfa a
sop /utuo f -a o sf/ f uaer/u ap f m eue u / apenyafs
- yovu pun asofp 0/ous/ff/f en abo erp ffu enp h/ , oms
pun u h e afeddop on a nom fvy er / f2/v enp h
. ohms onttdno f uefss /no erpa.tw tay /ffauyog / t ya
pun ntop on uapen ay a/ntf opo ayoy o/n g aura urn enua
erpamfua /utu u fuo teoufdno de / / /er v er ff

vob oon m pu uu s oon uodn T st
uop o ) o c u s uop o o veob
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w uruu ab ouo o o 4 puc ouo) v r m dddn 9
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pasn 3 v su s o spu aw , e ou pdpu d s o p pau
- su np pre da s mo o o uu b sn ao )
sppc apu t dpu d s . sut ab uop o e
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7.) The Tr.
Trng ndcate the uc repetton of a prn-
cpa note wth ts ne t:hgher neghborng note, for the en-
tre tme-vaue of the prncpa note. t s ndcated by the
sgn //: The Tr can be e ecuted ether wth a whoe or haf-
tone, accordng to the re urements of any partcuar ey.
s a rue the Tr s commenced upon the prncpa note,
and f not otherwse ndcated the fter- eat s added after
the ast tr. Ths fter- eat s usuay ndcated by two
sma notes, the frst one of whch s one step ower than
the prncpa note and the second one beng the prncpa
note tsef. hort Trs, wth ther fter- eats, are payed
n one bow and wth onger ones the bow shoud be changed
as tte as possbe.
Trs for the duraton of a hoe Tone.
To assure an even and cear e ecuton,the trs shoud be
practsed very sowy at frst.
Manner of rtng:
chrebart:
ecuton:-
peart
7.) Der Trer.
Unter enem Trer verseht man de mehrmage schnee e.
derhoung enes aupttones, mt dem um ene toffe h her e-
genden fstone, und zwar so ange,as es de Dauer des aupt-
tones angbt. en echen st tt . Der Trer ann entweder
mt enem ganten oder enem haben Tone gemayot werden,
e nachdem es de Tonart erfordert.
n der ege f ngt man deft Trer mt dem aupttone an
und macht, wenn das egenthet ncht ausdr c ch vorge-
schreben st, erst nach dem etzten Trer enen achschag.
Der achsehag wrd gew hnch durch zwe ene oten
angedeutet, wovon de erste ene tufe tefer at der aupt-
ton egt, de zwete aber sebst der auptton st. urze Tr-
er werden sammt dem achschag a(f enen ogenstrch ge-
nommen und be ngeren trachte man deft ogen so weng as
m gch zu wechsen.
Trer mt dem ganzen Tone.
Man be hn anfangs angsam, damt er gechmassg und
ren wrd.
Trs for the duraton of a af Tone. Trer mt enem haben Tone.
01-UM
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130
Part .
The ectatve.
n accompanyng the ectatve, the Doube ass payer
must 1.) foow the meody and the words of the snger 2
e ecute the bass notes of the respectve chords ceary andwth
precson 3.) not change the bow too often n sustaned notes
and 4.) constanty watch the musca drector, especay n
fgured passages.
MP .
tract from The reaton by aydn.
.
G .
D U .
T .
P .
.
P
m -
1
5. eferung.
Das ectatv.
e egetung des ectatvs muss der antrabassspeer: 1.)
der Meode und den orten des ngers fogen 2.) de ass-
t ne zu dem betreffenden ccord ren und pr cse angeben
3.) be ansgehatenen oten nent zu oft den ogen wechsen,
und 4.) sch besonders be fgurren teen nach dem Drg-
enten genau rchten.
P .
De ch pfung von aydn.
11
t7
4.
g
m n - fan - ge schuf
Gott
m - me und r - de,
m
1
7 fr 1
m-
ff ft 1
- mm
h - - -
und de
r-de war oh-ne orm und 1
eer,
gs - n
f m mm
- r r-
p
p
r r -
-
:
t: f r
fn
rr
0-
.
- -

Und der
und n-ster-nss war auf der -cheder Te-fe.
201-131
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