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Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Assessment of Delivery of Key Services: The Citizens Perspective

Based on Survey of Citizens in 17 Pilot Districts in Five States of India

Commissioned by

Department of Information Technology Ministry of Communications and Information Technology Government of India

Copyright 2010 Department of Information Technology, Ministry of Communication and Information Technology No part of this report may be reproduced in any publication or for any commercial purpose without prior permission from the copyright holders.

Department of Information Technology Ministry of Communications and Information Technology Electronics Niketan, 6 CGO Complex, Lodhi Road New Delhi 110 003 www.mit.gov.in

Indian Institute of Management Vastrapur, Ahmedabad

Printed by: Nutech Photolithographers Okhla Industrial Area, Phase-I, New Delhi-20

Project Team
Department of Information Technology
Mr. Abhishek Singh, Director, Department of Information Technology Mr. Anurag Goyal, Director, Department of Information Technology Ms. Vineeta Dixit, Principal Consultant, NeGP-Project Management Unit Ms. Sulakshana Bhaacharya, Consultant, NeGP-Project Management Unit Ms. Shiy Varkey, Assistant Manager, NeGP-Project Management Unit

Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (IIMA) Project Team


Prof. Subhash Bhatnagar, Study Coordinator Prof. T.P. Rama Rao Prof. Ankur Sarin Ms. Nupur Singh Ms. Anuradha Parekh Mr. Anup Tripathi

Acknowledgements
The team from IIMA would like to acknowledge the contribution of the Department of Information Technology (DIT), Government of India, which funded the study. Mr. Abhishek Singh, Director, DIT and Ms.Sulakshana Bhaacharya, Consultant, PMU were involved at dierent stages of the study. We are thankful to Mr. Anurag Goyal, Director, DIT, Ms. Vineeta Dixit, Principal Consultant, PMU and Ms. Shiy Varkey, Assistant Manager, PMU for their contribution to this study.

Preface
The Government of India is keen to understand the nature and quantum of impact created by e-Governance projects that have been implemented by state and national agencies under the National e-Governance Plan (NeGP). The Department of Information Technology (DIT), Government of India as the nodal coordinating agency for the NeGP is directed to carry out an impact assessment study of mature state and national projects that have been implemented in India. The assessment is to focus on the nature and quantum of impact on users (citizens and businesses). Assessment of impact on other stakeholders such as the department implementing the project was not taken up. As a part of the rst phase of assessment studies, three state-level e-Government projects- vehicle registration, property registration and land records were selected for assessment in twelve states across India. Three nationallevel projects implemented by the Income Tax department, the Ministry of Corporate Aairs (MCA), and the issue of passport by Regional Passport Oces were also assessed in 2008. The report is available on the DIT website. Impact assessment of municipalities under the JnNURM e-Governance Project, Impact Assessment of the Commercial Taxes project in ve states and a Baseline Study of the e-District project were taken up in the current cycle of assessment studies. The Department of Information Technology (DIT) empanelled market research (MR) agencies for carrying out the eld work. Each agency was assigned the task of assessing the impact of the respective projects and preparing an individual report for each project. The Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (IIMA) served as the technical advisor for the proposed study. A team from IIMA worked closely with the team from DIT in the implementation of the assessment study and provided feedback to the MR agencies at key points in the study. The eld survey of citizens in ve states was carried out by AC Nielsen ORG-MARG Pvt. Ltd. The report was prepared by Center for Electronic Governance, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad. The book is also available in the public domain on the DIT web site.

Executive Summary
Assessment of Delivery of Key Services : The Citizen's Perspective
The report presents a baseline assessment for the e-district project i.e. analysis of the performance of the current manual system of delivery of six services such as issue of certicates/ration cards on key elements of costs incurred by a citizen in availing these services. The base line assessment was carried out by administering a structured questionnaire to nearly 400 respondents in ve States of India - Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uar Pradesh and West Bengal. Seventeen Pilot Districts were covered in all in the ve states. The primary purpose of the base line study is to bench mark the performance of the manual delivery of key services in the pilot states on indicators such as number of trips, waiting time for each trip, proportion of users paying bribes and elapsed time which are the key components of cost of accessing a government service for a citizen. Annexure VII of this report tabulates the performance of manual delivery of services on these cost elements by presenting average value and standard error of the average based on an adequately large sample for 5 key services in every state. Once the e-District MMP has been implemented in the pilot districts and becomes stable (overcomes teething problems) and has run for at least a year, the impact of the program can be assessed by conducting a structured survey using an instrument similar to the one used in the base line study. The sample size should e at least as much as the one used in the base line study. The methodology of conducting the survey in 16-20 preselected villages (which captures the variability on the basis of distance from service center and population of catchment for a service center) by selecting respondents randomly should be followed. Indicators will need to computed using the survey data for service delivery under e-district and compared with the values in Annexure VII to understand the magnitude and direction of impact on the cost elements for each service. The base line study has provided some useful insights on the current manual delivery system. A state wise analysis of delivery performance for six services indicates the need for achieving signicant improvement through the implementation of the e-district project on all the performance parameters assessed in the survey. Out of the six services, ration card, caste certicate and birth certicate represent bulk of the transactions across all states with nearly one-fourth of the respondents having obtained ration cards, while 17 to 20 percent had obtained caste and birth certicates. Overall, it takes an average of three to ve trips to obtain a particular service. Primarily absence of concerned functionary at the oce leads to an increase in the number of trips. Since the bulk of the services are provided at the Tehsil level oces, citizens have to incur signicant travel costs and time to access them. The average waiting time for each trip is nearly an hour. The average elapsed time for most services ranges from 5 to 20 days. However, there are large variations across states with a few states like West Bengal taking extremely long to deliver

some of the services. In about two-thirds of the services across the ve states, a signicant proportion of users (10% or more) had to pay bribes. In most cases bribes are demanded to expedite the unduly long processes involving verication of documents at each step. By implementing a work ow with a rst-in rst-out discipline, discretion to delay a service can be taken away from the ocers. Usage of intermediaries is high in some states like UP. Use of intermediaries can be minimized through simplication of procedures. The report provides an analysis of aributes that the citizens nd important. These are the aributes where maximum improvement should be targeted through computerization. For example, aributes relating to governance, such as accountability of ocers and corruption in the working of the system are seen to be important across all states and services. Location of oces where services are delivered is seen to be important for most of the services. This can be rectied by service delivery through CSC's. Many citizens have identied clarity and simplicity of rules and procedures as important which is an area which can be rectied through process reform. Similarly, accuracy of issued documents has been identied as an area of concern which can be taken care of through computerized and accurate databases. A qualitative study of two recently computerized districts in UP indicated the need for making CSCs the primary mode of service delivery. The quality of hardware installed needs to be improved and physical supervision needs to be strengthened to remove intermediaries and check malpractices such as sale of forms at arbitrary prices. Ten District Magistrates were interviewed to get suggestions for improvement of manual services. Most District Magistrates believed that e-delivery of services can reduce the hardship of citizens and were reasonably engaged with the e-district project. Financial viability of CSCs was expressed as the major concern by the District Magistrates. The e-district project should aim to provide all citizen services end-to-end through a portal or CSC aer simplifying procedures, and automating information ow and work ow to process a request for a service. Financial viability of CSCs will have to be ensured by creating a large basket of services ready for e-delivery, mounting an aggressive awareness campaign in rural areas, and through support to nancially weak CSCs.

Abbreviations and Acronyms


CC CFC CSCs DC DIT ER FPS G2B G2C G2G GP IIMA MH MMP MP MR Agencies NeGP PDS RTI SC TN UP VP WB Citizens Charter Citizen Facilitation Centre Common Service Centers District Collectorate Department of Information Technology Electoral Register Fair Price Shop Government to Business Government to Citizen Government to Government Gram Panchayat Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad Maharashtra Mission Mode Project Madhya Pradesh Market Research Agencies National e-Governance Plan Public Distribution System Right to Information Scheduled Caste Tamil Nadu Uar Pradesh Village Panchayat West Bengal

Table of Contents
Acknowledgements .......................................................................................................................... 4 Executive summary .......................................................................................................................... 7 Abbreviations and Acronyms ......................................................................................................... 9 Preamble ........................................................................................................................................... 13 1. 2. 3. Role of IIMA in the baseline study ....................................................................................... 15 Brief Description of the e-District Project............................................................................ 16 Research Methodology .......................................................................................................... 17 3.1Measurement Framework .............................................................................................. 17 3.2Sampling Methodology and Sample Size .................................................................... 19 3.3Field Work and Data Quality ......................................................................................... 21 3.4Service Usage Paern ...................................................................................................... 22 4. Key Results from the Baseline Study ................................................................................... 24 4.1Prole of Respondents .................................................................................................... 24 5. Baseline Performance On Key Elements of Cost of Service.............................................. 25 5.1Number of Trips .............................................................................................................. 26 5.2Waiting Time .................................................................................................................... 27 5.3Elapsed Time .................................................................................................................... 28 5.4Payment of Bribes and Usage of Agents ...................................................................... 28 5.5Overall Satisfaction with Service Delivery .................................................................. 30 6. 7. Learning for further Implementation of E-district............................................................. 30 Limitations of the Study ........................................................................................................ 34

List of Tables
Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Framework of the Study ............................................................................................... 18 Sampling Units and Sample Sizes............................................................................... 21 Prole of Respondents .................................................................................................. 25

List of Figures
Figure 1: Services Used (by % of Respondents) ......................................................................23 Figure 2: Location of Oce from which Service is Availed (by % of Respondents) ..........24 Figure 3: Number of Trips .........................................................................................................27

Figure 4: Total Waiting Time (in Minutes) ...............................................................................27 Figure 5: Elapsed Time (in Days) ..............................................................................................28 Figure 6: Proportion Paying Bribes (%) ....................................................................................29 Figure 7: Proportion Using Intermediaries (%) .......................................................................30 Figure 8: Overall Experience, Overall Quality of Service and Overall Quality of Governance (on a 5-point Scale)................................................................................31

List of Annexure
Annexure I Annexure II Annexure III Annexure IV Annexure V Annexure VI Survey Instrument (Template)..........................................................................37 Factors to be Considered for Determining the Sample Size ........................45 Prole of Pilot Districts in the Five States .......................................................47 Service Usage across the Five States (by Number and % of Respondents)48 Type of Service Availed (by % of Respondents).............................................49 Location of Oce from which Service is Availed (by % of Respondents) .50

Annexure VII Detailed Analysis of Costs of Availing Services.............................................51 Annexure VIII Reasons for Multiple Trips (by % of Respondents) .......................................52 Annexure IX Annexure X Annexure XI Reasons for Paying Bribes (by % of Respondents) ........................................54 Reasons for Using Intermediaries (by % of Respondents) ...........................56 Detailed Analysis of Overall Experience, Overall Quality of Service and Overall Quality of Governance (on a 5-point Scale) .....................................58

Annexure XII Important Aributes Across States and Services (by % of Responses) ......59 Annexure XIII Overall Experience on a 5 Point Scale in Availing the Payment Related Services .................................................................................................61 Annexure XIV Summary of The Responses of DM Interviews for 10 Districts ...................62

Preamble
In view of the proposed roll out of the ambitious National e-Governance Program (NeGP), the Government of India was keen to understand the nature and quantum of impact created by e-government projects that had already been implemented by state and national agencies. Therefore, in the last three years, the Department of Information Technology (DIT) has commissioned impact assessment studies of nearly y mature e-Governance projects implemented by state and central agencies. Study results indicated an abysmal state of delivery of services in the manual system in all the three types of projects - issue of copies of land record, registration of property and issue of drivers license - that were assessed in the rst phase of the impact assessment program. Users need to make three to four trips (and even up to seven trips in some cases) to government oces on an average, wait for two hours or more (and up to six hours in some cases) in each trip, and pay bribes frequently (20 to 50% of all transactions) to obtain services. Computerization delivered concrete benets in most cases, reducing the number of trips by at least one, reducing the time spent waiting by 20 to 40%, and reducing bribery by signicant levels in the case of one service across many states. However, the study revealed that there was a great deal of dierence in the performance of the best and the worst states in case of each of the three computerized applications. The study established performance bench marks that could be targeted by future projects. The study underscored the importance of conducting baseline surveys of users of the existing system before conceptualizing a new system to replace it. Through the baseline surveys, implementing agencies can understand aributes of service delivery that are important to the client. This can enable sharper targeting of benets that can be delivered, and the required features or process reforms can then be incorporated in the design of the e-government project. It is also expected that the impact assessment (that is, an assessment of the dierence between the performance of computerized and manual systems) that would be done aer the e-District project aains maturity would be more accurate. This is because the performance of manual delivery would have been established through the baseline study and would not have to be assessed on the basis of user recall. Recognizing the importance of baseline surveys, the DIT decided to conduct such a survey for the e-District Mission Mode Project, which is being implemented by the DIT itself.

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

1.Role of IIMA in the baseline study


The Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (IIMA) was initially contracted as a Knowledge Partner to guide a Market Research agency chosen by DIT to carry out the base line survey. Subsequently when the chosen Market Research agency reneged on its commitment to DIT, IIMA was requested to take the additional responsibility of selecting an agency (from the 5 agencies empaneled by DIT) at a cost specied by DIT and to take the overall responsibility of geing the base line done in less than 5 months. In the spirit of partnership, IIMA agreed to accept the additional responsibility. The base line eld survey was carried out by the selected Market Research (MR) agency in ve pilot states Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uar Pradesh and West Bengal. The budget specied for the study restricted the total number of respondents in the sample to 2000. IIMA was responsible for draing an overall report on the e-District project for all states covered in the study, based on the data collected by the MR agency. The rst dta report was submied by the end of March 2010. IIMAs eort was directed at ensuring that: a consistent research methodology was used across the ve states; the MR agency understood the assessment framework; good quality data was collected; levels of performance for dierent types of services could be estimated accurately; results could be projected to the entire population; results could be compared across states; issues with the existing manual system and possible reasons for these could be identied; and suggestions could be made for the future rollout of the e-District program. The following inputs were provided at key stages of the study: IIMA had developed a framework for assessment covering the key dimensions on which impact on citizens (users of a service) would be measured. On the basis of this framework, a template of the survey instrument for the e-District study was developed by IIMA and provided to the MR agency. IIMA designed the sampling plan in such a way that: o Even small variations in performance could be detected o The variability in demand, eciency of service delivery point and location of user could be captured o Results could be projected to the entire population A member of the IIMA team participated in the eld survey of the rst few districts in order to check on the quality of work of eld investigators. IIMA analyzed the data collected by the market research agency and compiled this report to present a consolidated picture of the performance of each of the ve states.

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Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

2.Brief Description of the e-District Project


E-District is one of the 27 Mission Mode Projects (MMPs) being implemented under the NeGP. The primary objective of the e-District project is to enable service delivery by the district administration to citizens in an ecient and transparent manner. The project aims to do this by integrating the functioning of the Collectorate, tehsil level units and village level units of the district administration, automating the workow for processing of service applications, digitizing data across participating departments, and eventually delivering the citizen centric services of the district administration through Citizen Service Centers (CSCs) that are proposed to be set up in one out of every six villages. In the existing manual system, processing of an application for a certicate such as an income or caste certicate typically involves the following steps: Citizens need to visit the concerned departments oce at the sub district or district headquarters in order to apply for the service. The citizen submits a hand wrien application or lls in an application form, if available, along with the required supporting documents and fee. The application is received by the Registry section and forwarded to the tehsildar for endorsement. The endorsed application is then sent to the Village Accountant for eld verication. Aer verication, the Village Accountant prepares a eld report and sends it back to the Registry section. Based on

the approved report, the Registry section prepares the certicate, which is signed by the tehsildar and issued to the applicant. Under e-District, computerized citizen facilitation centers with multiple counters will be established at the village and sub district levels. Applicants will be able to submit application forms and supporting documents at these centers or apply for services online. Detailed citizen charters will be displayed, forms in the local language that are simple to ll in will be made available, and guidance would be provided to applicants at each step by the sta at the facilitation center. Once data digitization and workow automation has been completed, application forms will be submied and forwarded electronically by the counter operators to the concerned eld ocial or Registry section for processing. A pre-validated electronic document, based on existing records, will be generated by the eld ocial/ Registry section. This would be signed digitally by the tehsildar and issued to the applicant. It is expected that the entire process would be completed within one day. The e-District project is being implemented in two phases - a pilot phase in selected districts of 14 states, and the rollout phase across the remaining districts in these states. The core services that would be delivered by the 14 states under the e-District project are: Issue, re-issue and modication of certicates such as birth, death, residence, domicile, caste, handicap, income, employment and character certicates

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Application for pensions under various social service schemes for the aged, widows, handicapped, destitute, etc. PDS related services such as issue, reissue, renewal, modication and surrender of ration card and FPS licences Revenue court related services such as registering cases, obtaining listing of cases, and ling applications for case adjournment, stay order, nal order and execution of order Government dues and recovery of land revenue Filing and tracking of RTI applications and grievances Funding for the pilot phase has been provided by DIT, while funding for the second phase would be contributed by the DIT and the state in the ratio of 75:25 respectively. The total amount approved for 35 pilot districts across 14 states is around Rs 1,100 million, of which Rs 510 million has already been sanctioned as part of the rst installment.1 The targeted date for completion of pilot implementation was February 2010 and rollout to the remaining 600 districts was expected to start by March-April 2010. The entire project was scheduled to be completed by December 2011. However, according to the e-District project status report of February 28, 2010,2 the implementation of pilot projects has been initiated in only ve states, two of which have completed the data digitization process (Uar Pradesh
___________________

and Kerala). Of the remaining states, seven have completed the process of appointing agencies for application development or data digitization while two are way behind schedule on these.

3.Research Methodology
For the purpose of the baseline study, the unit of analysis was the entire state covering a sample of selected pilot districts. The research methodology used for the study is discussed below. 3.1Measurement Framework A measurement framework identifying key areas of direct and indirect economic impact on citizens, and indicators on which qualitative impact can be measured (see Table 1) was used. This framework is similar to that used in the rst phase of assessment studies 3, and has been tested in an earlier assessment study of eight projects encompassing service delivery to citizens (G2C), businesses (G2B) and internal sta (G2G) in three states (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Gujarat). The study was carried out by a team from IIMA and was sponsored by the World Bank, DIT and IIMA. A template of the survey instrument (see Annexure I) that incorporated the key dimensions in the measurement framework was prepared. The instrument was designed so as to capture all elements that dene the

1 Source: Website of Ministry of Communications & Information Technology, Government of India, http://www.mit.gov.in/download/e-district_pilot260509.pdf

Source: Website of Ministry of Communications & Information Technology, Government of India, http://www.mit.gov.in/download/e-district_feb10. pdf 3 Impact assessment of e-government projects in India, Department of Information Technology, Government of India, 2007. Available: http://www. mit.gov.in/download/impact-assessment-study-dit-31jan%20(2).pdf

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Table 1: Framework of the Study Cost of Availing Service Measured Directly Number of trips made for the service Average travel cost of making each trip Average waiting time in each trip Estimate of wage loss due to time spent in availing the service Total time elapsed in availing service Amount paid as bribe to functionaries Amount paid to agents to facilitate service Overall Assessment Preference for manual versus computerized systems Composite score: Measured on a 5-point scale factoring in the key aributes of a delivery system that are seen as being important by users Quality of Service: Interaction with sta, complaint handling, privacy, accuracy measured on a 5-point scale Satisfaction with the location of the service delivery center/oce Convenience of working hours of the service delivery center/oce Overall aitude of the functionaries in terms of courteousness and friendliness Timeliness of response to queries by clients Satisfaction with the mechanism for complaint handling and problem resolution Perception about the condentiality and security of data Satisfaction with the overall quality of service Quality of Governance: Transparency, participation, accountability, corruption measured on a 5-point scale Level of corruption in the current working system Awareness about the citizen charter Adherence of the time frame for service delivery (elapsed time) to that specied in citizens charter Financial loss due to delay in availing the service Type/kind of nancial loss incurred due to delay in availing the service Extent to which government ocials can be held accountable for their actions Whether the rules and procedures are simple and stated clearly Whether the agency takes responsibility for the information shared Does the agency provide any feedback and what is the quality of response to queries? Perception about the overall quality of governance

cost of accessing a complex service such as obtaining a certicate or license, and to understand the reasons that explain high levels for any of the cost elements such as number of trips, waiting time, bribery and use of intermediaries. The instrument included a few indicators on a service where an application is led for inclusion in some list or for seeking information (such as

inclusion in the electoral register or ling of an RTI application), and a payment related service. The respondents rating of about 20 aributes of the service delivery system, and of these aributes, the three most important for the respondent were also captured. Prior to the eld survey, a pre-testing exercise was carried out by the MR agency

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responsible for doing the eld survey, in one district of each state in order to verify the relevance of the survey instrument and the appropriateness of the language used. The survey instrument was then adapted to the context of each state depending on the services proposed to be provided in that state, and translated into the local language. Field investigators were trained to understand and interpret the meaning of each data item. Data was collected through structured interviews of users of the existing system between December 2009 and February 2010. 3.2Sampling Methodology and Sample Size It was presumed that the sample districts chosen for the pilot implementation is representative of all districts in the state. Given that a sample size of 400 per state had been agreed upon, the sampling methodology for the baseline assessment was designed in such a way as to provide accurate estimates of cost of access and other variables collectively for all the sampled districts of a state. Typically, a sample size of about 384 is considered adequate for the results to be extrapolated to a large population with a given level of accuracy (5% Condence Interval) and condence (95% Condence Level)4. In order to ensure that the sample was representative of actual users of various services, key services that are proposed to be delivered through the e-District project
___________________ 4

in the ve states were rst identied. Services related to ling for adavits and aestation of certicates, though frequently used, were excluded from the purview of this study since they are simple, same-day or instant delivery services that are not likely to be impacted by computerization (since no reengineering of these processes is planned under e-District). For the purpose of this study, clustering of the sample has been taken to be at the following levels: pilot districts in a state, sub districts within each pilot district, and villages within each sub district. Villages from which respondents were surveyed were selected to capture the variability in demand, eciency of service delivery point and distance of the user from service delivery points. Analysis in Annexure II suggests that for a given sample size, increasing the number of districts provides the most power. On the other hand, increasing the number of respondents per sampling unit (in this case, a village) does not improve power. Using this as a guideline, it can be said that in order to obtain sharper or more accurate estimates of the impact of the e-District program, it is important to capture as much as possible of the variability in the factors that determine performance. Since there is likely to be more variability from one district to another, than from one sub district to another within the same district, or from one village to another within

The computation for this is explained as: Sample size = Z2 X (p) X (1-p) / c2 Where: Z = Z value (1.96 for 95% condence level) p = percentage picking a choice, expressed as a decimal (0.5 or 1/2) c = condence interval, expressed as decimal (0.05 = 5%). Source: Cochran, W. G. (1963). Sampling Techniques, 2nd Ed., New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

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the same sub district, the sampling frame was designed so that respondents were spread across as many districts as possible rather than across several villages within a sub district or several sub districts within a district. However, the costs involved in interviewing respondents across several dispersed locations had to be considered when deciding on the number and location of sampling units. Therefore, a maximum of four pilot districts was selected in each state. Since Maharashtra and West Bengal have only three and two pilot districts each, all the pilot districts of these two states were included in the sampling frame. In each of the remaining states, an aempt was made to select districts that have a higher rural and Scheduled Caste (SC) population, and at the same time, are geographically dispersed (see Annexure III). 17 districts across the ve states were selected in this manner. Sub districts within the selected districts have been taken as the next level of clustering because currently, citizens need to travel to the sub district headquarter in order to avail most of the services that are to be covered under the e-District program. Certain services, such as those related to ration cards, can however be obtained from the village Panchayat oce itself. Within each district, four to six sub districts that were geographically dispersed have been selected. Care has also been taken to select a mix of sub districts that are well-connected through major roadways and those that are remote. In all, 81 sub districts were thus selected across the ve states. In order to ensure that the sample reected the proportion of users that come from dierent types of locations, villages from

which respondents were to be surveyed were selected on the basis of their sizes (in terms of population) and their distance from the sub district headquarters. Since it is likely that CSCs, through which services would eventually be delivered, would be located in larger villages with bigger populations and beer connectivity, the size of a village would generally determine its proximity and access to a CSC. Therefore, one village was selected from each sub district in such a way as to ensure that the entire set of villages chosen in a state reected the proportion of small, medium and large villages in that state. Further, the selection included a mix of villages that were far or near from their respective sub district headquarters. Households in each of the 82 villages were to be selected randomly from the list of households usually available with the village Panchayat oce. Since each of the chosen villages had a population of at least 500, that is, an average of 80 to 100 households (assuming an average household size of 5 to 6), this list would have been about ve times the size of the actual number to be interviewed. It was felt that this would be sucient to satisfy the randomness criterion. Since this is a baseline assessment, respondents were interviewed only on their experience of the currently existing, presumably manual systems. In Uar Pradesh, e-District facilitation centers established at district headquarters have become operational in 2008. Therefore, the market research agency carrying out the eld survey was asked to take care to exclude those households in Uar Pradesh that may have availed services from the computerized facilitation centers.

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3.3Field Work and Data Quality Table 2 lists the actual number of users surveyed in each state and the number of sampling units from which these were drawn. As per the sampling plan, respondents were to be selected randomly from the list of households available with the Gram Panchayat. However, during the eld work it was discovered that in most

cases, this list was not available with the Gram Panchayat and if available, it was not updated. Therefore, an estimate of the total number of households in the village was rst drawn and a sampling interval (say n) calculated. Every nth household in the village was then selected and this process was continued until the targeted sample size of 25 had been achieved. At times, it was not possible to achieve the

Table 2: Sampling Units and Sample Sizes State Madhya Pradesh (MP) District Guna Gwalior Indore Shivpuri Total Maharashtra (MH) Latur Nagpur Pune Total Tamil Nadu (TN) Coimbatore Krishnagiri Perambalur Thruvarur Total Uar Pradesh (UP) Ghaziabad Gorakhpur Sitapur Sultanpur Total West Bengal (WB) Bankura Jalpaiguri Total Total (across States) 17 Number of Tehsils 4 3 4 4 15 6 6 6 18 4 4 3 4 15 4 4 4 4 16 8 8 16 80 Number of Villages 4 4 4 4 16 7 7 7 21 4 4 4 4 16 4 4 4 4 16 9 8 17 86 Number of Respondents 87 82 119 119 407 150 150 150 450 101 100 100 99 400 76 162 36 134 408 200 200 400 2,065

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required sample in one village alone due to the unavailability of the required number of eligible respondents. To compensate, the sample size was increased in some of the selected villages or in some cases, small villages were replaced by larger ones. Since computerized service delivery had been operational in Ghaziabad district of Uar Pradesh for almost a year at the time of the survey, it was dicult to locate respondents who had not experience computerized service delivery at all. Therefore, the sample in this district includes users of both manual and computerized modes. Overall quality of data is reasonably good. Quality of eld work was ensured through random checking of lled-in questionnaires and spot checking by eld supervisors. The data collected was also validated at the time of data entry through range checks and internal consistency checks. Standard Errors of most of the dimensions are within acceptable limits. Adequately large samples were used for each state and the respondents were randomly picked from many dierent locations in the state, thus ensuring that variability on account of the location and distance of respondents from the service delivery points was captured. Results are internally consistent and also consistent with the results of earlier studies where similar projects were assessed. A total sample of 2,065 was considered to be adequate for a reasonably accurate generalization to be made about the performance of the manual system.

3.4Service Usage Paern The selection of core services proposed to be delivered under the e-District program is quite justied. As can be seen in Figure 1, the proportion of respondents availing each of these services is signicantly large5 i.e. mostly ten percent or more. The key services are used by more than 80 percent of the selected sample in each state. Among the key services, those related to ration cards, caste certicates and birth certicates appear to be the most sought aer on the aggregate (see Annexure IV). More than one-fourths of the respondents across the ve states had obtained ration cards, while 17 to 20 percent had obtained caste and birth certicates. The paern of service usage was however seen to vary slightly in individual states. For instance, ration card related services was a key service in all states except Maharashtra, where only 4.2 percent of the respondents had used them. More than 70 percent of the respondents in each state had applied for new documents (see Annexure V). Only in the case of ration cards is the proportion of applications for renewal and changes also large. Design of the e-District program can therefore focus on improving delivery of new documents. Birth, caste and income certicates are primarily required for the purpose of education, presumably by students. In some states, they were also obtained for the purpose of applying for government jobs and ration cards. Ration card, in addition to providing access to subsidized grains and

___________________ 5 Though Handicap Certicate was a signicant service in Tamil Nadu (see Annexure IV), it has not been considered for the purpose of comparison across the ve states since a very small number had used this service in the remaining states. Also, the performance of the manual system on this service was observed to be similar to that of other services.

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Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Figure 1: Services Used (by % of Respondents)

kerosene from fair price shops, is used for obtaining other documents such as voter ID cards and for availing benets under various welfare schemes oated by the government. Employment certicates in Tamil Nadu and residence certicates in Maharashtra are primarily used for obtaining bank loans. On the other hand, in MP and UP, residence certicates are obtained for the purpose of applying for government jobs. Overall, it can be concluded that across states, the basic purpose for obtaining various

kinds of certicates is either education or employment or bank loans. Bulk of the respondents had availed services from the tehsil level oce in all states except Madhya Pradesh, where almost half had obtained services at the village level itself (see Figure 2). By and large, ration card is the one service that is available at the village level across all sampled states (see Annexure VI). In MP, apart from ration card, birth and death certicates were also

23

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Figure 2: Location of Oce from which Service is Availed (by % of Respondents)

available at the village level. E-district can make all the key services accessible to users at the village itself through CSCs.

service, quality of governance and overall experience of availing service. Rating of 20 aributes of service delivery covering aspects related to cost of access, convenience, quality of delivery and quality of governance. Respondents were also asked to indicate the three attributes out of these 20 that they considered to be most important to service delivery. 4.1Prole of Respondents The purpose of presenting the prole of respondents from the ve states is to let the reader understand that users are primarily workers- unskilled as well as white collar, male and semi-literate (see Table 3). This is the kind of group that could be expected to use the services that will be oered by the e-district MMP 6. Even though the respondents were chosen from rural areas in

4.Key Results from the Baseline Study


Data collected through the eld survey was analyzed to understand the service usage paern and the performance of the existing system on the following dimensions: Factors contributing to cost of accessing a service (number of trips needed, waiting time, elapsed time or total time taken for receipt of the nal document, payment of bribes, usage of intermediaries). Reasons that explain high levels for number of trips, waiting time, bribery and use of intermediaries. Overall assessment of service delivery based on user perception of quality of
___________________

6 Although, establishing correlation between respondent characteristics and cost of access was not within the scope of the study, preliminary analysis of respondent data from Phase I and Phase II indicates very little correlation between prole dimensions and any element of cost of accessing service. In subsequent studies, very signicant departures from the prole of respondents for the baseline study may need further investigation.

24

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Table 3: Prole of Respondents

Dimensions Number of Respondents Age (in years) Less than 14 15-59 60 or more Gender Education Male Female Illiterate Schooled Graduate Occupation Worker Business White collar jobs Unemployed Type of House Residing in Permanent Semi-permanent Temporary

MP 406 0.2 90.9 8.9 94.8 5.2 17.2 73.2 9.6 62.1 16.5 8.4 13.1 37.4 37.2 25.4

MH 450 0.2 96.7 3.1 82.7 17.3 6.9 78.2 14.9 45.1 8.0 5.3 41.6 23.3 74.7 2.0

TN 400 0.5 90.8 8.8 41.0 59.0 25.5 68.8 5.8 46.3 7.3 37.0 9.5 77.5 12.5 10.0

UP 408 0.5 91.2 8.3 87.5 12.5 22.8 66.7 10.5 32.8 9.8 30.6 26.7 27.7 49.8 22.5

WB 400 0.3 92.8 7.0 62.0 38.0 20.0 59.0 21.0 47.5 9.3 24.8 18.5 94.5 3.0 2.5

all the states, some variations were observed in their prole. For instance, Tamil Nadu has more women than men accessing these services. In Uar Pradesh and Maharashtra, the user population comprises of a signicant proportion of unemployed people. The respondents selected for the study are actual users of the services included in the survey. Their prole will not be the same as the prole of the entire population. Further, in the absence of authenticated prole data of users of these services from any analysis of large sample of users, it is dicult to validate if the respondent prole matches that of past/current actual service users.

The purpose of collecting data from respondents to construct the prole is largely for control of quality of surveys by supervisors.

5. Baseline Performance on Key Elements of Cost of Service


This section presents a comparative picture of the performance of the ve states on various dimensions related to costs of accessing a service such as number of trips, waiting time, proportion of citizens paying bribes and elapsed time. Performance of each of the 5 states for ve key services on these dimensions is presented in Annexure

25

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

VII as the Mean Value and standard error of the mean computed for an adequately large sample of users. The size of the sample is also presented. As discussed earlier, these services were used by a very high proportion of respondents in all states7. These services are a part of the basket of services that will be delivered by the e-district MMP. Once the e-district MMP has been implemented in the pilot districts and becomes stable (overcomes teething problems) and has run for at least a year, the impact of the program can be assessed by conducting a structured survey using an instrument similar to the one used in the base line study. The sample size should e at least as much as the one used in the base line study. The methodology of conducting the survey in 16-20 preselected villages (which captures the variability on the basis of distance from service center and population of catchment for a service center) by selecting respondents randomly should be followed. Average values of the Indicators presented in Annexure VII will need to be computed using the survey data for service delivery under e-district and compared with the values in Annexure VII to understand the magnitude and direction of impact on the cost elements for each service. 5.1Number of Trips Considering all the sampled states and services, it can be seen that only in 25% of the cases is a service delivered in two or fewer trips (see Figure 3). In the remaining cases, it takes an average of three to ve trips to obtain the service. Given the fact
___________________

that bulk of these services are delivered at the tehsil, citizens have to incur signicant travel costs (at an average of rupees 18 to 20 per trip) and time in order to access services. If e-District can target to reduce the number of trips to two or less, and enable service delivery through CSCs, the cost to citizens can be reduced considerably. Respondents who felt that they had made more trips than necessary were asked to state the reasons for the multiple trips made by them. An analysis of the responses reveals that the prime reason for this across states was the absence or unavailability of the concerned functionary (see Annexure VIII). As a result, applicants had to make repeated trips to the oce to complete the process or collect the document applied for. Long queues of service applicants and non functioning counters were the other frequently cited reasons. Providing services through a CSC may result in a longer window of time for transactions and a higher availability of the operator at the service delivery counter. However, if access to a government ocer is still need (for instance, for signatures), the problem of unavailability will continue. Counters are oen not operational due to absenteeism in the case of manual systems, and erratic power supply or poor maintenance of hardware and/or soware in case of computerized systems, as was seen in projects that were assessed earlier. The e-District project needs to be conceptualized in such a way as to address the problems identied by the users.

7 Most of the respondents indicated that they had used only one service in the previous year in response to the rst three questions in PART 2 ( multiple responses were possible). The average number of services used varies from 1.005 in Tamilnadu to 1.09 in West Bengal.

26

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Figure 3: Number of Trips

5.2Waiting Time Waiting time shown in Figure 4 represents the total wait over all trips. Total waiting time in Maharashtra and MP in certain services is high (nearly two to ve hours) in comparison to other states. The average waiting time for each trip (see Annexure VII) is less than an hour for most services

in states other than Maharashtra where surprisingly, it is nearly two hours for three of the services. In Maharashtra, targeting reduction in waiting time should therefore be a high priority. As in the case of multiple trips, long queues, too many service applicants and the absence of the concerned functionary were the main

Figure 4: Total Waiting Time (in Minutes)

27

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

reasons for the long waiting time. In case of a ve hour wait, citizens may have to spend the night at the tehsil headquarter located in remote areas with poor bus connectivity. Many of the computerized projects for delivery of other services which were assessed earlier did not require a wait of more than an hour in their delivery. Therefore, there is considerable scope for improvement in waiting time through reformed processes when the e-District program is implemented. 5.3Elapsed Time Overall, the average elapsed time for most services ranges from ve to 20 days (see Figure 5). Ration card seems to be the most complicated service requiring more time than the other key services. Large variations are observed across states with a few taking extremely long to deliver some of the services. For instance, in West Bengal it takes an average of about six months to obtain a caste certicate or a ration card, and four months for a birth certicate.

Typically, it has been possible to provide certicates in less than a week through computerized systems. Oen, it is the process of verication that takes unduly long either because the number of documents to be veried is large or the process requires a eld visit. Since it is dicult to build a monitoring system to track elapsed time eectively in a manual system, bribes may be demanded to expedite the process. The design of computerized systems needs to carefully consider the value of every step and every signature required in the verication process, and retain only those steps that enhance accountability and reduce errors. In aempting to build a fool proof system, the cost to citizens and to the agency on account of the extra burden of documentation must be balanced. 5.4Payment of Bribes and Usage of Agents In about two-thirds of the services across the ve states, a signicant proportion of users i.e. 10% or more had to pay bribes (see Figure

Figure 5: Elapsed Time (in Days)

28

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

6). In some cases, as in income certicates in MP, this proportion is even as large as 65%. In response to a question on why respondents paid bribe, expediting the process of service delivery was cited as the prime reason (see Annexure IX). If elapsed time can be contained to reasonable levels (say one week as has been possible in other services) and a

reason for paying bribes. Use of agents is also the highest in UP with about two-thirds of users using intermediaries to obtain caste, income and residence certicates (see Figure 7). Perhaps, agents are used because they can help citizens to circumvent rules such as having to go to government oces for being photographed. If access to services can be made more convenient, bribes could

Figure 6: Proportion Paying Bribes (%)

public commitment can be made to adhere to these service levels through a citizens charter, some reduction in bribery may be possible. By implementing a work ow with a rst-in rst-out discipline, discretion to delay a service can be taken away from the ocers. If e-District can do this and improve eciency in general, bribery can possibly be removed. In UP, where incidence of bribe payment is the highest, additional convenience in obtaining service was stated as another major

be reduced. As can be seen in the above gure, usage of intermediaries is signicantly high in more than 50 percent of the cases. Across states, one of the major reasons cited by users for this is lack of awareness about the process of obtaining the service (see Annexure X). In UP, another commonly cited reason was the belief that it was possible to obtain service more quickly when availed through intermediaries. E-district must therefore target simplication of procedures and at the same time, create awareness about the

29

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Figure 7: Proportion Using Intermediaries (%)

reformed processes. 5.5Overall Delivery Satisfaction with Service

quality of service and overall governance as being between good to very good for almost all the key services and the average scores are close to 4. Annexure XIII presents an analysis of the overall experience rated on a 5 point scale (1-very poor; 3 average and 5-very good) for payment related services. These services are used by a large proportion of respondents in addition to the primary document related services for which analysis was presented above. Maharashtra has been rated as good and other states are between average and good. The overall quality of payment services under e-district may be benchmarked against the indicated values by including a similar question in the future impact surveys.

Respondents were asked to rate their overall experience of obtaining services, the overall quality of governance and the overall quality of service on a ve-point scale, where a score of 2 represents a poor rating, a 3 represents an average rating, a score of 4 represents a good rating, and 5 represents a very good rating. In earlier assessments, the overall scores of governance and quality of service have ranged between 2.5 and 3.5 for dierent services under the manual system. Detailed analysis of these dimensions is presented in Annexure XI. As seen in Figure 8, delivery of services by the district administration in West Bengal, MP and UP are no beer or no worse than many other services in other states. In Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, more than 60 percent of the respondents have rated the

6.Learning for further Implementation of E-district


In discussing the key results from the baseline survey in the section above,

30

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Figure 8: Overall Experience, Overall Quality Of Service And Overall Quality Of Governance (On A 5-Point Scale)

several areas of improvements that could be targeted by the e-District program were identied. These covered reduction in cost of accessing services by citizens and also improving the quality of governance, particularly reduction in bribery. This section presents an analysis of the perspective of the clients in terms of the aributes of service delivery that are considered to be important by them. In the baseline survey, respondents were asked to select three aributes that they considered most important from a set of 21 aributes related to various aspects of service delivery (read out from the survey instrument). Responses to this question were used to calculate the proportion of responses that selected each one of the 21 aributes as being among the three most important for service delivery. Any aribute which was rated by at least 7% of all responses as being amongst the 3 most important for any service has been included in the tabulation in Annexure XII. The data is presented

statewide. In MP, 11 aributes are seen to be of high importance --account for 76% of all responses in the aggregate for all services. For birth certicates these 11 aributes account for 86% of all responses. Six to nine aributes are seen to be important across the remaining states for dierent services included in the table. These are the aributes where maximum improvement should be targeted through computerization. For example, aributes relating to governance, such as accountability of ocers and corruption in the working of the system are seen to be important across all states and services. Location of oces where services are delivered is seen to be important for most of the services. There are signicant variations in the importance of these aributes across users of dierent services and states. For example, reduction in cost, time and eort of availing service seems to be important in the case of caste certicate, income certicate and

31

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

ration card. On the other hand, in the case of birth certicate, it is an important aribute only in West Bengal. In Maharashtra, UP and West Bengal, the accountability of ocers has been identied as an area of concern for many services. This suggests that there may be some arbitrariness in dealing with citizens while delivering services. Any unnecessary discretion available to the functionaries needs to be curtailed. It is also surprising that clarity and simplicity of rules and procedures is identied as being important in many services in all states. This is something that can be easily addressed through process reform. Amongst the dimensions of qualityconvenience of working hours is identied for a large number of services in many states. It should be easy to redress this problem by enabling service delivery through CSCs and ensuring extended working hours where services are delivered through private operators. The importance of the oces location, in terms of proximity and accessibility, emphasizes the need to take services closer to citizens through the opening of CSCs in as many areas as possible. Since the time spent waiting at the oce is not very large (about half an hour), beer management of the queue or improvement in service area facilities do not appear to be priorities. Analysis of the reasons for which respondents had paid bribes or used intermediaries clearly pointed to problems with the design of processes, and lack of awareness about procedures and rules among citizens. Process reform is absolutely necessary in order to take away the discretion that functionaries enjoy, and to consequently reduce corruption or the prevalence of agents in the service delivery process.

Besides emphasizing the need for process reengineering, it is necessary to create wider and greater awareness about the procedures governing service delivery and to provide accurate, complete and timely information on schemes oated for citizens benets by other departments or agencies. Such information can help the citizens to seek application forms for availing such services and benets in a timely manner rather than too close to the deadline for applications. Clarity and simplicity of forms was mentioned as an important aribute in a number of services. It was also mentioned as an important reason for using agents. Redesign of forms needs to be one of the key areas of process reforms. There are specic areas of improvements such as responsiveness of functionaries that have been identied in many services in West Bengal. To address such a weakness training programs may be needed to get a user orientation in client facing operators. Accuracy of documents is seen to be important in UP and MP. Computerization alone may not make documents accurate unless the quality of data capture is improved by building necessary internal checks in the soware. Given the variations in aributes that are seen to be important across services and states, an important lesson for the e-District project is that user participation in the design of the delivery system prior to its implementation is extremely important, though this is seldom done. The project conceptualization and design must focus on improvements on the aributes that are seen to be important by the users. A qualitative study undertaken by a

32

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

member of the IIMA team in Ghaziabad and Sultanpur districts in UP during December 2009 provided some pointers to how the recently introduced computerized system was working in these districts and the lessons that can be drawn for further roll out in other districts and states. The study corroborated the ndings of the baseline assessment and also provided the following inputs for further roll out: The manual system needs to be replaced by a working computerized system as soon as possible. The coexistence of both manual and computerized modes of service delivery gives functionaries the opportunity to continue functioning as they have always been. For instance, it was observed that ocials and agents tend to promote the manual system by citing power failure, poor connectivity, etc. as reasons for not using the computerized mode of service delivery. Tighter monitoring of service levels is required so that standard procedures are followed by those involved in the service delivery process. Otherwise malpractices such as tehsildars using others (oen agents) to ax digital signatures on their behalf will continue. It is necessary to review the quality of hardware and soware that is to be supplied for further roll out of the e-District project. For instance, the private operators of Jan Suvidha Kendras (JSKs) complained of poor Internet connectivity, slow servers, and the poor quality VGA cameras provided at the JSKs to photograph applicants. Poor quality of camera enables agents to process large number of applications in bulk, substituting a printed photo for personal presence as the VGA camera photo on the certicate is barely recognizable.

Steps must be taken to ensure that agents do not operate within the precinct of the JSK, either for selling application forms or for facilitating services on behalf of their clients i.e. the rural citizens. In some districts the computerized counters were not allowed to function by vested interests. Many of the CSCs have not been created or have not functioned aer they were set up. Computerized systems are not functioning as per the rule book. These are all manifestations of strong vested interest in the status quo. An eective implementation strategy would be needed to handle change management. The results of the assessment study were shared with the District Magistrates (DMs) of 10 districts in which the study was carried out. A semi structured interview was conducted with the DMs to solicit their views on how the service delivery could be further improved to respond to some of the problems reported by the citizens during the assessment. A summary of responses provided by the DMs to substantive questions is aached in Annexure XIV. Concerns and suggestions made by a majority of the ten respondents are documented below. The DMs were reasonably well engaged with the e-district project. Most districts hold monthly meetings to discuss the e-district project. In response to the main recommendation of this report that delivery of services be made through CSCs at an early date, the DMs indicated a major concern about the nancial viability of the CSCs. They felt that services should be delivered only through the CSCs and no other channels to ensure nancial sustainability of the CSCs. Involvement of the local NGOs or local people in managing the operations of CSCs

33

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

would help in increasing the popularity of CSCs among the local people and they would feel encouraged to use services through CSCs rather than the intermediary. Many DMs emphasized the need for greater emphasis on awareness generation among small entrepreneurs to set up CSCs at village level. To cut down on the time elapsed to deliver certicates, it was suggested that a common database needs to be created to facilitate the availability of the information across the district and villages. Some procedures are redundant and should be removed to make the process simple and the frequent changes in the process should be avoided. There should be strong Feedback and Complaint handling mechanism to increase the accountability of the ocers and system of award and punishment. The applications should be designed to provide information on a web site on the current status of processing of a service request, so that transparency in the system can be further enhanced and citizens can avoid multiple trips to enquire about the status. Greater clarity is needed on identifying functionaries that can sign dierent types of certicates. Intermediaries should be removed from the surroundings of the oces with the help of the police.

District collector should be the accountable and owner of the computerized system and IT department or NIC should coordinate the overall eort of the computerization. Concerns were expressed about the user centricity of sta and the need for extensive training. Some DMs wanted additional sta that could be dedicated to delivery of dierent computerized services.

7.Limitations of the Study


The survey gathered data from more than 2,000 respondents spread over nearly 82 villages in 17 districts from ve states from the north, south, east and west of India. Though the sample size of 400 was adequate for estimating values for dierent indicators of performance for the entire pool of sample districts in a state, when the sample was broken down by services, for some services the numbers of sampled respondents were less than adequate. In the case of UP where e-district had already been implemented, nding adequate number of users of manually delivered services had posed a problem. Because of the sensitivity of certain questions, it was dicult to elicit data on bribery from all the respondents in some states, particularly if agents were used.

34

Annexures

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Annexure-I

Survey Instrument (Template)


PART 1: IDENTIFICATION DETAILS Name of Respondent___________________________________ Address of Respondent _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

1.Family ID 2. 4. Village Code District Code

______________________________________________________ 3. Tehsil Code 5. State Code ___ ___ - ___ ___ - ___ ___ (DD-MM-YY) __________________________________ Signature of Interviewer ___________________________________

6.Date of Interview Name of Interviewer

PART 2: COST OF AVAILING SERVICES RELATED TO DELIVERY OR MODIFICATION OF A DOCUMENT Please indicate which of the following services you have availed in the LAST ONE YEAR. MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. Issue, re-issue, modication of birth/ death/ residence/ domicile/ caste/ handicap/ income/ employment/ character certicate Issue, re-issue, renewal, modication and surrender of ration card Issue, re-issue, renewal, modication of weapon, restaurant, stamp vendor and FPS licence

2. 3.

INSTRUCTIONS: If more than one document was applied for or modied in the LAST ONE YEAR, select the ONE document for which the respondent can provide full details of the experience with the service. 4. Specify the service code with respect to which questions in this section would be answered. NOTE THE SERIAL NUMBER FROM 1 to 3 ABOVE Please specify the name of the document that you had applied for or requested for changes in. 12345678910 11 12 13 14 15 Birth certicate Death certicate Residence certicate Domicile certicate Caste certicate Handicap certicate Income certicate Employment certicate Character certicate Ration card Weapon license Restaurant license Stamp vendor license FPS licence Others (SPECIFY)

5.

___________________
8

In case the respondent did not receive the document applied for, the interview should be terminated at this point.

37

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

6.

Did you apply for a new document, for renewal of the document, for copies of the document, or for changes in the document?

1234-

For a new document For renewal of document For copies of document For changes in the document

7. 8.

When did you apply for the service? Did you receive the service applied for?

___ ___ - ___ ___ (MM-YY) - Yes - No

9.

How long did it take for the task to be completed, right from the date of applying to actually receiving the service applied for? SPECIFY TIME IN DAYS For what purpose did you require the document? MULTIPLE RESPONSE 123456789Inclusion in electoral register Admission to educational institution Application for fee waiver Application for government employment Establishing legally permissible age for marriage Selement of inheritance and property rights To avail bank loan Obtaining identity documents such as driving licence or passport Others (SPECIFY) Newspaper Television Neighbors/friends/relatives Departments/other website Citizen charter at oce Functionaries at oce Other government sta Agent/intermediary Others (SPECIFY) District Collectorate oce Concerned departments oce Panchayat oce Post oce Village Tehsil District

10.

11.

How did you nd out about the procedure for availing the service? MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1234567891234123-

12.

Which oce did you avail the service from?

13.

Where was the oce located?

14.

Please specify the distance that you had to travel to reach the oce. SPECIFY DISTANCE IN KILOMETERS Please specify the travel time typically spent by you in making each trip. SPECIFY TIME IN MINUTES Please specify the travel cost typically incurred by you in making each trip. SPECIFY AMOUNT IN RUPEES How many visits did you have to make to the oce for availing this service?

15.

16.

17.

38

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Please provide the following details with respect to each trip to the oce. TRIP # 18. What was the PRIMARY purpose of the trip? MULTIPLE RESPONSE 12345619. To obtain information about requirements and procedures To submit application and required documents/fee To fulll requirement for physical presence To check status of application To collect certicate/document Others (SPECIFY) 1 2 3> 3

Were you successful in completing the task? 1 - Yes 21 2 - No

20. 12345621.

If not, please indicate the MOST IMPORTANT reason for not being able to complete the task. Very long queue(s) at service center/oce Concerned functionary was not available Counter was not operational Application form was not available Documents/application submied by me were incomplete Others (SPECIFY) How long did you wait at the oce during this visit? SPECIFY TIME IN MINUTES If waiting time was more than what is typically required, please indicate the MAIN reason that you aribute the long wait to. 1 - Too many applicants at oce 2 - Long queues 3 - Badly managed queue 4 - Lack of counters for single window delivery 5 - Concerned functionary was not available 6 - Some windows/counters were not operational 7 - Slow processing by sta 8 - Power breakdown 9 - Computer/network connectivity failure 10 - Had diculty in lling up the forms 11 - Others (SPECIFY) Did you pay a bribe directly or indirectly to department sta/functionaries? For what purpose did you pay the bribe? MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1234567-

22.

23. 24.

- Yes

- No

25

To expedite the process To enable service to be provided to you out of turn To receive preferential treatment from functionaries For additional convenience in obtaining service To inuence functionaries to act in your favour To be able to pay less than the stipulated fee and still obtain service Others (SPECIFY)

39

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

25. 26.

Did you use an intermediary/agent for availing the service? Why did you avail the service through an intermediary/agent? MULTIPLE RESPONSE

- Yes

- No

28

Was unaware about procedures to be followed 2 - Process was too complex 3 - Application form was dicult to ll by myself 4 - Supporting documents required were too many and dicult to put together 5 - Was inconvenient to go to the concerned oce myself 6 - Wished to avoid any interaction with functionaries 7 - Would be impossible to obtain service without help of intermediary 8 - Delivery of service is quicker if availed through intermediary 9 - Payment of bribe to functionaries easier through intermediary 10 - Others (SPECIFY)

1-

27.

How much service charge did you pay to intermediaries to facilitate the service? SPECIFY AMOUNT IN RUPEES What was the amount paid by you to the department for which you got a receipt? SPECIFY AMOUNT IN RUPEES What was the total payment2 made by you for availing the service? SPECIFY AMOUNT IN RUPEES Were the details in the document issued to you correct? Did the process involve any kind of verication for which ocials had to visit your residence? Please indicate any problem that you may have faced during the verication process. MULTIPLE RESPONSE

28.

29.

28. 29.

- Yes

- No

- Yes

- No

31

30.

0123456-

None Was unnecessarily delayed by department Verication involved a long wait/took very long Functionary demanded bribe for approving application No prior information/notice was given about date or time of verication Requirements (such as documents or payment to be kept ready) were not clear Others (SPECIFY) Very dissatisfactory Dissatisfactory Average Satisfactory Very satisfactory

31.

Please rate your overall experience of availing this service.

12345-

___________________
9

Includes a) service charge paid to intermediary/agency, b) amount paid to department for which receipt was given, and c) amount paid as bribe to department sta/functionaries

40

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

PART 3: EXPERIENCE OF MAKING AN APPLICATION FOR PENSION, FILING GRIEVANCE OR RTI APPLICATION, APPL ING FOR ELECTORAL OR REVENUE SERVIES Please indicate which of the following services you have availed in the LAST ONE YEAR. MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. Application for social welfare pension for the aged, widows, handicapped or destitute Filing and tracking of RTI application Filing and tracking of grievance Electoral service such as application for inclusion of name in the electoral register (ER), change in entry or address in the ER, and appointment of proxy voter Revenue court related service such as obtaining listing of cases, and ling application for case adjournment, stay order, nal order and execution of order

2. 3. 4.

5.

INSTRUCTIONS: If more than one service was availed in the LAST ONE YEAR, select the ONE service for which the respondent can provide details of the experience with the service. 6. Specify the service code with respect to which questions in this section would be answered. NOTE THE SERIAL NUMBER FROM 1 to 5 ABOVE When did you apply for the service? Were you successful in receiving the service applied for (for example, complaint was resolved, pension order was issued)? If not, please indicate the reasons as informed by functionaries or as you perceive them. MULTIPLE RESPONSE SKIP TO 11 123456710. How long did it take for the task to be completed, right from the date of applying to actually receiving the service applied for? SPECIFY TIME IN DAYS How many visits did you have to make to the oce for availing this service? Please rate your overall experience of availing this service. 12345Very dissatisfactory Dissatisfactory Average Satisfactory Very satisfactory ___ ___ - ___ ___ (MM-YY)

7. 8.

- Yes

10

- No

9.

Did not meet criteria required for approval Did not submit required document(s) Missed date for submission/verication due to personal reasons Missed date for submission/verication since it was not clearly intimated Did not pay the bribe demanded/expected Had applied directly instead of taking help of intermediary Others (SPECIFY)

11. 12.

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Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

PART 4: EXPERIENCE OF USING PAYMENT RELATED SERVICES Please indicate which of the following services you have availed in the LAST ONE YEAR. MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. 2. Payment of land revenue dues Payment of utility bills (water tax, house tax, property tax, electricity bill, telephone bill)

INSTRUCTIONS: If more than one service was availed in the LAST ONE YEAR, select the ONE service for which the respondent can provide details of the experience with the service. 3. Specify the service code with respect to which questions in this section would be answered. NOTE THE SERIAL NUMBER FROM 1 to 2 ABOVE What is the frequency of payment of utility bills/revenue dues? 12345Once a month Once in 3 to 6 months Once a year Once in 2 to 5 years Others (SPECIFY) - Yes - Yes 12345- No - No

4.

5.

Do you receive a notice/bill from the department/utility company for payment of dues? Were the details mentioned in the notice/bill correct? Please rate your overall experience of making payments at the oce.

6. 7.

Very Dissatisfactory Dissatisfactory Average Satisfactory Very Satisfactory

PART 5: OVERALL QUALITY OF GOVERNANCE AND SERVICE 1. Please indicate your perception about the overall quality of governance with respect to the service(s) that you have availed. GOVERNANCE IS UNDERSTOOD AS TRANSPARENCY, ACCOUNTABILITY AND CORRUPTION-FREE WORKING 1234512345Very Poor Poor Average Good Very Good Very Poor Poor Average Good Very Good

2.

Please indicate your perception about the overall quality of service with respect to the service(s) that you have availed. QUALITY OF SERVICE IS UNDERSTOOD AS FAIRNESS, SPEED OF PROCESSING, ACCURACY OF TRANSACTIONS, LEGIBILITY AND DURABILITY OF CERTIFICATES AND PRINTOUTS, CONVENIENCE OF OBTAINING SERVICE.

PART 6: OVERALL ASSESSMENT OF THE SERVICE On the basis of your experience of availing the service mentioned in PART 2, please rate the current system on the following aributes on a scale of 1 to 5 or 0 as indicated. RATING 1 Very Bad 2 3 4 Bad Average Good Good 5 Very 0 DK/CS

1.

Adherence of the time frame for service delivery (elapsed time) to that specied in citizens charter Clarity and simplicity of rules and procedures

2.

3.

Communication by department about the progress and next steps in service delivery

42

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

4.

Mechanism to le complaints and provide feedback to the concerned department

5.

Accountability of ocers

6. 7.

Location of oce (in terms of accessibility and convenience) Service area facilities (in terms of seating arrangement, queues for dierently abled, ramp for wheel chairs, etc.)

8.

Convenience of working hours of oce

9.

Management of queuing

10.

Responsiveness of functionaries (in terms of time and politeness) to your queries and complaints

11.

Accuracy of issued documents

12.

Clarity and simplicity of application forms

13. 14. 15.

Durability of certicates/printouts Legibility of printouts/certicates/receipts Security of data (the fact that nobody can tamper with your records)

16.

Condentiality and privacy of data and transactions (the fact that no other person can access your records)

RATING

Very HighHighAverage Low Very Low DK/CS

17.

Costs of availing service

18.

Time and eort in availing service

19.

Eort in document preparation

20.

Corruption in the working of the system

21.

Dependence on agents

22.

From the aributes listed above, please select the three that you consider the most important for the service. NOTE THE ATTRIBUTE CODE (1 TO 21) FROM ABOVE

43

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

PART 7: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION PLEASE ASK THE RESPONDENT IF HE/SHE WOULD LIKE TO MAKE ANY ADDITIONAL COMMENTS/SUGGESTIONS ON SERVICE DELIVERY, ETC. RECORD VERBATIM. PART 8: RESPONDENT PROFILE 1. What is your age in completed years? 12312123456781234567123Less than 14 15-59 60 or More Male Female Illiterate Literate without Education Below Primary Primary Middle Matric/ Higher Secondary/ Diploma Graduate & Above Others (SPECIFY) Cultivator Agricultural Labourer Household Industry Worker Self-employed/ Professional/ Trader Student Pensioner Others (SPECIFY) Permanent Semi-permanent Temporary

2.

Record the gender of the respondent.

3.

What is the level of education that you have aained?

4.

What is your main occupation?

5.

Record (BY OBSERVATION) the type of house the respondent currently resides in.

44

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Annexure-II

Factors to be Considered for Determining the Sample Size


Eect Size: Eect size is used to measure the magnitude of impact (of computerization, in this case) and can be computed as the standardized dierence between two means. Eect sizes can be dened as small (between 0 and 0.2), medium (> 0.2 and <= 0.5), and large (>= 0.8). Sample size is determined by the desired eect size that we would like to be able to statistically detect with the desired precision (power) needed for the study. The primary criterion for determining sample size in an impact analysis is the ability to detect an impact of a desired magnitude with a high degree of condence the Minimum Detectable Eect (MDE). In other words if we believe an impact of a certain magnitude has policy relevance, then we should have the statistical power to test whether or not it is statistically dierent from zero. The smaller the MDE, the more likely we will be able to detect smaller impacts. The MDE depends on The expected variance of the impact estimate The assumed signicance level (selected to reduce Type 1 error), typically assumed to be 95%) The assumed power level (selected to reduce Type 2 error). The typical level chosen is 80%. At this level we would have an 80 percent chance of detecting an eect as big as the MDE. These three factors determine the minimum detectable eect size i.e. the smallest program eect that we have a reasonable chance of detecting. The MDE can be expressed as MDE = Factor (, , df) * (Var (Impact) / where Var (Impact): Variance of Impact Estimate : Standard Deviation of the Outcome Measure df: Degrees of Freedom for test, which depends on the total sample size and sample design. Generally this is equal to: Total Number of Individuals- Number of Strata -1 Factor: Is a constant that is a function of the signicance level (), statistical power () and the number of degrees of freedom. For two-tailed tests with greater than 100 degrees of freedom, a 5 percent signicance level and 80 percent power, factor is equal to 2.80. The impacts found in the IIMA studies conducted so far average around 0.22 and 4.60 with an average of 0.83. Since many of the projects are being evaluated for the rst time, targeting an MDE of 0.5 would be a conservative benchmark i.e. given our sample size we should have a reasonable chance of detecting an impact of half a standard deviation. Cohen (1998) labels this as a medium eect size. Taking Account of Clustering The sample size of the number of respondents depends not only on the desired statistical power and accuracy but also on how the sample is distributed between dierent clusters

45

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

e.g. service delivery centers and locations (cities/towns /villages) within the catchment area of a center. An important parameter here will be the intra-class correlation (ICC) which measures the extent to which user experiences dier between clusters. For instance, if the clusters are very dissimilar to each other (large ICC), then we would want more clusters and smaller number of respondents within a cluster. However if the clusters are alike each other, then it might be more cost eective to pick a few clusters and sample a higher percentage of respondents within each cluster. In the IIMA study, an analysis of ICCs on each of the dimensions (Governance, Service Quality, Trips Saved, Wait Time, and Travel Cost) suggests that the ICCs range from 0.005 to 0.65 and the average ICC is 0.22. In coming up with sample designs, agencies should be cognizant of The level of clustering: ICCs are likely to be higher for higher levels of clustering. For instance, ICCs were lowest when the clusters were civic centers in Ahmedabad. The nature of the service being provided and service users: For services like e-Procurement where users are likely to be more homogenous, the ICC was relatively low. But the ICC was high for Khajane Payee since pensioners could come from a broad spectrum of the society. Aributes like governance and service quality are likely to vary most across clusters Table below provides illustrative sample sizes and corresponding MDEs. Level 1 refers to the rst level of clustering (e.g. service delivery centers) and Level 2 refers to the second level of clustering (e.g. locations in the catchment area of each delivery center). For purposes of illustration, we made the following assumptions for power calculations: There are 200 service centers in the entire state. ICC at rst level of clustering: 0.25 ICC at second level of clustering: 0.15 Variance of outcome: 0.25 Illustrative Power Calculations to Determine Sample Size and Design
Cluster 1 (No. of Centers) 40 25 20 20 18 16 16 10 10 10 8 8 Cluster 2 (No. of Locations per Center) 2 2 4 2 2 3 2 5 4 2 4 2 10 16 10 20 20 16 25 16 20 40 25 50 800 800 800 800 720 768 800 800 800 800 800 800 0.004 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.010 0.010 0.011 0.015 0.015 0.018 0.019 0.022 0.448 0.565 0.584 0.631 0.667 0.672 0.705 0.811 0.825 0.891 0.922 0.995 No. of Interviews in each City Total Sample Variance of Impact Estimate MDE

46

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Annexure III Prole of Pilot Districts in the Five States10


State Pilot District Population Rural Population (%) Madhya Pradesh Guna Gwalior Indore Sagar Shivpuri Maharashtra Latur Nagpur Pune Tamil Nadu Ariyalur Coimbatore Krishnagiri
12

SC Population of 25% or more11 X X X X X X X X X X X

1,666,767 1,632,109 2,465,827 2,021,987 1,441,950 2,080,285 4,067,637 7,232,555 695,524 4,271,856 1,546,700 493,646 1,169,474 1,202,030 3,290,586 3,769,456 2,872,335 3,619,661 3,214,832 3,192,695 3,401,173

78.7 39.8 29.8 70.8 83.4 76.4 35.7 41.9 88.6 34.0 83.6 84.0 79.7 62.6 44.8 80.4 90.5 88.0 95.3 92.6 82.2

Perambalur Thiruvarur Uar Pradesh Gautam Buddha Nagar Ghaziabad Gorakhpur Rae Barelli Sitapur Sultanpur West Bengal Bankura Jalpaiguri

X X X

Source: Census of India 2001. (2001). District Prole. Retrieved January 13, 2011, from hp://www.censusindia.gov.in/Tables_Published/Basic_Data_Sheet.aspx

___________________ 10

Shaded rows indicate districts that were selected for the study.

11 indicates that as per the Census of India 2001 records, the district has an SC Population of 25% or more whereas X indicates otherwise. 12 Since Krishnagiri district was carved out of Dharmapuri district in February 2004, data reported for this district is based on information obtained from the website of Krishnagiri district (hp://www.krishnagiri.tn.nic.in/prole.html) instead of the Census of India 2001 data.

47

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Annexure IV Service Usage across the Five States (by Number and % of Respondents)13
Services No. Birth certicate Caste certicate Character certicate Death certicate Domicile certicate Employment certicate FPS licence Handicap certicate Income certicate Ration card Residence certicate Restaurant license Stamp vendor license Weapon license Others Total 30 74 0 10 0 0 1 1 42 169 70 1 7 2 0 407 MP % 7.4 18.2 0.0 2.5 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 10.3 41.5 17.2 0.2 1.7 0.5 0.0 100.0 No. 12 232 5 7 18 8 0 4 99 19 32 0 0 0 14 450 MH % 2.7 51.6 1.1 1.6 4.0 1.8 0.0 0.9 22.0 4.2 7.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.1 100.0 No. 123 1 0 15 0 77 0 44 2 137 1 0 0 0 0 400 TN % 30.8 0.3 0.0 3.8 0.0 19.3 0.0 11.0 0.5 34.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 No. 43 73 0 17 1 0 0 8 135 89 41 0 0 1 0 408 UP % 10.5 17.9 0.0 4.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 2.0 33.1 21.8 10.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 No. 144 23 1 19 6 9 0 7 6 134 41 0 2 0 8 400 WB % 36.0 5.8 0.3 4.8 1.5 2.3 0.0 1.8 1.5 33.5 10.3 0.0 0.5 0.0 2.0 100.0 No. 352 403 6 68 25 94 1 64 284 548 185 1 9 3 22 2,065 Total % 17.05 1952 0.29 0.29 1.21 4.55 0.05 3.10 13.75 26.54 8.96 0.05 0.44 0.15 1.07 100

___________________ 13 The total column represents the aggregate number of users of the service across all states and percentage of all respondents using the service for all states.

48

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Annexure V Type of Service Availed (by % of Respondents) 14


Services Madhya Pradesh Birth certicate Caste certicate Income certicate Ration card Residence certicate Overall Maharashtra Caste certicate Income certicate Ration card Residence certicate Overall Tamil Nadu Birth certicate Employment certicate Ration card Overall Uar Pradesh Birth certicate Caste certicate Income certicate Ration card Residence certicate Overall West Bengal Birth certicate Caste certicate Ration card Residence certicate Overall 100.0 100.0 81.3 97.6 93.3 0.0 0.0 11.2 0.0 4.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 6.7 2.4 2.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 93.0 98.6 97.8 42.7 97.6 85.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 28.1 0.0 6.9 4.7 1.4 0.0 13.5 0.0 3.7 2.3 0.0 1.5 15.7 2.4 4.4 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.2 100.0 17.5 71.0 0.0 0.0 13.1 4.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 69.3 24.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.1 100.0 47.4 100.0 97.3 0.9 0.0 36.8 0.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 15.8 0.0 0.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 97.6 88.8 98.6 94.6 0.0 0.0 2.4 10.1 1.4 4.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 For a new document For renewal of document For copies of document For changes in document Total

___________________ 14

Annexure V is generated on the basis of Question number 6 (Part 2) of the questionnaire.

49

50
Annexure VI
MH Village 16.7 0.9 0.0 28.6 0.0 0.0 N.A. 0.0 2.0 15.8 18.8 N.A. N.A. N.A. 0.0 3.8 85.1 11.1 42.9 57.1 N.A. 14.5 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. 68.5 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. 17.0 68.8 12.5 0.0 100 0.0 68.4 15.8 31.4 48.2 20.4 97.8 0.0 N.A. N.A. 0.0 N.A. 31.4 92.9 5.1 0.0 50.0 50.0 0.7 100 0.0 4.5 88.6 6.8 0.0 50.0 95.6 1.1 100 N.A. N.A. 0.0 N.A. 64.5 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. 50.0 50.0 0.0 90.9 9.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 N.A. 50.0 3.7 1.1 0.0 N.A. N.A. 100 N.A. 4.2 55.6 44.4 N.A. N.A. N.A. 0.0 0.0 100 42.9 28.6 20.0 73.3 6.7 82.4 17.6 0.0 52.6 100 44.4 N.A. 0.0 0.0 32.1 39.0 N.A. 50.0 N.A. 12.5 32.0 100 0.0 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. 100 92.7 6.5 0.0 0.0 100 0.0 94.5 5.5 4.3 65.2 0.0 47.4 0.0 44.4 N.A. 100 33.3 61.2 53.7 N.A. 50.0 N.A. 75.0 56.5 75.0 8.3 8.1 69.9 22.0 60.5 37.2 2.3 31.3 54.2 Tehsil District Village Tehsil District Village Tehsil District Village Tehsil District 14.6 30.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 11.1 N.A. 0.0 66.7 6.7 7.3 N.A. 0.0 N.A. 12.5 11.5 6.7 17.6 N.A. 0.0 N.A. N.A. 100 100 4.8 1.2 7.2 0.0 57.1 50.0 N.A. 7.6 TN UP WB Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Location of Oce from which Service is Availed (by % of Respondents)15

Services

MP

Village

Tehsil

District

Birth

76.7

16.7

Caste

4.1

78.4

Character

N.A.

N.A.

Death

90.0

10.0

Domicile

N.A.

N.A.

Employment

N.A.

N.A.

FPS licence

0.0

0.0

Handicap

0.0

0.0

Income

9.5

85.7

Ration card

92.3

6.5

Residence

8.7

84.1

Restaurant license

0.0

100

Stamp vendor license

0.0

42.9

Weapon license

50.0

0.0

Others

N.A.

N.A.

Overall

49.8

42.6

___________________

15

N.A. indicates that the sample did not include any respondent who had used the service. Annexure VI is generated on the basis of Question number 13 (Part 2) of the survey questionnaire.

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Annexure VII Detailed Analysis of Costs of Availing Services 16


Services Madhya Pradesh Mean NUMBER OF TRIPS Birth Caste Employment Income Ration card Residence Overall Birth Caste Employment Income Ration card Residence Overall Birth Caste Employment Income Ration card Residence Overall Birth Caste Employment Income Ration card Residence Overall 2.50 5.32 N.A. 3.07 4.51 3.94 4.25 47.23 170.76 N.A. 190.17 82.79 122.32 115.81 20.56 56.83 N.A. 71.81 30.22 43.85 41.59 9.63 20.23 N.A. 8.29 71.20 19.09 40.32 % Birth Caste Employment Income Ration card Residence
___________________ 16

Maharashtra Mean N.A. 3.23 N.A. 1.94 3.58 1.81 2.79 N.A. 309.27 N.A. 201.46 323.16 139.88 267.83 N.A. 112.25 N.A. 109.12 115.57 77.26 108.67 N.A. 19.01 N.A. 6.34 26.00 5.47 14.94 % 0 13.8 0 7.1 10.5 15.6 N N.A. 232 N.A. 99 19 32 382 N.A. 232 N.A. 99 19 32 382 N.A. 232 N.A. 99 19 32 382 N.A. 232 N.A. 99 19 32 382 N 12 232 8 99 19 32 SE N.A. 0.16 N.A. 0.12 0.59 0.15 0.11 N.A. 12.65 N.A. 14.84 40.40 18.24 9.46 N.A. 3.62 N.A. 6.61 10.55 10.17 2.99 N.A. 1.36 N.A. 1.14 5.36 1.26 0.98

Tamil Nadu Mean 2.50 N.A. 2.95 N.A. 2.56 N.A. 2.63 100.69 N.A. 109.16 N.A. 85.26 N.A. 96.35 42.67 N.A. 37.27 N.A. 35.04 N.A. 38.34 13.80 N.A. 15.31 N.A. 22.27 N.A. 17.59 % 0 N.A. 3.9 N.A. 2.2 N.A. N 123 N.A. 77 N.A. 137 N.A. 337 123 N.A. 77 N.A. 137 N.A. 337 123 N.A. 77 N.A. 137 N.A. 337 123 N.A. 77 N.A. 137 N.A. 337 N 123 N.A 77 N.A. 137 N.A. SE 0.16 N.A. 0.08 N.A. 0.15 N.A. 0.09 6.21 N.A. 6.31 N.A. 4.67 N.A. 3.32 2.71 N.A. 2.10 N.A. 1.90 N.A. 1.35 0.91 N.A. 2.02 N.A. 2.84 N.A. 1.30

Uar Pradesh Mean 2.14 2.75 N.A. 2.56 3.10 2.85 2.71 43.65 96.49 N.A. 107.90 45.61 87.00 81.66 19.32 33.92 N.A. 39.59 16.61 30.06 29.82 7.12 10.38 N.A. 7.77 34.00 13.00 14.89 % 25.6 23.3 N.A. 24.4 29.2 31.7 N 43 73 N.A. 135 89 41 381 43 73 N.A. 135 89 41 381 43 73 N.A. 135 89 41 381 43 73 N.A. 135 89 41 381 N 43 73 N.A. 135 89 41 SE 0.08 0.15 N.A. 0.09 0.27 0.18 0.08 10.50 13.87 N.A. 10.87 8.02 16.32 5.62 4.56 4.35 N.A. 3.43 2.81 5.62 1.85 1.53 1.22 N.A. 0.60 5.49 2.18 1.45

West Bengal Mean 2.16 3.65 N.A. N.A. 3.01 1.63 2.53 106.63 147.61 N.A. N.A. 181.93 74.39 135.02 47.20 44.26 N.A. N.A. 61.04 42.87 51.90 123.42 187.17 N.A. N.A. 178.11 25.61 137.41 % 9.0 0 0 0 17.2 0 N 144 23 N.A. N.A. 134 41 342 144 23 N.A. N.A. 134 41 342 144 23 N.A. N.A. 134 41 342 144 23 N.A. N.A. 134 41 342 N 144 23 9 6 134 41 SE 0.06 0.43 N.A. N.A. 0.13 0.16 0.07 10.17 21.46 N.A. N.A. 16.98 22.26 8.73 3.46 4.72 N.A. N.A. 4.39 7.69 2.48 12.16 39.65 N.A. N.A. 12.64 9.95 8.11

N 30 74 N.A. 42 169 69 384 30 74 N.A. 42 169 69 384 30 74 N.A. 42 169 69 384 30 74 N.A. 42 169 69 384 N 30 74 N.A 42 169 69

SE 0.34 0.57 N.A. 0.38 0.37 0.46 0.22 10.59 15.71 N.A. 25.47 5.39 16.76 6.10 4.72 5.78 N.A. 8.00 1.64 5.40 2.04 3.45 2.63 N.A. 1.75 8.61 3.93 4.14

TOTAL WAITING TIME (MINUTES)

AVERAGE WAITING TIME (MINUTES)

ELAPSED TIME (DAYS)

PROPORTION PAYING BRIBES (%) 10 45.9 N.A 64.3 20.1 40.6

N.A. indicates that either the sample did not include any respondent who had used the service or was too small to be considered statistically relevant. N refers to the sample size. Mean refers to the expected value (average over all responses for the service) of the cost element for the given sample (N). SE or Standard Error refers to the standard deviation of the means of all possible samples (of size N) drawn from a population. In Proportion paying bribes, the percentage column (%) measures the percentage of respondents who paid a bribe, from a sample of N for a particular service.

51

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Annexure VIII Reasons for Multiple Trips (by % of Respondents)18


Reasons Birth certicate Caste certicate Income certicate Ration card Residence certicate Employment certicate Total

Madhya Pradesh Concerned functionary was not available Documents/application submied by me were incomplete Counter was not operational Document was not ready Very long queue(s) at service center/ oce Application form was not available Others Total Maharashtra Very long queue(s) at service center/ oce Concerned functionary was not available Application form was not available Counter was not operational Documents/application submied by me were incomplete Others Total Uar Pradesh Concerned functionary was not available Document was not ready Documents/application submied by me were incomplete Very long queue(s) at service center/ oce Counter was not operational Total
___________________ 17

0.0 50.0 16.7 16.7 0.0 16.7 0.0 100.0

23.9 26.1 12.5 13.6 14.8 5.7 3.4 100.0

37.5 8.3 8.3 0.0 45.8 0.0 0.0 100.0

38.1 24.7 12.4 10.3 3.1 11.3 0.0 100.0

14.3 22.4 24.5 20.4 10.2 8.2 0.0 100.0

N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.

28.0 23.9 14.4 12.5 12.1 8.0 1.1 100.0

N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.

47.1 30.8 9.5 10.5 1.0 1.0 100.0

55.4 24.1 14.5 3.6 0.0 2.4 100.0

52.9 29.4 5.9 8.8 0.0 2.9 100.0

60.0 20.0 8.0 8.0 4.0 0.0 100.0

N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.

49.4 29.2 10.0 9.2 0.9 1.3 100.0

62.5 25.0 0.0 12.5 0.0 100.0

62.1 20.7 3.4 6.9 6.9 100.0

66.0 21.3 6.4 6.4 0.0 100.0

48.6 48.6 2.7 0.0 0.0 100.0

73.3 6.7 13.3 0.0 6.7 100.0

N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.

61.0 27.2 5.1 4.4 2.2 100.0

Respondents were asked to select the most important reason from a given list for not being able to complete a task ( e.g. submiing an application, checking the status of the application, receiving the nal document etc.) in a trip (i.e. 1st, 2nd, 3rd trip and > 3 trips ), for which a trip was made. Annexure VIII which is generated on the basis of question no: 20 (part 2) , presents the percentage of respondents which identify each of the listed reason as being the most important . N.A. indicates that either the sample did not include any respondent who had used the service or was too small to be considered statistically relevant. The total column represents the importance of a reason aggregated over all services. One of the reasons termed as others may include a number of reasons from the given list. Given that the proportion of responses covered under others is typically very small (max 3.4%), all such reasons are unimportant.

52

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Reasons

Birth certicate

Caste certicate

Income certicate

Ration card

Residence certicate

Employment certicate

Total

West Bengal Concerned functionary was not available Very long queue(s) at service center/ oce Counter was not operational Documents/application submied by me were incomplete Document was not ready Application form was not available Total Tamilnadu Very long queue(s) at service center/ oce Documents/application submied by me were incomplete Concerned functionary was not available Document was not ready Counter was not operational Application form was not available Total 39.1 31.7 24.2 3.1 1.2 0.6 100.0 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. 39.1 23.9 21.2 12.0 3.8 0.0 100.0 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. 30.6 29.2 2.8 0 37.5 0 100 36.6 24.5 2.7 0.2 30.5 5.5 100 50.0 22.5 12.5 2.5 7.5 5.0 100.0 39.1 17.4 17.4 0.0 26.1 0.0 100.0 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. 42.4 15.2 18.5 17.4 6.5 0.0 100.0 80.0 20.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. 45.0 17.5 16.3 10.6 9.4 1.3 100.0

53

Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Annexure IX Reasons for Paying Bribes (by % of Respondents)19


Reasons Madhya Pradesh To expedite the process To be able to pay less than the stipulated fee To enable service to be provided to you out of turn To receive preferential treatment from functionaries For additional convenience in obtaining service To inuence functionaries to act in your favor To backdate receipt Total Maharashtra To expedite the process To enable service to be provided to you out of turn For additional convenience in obtaining service To inuence functionaries to act in your favor To receive preferential treatment from functionaries Total Uar Pradesh To expedite the process For additional convenience in obtaining service To inuence functionaries to act in your favor To receive preferential treatment from functionaries To enable service to be provided to you out of turn To backdate receipt To get it signed from concerned functionary Total 33.3 28.6 9.5 14.3 14.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 41.4 17.2 24.1 6.9 3.4 3.4 3.4 100.0 49.1 28.3 11.3 5.7 3.8 1.9 0.0 100.0 16.7 50.0 11.1 16.7 2.8 2.8 0.0 100.0 33.3 28.6 14.3 14.3 9.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 36.3 31.3 13.8 10.6 5.6 1.9 0.6 100.0 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. 78.8 9.1 6.1 3.0 3.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 50.0 50.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 83.0 8.5 4.3 2.1 2.1 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 83.8 2.7 5.4 2.7 0.0 5.4 0.0 100.0 96.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.7 0.0 100.0 67.5 17.5 2.5 5.0 5.0 2.5 0.0 100.0 83.9 0.0 3.2 3.2 6.5 0.0 3.2 100.0 81.9 5.8 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 0.7 100.0 Birth certicate Caste certicate Income certicate Ration card Residence certicate Total

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Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Reasons West Bengal To expedite the process For additional convenience in obtaining service To backdate receipt To enable service to be provided to you out of turn To receive preferential treatment from functionaries To be able to pay less than the stipulated fee Total

Birth certicate

Caste certicate

Income certicate

Ration card

Residence certicate

Total

14.3 14.3 42.9 21.4 0.0 7.1 100.0

N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.

N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.

72.0 16.0 0.0 4.0 8.0 0.0 100.0

N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.

51.3 15.4 15.4 10.3 5.1 2.6 100.0

___________________ 18 Respondents who paid bribe were asked to select one or more reasons from a given list for paying bribe directly or indirectly to the department sta/functionaries. Annexure IX is generated on the basis of question no: 24(part 2) of the questionnaire. The values for a service and a reason represents the number who chose the reason (respondents could choose multiple reasons) as a percentage of all respondents who answered this question. The total column is calculated by adding positive responses for each of the services, divided by the total number of respondents who answered the question. N.A. indicates that either the sample did not include any respondent who had used the service or was too small to be considered statistically relevant. In Tamilnadu, the responses were inadequate for analysis.

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Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Annexure X Reasons for Using Intermediaries (by % of Respondents)19


Reasons Madhya Pradesh Was unaware about procedures to be followed Process was too complex Application form was dicult to ll by myself Would be impossible to obtain service without help of intermediaries Supporting documents required were too many and dicult to put together Was inconvenient to go to the concerned oce myself Wished to avoid any interaction with functionaries Payment of bribe to functionaries easier through intermediary Total Maharashtra Was unaware about procedures to be followed Procetss was too complex Delivery of service is quicker if availed through intermediary Application form was dicult to ll by myself Was inconvenient to go to the concerned oce myself Wished to avoid any interaction with functionaries Payment of bribe to functionaries easier through intermediary Supporting documents required were too many and dicult to put together Total
___________________ 19

Birth certicate

Caste certicate

Income certicate

Ration Residence card certicate

Total

0.0 33.3 33.3

53.8 19.2 11.5

50.0 0.0 50.0

9.1 36.4 9.1

50.0 5.6 22.2

41.7 18.3 16.7

33.3

3.8

0.0

27.3

5.6

10.0

0.0

11.5

0.0

0.0

11.1

8.3

0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0

9.1 9.1 0.0 100.0

0.0 0.0 5.6 100.0

1.7 1.7 1.7 100.0

N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.

32.1 26.4 13.2 15.1 3.8 3.8 3.8

41.2 35.3 17.6 5.9 0.0 0.0 0.0

33.3 33.3 33.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

60.0 40.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

35.9 29.5 14.1 11.5 2.6 2.6 2.6

N.A. N.A.

1.9 100.0

0.0 100.0

0.0 100.0

0.0 100.0

1.3 100.0

Respondents who used an intermediary/agent were asked to select one or more reasons from a given list for doing so. Annexure X is generated on the basis of question no: 26(part 2) of the questionnaire. The values for a service and a reason represents the number who chose the reason ( respondents could choose multiple reasons) as a percentage of all respondents who answered this question. The total column is calculated by adding positive responses for each of the services for which the data is presented, divided by the total number of respondents who answered the question. N.A. indicates that either the sample did not include any respondent who had used the service or was too small to be considered statistically relevant. In Tamilnadu, the responses were inadequate for analysis.

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Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Reasons Uar Pradesh Delivery of service is quicker if availed through intermediary Was unaware about procedures to be followed Would be impossible to obtain service without help of intermediaries Process was too complex Supporting documents required were too many and dicult to put together Wished to avoid any interaction with functionaries supporting document Payment of bribe to functionaries easier through intermediary Was inconvenient to go to the concerned oce myself Application form was dicult to ll by myself Intermediary was a friend Total West Bengal Was unaware about procedures to be followed Application form was dicult to ll by myself Supporting documents required were too many and dicult to put together Delivery of service is quicker if availed through intermediary Would be impossible to obtain service without help of intermediaries Payment of bribe to functionaries easier through intermediary Total

Birth certicate

Caste certicate

Income certicate

Ration Residence card certicate

Total

41.7 8.3 25.0 8.3 0.0

62.5 12.5 6.3 2.5 1.3

60.5 12.2 10.9 4.1 2.7

44.4 5.6 27.8 0.0 0.0

56.5 10.9 2.2 10.9 10.9

58.7 11.6 9.9 4.6 3.3

0.0 8.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.3 100.0

6.3 3.8 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0

2.7 1.4 2.7 1.4 1.4 0.0 100.0

5.6 16.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0

0.0 2.2 0.0 4.3 2.2 0.0 100.0

3.3 3.3 2.6 1.3 1.0 0.3 100.0

44.4 22.2

50.0 50.0

N.A. N.A.

40.0 20.0

0.0 100.0

40.7 25.9

22.2

0.0

N.A.

20.0

0.0

18.5

0.0

0.0

N.A.

13.3

0.0

7.4

0.0

0.0

N.A.

6.7

0.0

3.7

11.1 100.0

0.0 100.0

N.A. N.A.

0.0 100.0

0.0 100.0

3.7 100.0

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Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Annexure XI Detailed Analysis of Overall Experience, Overall Quality of Service and Overall Quality of Governance (On A 5-Point Scale)20
Services Madhya Pradesh Mean N SE Maharashtra Mean N SE Tamil Nadu Mean N SE Uar Pradesh Mean N SE Mean West Bengal N SE

OVERALL EXPERIENCE OF AVAILING SERVICE (5-POINT SCALE) Birth Caste Employment Income Ration card Residence Overall 3.53 2.77 N.A. 3.17 3.41 3.07 3.23 30 74 N.A. 42 169 69 406 0.19 0.12 N.A. 0.15 0.08 0.13 0.05 N.A. 3.61 N.A. 3.83 3.58 3.91 3.70 N.A. 232 N.A. 99 19 32 450 N.A. 0.04 N.A. 0.05 0.18 0.12 0.03 4.18 N.A. 3.97 N.A. 4.16 N.A. 4.09 123 N.A. 77 N.A. 137 N.A. 400 0.05 N.A. 0.05 N.A. 0.04 N.A. 0.03 3.53 2.68 N.A. 2.87 3.56 2.85 3.10 43 73 N.A. 135 89 41 408 0.12 0.09 N.A. 0.07 0.07 0.12 0.04 3.64 3.39 N.A. N.A. 3.43 4.02 3.59 144 23 N.A. N.A. 134 41 400 0.07 0.22 N.A. N.A. 0.08 0.14 0.05

OVERALL QUALITY OF SERVICE (5-POINT SCALE) Birth Caste Employment Income Ration card Residence Overall 3.63 2.89 N.A. 3.02 3.36 3.07 3.21 30 74 N.A. 42 169 69 406 0.12 0.11 N.A. 0.13 0.08 0.11 0.05 N.A. 3.83 N.A. 4.01 3.58 3.72 3.83 N.A. 232 N.A. 99 19 32 450 N.A. 0.05 N.A. 0.05 0.14 0.15 0.03 4.02 N.A. 3.38 N.A. 3.99 N.A. 3.82 123 N.A. 77 N.A. 137 N.A. 400 0.08 N.A. 0.07 N.A. 0.07 N.A. 0.04 3.42 2.71 N.A. 2.81 3.43 2.73 3.03 43 73 N.A. 135 89 41 408 0.11 0.08 N.A. 0.06 0.08 0.12 0.04 3.65 3.48 N.A. N.A. 3.51 3.80 3.61 144 23 N.A. N.A. 134 41 400 0.05 0.15 N.A. N.A. 0.06 0.10 0.03

OVERALL QUALITY OF GOVERNANCE (5-POINT SCALE) Birth Caste Employment Income Ration card Residence Overall 3.40 2.99 N.A. 3.21 3.31 3.06 3.21 30 74 N.A. 42 169 69 406 0.14 0.11 N.A. 0.14 0.08 0.11 0.05 N.A. 3.88 N.A. 4.07 3.63 3.91 3.91 N.A. 232 N.A. 99 19 32 450 N.A. 0.04 N.A. 0.06 0.16 0.17 0.03 4.07 N.A. 3.47 N.A. 4.10 N.A. 3.91 123 N.A. 77 N.A. 137 N.A. 400 0.08 N.A. 0.08 N.A. 0.07 N.A. 0.05 3.88 3.59 N.A. 3.56 3.79 3.78 3.68 43 73 N.A. 135 89 41 408 0.06 0.08 N.A. 0.06 0.05 0.11 0.03 3.69 3.52 N.A. N.A. 3.63 3.90 3.69 144 23 N.A. N.A. 134 41 400 0.06 0.12 N.A. N.A. 0.06 0.09 0.04

___________________ 20

Annexure XI is generated on the basis of question 31 of the survey questionnaire which measures the overall experience for a service used on a 5 point scale. N.A. indicates that either the sample did not include any respondent who had used the service or was too small to be considered statistically relevant. N refers to the sample size. Mean refers to the expected (average) of the indicator for each service for the sample (N). SE or Standard Error refers to the standard deviation of the means of all possible samples (of size N) drawn from a population.

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Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Annexure XII Important Aributes across States and Services (by % of Responses)21
Reasons Madhya Pradesh Convenience of working hours of oce Accuracy of issued documents Clarity and simplicity of application Management of queuing Clarity and simplicity of rules and procedures Costs of availing service Adherence of the time frame for service delivery Accountability of ocers Corruption in the working of the system Service area facilities Responsiveness of functionaries Total Maharashtra Accountability of ocers Time and eort in availing service Costs of availing service Responsiveness of functionaries Corruption in the working of the system Location of oce Total N.A. N.A. N.A. 5.5 4.0 48.7 5.8 4.7 47.8 8.8 8.8 52.6 8.4 4.2 54.7 N.A. N.A. N.A. 6.0 4.5 49.2 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. 14.3 10.5 9.0 5.3 13.2 11.9 3.7 8.5 12.3 8.8 7.0 7.0 14.7 20.0 3.2 4.2 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. 14.0 11.6 7.0 6.1 9.1 8.0 4.5 3.4 5.7 3.4 9.1 9.1 6.8 86.4 7.9 5.6 6.0 5.6 6.0 6.0 4.6 4.6 2.8 69.9 14.4 2.4 4.8 1.6 5.6 8.8 4.8 4.0 8.8 84.0 6.2 10.6 8.7 10.4 4.8 2.5 3.1 3.1 3.1 74.8 7.3 5.3 7.8 2.4 10.2 7.3 5.3 4.9 2.9 75.2 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. 7.9 7.5 7.3 6.5 6.2 4.8 4.5 4.3 3.9 75.9 23.9 3.4 7.4 13.4 8.0 20.8 13.5 8.7 10.7 11.2 N.A. N.A. 12.0 11.0 Birth certicate Caste certicate Income certicate Ration card Residence certicate Employment certicate Total

___________________

Each gure for a particular aribute and service for a given state represents the importance of the aribute. Each respondent was asked to select 3 most important aributes from a list of 21 aributes that were read out/shown to the respondent. The gure represents the proportion of all responses that selected each one of the 21 aributes as being among the three most important for service delivery. Any aribute which was rated by at least 7% of all responses as being amongst the 3 most important for any service has been included in the table. N.A. indicates that either the sample did not include any respondent who had used the service or was too small to be considered statistically relevant.

21

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Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Reasons Tamil Nadu Convenience of working hours of oce Clarity and simplicity of rules and procedures Corruption in the working of the system Responsiveness of functionaries Time and eort in availing service Accuracy of issued documents Mechanism to le complaints and provide feedback Total Uar Pradesh Location of oce Accountability of ocers Accuracy of issued documents Costs of availing service Dependence on agents Convenience of working hours of oce Corruption in the working of the system Responsiveness of functionaries Time and eort in availing service Total West Bengal Accountability of ocers Responsiveness of functionaries Location of oce Time and eort in availing service Convenience of working hours of oce Clarity and simplicity of rules and procedures Service area facilities Total

Birth certicate

Caste certicate

Income certicate

Ration card

Residence certicate

Employment certicate

Total

13.9 15.5 11.2 10.6 6.5 4.1

N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.

N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.

16.6 10.6 10.9 7.7 7.7 7.2

N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.

6.5 7.8 3.0 9.1 2.2 6.9

13.3 11.8 9.2 9.1 6.0 6.0

2.7 64.6 12.4 13.2 14.7 5.4 2.3 3.9 0.8 10.9 3.1 66.7 9.5 7.2 7.6 7.9 5.1 4.6 4.4 46.3

N.A. N.A. 10.6 7.8 6.9 9.6 8.3 8.7 8.3 5.5 1.4 67.0 7.2 5.8 15.9 13.0 2.9 2.9 10.1 58.0

N.A. N.A. 12.1 7.4 6.4 10.6 10.9 5.4 5.9 6.4 4.2 69.4 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.

1.7 62.4 11.3 10.5 8.6 4.9 3.0 7.1 7.9 6.4 9.0 68.8 12.7 9.7 6.5 7.2 5.7 5.2 2.5 49.5

N.A. N.A. 8.1 8.9 9.8 8.9 4.9 8.1 7.3 3.3 0.8 60.2 5.7 10.6 9.8 4.9 10.6 9.8 5.7 56.9

7.4 42.9 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.

3.4 58.7 11.2 9.0 8.3 8.3 6.9 6.6 6.4 6.4 4.3 67.5 10.1 8.5 8.0 7.6 5.8 5.4 4.2 49.6

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Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Annexure XIII Overall Experience On A 5 Point Scale In Availing The Payment Related Services22
Services Payment of land revenue dues Payment of utility bills Overall Maharashtra Mean N S.E Madhya Pradesh Mean N S.E Tamilnadu Mean N S.E Mean UP N S.E West Bengal Mean N S.E

41

0.10

3.63

83

0.08

4.44

36

0.10

3.85

20

0.11

3.63

92

0.10

4 4

393 434

0.03 0.03

3.55 3.57

210 293

0.05 0.04

3.81 3.87

364 400

0.04 .04

3.64 3.67

128 148

0.07 0.06

3.45 3.51

198 290

0.06 0.05

___________________

22 Annexure XIII is generated on the basis of question no: 7 (Part 4) of the survey questionnaire. N refers to the sample size. Mean refers to the expected value of the score on a 5 point scale for the 2 payment services for a sample of size N. SE or Standard Error refers to the standard deviation of the means of all possible samples (of size N) drawn from a population.

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Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Annexure XIV Summary of The Responses of DM Interviews For 10 Districts


Questions Asked Summary of Responses

Our survey found that the bulk of the services are All the Districts except Pune and Bankura are ready accessed by citizens at the taluka level. Do you feel with the CSCs. Pune District is not ready due to that the district is ready with the CSCs? lack of common database and confusion in signing authority. In case of Thiruvarur district, the answer was not appropriate. What needs to be done to deliver the e governance services in the villages through the CSCs? First of all, the concerned line departments (land, health, social welfare, revenue, transport, education etc) will have to be within service access network. This network will act as Parallel Avenue and should be user friendly for each citizen accessing the CSCs. Need emphasis on awareness generation among small entrepreneurs to set up CSC at village level. Financial viability of the CSCs should be considered and Central Govt. should help in this regard by disbursing the funds for the CSC on time. Creation of common database of the citizens Involvement of the local NGOs or local people in managing the operations of CSCs. Training and certication of digital signature of concerned ocers. Proper Infrastructure is necessary. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Financial viability and primary cost is high Lack of Common Database. Lack of Infrastructure at village levels. Lack of Clarity in legality of signing on the certicates. Delay in release of funds by central Govt. under CSCs Scheme. Services should be delivered through CSCs only. Lack of Awareness among the citizens. Lack of skilled employees.

What are the constraints being faced in opening the CSCs or making them viable and operational?

Accountability of ocers is one of the major concerns 6 out of 10 districts feels that Feedback mechanism expressed by citizens. What should be the measure(s) should be strengthen. taken to increase the accountability of ocers? Only 3 out of 10 districts feels that complaint handling mechanism should be put in place. Only 4 out of 10 districts feel that Close supervision of the departments in terms of meeting citizen charter should be there. Other suggestions are Morale boosting training to deal beer with citizen. Existing vacancy in department should be lled up.

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Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Questions Asked

Summary of Responses System of award and punishment should be brought in. Penalty provisions for delay of services Monitoring by Higher authority

One of the problems at the district level is bribery. The citizen has to pay bribes to expedite the service or sometimes bribes are paid to persuade functionaries to act in the citizens favor by misrepresenting facts. How can bribery be reduced? Can computerization help?

All the districts accept the fact that computerization can help in tackling the issue of bribery. The suggestions to reduce the bribery are as follows: More transparency in procedures should be provided. More Awareness about services in CSCs. CSCs should be available in villages so that number of trips will be reduced. Duration of service time has to be minimized; then bribery will also be reduced gradually Service delivery time should be notied to citizens. Ethics and value should be taught to ocers and citizens at school and oce level. Facility to check the current status of the service. Involvement of the ocers/employees should be decreased Penal action should be constituted against employees taking bribes. The intermediaries can be removed from the scene by implementing the following suggestions: Through public awareness. Routine and surprise inspection. Grievance redress Mechanism should be improved. More Transparency in system. CSCs should deliver the services at their doorstep (village level). Simplify the process. Only the person or his/her relatives should be allowed at the service counter. Intermediaries should be removed with the help of the police Following are some suggestions that can help to counter the perception that computerization adds complexity to the existing process: Through public awareness. Seing up CSCs at village level. Using user friendly soware. Rationalizing the system now and then. Proper training. If computerization is done, then manual processing should be stopped.

Sometimes it is felt that the presence of large number of intermediaries increases the chances of bribery. How can intermediaries be removed from the scene?

Quite oen it is said that computerization adds to the complexity of service delivery. However actually, it is found that aer computerization the processing of e governance services becomes easier. Can you suggest how to counter the perception that computerization adds complexity to the existing process?

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Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Questions Asked It is observed that the laid down procedures are sometimes not followed by the employees who interface with citizens. What measure can be taken to ensure that the procedures are followed in delivery of services?

Summary of Responses In Nagpur, Pune, Sultanpur and Perambalur laid down procedures are followed. The measures that can be taken to ensure that the procedures are followed in delivery of services are as follows: Inspection by senior ocer, both routine and surprise. Procedures are redundant so some of them need to be removed. There should be checking mechanism inbuilt in the system. A wrien guide line about service should be provided to the ocers during the service related training. Frequent change in guide lines from that stated in citizen charter should be discouraged. In Nagpur, Jalpaiguri and Pune, sta does have a citizen focus whereas in other districts there is no focus on citizen. In Ghaziabad, Nagpur, Guna, Indore and Sultanpur districts sta resisted the eort to computerize whereas in Pune, Perambalur, Bankura, Jalpaiguri and Thiruvarur districts sta do not resisted the eort to computerize. To handle computerization related changes suggestions are as follows: Training and Awareness about positive aspects. In Sultanpur district, female candidates are hired as they are more sensitized than male counterparts in dealing with general public. The sta who are presently involved in manual services they should be oriented rst on the following issues : 1. How to operate user friendly soware. 2. How to minimize the time line to give a particular service from a single window. All the districts are largely satised with the computer facilities except Bankura district. Some suggestions were also given to improve the computer facilities that are as follows: More Hardware facility required. Quality of Hardware and its management should be improved. Internet connectivity is problem because of coordination issue between NIC, SWAN and BSNL. Friendly and viable soware is needed to get all kind of certicate in all oces.

Do you feel that sta have a citizen focus and do they accept computerization easily or resist the eort to computerize? What are your suggestions to handle computerization related changes?

Are you satised with the computer facilities like internet connectivity, hardware components? If no, the please provide suggestion to improve the computer facilities in your district.

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Baseline Study of e-District Mission Mode Project 2010

Questions Asked There are many agencies that get involved in implementing computerization NIC, dierent departments, private operators, IT department of the state. Who should coordinate the eort? Who should have the ownership of computerization? Why?

Summary of Responses Either from IT department of the state or NIC will coordinate the eort. Accountability and control over resources should not be entrusted to the private players since they have short term vision, lesser accountability in comparison to the Government ocers. Collector can be the Ideal choice for the ownership of the computerization. Jalpaiguri and Bankura districts has refused to comment on this question Presently Ghaziabad, Sultanpur, Bankura and Jalpaiguri cannot oer the services that can be delivered on the same day requiring just one trip by citizens. In Guna, Perambalur and Thiruvarur district, as eld verication is required for the services, so only renewal of certicate and duplicate certicate can be issued. However in Nagpur and Pune districts, Birth certicate, Resident certicate, death certicate, caste certicate, land record registration can be issued. In Indore district, Birth and Death Certicate can be issued. The kind of process change that is required are as follows: Computerized database for all service. Clarity on the issue of signing authority on the certicates. Dedicated sta for dierent services should be appointed to achieve one day delivery.

Can some of the services be delivered on the same day requiring just one trip by the citizens? What are these services? What kind of process change is necessary to achieve one day delivery?

Can the other services be delivered in 2-3 days and Except Ghaziabad and Sultanpur districts, other requiring no more than 2 trips? How can the elapsed services can be delivered in 2-3 days and requiring time be reduced from current levels? not more than 2 trips in other districts. Following are some suggestions to reduce the elapsed time: Dedicated sta for dierent services should be appointed. Citizen can make their paper ready like in case of Income Certicate, Adavit and aestation is done. Notifying the date and time when they should come for the service. Adequate number of computer trained sta. The required documents need to be clearly mentioned and dened at the delivery centre itself. Computerized database for all services.

65