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AP Physics Chapter 15 Review

3. A body oscillates with simple harmonic motion along the x-axis. Its displacement varies with time according to the equation x = 5sin(# t + # 3 ) . The acceleration of the body at t = 1.0 second is approximately

# 10sin(#t +

) dx v= = 5# cos(#t + # 3) dt
# 3

x = 5sin(#t +

)] = [10# cos(#t + # 3 )] # # 10sin(#t + 3 ) = 10cos(#t + 3 ) sin(#t + # = cos(#t + # 3) 3) tan(#t + # =1 3)


# 3

dv = $5# 2 sin(#t + dt at t = 1sec, a=

# 3

tan = 1 at 45 %
4

m a = $5# 2 sin( 43# ) = 42.7 sec 2

# 5# or 4 4
7

!
!

#1

The spring is located in the vertical plane and starts from a position of maximum amplitude.

At Equilibrium, kx = mg mg k= x N ! (5Kg) 10 Kg k= 0.1m k = 500 N m


"=

4. The motion of a particle connected to a spring is described by x = 10sin(# t + # 3 ) . At what time is the potential energy equal to the kinetic energy?

5.

The amplitude of a system moving with simple harmonic motion is doubled. The total energy will then be

k 500 N m = = 10 rad sec m 5Kg

E Maximum = 1 kA 2 2 zE Maximum = 1 k 2 A) 2 ( 2 1 4 E Maximum = 2 k (2 A)


2

A = 0.05m

" = 2#f = 2#
k m k "2 = m " 2m = k

1 k 2# m

)
!

y = A cos"t y = 0.05cos10t

"=

!
5 8

!
!

2.

A body oscillates with simple harmonic motion along the x axis. Its displacement varies with time according to the equation x = 5sin(#t + # The velocity of the 3). body at t = 1.0 second is

U =K
1 kx 2
2

=1 mv 2

x = 5sin(#t + # 3) v= dx = 5# cos(#t + # 3) dt at t = 1sec,

kx 2 = mv 2

6. A mass m = 2.0 kg is attached to a spring having a force constant k = 300 N m . The mass is displaced from its equilibrium position and released. Its frequency of oscillation is approximately

" 2 mx 2 = mv 2 "x = v " 10sin(#t +


# = 10# cos #t + # ( 3 )] [ 3 )] [ #[10sin(#t + # = 10# cos(#t + # 3 )] [ 3 )]

f=

1 k 1 300 N m = = 1.95Hz 2# m 2# 2Kg

m v = 5# cos( 43# ) = $8 sec


3

!
6 9

7.

The mass in the figure slides on a frictionless surface. N If m = 2 kg, k2 = 1000 m and k1 = 500 N m , the frequency of oscillation is approximately

10. A uniform rod (length l = 1.0 m, mass = 2.0 kg) suspended from a pivot a distance d = 0.25 m above its center of mass. The angular frequency for small oscillations is approximately

11. A disk (radius R = 1.0 m, m = 2.0 kg) is suspended from a pivot a distance d = 0.25 m above its center of mass. The angular frequency for small oscillations is approximately

kNet = k1 + k2 = 1500 N m

& m )& l ) 2 & 3m )& 3l ) 2 I = , mR 2 = 1 ( +( + + 1 ( ( + 3 ' 4 *' 4 * 3' 4 + *' 4 * I= ml 27 ml 28 ml 7 ml 2 + = = 48 3(64 ) 3(64 ) 192
3l
2 2 2

Parallel $ axis theorem I = ICM + Md 2 & R )2 2 I= 1 mR + m ( + 2 ' 4*


1 mR 2 I= 1 mR 2 + 16 2 9 mR 2 I = 16

1 k 1 1500 N m f= = = 4.36 Hz 2# m 2# 2Kg


9

I=
!

R 2dm =

3l 4

$l 4

m 2 m .x3 1 4 x dx = 0 3 l l / 3 2$ l

27 ml 2 ml 2 28ml 2 7 ml 2 I= + = = 48 3(64 ) 3 (64) 192

#11
13

16

!
!
8. Two circus clowns (each having a mass of 50 kg) swing on two flying trapezes (negligible mass, length 25 m) shown in the figure. At the peak of the swing, one grabs the other, and the two swing back to one platform. The time for the forward and return motion is

#11

Parallel $ axis theorem I = ICM + Md 2 l) 1 ml 2 + m& I = 12 ( + ' 4*


2

f =

1 2#

mgd I
9 mR !2 16

" = 2#f =

mgd I

"=

mgd = I
m 4 9.8 sec 2

mg R 4

4g 9R

T = 2#

l 25m = 2# = 10sec m g 9.8 sec 2

1 ml 2 + 1 ml 2 I = 12 16 2 7 I = 48 ml
14

"=

9(1m)

" = 2.09 rad sec


17

!
11

!
9. A uniform rod (mass m = 1 kg and length l = 2m) pivoted at one end oscillates in a vertical plane as shown. The period of oscillation is approximately

f=

1 mgd 2# I
l mg 4
2 7 48 ml

" = 2#f =
12 g 7l

mgd I

12. An archer pulls her bow string back 0.4 m by exerting a force that increases uniformly from zero to 240 N. What is the equivalent spring constant of the bow, and how much work is done in pulling the bow?

1 ml 2 I 2l T = 2# = 2# 3 l = 2# mgd 3g mg 2 T = 2.31sec

"=

k=

F 240 N = = 600 N m d 0.4 m

"=

m 12 9.8 sec 2

)
!

7(1m)
rad sec

!
12

" = 4.1

d F 0m 0N 0.1m 60 N 0.2 m 120 N 0.3m 180 N 0.4 m 240 N

15

#12

Use average Force!

W =F5d W = 120 N (0.4 m) W = 48J


Or

15. Three pendula with strings of the same length and bobs of the same mass are pulled out to angles 41, 4 2, and 4 3, respectively and released. The approximation sin 4 = 4 holds for all three angles. 4 1 > 4 2 > 4 3 . How do the angular frequencies of the three pendulums compare?

18.

A weight of mass m is at rest at O when suspended from a spring, as shown. When it is pulled down and released, it oscillates between positions A and B. Which statement about the system consisting of the spring and the mass is correct?

1 g 2# l " = 2#f f =
2

2 1 N U=1 2 kx = 2 (600 m )(0.4 m)

U = 48J
19

g l "1 = " 2 = " 3

"=

c. The rate of change of momentum has its greatest magnitude at A and B.

22

25

!
13. An ore car of mass 4000 Kilogramg starts from rest and rolls downhill on tracks from a mine. At the end of the tracks, at 10 meters elevation lower is a spring with k = N 400,000 m . How much is the spring compressed in stopping the ore car? Ignore friction. 16. An object of mass m is attached to string of length l. When it is released from point A, the object oscillates between points A and B. Which statement about the system consisting of the pendulum and the Earth is correct? 19. A graph of position versus time for an object oscillating at the free end of a horizontal spring is shown below. A point or points at which the object has positive velocity and zero acceleration is(are)

UTop = U Spring
2 mgh = 1 2 kA N 2(4000Kg) 9.8 Kg (10 m) 2 mgh =A= N k 400000 m

A = 1.4 m
20 23

x = 0.5sin(" t )
26

!
14. The mass in the figure below slides on a frictionless surface. When the mass is pulled out, spring 2 is stretched a distance x2 from its equilibrium position and spring 1 is stretched a distance x1. The spring constants are k2 and k1 respectively. The force pulling back on the mass is:

!
k I = 3k ml 2
2

" = 2#f = "=


17. A horizontal plank (m = 2.0 kg, l = 1.0 m) is pivoted at one end. A spring ( k = 1000 N m) is attached at the other end, as shown in the figure. Find the angular frequency (in rad ! ! sec ) for small oscillations.
!

Fm = $k2 x 2

k
1 ml 2 3

Fm

Fsystem

1 1 1 = + k Net k1 k 2 kNet = k1k 2 k1 + k 2

Fsys = $ kNet ( x1 + x 2 )
!

"=

3(1000 N m)

(2Kg)(1m )

& kk ) Fsys = $( 1 2 +( x1 + x 2 ) ' k1 + k2 *


21

" = 38.7 rad sec


24

!
!