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Dewatered Construction of a Braced Excavation

14 - 1

• 14 Dewatered Construction of a Braced Excavation

• 14.1 Problem Statement

A braced excavation is constructed in saturated ground. The excavation is dewatered during con- struction and is supported by diaphragm walls that are braced at the top by horizontal struts. The purpose of the FLAC analysis is to evaluate (1) the deformation of the ground adjacent to the walls and at the bottom of the excavation, and (2) the performance of the walls and struts, throughout the construction stages. The analysis starts from the stage after the walls have been constructed, but prior to any excavation. Dewatering, excavation and installation of struts are simulated in separate construction stages. In addition, two different material models, the Mohr-Coulomb model and the Cysoil model, are used to represent the behavior of the soils and demonstrate the difference in deformational response produced by these models when subjected to this construction sequence.

In practice, the construction may involve several stages of dewatering, excavation and adding of support. For simplicity, in this example, only three construction stages are analyzed: (1) dewatering to a 20 m depth in the region to be excavated; (2) excavation toa2m depth; and (3) installation of a horizontal strut and excavation to a 10 m depth. Additional excavation stages can readily be incorporated in the FLAC analysis, as required.

Figure 14.1 shows the geometry for this example. The excavation is 20 m wide and the ﬁnal depth is 10 m. The diaphragm walls extend to a 30 m depth and are braced at the top by horizontal struts at a 2 m interval. The ground consists of two soil layers: a 20 m thick soft clay underlain by a stiff sand layer that extends to a great depth. The initial water table is at the ground surface.

Figure 14.1

Geometry for braced excavation example

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Example Applications

The properties selected in this example to simulate the behavior of the diaphragm wall and the struts are listed in Tables 14.1 and 14.2. The thickness of the diaphragm wall varies, and an equivalent thickness is estimated to be 1.26 m. Note that for the two-dimensional FLAC analysis, the Young’s

modulus of the wall should be divided by (1 ν 2 ) to convert the plane-stress formulation for the structural elements to the plane-strain condition of a continuous wall. Thus, a value of 5.95 GPa is input to FLAC for the wall elastic modulus.

The strut properties are listed in Table 14.2. The spacing of the struts is 2 m. A simple way to simulate the three-dimensional effect of the strut spacing in the FLAC model is with linear scaling of the material properties of the struts by dividing by the strut spacing. (See Section 1.9.4 in Structural Elements.) For this example, by using elastic beam elements, it is only necessary to scale the elastic modulus and the density of the struts. This is done in FLAC automatically when the parameter spacing is speciﬁed.

The soil/wall interface is relatively smooth. The interface friction angle is 12.5 and the interface cohesion is 2500 Pa.

The hydraulic conductivity of the soils is assumed to be a constant value of 10 6 m/sec (which corresponds to approximately 10 10 m 2 /(Pa-sec) for the mobility coefﬁcient).

Table 14.1 Properties of the diaphragm wall

 Equivalent thickness (m) 1.26 Density (kg/m 3 ) 2000 Young’s modulus (GPa) 5.712 Poisson’s ratio 0.2 Moment of inertia (m 4 ) 0.167

Table 14.2 Properties of the strut

 Cross-sectional area (m 2 ) 1 Spacing (m) 2 Density (kg/m 3 ) 3000 Young’s modulus (GPa) 4 Moment of inertia (m 4 ) 0.083

Dewatered Construction of a Braced Excavation

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• 14.1.1 Deformational Behavior of the Soils

The deformation of the soils during excavation is of particular interest in this example, speciﬁally the heave at the bottom of the excavtion and the surface settlement adjacent to the excavation wall. Two different material models, the Mohr-Coulomb model and the Cysoil model, are used to illustrate the effect of the material model on the calculated deformational response of the soil. It is noted that for uniform elastic properties the linear elastic/perfectly plastic Mohr-Coulomb model may predict unrealistically large deformations in soils subjected to loading and unloading, such as heave induced at the bottom of excavations. A more realistic calculation may be obtained with the nonlinear elastic/plastic Cysoil model.

The Mohr-Coulomb properties chosen for this example are similar to those in Example 4 of the Plaxis Tutorial manual (2002), and the Cysoil properties are derived from properties for the Plaxis Hardening Soil model described in Section 10.7 of the Plaxis Material Models manual (2002). The properties for the Mohr-Coulomb model and the Hardening Soil model in the Plaxis manual were developed for the same soil types, clay and sand.

The Mohr-Coulomb properties are adapted from Table 4.1 of the Plaxis Tutorial manual (2002). The drained material properties associated with the sand and clay are summarized in Table 14.3. For this exercise, the cohesion property is set to zero.

The Plaxis Hardening Soil properties (adapted from Table 10.12 of the Plaxis Material Models manual, 2002) are listed in Table 14.4. Note in Table 14.4, that the cohesion property is set to zero, and the power m to one for this exercise.

The formulation of the Cysoil model has components in common with the Plaxis Hardening Soil model. See Section 2.4.9 in Theory and Background for a description of the Cysoil model. A connection, as shown in Table 14.5, is proposed between hardening Cysoil properties and Plaxis Hardening Soil properties. Note, however, that among other things, differences exist in the hard- ening and dilatancy laws. (See the Plaxis Material Models manual for a description.) Thus, the model responses should not be expected to be identical.

Table 14.3 Mohr-Coulomb drained properties for sand and clay layers*

 Sand layer Clay layer Dry density (kg/m 3 ) 1700 1600 Young’s modulus (MPa) 40.0 10.0 Poisson’s ratio 0.3 0.35 Cohesion (Pa) 0 0 Friction angle (degrees) 32 25 Dilation angle (degrees) 2 0 Porosity 0.3 0.3

* adapted from Table 4.1 of the Plaxis Tutorial manual (2002)

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Example Applications

Table 14.4 Plaxis Hardening Soil properties*

Hardening-Soil Property

Sand layer

Clay layer

Dry density (kg/m 3 ) p ref (MPa)

E

ref

ur

E

ref

oed

(MPa)

(MPa)

Poisson’s ratio, ν ur Cohesion Friction angle (degrees) Dilation angle (degrees) Power, m K Failure ratio, R f

nc

0

1700

0.1

90

30

0.2

0

32

2

1

0.5

0.9

1600

0.1

24

4

0.2

0

25

0

1

0.5

0.9

* adapted from Table 10.12 of the Plaxis Material Models manual (2002)

Table 14.5 Relation between Cysoil and Plaxis Hardening Soil properties

Plaxis Hardening-Soil

Hardening Cysoil

E

ref

50

E

ref

ur

E

ref

oed

Cohesion, C Friction angle, φ

Dilation angle, ψ Poisson’s ratio, ν ur Power, m

K

nc

0

(using cap)

Tensile strength Failure ratio, R f

G

e

ref =

ref

E 2(1+ν ur )

ur

K

ref = E oed

iso

ref

R =

E 3(12ν ur )E

ur

ref

ref

oed

1

zero

φ f

ψ f

ν ur

idem

K 0

zero

idem

Dewatered Construction of a Braced Excavation

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The following procedure is used to develop properties for the Cysoil model in this example. The Cysoil model can represent the nonlinear stress/strain response for loading and unloading that is characteristic of soils. In this example, the model is supplemented by a friction/strain-hardening table and a cap-hardening table to produce a hardening Cysoil stress/strain function comparable to the Hardening Soil model of Plaxis.

• 1. Table 14.5 is used to derive the hardening Cysoil properties shown in Table 14.6. The FISH function ‘SETUP.FIS” listed in Section 14.6.1 performs the derivation of Cysoil properties from the Hardening Soil properties. Note that the cap-yield surface parameter, α , is set to one.* The soils are assumed to be normally consolidated. Accordingly, initial (mobilized) friction is calculated from the the known K 0 using the equation

sin φ m =

• 1 K 0

• 1 + K 0

Table 14.6 Hardening Cysoil properties

(14.1)

Sand layer

Clay layer

Dry density, ρ (kg/m 3 ) Cap-yield surface parameter, α Ultimate friction angle, φ f (degrees) Ultimate dilation angle, ψ f (degrees) Multiplier, R G ref (MPa)

e

iso

K ref (MPa)

Reference pressure, p ref (MPa) Poisson’s ratio, ν ur Cohesion, C Power, m K Initial mobilized friction angle, φ m (degrees) Failure ratio, R f

nc

0

1700

1.0

32

2

1.667

37.5

30.0

0.1

0.2

0

1

0.5

19.47

0.9

1600

1.0

25

0

3.333

10.0

4.0

0.1

0.2

0

1

0.5

19.47

0.9

• 2. The Cysoil properties, K e and G e , are stress dependent, and these properties are speciﬁed after the initial pre-excavation stress state is established. The “ININV.FIS” FISH function (see Section 3 in the FISH volume) is used to initialize pore pressures and stresses automatically from the known K 0 and for the initial water level at the ground surface.

* The value of α = 1 was found to provide the best ﬁt when the Cysoil model was compared to the Hardening Soil model in a benchmark exercise, see Section 18.

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Example Applications

Initial (current) shear and bulk modulus distributions are then assigned, according to Eqs. (2.261) and (2.244) in Theory and Background, from the initial effective stresses and layer properties. FISH function ini stiff listed in Section 14.6.2 calculates the initial distributions of G e and K e in the model. Note that the maximum shear and bulk moduli, G and K , are also calculated in this FISH function and are arbitrarily set to 20 times G e and K e , respectively.

• 3. The friction hardening table is now generated for the sand and the clay using Eq. (2.264) in Theory and Background. The FISH function “FRIC TABLE.FIS” listed in Sec- tion 14.6.3 creates the friction hardening tables: table 1 is designated the friction hard- ening table for the sand, and table 2 is the hardening table for the clay.

• 4. An initial plastic strain is calculated that is consistent with the initial friction, φ m . Eq. (2.264) in Theory and Background is used to calculate the initial plastic strain for both the sand and the clay. FISH function “GAMMAP.FIS” listed in Section 14.6.4, performs this calculation to set the Cysoil property, es plastic.

• 5. The Cysoil property, p c , is also stress dependent. It is assumed that the clay and sand are normally consolidated on the cap. The initial effective stress is used to calculate the initial values for p and q , and the initial value for p c is then derived from the cap yield function, Eq. (2.249) in Theory and Background. The cap pressure is calculated in FISH function “INI CAP.FIS” listed in Section 14.6.5.

• 6. A cap table is calculated for the clay and sand using Eq. (2.257) in Theory and Back- ground. This is performed in FISH function “CAP TABLE.FIS” listed in Section 14.6.6. The function assumes a maximum effective pressure (estimated to be 10 MPa) for the simulation. This ensures that the appropriate range of pressure values is covered by the cap pressure table. Table 3 is designated the cap table for the sand, and table 4 is the cap table for the clay.

• 7. The value of plastic volumetric strain, consistent with the initial value of p c is calculated in FISH function “ EVP0.FIS,” listed in Section 14.6.7, using Eq. (2.257) in Theory and Background.

• 8. Constant dilation properties are speciﬁed for the clay and sand.

Dewatered Construction of a Braced Excavation

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• 14.2 Modeling Procedure

A recommended procedure to simulate this type of problem with FLAC is illustrated by performing the analysis in six steps:

Step 1

Generate the model grid and assign material models and properties and bound-

ary conditions to represent the physical system. Step 2 Determine the initial in-situ stress state of the ground prior to construction.

Step 3 Determine the initial in-situ stress state of the ground with the diaphragm wall installed.

Step 4 Lower the water level within the region to be excavated to a depth of 20 m below the ground surface.

Step 5 Excavate to a depth of 2 m.

Step 6 Install the horizontal struts at the top of the wall and then excavate to a depth of 10 m.

The model is created using the GIIC, FLAC ’s graphical interface. Upon entering the GIIC, the groundwater ﬂow option, the adjust total stress option*, structural elements and advanced consti- tutive models are activated from the Model Options dialog. The one-step (simple grid) generation mode, Project Tree Record format and SI system of units are also selected for this example. The dialog is shown in Figure 14.2.

?

We set up a project ﬁle to save the model state at various stages of the simulation. We click on in the Project File (*.prj) dialog to select a directory in which to save the project ﬁle. We assign a title to our project and save the project as “EXCAVATE.PRJ.” (Note that the “.PRJ” extension is assigned automatically.) This project ﬁle contains the project tree and allows direct access to all the save (“.SAV”) ﬁles that we will create for the different stages of the analysis. We can stop working on the project at any stage, save it and re-open it at a later time simply by opening the project ﬁle (from the File / Open Project menu item); the entire project and associated save ﬁles will be accessible in the GIIC.

A record of the FLAC commands used to create this model can also be saved separately using the File / Export Record menu item. A listing of the record created for this model is given in Section 14.5.

* The automatic adjustment of total stresses for external pore-pressure change is selected because we will use this facility for the dewatering stage. See Section 1.9.7 in Fluid-Mechanical Interaction.

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Example Applications

Figure 14.2

Model options selected for braced excavation example

• 14.2.1 Model Generation

We begin the analysis by building the model grid using the

Build

tool in the one-step (simple

grid) generation mode. The braced excavation is a common form of retaining structure used in geotechnical engineering. We can ﬁnd this type of geometry in the grid library available from the

Build
/
Library

tool. We click on the “Retaining wall, 2 interfaces” library item to access this grid type. The grid library dialog for this tool is shown in Figure 14.3.

We click

OK

to begin manipulating this grid to ﬁt our problem geometry. Note that it is only

necessary to consider half of the problem region shown in Figure 14.1 because of the symmetric geometry. The grid corners are selected to correspond to the right half of the excavation with the axes origin at the centerline of the excavation. The automatic zoning option is selected and 45 zones are speciﬁed in the horizontal direction in the Zoning Options dialog. This produces a uniform mesh density with a zone size of 1 m. By using this library item, the wall is created

automatically as a set of beam elements, connected to the grid on both sides by interfaces. Note that the boundary conditions (roller boundaries on the sides and pinned boundary at the bottom)

can also be selected in this tool by checking the automatically generated to create this grid when the

Add
boundary
conditions?
Execute

box. The FLAC commands are

button is pressed. The grid created for

the braced excavation example is shown in Figure 14.4. The ﬁgure also shows the location of the

wall beams, and identiﬁes the two interfaces by ID numbers 1 and 2.

Dewatered Construction of a Braced Excavation

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Figure 14.3
Grid library tool for retaining wall grid
JOB TITLE : .
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1.500
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Figure 14.4
Grid created for braced excavation

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Example Applications

We can now assign material properties for the diaphram wall and the soil/wall interface. We need to specify the material properties for the diaphragm wall because the initial model grid includes the

structural elements representing the wall. We click on the

Structure
/
SEProp

tool and then click on one

of the beam elements to open the Beam Element Properties dialog. The dialog is divided into two

panes, as shown in Figures 14.5 and Figure 14.6. We enter the area, Young’s modulus and moment

of inertia from Table 14.1. (The area is 1.26 m 2 because the two-dimensional model assumesa1m dimension out of the analysis plane.) We do not assign the density of the wall at this stage because we will ﬁrst calculate the equilibrium stress state before the wall is constructed; this is done by neglecting the weight of the wall.

Figure 14.5

Beam properties assigned for the diaphragm wall — mechanical properties

Figure 14.6

Beam properties assigned for the diaphragm wall — geometric properties

Dewatered Construction of a Braced Excavation

14 - 11

The soil/wall interface properties are prescribed using the

Alter
/
Interface

tool. We click on the

Property

radio button in this pane and then click on the circled number at one end of the interface

highlighted in the model plot. An Interface Properties dialog will appear, as shown in Figure 14.7.

We select the

Unbonded

button and then enter the interface properties.

Figure 14.7

Interface material properties dialog

It is usually reasonable to select the interface normal- and shear-stiffness properties such that the stiffness is approximately ten times the equivalent stiffness of the stiffest neighboring zone. By doing this, the deformability at the interface will have minimal inﬂuence on both the compliance of the total model and the calculational speed. The equivalent stiffness of a zone normal to the interface is

max K + 4

z min

3

G

(14.2)

where:K & G are the bulk and shear moduli, respectively; and

z min

is the smallest width of an adjoining zone in the normal direction

The max [ ] notation indicates that the maximum value over all zones adjacent to the interface is to be used (e.g., there may be several materials adjoining the interface).

In this example, the smallest grid width adjacent to the interface is 1 m, and the maximum equivalent stiffness is approximately 55 MPa. Therefore, we select a representative value of 550 MPa/m for the normal and shear stiffnesses.

The groundwater properties, porosity and permeability, are assigned in the

Material
/
GWProp

tool.

We click on the

SetAll

button to open the Model Groundwater properties dialog to enter these

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Example Applications

properties. Note that the “permeability” required by FLAC is actually the mobility coefﬁcient (i.e.,

the coefﬁcient of the pore pressure term in Darcy’s law, see Section 1.7.1 in Fluid-Mechanical

Interaction). When we click

OK

, these properties are assigned to all zones in the model.

We specify gravity using the

Settings
/
Gravity

tool. We select a gravitational magnitude of 10.0 m/sec 2

to simplify this example. We also assign the water density at this point using the

Settings
/
GW

tool.

We set the water density to 1000 kg/m 3 . We save the model state at this stage by clicking on the

• button at the bottom of the record

pane. We name the saved state “EXC GRID.SAV”; a new “branch” with this name appears in the

project tree shown in the record pane. See Figure 14.8. Note that the commands associated with

this branch have now been grayed out. If we ﬁnd we have made a mistake or wish to modify these

commands, we can press the

Edit

button at the bottom of this pane. We can then edit the commands

in this pane and re-execute them in FLAC by pressing the The state must be saved again if modiﬁcations are made.

• button at the bottom of the pane.

Figure 14.8

Project tree at completion of step 1

Dewatered Construction of a Braced Excavation

14 - 13

• 14.2.2 Soil Material Model Assignment

Two parallel branches are created in the project to evaluate the behavior of the soils. In the ﬁrst branch, the clay and sand are deﬁned as Mohr-Coulomb materials and in the second the soils are deﬁned as Cysoil materials.

We create the ﬁrst branch by continuing from save state “EXC GRID.SAV.” We can enter Mohr-

Coulomb properties either by using the

Material
/
Assign

tool or the

Material
/
Model

tool. For this example,

we use the

Material

/

Model

tool because the Cysoil model properties can only be entered with this tool.

We select the Mohr-Coulomb material model from the models list, assign a group name “sand mc,” select the rectangular range and drag the mouse over the bottom half of the model grid. The Mohr- Coulomb properties dialog opens, as shown in Figure 14.9. We enter the properties for sand from Table 14.3. We repeat this procedure for the clay properties with the group name “clay mc,” and

then press

• to send these commands to FLAC.

Figure 14.9

Mohr-Coulomb properties dialog with sand properties

Before saving the state with Mohr-Coulomb materials, the static equilibrium is speciﬁed for the initial pre-excavation stress state with the water table at the ground surface. The pore pressure and total (and effective) stress distributions must be compatible at the initial state. This is accomplished

by using the FISH function “ININV.FIS” provided in the FISH library. (See Section 3 in the FISH

volume.) We call in this FISH function from the FISH library by clicking on the

Utility
/
 FishLib tool. OK . The FISH

We click on the Library/Groundwater/ininv menu item in the FISH/Library dialog, and press . This opens the FISH Call Input dialog, as shown in Figure 14.10. We enter the phreatic surface

height (wth = 40) and the K o ratios (k0x = 0.5 and k0z = 0.5) in the dialog, and press

OK

function will then be called into FLAC and executed. The pore pressure distribution and total stress

adjustment are calculated automatically. After the pore pressure distribution is calculated, we use

the

In
Situ
/
Fix

tool to ﬁx the pore pressures along the top and side boundaries, and saturation along

the top boundary, to satisfy the ﬂow conditions. The initial pore presure distribution is shown in

Figure 14.11.

14 - 14

Example Applications

Figure 14.10 FISH library function “ININV.FIS” — input dialog

JOB TITLE : .
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0.00E+00
5.00E+04
1.00E+05
1.50E+05
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3.50E+05
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Figure 14.11 Initial pore presure distribution — Mohr-Coulomb material

The state of the model with Mohr-Coulomb material and at the initial stress state prior to construction is saved as “EXC MC01.SAV.”

In order to create the second branch with Cysoil properties, we double click the left mouse button on the branch named “EXC GRID.SAV” in order to move back to the state before the material model

is assigned. Now we re-enter the

Material
/
Model

tool. This time we select the Cysoil material and

follow the same procedure previously used to enter properties for the Mohr-Coulomb model, but

Dewatered Construction of a Braced Excavation

14 - 15

now for a “sand cy” group and a “clay cy” group. The Cysoil properties dialog opens, as shown in Figure 14.12.

The Cysoil properties given in Table 14.6 are input in this dialog. Note that when this dialog is executed, the second branch is automatically created in the project tree.

In addition to the Cysoil properties shown in Figure 14.12, it is also necessary to specify the stress-dependent properties and hardening table functions. These are applied as FISH functions, as described in Section 14.1.1. The “SETUP.FIS” FISH function is executed ﬁrst to derive Cysoil related properties based on Hardening Soil properties. This function can be opened and executed

from the FISH editor, which is accessed from the

Fish

tab in the Resource Pane. Figure 14.13

displays the FISH Editor with “SETUP.FIS” loaded for execution.

The initial in-situ stress state is determined using “ININV.FIS” in the same way as for the Mohr- Coulomb material described above. The stress-dependent properties and hardening table functions can now be prescribed using the remaining FISH functions, “INI STIFF.FIS,” “FRIC TABLE.FIS,” “GAMMAP.FIS,” “INI CAP.FIS,” “CAP TABLE.FIS” and “ EVP0.FIS.” These are loaded and executed in the same manner as “SETUP.FIS.”

The model with Cysoil material and the initial stress state speciﬁed is saved as “EXC01CY.SAV.” Figure 14.14 shows the project tree at this stage.

Figure 14.12 Cysoil properties dialog with sand properties

14 - 16

Example Applications

Figure 14.13 “SETUP.FIS” function loaded into FISH editor

Figure 14.14 Project tree at completion of step 2 showing the Mohr-Coulomb material branch and Cysoil material branch

Dewatered Construction of a Braced Excavation

14 - 17

• 14.2.3 Install Diaphragm Wall

The next stage of the analysis is the installation of the diaphragm wall. This is simulated by adding the weight of the wall in the model. We begin at “EXC01MC.SAV” for the Mohr-Coulomb material and include the weight of the wall by specifying a mass density for the beam elements. We use the

Structure
/
SEProp

tool to enter the density in the Beam Elements Properties dialog. We also turn off the ﬂow mode and ensure that the water bulk modulus is zero because we do not wish to generate

pore pressures during this stage. We press

Run
/
Solve

again to ﬁnd the equilibrium state with the

wall weight included. We save this state as “EXC02MC.SAV.” Figure 14.15 shows the total vertical

stress distribution at this stage.

The same procedure is repeated for the Cysoil material beginnning at “EXC01CY.SAV.” The total vertical stress distribution at equilibrium for this stage is shown in Figure 14.16. There is a slight difference in stress distribution around the wall in the Cysoil material compared to the wall in Mohr- Coulomb material. This can be attributed to the difference between the stress dependent stiffness properties of the Cysoil material and the constant uniform stiffness properties of the interfaces adjacent to the wall. Although the difference is minor, a stress dependent variation of interface stiffnesses could be applied using FISH in order to provide a closer representation. The equilibrium state for Cysoil material with the wall in place is saved as “EXC02CY.SAV.”

• 14.2.4 Dewater to a Depth of 20 m

For the dewatering stage, we assume, for simplicity, that the water level is dropped instantaneously within the excavation region.* We start from “EXC02MC.SAV” and set the saturation and pore

pressure to zero using the

• tool. We click on the GP Info/Groundwater/saturation

/
Initial

menu item and drag the mouse over the gridpoints within the dewatered region (0 x 10,

20 y 40). The affected gridpoints will be highlighted. We click on

Assign
OK
Assign
In
Situ
/
Initial

to open the dialog

to specify a zero saturation value for these gridpoints. We click

to create this command, then

click on the GP Info/Groundwater/pp menu item and press zero pore pressure to the same region. Figure 14.17 shows the region selected from 0 x 10, 20 y 40.

. A dialog will open to assign a

tool with the affected

The saturation and pore pressure are also ﬁxed at zero in the dewatered region. This is accomplised

with the

In
Situ
/
Fix

tool. The mouse is dragged over the affected gridpoints, with the ﬁxed satuation

mode selected, and then with the ﬁxed pore pressure mode selected. Figure 14.18 shows the tool

with the affected region highlighted.

The total stress is adjusted automatically when we impose this change in the pore pressures. This

is a result of selecting the

Adjust

Tot.

Stress

box in the Model Options dialog. We can check that

this adjustment to total stress has been made by plotting effective stresses before and after these

commands are issued: the effective stresses are unchanged in the model when the instantaneous pore pressure change is imposed.

* For a more realistic solution, FLAC can calculate the gradual lowering of the phreatic surface and change of the stress state, due to pumping.

14 - 18

Example Applications

JOB TITLE : .
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-8.00E+05
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-4.00E+05
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Figure 14.15 Total vertical stress contours for initial saturated state
with weight of wall included — Mohr-Coulomb material
JOB TITLE : .
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4.000
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27-Mar-08
8:35
step
12520
-4.167E+00 <x< 4.917E+01
-6.667E+00 <y< 4.667E+01
3.000
YY-stress contours
-8.00E+05
-7.00E+05
-6.00E+05
-5.00E+05
2.000
-4.00E+05
-3.00E+05
-2.00E+05
-1.00E+05
0.00E+00
1.000
Contour interval= 1.00E+05
Boundary plot
0
1E
1
0.000
Itasca Consulting Group, Inc.
Minneapolis, Minnesota USA
0.500
1.500
2.500
3.500
4.500
(*10^1)

Figure 14.16 Total vertical stress contours for initial saturated state with weight of wall included — Cysoil material

Dewatered Construction of a Braced Excavation

14 - 19

Figure 14.17
In
Situ/Initial
tool with saturation and pore pressure set to zero in
dewatered region

Figure 14.18

• tool with saturation and pore pressure ﬁxed in dewa- tered region

14 - 20

Example Applications

We can now solve for the coupled response that results from the dewatering. In the tool, we set groundwater ﬂow on, and set the water bulk modulus to 10,000 Pa. We need to specify the water bulk modulus for this calculation, so we specify this low value in order to speed convergence to steady-state ﬂow. We can do this because we are not interested in the transient behavior. (Note that there is a lower limit for the water bulk modulus to satisfy numerical stability — see Section 1.4.2.1 in Fluid-Mechanical Interaction.) This is an unsaturated ﬂow analysis, so we can also use the fast-unsaturated ﬂow scheme to speed the calculation to steady state. (See Section 1.4.1 in Fluid-Mechanical Interaction.) We check the box to turn on this scheme.

<funsat>Fast
unsaturated
flow
calculation?

Settings

/

GW

We free the saturation condition for gridpoints along the top boundary outside the excavation. The region near the ground surface can now become unsaturated if the water level drops. We also free the ﬁxed pore pressure condition along the left boundary below the excavation so that pore pressures can change during dewatering. We initialize the displacements in the model to zero so that we can monitor the displacement change that occurs due only to the dewatering. Press the

button in the

In
Situ
/
Initial

&

Displmt

Velocity

Run/Solve

to

tool to initialize displacements and velocities. Then click on

solve for the equilibrium state with dewatering.

The steady-state pore pressure distribution after dewatering is shown in Figure 14.19. Figure 14.20 plots the displacement vectors at equilibrium. This indicates the amount of settlement induced by the dewatering: approximately 8 cm. We save the model state as “EXC03MC.SAV” for the Mohr-Coulomb material.

We repeat this dewatering procedure for the Cysoil material. The ﬁnal pore pressure distribution is nearly identical to that for the Mohr-Coulomb material, as shown in Figure 14.19. The displacements induced by dewatering, however, are greater, approximately 25 cm, as shown in Figure 14.21. The model with Cysoil material is saved at this stage in “EXC03CY.SAV.” stage.

Dewatered Construction of a Braced Excavation

14 - 21

JOB TITLE : .
(*10^1)
FLAC (Version 6.00)
4.000
LEGEND
27-Mar-08
8:36
step
7971
Flow Time
1.1033E+09
-4.167E+00 <x< 4.917E+01
3.000
-6.667E+00 <y< 4.667E+01
Pore pressure contours
0.00E+00
5.00E+04
1.00E+05
2.000
1.50E+05
2.00E+05
2.50E+05
3.00E+05
3.50E+05
4.00E+05
1.000
Contour interval= 5.00E+04
Boundary plot
0
1E
1
0.000
Itasca Consulting Group, Inc.
Minneapolis, Minnesota USA
0.500
1.500
2.500
3.500
4.500
(*10^1)
Figure 14.19 Pore pressure distribution following dewatering
— Mohr-Coulomb material
JOB TITLE : .
(*10^1)
FLAC (Version 6.00)
4.000
LEGEND
27-Mar-08
8:37
step
7971
Flow Time
1.1033E+09
-4.167E+00 <x< 4.917E+01
3.000
-6.667E+00 <y< 4.667E+01
Displacement vectors
scaled to max =
2.000E-01
max vector =
8.143E-02
2.000
0
5E -1
Boundary plot
0
1E
1
1.000
0.000
Itasca Consulting Group, Inc.
Minneapolis, Minnesota USA
0.500
1.500
2.500
3.500
4.500
(*10^1)

Figure 14.20 Displacements induced by dewatering — Mohr-Coulomb material

14 - 22

Example Applications

JOB TITLE : .
(*10^1)
FLAC (Version 6.00)
4.000
LEGEND
27-Mar-08
8:38
step
25218
Flow Time
3.0475E+09
-4.167E+00 <x< 4.917E+01
3.000
-6.667E+00 <y< 4.667E+01
Displacement vectors
scaled to max =
2.000E-01
max vector =
2.502E-01
2.000
0
5E -1
Boundary plot
0
1E
1
1.000
0.000
Itasca Consulting Group, Inc.
Minneapolis, Minnesota USA
0.500
1.500
2.500
3.500
4.500
(*10^1)

Figure 14.21 Displacements induced by dewatering — Cysoil material

• 14.2.5 Excavate to 2 m Depth

We are now ready to begin the excavation. We start from “EXC03MC.SAV” and set ﬂow off and set the water bulk modulus to zero for this mechanical-only calculation. We again initialize the

displacements, using the excavation. We use the

MaterialAssign
Displmt
&
Velocity

button, in order to evaluate the deformation induced by the

tool to perform the excavation. We excavate by assigning the null model

to the material to be removed. We click on the zones in the region 0 x 10, 38 y 40.

These zones are then removed from the model plot, and the corresponding MODEL null commands are created for sending to FLAC. See Figure 14.22.

We press

Run/Solve

to calculate the equilibrium state with this ﬁrst excavation. This is the long-term

response (with water bulk modulus set to zero). We save this state as “EXC04MC.SAV.” The displacements induced by this excavation is illustrated in Figure 14.23. A maximum heave

of roughly 4.3 cm occurs at the bottom of the excavation. We can also calculate the response of the wall. For example, the moment distribution in the wall after the ﬁrst excavation is shown in Figure 14.25. Note that various results for the wall response (e.g., wall displacements, axial forces,

shear forces) can be plotted using the Plot items dialog in the

Plot/Model

tool.

Dewatered Construction of a Braced Excavation

14 - 23

This step is now repeated with Cysoil material starting from “EXC03CY.SAV.” The displacements induced by this excavation stage are plotted in Figure 14.23, and indicate a maximum heave of roughly 1.8 cm. The moment distribution for this case is plotted in Figure 14.26; the maximum value is approximaterly 1.3 times that for the wall in Mohr-Coulomb material.

Figure 14.22 Excavated zones in the MaterialAssign tool

14 - 24

Example Applications

JOB TITLE : .
(*10^1)
FLAC (Version 6.00)
4.000
LEGEND
27-Mar-08
8:44
step
11426
Flow Time
1.1033E+09
-4.167E+00 <x< 4.917E+01
-6.667E+00 <y< 4.667E+01
3.000
Displacement vectors
scaled to max =
5.000E-02
max vector =
4.294E-02
2.000
0
1E -1
Y-displacement contours
1.00E-02
2.00E-02
3.00E-02
1.000
4.00E-02
Contour interval= 1.00E-02
(zero contour omitted)
Boundary plot
0.000
0
1E
1
Itasca Consulting Group, Inc.
Minneapolis, Minnesota USA
0.500
1.500
2.500
3.500
4.500
(*10^1)
JOB TITLE : .
(*10^1)
FLAC (Version 6.00)
4.000
LEGEND
27-Mar-08
8:44
step
28451
Flow Time
3.0475E+09
-4.167E+00 <x< 4.917E+01
-6.667E+00 <y< 4.667E+01
3.000
Displacement vectors
scaled to max =
5.000E-02
max vector =
1.774E-02
2.000
0
1E -1
Y-displacement contours
-1.00E-02
-5.00E-03
5.00E-03
1.000
1.00E-02
1.50E-02
Contour interval= 5.00E-03
(zero contour omitted)
Boundary plot
0.000
0
1E
1
Itasca Consulting Group, Inc.
Minneapolis, Minnesota USA
0.500
1.500
2.500
3.500
4.500
(*10^1)

Figure 14.23 Displacements induced by excavation to 2 m depth — Mohr- Coulomb material

Figure 14.24 Displacements induced by excavation to 2 m depth — Cysoil ma- terial

Dewatered Construction of a Braced Excavation

14 - 25

JOB TITLE : .
(*10^1)
FLAC (Version 6.00)
4.000
LEGEND
27-Mar-08
8:41
step
11426
Flow Time
1.1033E+09
-4.167E+00 <x< 4.917E+01
-6.667E+00 <y< 4.667E+01
3.000
Boundary plot
0
1E
1
2.000
Beam Plot
Moment
Structure
# 1 (Beam )
Beam Plot
on
Max. Value
3.850E+05
1.000
0.000
Itasca Consulting Group, Inc.
Minneapolis, Minnesota USA
0.500
1.500
2.500
3.500
4.500
(*10^1)
JOB TITLE : .
(*10^1)
FLAC (Version 6.00)
4.000
LEGEND
27-Mar-08
8:41
step
28451
Flow Time
3.0475E+09
-4.167E+00 <x< 4.917E+01
-6.667E+00 <y< 4.667E+01
3.000
Boundary plot
0
1E
1
2.000
Beam Plot
Moment
Structure
# 1 (Beam )
Beam Plot
on
Max. Value
-5.185E+05
1.000
0.000
Itasca Consulting Group, Inc.
Minneapolis, Minnesota USA
0.500
1.500
2.500
3.500
4.500
(*10^1)

Figure 14.25 Moment distribution in wall after excavation to 2 m depth — Mohr-Coulomb material

Figure 14.26 Moment distribution in wall after excavation to 2 m depth — Cysoil material

14 - 26

Example Applications

• 14.2.6 Install Strut and Excavate to 10 m Depth

For the ﬁnal excavation step, we install a horizontal strut at the top of the wall and then excavate to

a 10 m depth. We use the

StructureBeam

tool to install the strut. We press the

Add

radio button in the

Modes menu, then move the mouse on the model view to one end position of the strut, hold the left button and move the mouse to the other end position. A line will be drawn indicating the location of the strut. We can position the strut more precisely by right-clicking the mouse over each end location. A dialog opens and we enter the endpoint coordinates. Note that the left node is free. We position the right node at the same location as the top node of the wall and, consequently, the right node is slaved to the existing node of the wall.* Figure 14.27 shows the position of the strut in the

StructureBeam

tool.

Figure 14.27 Positioning the horizontal strut using the
StructureBeam
tool

The strut is not rigidly connected to the wall in this exercise. We deﬁne a pin connection (which

permits free rotation at the strut/wall connection) by selecting the

Pin

radio button in the Modes list

and clicking the mouse over the connecting node. An arrow is drawn at the node, denoting this as

a pin connection (see Figure 14.32).

* When the mouse is positioned to create a new node at the same location as an existing node, the the new node is automatically slaved to the existing node. If two separate (non-slaved) nodes are required at the same position, ﬁrst offset the mouse slightly to create the new node and then

reposition the new node at the same location as the existing node, using the

• mode.

Dewatered Construction of a Braced Excavation

14 - 27

Figure 14.28 Selecting a pin connection in the StructureBeam tool

We also prescribe a different material property number to the strut in the

Beam

tool so that we can

assign the strut properties. We click on the

PropID

radio button in the Modes list, and the identiﬁcation

number B1 appears over the beam elements in the model plot. We click on the strut element, and a dialog opens to allow us to rename the property ID to B2.

We now press

Execute

to send these commands to FLAC to create the strut, pin the strut to the wall,

and assign the property number. Two nodes (32 and 33) are created, connected as a single beam element and assigned property number 1002. A pin connection is deﬁned between node 33 and wall node 2.

We enter the

Structure
/
Node

tool to assign ﬁxity conditions for the strut. Node 1531 is located along

the centerline of the excavation. We click on this node to open a Node: 32 dialog, as shown in

Figure 14.29. We ﬁx this node from movement in the x -direction, and from rotating (which are appropriate conditions for a node located along a line of symmetry), by clicking on the

X-velocity

and

Rotation

check boxes in the dialog. We click

OK

and then

Execute

to send the node condition

commands to FLAC.

14 - 28

Example Applications

Figure 14.29 Node 32 dialog in the

StructureNode

tool

We assign the strut properties using the

Structure/SEProp

tool. We click on the strut element in this

tool and open the Beam Element Properties dialog, as we did previously for the wall properties, to

enter the strut properties as listed in Table 14.2.

We are now ready to perform the second excavation step. We use the zones within the range 0 x 10, 30 y 38 to null material. We press

MaterialAssign
Run
/
Solve

tool and change the

to calculate

the equilibrium state with this second excavation. We save this state as “EXC05MC.SAV.”

The total displacements induced by the excavation to the 10 m depth is illustrated in Figure 14.30; the moment distribution in the wall and axial force in the strut are shown in Figure 14.32.

This stage is repeated for Cysoil material. The total displacements are plotted in Figure 14.31 for comparison to the Mohr-Coulomb material. The maximum displacement at the bottom of the excavation is less than half that for the Mohr-Coulomb material. Also, the extent of the excavation- induced displacment is more conﬁned than that for the Mohr-Coulomb material; compare the y-displacement contour plot in Figure 14.31 to Figure 14.30.

The wall moments and strut load for Cysoil material are plotted in Figure 14.33. The values are roughly the same as those for Mohr-Coulomb material.

The surface settlement behind the wall for the Cysoil material is roughly the same as that for the Mohr-Coulomb material. This can be seen in the surface settlement proﬁles plotted in Figure 14.34.

Dewatered Construction of a Braced Excavation

14 - 29

JOB TITLE : .
(*10^1)
FLAC (Version 6.00)
4.000
LEGEND
27-Mar-08 12:51
step
15623
Flow Time
1.1033E+09
-4.167E+00 <x< 4.917E+01
3.000
-6.667E+00 <y< 4.667E+01
Displacement vectors
scaled to max =
2.000E-01
max vector =
2.293E-01
2.000
0
5E -1
Y-displacement contours
-6.00E-02
-3.00E-02
3.00E-02
1.000
6.00E-02
9.00E-02
1.20E-01
1.50E-01
1.80E-01
0.000
Contour interval= 3.00E-02
(zero contour omitted)
Itasca Consulting Group, Inc.
Minneapolis, Minnesota USA
0.500
1.500
2.500
3.500
4.500
(*10^1)
JOB TITLE : .
(*10^1)
FLAC (Version 6.00)
4.000
LEGEND
27-Mar-08 12:51
step
32734
Flow Time
3.0475E+09
-4.167E+00 <x< 4.917E+01
-6.667E+00 <y< 4.667E+01
3.000
Displacement vectors
scaled to max =
2.000E-01
max vector =
1.048E-01
2.000
0
5E -1
Y-displacement contours
-9.00E-02
-6.00E-02
-3.00E-02
1.000
3.00E-02
6.00E-02
Contour interval= 3.00E-02
(zero contour omitted)
0.000
Itasca Consulting Group, Inc.
Minneapolis, Minnesota USA
0.500
1.500
2.500
3.500
4.500
(*10^1)

Figure 14.30 Displacements induced by excavation to 10 m depth — Mohr- Coulomb material

Figure 14.31 Displacements induced by excavation to 10 m depth — Cysoil material

14 - 30

Example Applications

JOB TITLE : .
(*10^1)
FLAC (Version 6.00)
4.000
LEGEND
27-Mar-08
8:48
step
15623
Flow Time
1.1033E+09
-4.167E+00 <x< 4.917E+01
-6.667E+00 <y< 4.667E+01
3.000
Boundary plot
0
1E
1
2.000
Beam Plot
Moment
Structure
# 1 (Beam )
Beam Plot
on
Max. Value
2.659E+06
Axial Force on
1.000
Structure
# 2 (Beam )
Max. Value
1.028E+06
0.000
Itasca Consulting Group, Inc.
Minneapolis, Minnesota USA
0.500
1.500
2.500
3.500
4.500
(*10^1)
JOB TITLE : .
(*10^1)
FLAC (Version 6.00)
4.000
LEGEND
27-Mar-08
8:49
step
32734
Flow Time
3.0475E+09
-4.167E+00 <x< 4.917E+01
-6.667E+00 <y< 4.667E+01
3.000
Boundary plot
0
1E
1
2.000
Beam Plot
Moment
Structure
# 1 (Beam )
Beam Plot
on
Max. Value
2.446E+06
Axial Force on
1.000
Structure
# 2 (Beam )
Max. Value
9.757E+05
0.000
Itasca Consulting Group, Inc.
Minneapolis, Minnesota USA
0.500
1.500
2.500
3.500
4.500
(*10^1)

Figure 14.32 Moment distribution in wall and axial force in strut after exca- vation to 10 m depth — Mohr-Coulomb material

Figure 14.33 Moment distribution in wall and axial force in strut after exca- vation to 10 m depth — Cysoil material

Dewatered Construction of a Braced Excavation

14 - 31

JOB TITLE : .
FLAC (Version 6.00)
-01
(10
)
LEGEND
27-Mar-08
8:24
0.000
step
0
Table Plot
-0.200
Cysoil
Mohr-Coulomb
-0.400
-0.600
-0.800
-1.000
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Itasca Consulting Group, Inc.
Minneapolis, Minnesota USA

Figure 14.34 Surface settlement proﬁles

• 14.3 Observations

This example illustrates the effect of the material model on soil deformational response for unloading problems such as the construction on a braced excavation. The heave that occurs at the bottom of the excavation is considerable greater for the construction in Mohr-Coulomb material than in Cysoil material. This is primarily attributed to the stress-dependent elastic moduli and stiffer unloading response of the Cysoil material. This is evident from the comparison of the displacement contour plots in Figure 14.30 for the Mohr-Coulomb material and Figure 14.31 for the Cysoil material.

This model example was derived for comparison to the excavation example with Mohr-Coulomb material and Hardening Soil material given in the Plaxis Material Models Manual (2002). A qualitative agreement with those results is shown here. Also, see Section 18. for a comparison between the Cysoil model and the Hardening Soil model in a ﬁeld benchmark study.

• 14.4 References

Plaxis BV. PLAXIS Version 8, Material Models Manual. R.B.J. Brinkgreve (Ed.). Delft: Plaxis,

2002.

Plaxis BV. PLAXIS Version 8, Tutorial Manual. R.B.J. Brinkgreve (Ed.). Delft: Plaxis, 2002.

14 - 32

Example Applications

• 14.5 Data File “EXCAVATE.DAT”

;Project Record Tree export ;Title:Braced Excavation

;*** BRANCH: TWO TESTS **** new

... config gwflow ats grid 46,40 gen 0.0,0.0 0.0,10.0 10.0,10.0 10.0,0.0 i=1,11 j=1,11 gen 10.0,0.0 10.0,10.0 45.0,10.0 45.0,0.0 i=12,47 j=1,11 gen 0.0,10.0 0.0,40.0 10.0,40.0 10.0,10.0 i=1,11 j=11,41 gen 10.0,10.0 10.0,40.0 45.0,40.0 45.0,10.0 i=12,47 j=11,41 model el i=1,10 j=1,10 model el i=12,46 j=1,10 model el i=1,10 j=11,40 model el i=12,46 j=11,40 ; Attach grids attach aside from 11,1 to 11,11 bside from 12,1 to 12,11 ; Beam-interfaces struct node 1 (10.0,10.0) struct node 2 (10.0,40.0) struct beam begin node 1 end node 2 prop 1001 seg 30 interface 1 aside from 11,11 to 11,41 bside from node 1 to node 2 interface 2 aside from 12,11 to 12,41 bside from node 2 to node 1 struct prop 1001 ; Fixed boundary conditions fix x i=1 j=1,11 fix x y i=1,11 j=1 fix x i=47 j=1,11 fix x y i=12,47 j=1 fix x i=1 j=11,41 fix x i=47 j=11,41 struct prop 1001 e 5.95E9 area 1.26 I 0.167 interface 1 unglued kn=5.5E8 ks=5.5E8 cohesion=2500.0 dilation=0.0 & friction=12.5 tbond=0.0 bslip=Off interface 2 unglued kn=5.5E8 ks=5.5E8 cohesion=2500.0 dilation=0.0 & friction=12.5 tbond=0.0 bslip=Off prop por=0.3 perm=1.0E-10 notnull set gravity=10.0 water density=1000.0

;

STATE: EXC GRID ....

save exc grid.sav

;*** BRANCH: MOHR-COULOMB ****

; ...

STATE: EXC01MC ....

Dewatered Construction of a Braced Excavation

14 - 33

; group ’sand mc’ notnull j 1 20 model mohr group ’sand mc’ prop density=1700.0 bulk=3.33333E7 shear=1.53846E7 cohesion=1000.0 & tension=0.0 friction=32.0 dilation=2.0 group ’sand mc’ group ’clay mc’ notnull j 21 40 model mohr group ’clay mc’ prop density=1600.0 bulk=1.11111E7 shear=3703700.0 cohesion=5000.0 & tension=0.0 friction=25.0 dilation=0.0 group ’clay mc’ set echo off call Ininv.fis set wth=40 k0x=.5 k0z=.5 ininv

 fix pp i 1 fix pp i 47 fix pp j 41 fix saturation j 41 save exc01mc.sav STATE: EXC02MC .... ; ...

; initial xdisp 0 ydisp 0 initial xvel 0 yvel 0 struct prop 1001 density 2000.0 set flow=off water bulk=0.0 hist 999 unbal solve save exc02mc.sav

; ...

STATE: EXC03MC ....

; initial xdisp 0 ydisp 0 initial xvel 0 yvel 0 initial saturation 0.0 i 1 11 j 21 41

initial pp 0.0 i 1 11 j 21 41

 fix saturation i 1 11 j 21 41 fix pp i 1 11 j 21 41 free free pp pp i 13 47 j 41 i 1 j 1 20

set flow=on water bulk=10000.0 set funsat=on history 1 gpp i=4, j=17 history 2 gpp i=17, j=17 history 3 gpp i=28, j=37 history 4 gwtime solve

14 - 34

Example Applications

save exc03mc.sav STATE: EXC04MC ....

; ...

; set flow=off water bulk=0.0 initial xdisp 0 ydisp 0 initial xvel 0 yvel 0

model null i 1 10 j 39 40 group ’null’ i 1 10 j 39 40 group delete ’null’ solve save exc04mc.sav

; ...

STATE: EXC05MC ....

; model null i 1 10 j 31 38 group ’null’ i 1 10 j 31 38 group delete ’null’

struct node 32 0.0,40.0 struct node 33 10.0,40.0 pin slavexy2 struct beam begin node 32 end node 33 seg 1 prop 1001

struct node 32

fix x r

struct prop 1002 density 3000.0 spacing 2.0 e 4E9 area 1.0 I 0.083 struct chprop 1002 range 31 31 solve save exc05mc.sav

;

...

STATE: EXC05MCTABLE ....

set echo off

call settle.fis set id table=11 settlement save exc05mctable.sav

;*** BRANCH: CYSOIL **** restore exc grid.sav

; ...

STATE: EXC01CY ....

group ’sand cy’ notnull j 1 20 model cysoil group ’sand cy’ prop density=1700.0 bulk=3.333E7 shear=1.5385E7 dilation=2.0 frict=32.0 & alpha=1.0 multiplier=1.667 ftable=1 cptable=3 group ’sand cy’

group ’clay cy’ notnull j 21 40 model cysoil group ’clay cy’ prop density=1700.0 bulk=1.111E7 shear=3703703.0 dilation=0.0 frict=25.0 & alpha=1.0 multiplier=3.333 ftable=2 cptable=4 group ’clay cy’ call setup.fis setup set echo off

Dewatered Construction of a Braced Excavation

14 - 35

call Ininv.fis set wth=40 k0x=.5 k0z=.5 ininv call ini stiff.fis ini stiff call fric table.fis set nt=1 num=200 gr=gr sand beta=beta sand fri=fri sand fric table call fric table.fis set nt=2 num=200 gr=gr clay beta=beta clay fri=fri clay fric table call gammap.fis set gr=gr sand beta=beta sand fri=fri sand gammap prop es plastic = gammap notnull group ’sand cy’ set gr=gr clay beta=beta clay fri=fri clay gammap prop es plastic = gammap notnull group ’clay cy’ call evp0.fis

evp0

call cap table.fis set nt=3 num=250 em=m sand ki=ki sand mul=mul sand cap table

 set nt=4 num=250 em=m clay ki=ki clay mul=mul clay cap table fix pp i 1 fix pp i 47 fix pp j 41 fix saturation j 41 save exc01cy.sav STATE: EXC02CY .... ; ...

; initial xdisp 0 ydisp 0

initial xvel 0 yvel 0 struct prop 1001 density 2000.0 set flow=off water bulk=0.0 hist 999 unbal solve save exc02cy.sav

; ...

STATE: EXC03CY ....

; initial xdisp 0 ydisp 0 initial xvel 0 yvel 0 initial saturation 0.0 i 1 11 j 21 41 initial pp 0.0 i 1 11 j 21 41

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Example Applications

 fix saturation i 1 11 j 21 41 fix pp i 1 11 j 21 41 free free pp pp i 13 47 j 41 i 1 j 1 20

set flow=on water bulk=10000.0 set funsat=on

history 1 gpp i=4, j=17 history 2 gpp i=17, j=17 history 3 gpp i=28, j=37 history 4 gwtime solve save exc03cy.sav

; ...

STATE: EX04CY ....

; set flow=off water bulk=0.0 initial xdisp 0 ydisp 0 initial xvel 0 yvel 0 model null i 1 10 j 39 40

group ’null’ i 1 10 j 39 40 group delete ’null’ solve save ex04cy.sav

; ...

STATE: EXC05CY ....

; model null i 1 10 j 31 38 group ’null’ i 1 10 j 31 38 group delete ’null’ struct node 32 0.0,40.0

struct node 33 10.0,40.0 pin slavexy2 struct beam begin node 32 end node 33 seg 1 prop 1001

struct node 32

fix x r

struct prop 1002 density 3000.0 spacing 2.0 e 4E9 area 1.0 I 0.083

struct chprop 1002 range 31 31 solve save exc05cy.sav

;

STATE: EXC05CYTABLE ....

... set echo off call settle.fis set id table=10 settlement save exc05cytable.sav

;*** BRANCH: COMPARE RESULTS **** new

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STATE: EXC COMPARE .... config gwflow ats

; ...

call table10cy.dat call table11mc.dat save exc compare.sav

;*** plot commands **** ;plot name: Unbalanced force

plot hold history 999 ;plot name: pp

plot hold

pp fill bound

;plot name: syy plot hold syy fill bound ;plot name: disp plot hold displacement max 0.2 ydisp fill zero bound

;plot name: pp hist plot hold history 1 line 2 line 3 line vs 4 ;plot name: esyy plot hold esyy fill ;plot name: mom

plot hold

bound struct beam moment 1 fill white struct beam axial 2 fill &

gray ;plot name: settlement label table 10 Cysoil label table 11 Mohr-Coulomb plot hold table 10 line 11 line alias ’surface settlement’

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Example Applications

• 14.6 FISH Functions

14.6.1

“SETUP.FIS”

;Name: setup.fis ;Purpose: derive cysoil properties from hardening soil properties def setup

 eur clay = 24e6 eur sand = 90e6

eoed clay = 4e6 eoed sand = 30e6

 nu = 0.2 fri clay = 25. fri sand = 32. m clay = 1.0 m sand = 1.0 beta clay = 1.0 beta sand = 1.0 rf = 0.9 pa = 100e3 k0 = 0.5 al = 1.0 pmax = 1e7 ; maximum effective pressure for cap tables ; --- derived quantities --- mul clay = eur clay/(3.*(1.-2.* nu)*eoed clay) mul sand = eur sand/(3.*(1.-2.* nu)*eoed sand) gr clay = eur clay/(2.*(1.+ nu)) gr sand = eur sand/(2.*(1.+ nu)) coek = 2.*(1.+ nu)/(3.*(1.-2.* nu)) ki clay = eoed clay ;/(3.*(1.-2.* nu)) ki sand = eoed sand ;/(3.*(1.-2.* nu)) m clay = min(m clay,0.9) sand = min(m sand,0.9) sinphi = (1.- k0)/(1.+ k0) m

phi0 = 180.0*atan(sqrt(sinphiˆ2/(1-sinphiˆ2)))/pi

 beta = beta clay gr = gr clay num = 200 fri = fri clay nt = 1 em = m clay ki = ki clay mul = mul clay

end

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• 14.6.2 “INI STIFF.FIS”

;Name: ini stiff.fis ;Purpose: Initialize bulk and shear moduli for cysoil model def ini stiff loop ii (1,izones) if ii # 11 then ; --- sand --- loop jj (1,20)

esyy = syy(ii,jj)+pp(ii,jj)

 esxx = sxx(ii,jj)+pp(ii,jj) = qval pval -( esyy- esxx)/ al = -( esyy+2.* esxx)/3. val = sqrt(qval*qval+pval*pval)/ pa

z prop(ii,jj,’shear current’)=gr sand*val z prop(ii,jj,’bulk current’)= coek*gr sand*val z prop(ii,jj,’shear’)=gr sand*val*20. z prop(ii,jj,’bulk’)= coek*gr sand*val*20. end loop ; --- clay --- loop jj (21,40)

esyy = syy(ii,jj)+pp(ii,jj)

esxx = sxx(ii,jj)+pp(ii,jj)

qval

= -( esyy- esxx)/ al

pval = -( esyy+2.* esxx)/3. val =sqrt(qval*qval+pval*pval)/ pa z prop(ii,jj,’shear current’)=gr clay*val z prop(ii,jj,’bulk current’)= coek*gr clay*val z prop(ii,jj,’shear’)=gr clay*val*20. z prop(ii,jj,’bulk’)= coek*gr clay*val*20. end loop end if end loop end

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Example Applications

• 14.6.3 “FRIC TABLE.FIS”

;Name: fric table.fis ;Purpose: generate friction table for cysoil model ;Input: nt/integer/1/Friction table number ;Input: num/integer/200/number of entries in Friction table def fric table

 Gi = beta*( gr/ pa) loop ii (1, num+1) phic = ( fri/float( num))*float(ii-1) sval = sin( phic*degrad) coe = sin( fri*degrad)/ rf xval = ( coe/(1.-sval/ coe)- coe)/ Gi

ytable( nt,ii) = phic xtable( nt,ii) = xval

end loop ytable( nt, num+2) =

phic

xtable( nt, num+2) = 0.2 end

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14.6.4

“GAMMAP.FIS”

;Name:gammap ;Input: gr/string/gr sand/Gref

;Input: beta/string/beta sand/Beta ;Input: fri/string/fri sand/friction ;Purpose: initialize es plastic from friction def gammap

 Gi = beta*( gr/ pa) sval = sin( phi0*degrad) coe = sin( fri*degrad)/ Rf

gammap = ( coe/(1.-sval/ coe)- coe)/ Gi end

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Example Applications

• 14.6.5 “INI CAP.FIS”

;Name: ini cap.fis ;Purpose: initialize cap pressure from normal consolidation def ini cap loop ii (1,izones) if ii # 11 then ; --- sand --- loop jj (1,20)

mul

= mul sand

esyy = syy(ii,jj)+pp(ii,jj)

esxx = sxx(ii,jj)+pp(ii,jj)

qval

= -( esyy- esxx)/ al

pval = -( esyy+2.* esxx)/3. pcval=sqrt(qval*qval+pval*pval)

z prop(ii,jj,’cap pressure’)=pcval end loop ; --- clay --- loop jj (21,40)

mul

= mul clay

esyy = syy(ii,jj)+pp(ii,jj)

esxx = sxx(ii,jj)+pp(ii,jj)

qval

= -( esyy- esxx)/ al

pval = -( esyy+2.* esxx)/3. pcval=sqrt(qval*qval+pval*pval)

z prop(ii,jj,’cap pressure’)=pcval end loop end if end loop end

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• 14.6.6 “CAP TABLE.FIS”

;Name: cap table.fis ;Purpose: generate cap table for cysoil model ;Input: nt/integer/1/Cap table number ;Input: num/integer/200/number of entries in Cap table def cap table ; (cap m)

; (make sure the whole range of pressures is covered)

;

= 1.- em

coe evpmax=(( pmax/ pa)ˆcoe)*( mul/(1.+ mul))* pa/(coe* ki)

 de = evpmax/float( num) ratr = (1.+ mul)/ mul

xtable( nt,1) = 0.0 ytable( nt,1) = 0.0

mex

= 1./(1.- em)

coep = pa*((1.- em)*ratr* ki/ pa)ˆ2 mex loop ii (2, num) xval = de*float(ii-1) ytable( nt,ii) = coep*(xvalˆ2 mex) xtable( nt,ii) = xval end loop end

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Example Applications

• 14.6.7 “ EVP0.FIS”

;Name: evp0 ;Purpose: initialize ev plastic from initial cap pressure

def

evp0

loop ii (1,izones)

if ii # 11 then ; --- sand --- loop jj (1,20)

mul

= mul sand

pcval=z prop(ii,jj,’cap pressure’) = 1.-m sand

coe evp=((pcval/ pa)ˆcoe)*( mul/(1.+ mul))* pa/(coe*ki sand)

z prop(ii,jj,’ev plastic’) = evp end loop ; --- clay --- loop jj (21,40)

 mul = mul clay pcval=z prop(ii,jj,’cap pressure’) coe = 1.-m clay

evp=((pcval/ pa)ˆcoe)*( mul/(1.+ mul))* pa/(coe*ki clay) z prop(ii,jj,’ev plastic’) = evp end loop end if end loop end