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20 WOOD DESIGN FOCUS

Changes to the 2005 NDS Supplement


Design Values for Wood Construction
by Kevin Cheung, Jeff Linville, Phil Line
Introduction
An integral part of the National Design Specification

(NDS

) for Wood Construction is the NDS Supplement De-


sign Values for Wood Construction. The 2005 NDS Supple-
ment has been updated to include the latest design values
for visually gradedlumber andtimber, mechanically graded
lumber, and glued laminated timber. An overview of those
changes is presented here.
Modulus of Elasticity for Beam and Column Stability
A notable change to all design values tables in the NDS
Supplement is the addition of reference modulus of elastic-
ity for beam and column stability, E
min
. The 2005 NDS uti-
lizes E
min
, which represents a 5 percent lower exclusion
shear-free E value so that design value adjustments are not
part of the basic design equation for beam and column sta-
bility. Applicable adjustments to E
min
are used to establish
the appropriate adjustedmodulus of elasticity for beamand
column stability, E
min
, for either ASD or LRFD. Tables 1, 3,
and 5A showthe additional E
min
column for visually graded
dimension lumber, visually graded timbers, and structural
glued laminated timber, respectively. Similar values are in-
cluded in tables for other materials as well.
Visually Graded Dimension Lumber
Four newspecies have been added to the 2005 NDS Sup-
plement for visually graded dimension lumber. Table 1 out-
lines four new species: Alaska Cedar, Alaska Hemlock,
Alaska Yellow Cedar, and Baldcypress. Alaska Cedar grows
in Alaska and the Western states. Alaska YellowCedar lum-
ber is manufactured from timber grown only in Alaska.
Mechanically Graded Dimension Lumber
New design values have been added for mechanically
graded dimension lumber. Specifically, footnote 2 of Table
4C in the NDS Supplement provides specific gravity, shear
parallel to grain, and compression perpendicular to grain
design values for machine stress rated (MSR) and mechani-
cally evaluated lumber (MEL). Table 2 provides an
overview of the new design values for MSR and MEL lum-
ber.
As with visually graded lumber and timbers, modulus of
elasticity for beamand column stability, E
min
, design values
have been added to Table 4C for MSR and MEL lumber.
Visually Graded Timbers
Two newspecies have been added to the 2005 NDS Sup-
plement for visually graded timbers. Table 3 outlines the
two new species: Alaska Cedar and Baldcypress.
Non-North American Species
Several newspecies have been added to Table 4F Refer-
ence Design Values for Non-North American Visually Graded
Dimension Lumber. Table 4 summarizes the newNon-North
American species.
Structural Glued Laminated Timber
Several changes have beenmade to structural gluedlam-
inatedtimber designvalues inthe 2005NDS Supplement. As
with dimension lumber and timber tables, modulus of elas-
ticity for beam and column stability, E
min
, design values
have been added for glued laminated timber.
Species groups for split ring and shear plate connectors
were removed from Tables 5A5D. In some cases, these
groups did not correspond to species groups assigned ac-
cording to NDS Table 12A. A review of the data used to es-
tablishconnector species groups indicatedthat values inTa-
ble 12A are appropriate. Specific gravity, G, of the wood
located on the face receiving the connector should be used
with NDS Table 12A for assignment of species group. This
change is consistent with current recommendations of the
American Institute of Timber Construction (AITC) and
APAThe Engineered Wood Association.
Winter 2004 21
Table 1. New Design Values Added to Table 4A Reference Design Values for Visually Graded Dimension Lumber (2 in. to 4 in.
thick) of the 2005 NDS Supplement Design Values for Wood Construction.
Species and
commercial
grade
Size
classification
Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)
Bending
F
b
Tension
parallel to
grain
F
t
Shear
parallel to
grain
F
v
Compression
perpendicular
to grain
F
c
Compression
parallel to
grain
F
c
Modulus of Elasticity Grading
Rules
Agency E
E
min
Alaska Cedar
Select Structural 1,150 625 165 525 1,000 1,400,000 510,000
WCLIB
No. 1 975 525 165 525 900 1,300,000 470,000
No. 2 2 & wider 800 425 165 525 750 1,200,000 440,000
No. 3 450 250 165 525 425 1,100,000 400,000
Stud 2 & wider 625 350 165 525 475 1,100,000 400,000
Construction 900 500 165 525 950 1,200,000 440,000
Standard 2 to 4 wide 500 275 165 525 775 1,100,000 400,000
Utility 250 125 165 525 500 1,000,000 370,000
Alaska Hemlock
Select Structural 1,300 825 185 440 1,200 1,700,000 620,000
WWPA
No. 1 900 550 185 440 1,100 1,600,000 580,000
No. 2 2 & wider 825 475 185 440 1,050 1,500,000 550,000
No. 3 475 275 185 440 600 1,400,000 510,000
Stud 2 & wider 650 375 185 440 650 1,400,000 510,000
Construction 950 550 185 440 1,250 1,400,000 510,000
Standard 2 to 4 wide 525 300 185 440 1,050 1,300,000 470,000
Utility 250 150 185 440 700 1,200,000 440,000
Alaska Yellow Cedar
Select Structural 1,350 800 225 510 1,200 1,500,000 550,000
WWPA
WCLIB
No. 1 900 525 225 510 1,050 1,400,000 510,000
No. 2 2 & wider 800 450 225 510 1,000 1,300,000 470,000
No. 3 475 250 225 510 575 1,200,000 440,000
Stud 2 & wider 625 350 225 510 625 1,200,000 440,000
Construction 925 500 225 510 1,250 1,300,000 470,000
Standard 2 to 4 wide 500 275 225 510 1,050 1,100,000 400,000
Utility 250 125 225 510 675 1,100,000 400,000
Baldcypress
Select Structural 1,200 650 160 615 1,200 1,400,000 510,000
SPIB
No. 1 1,000 550 160 615 1,050 1,400,000 510,000
No.2 2 & wider 825 450 160 615 900 1,300,000 470,000
No. 3 475 250 160 615 525 1,200,000 440,000
Stud 2 & wider 650 350 160 615 575 1,200,000 440,000
Construction 925 500 160 615 1,100 1,200,000 440,000
Standard 2 to 4 wide 525 275 160 615 925 1,100,000 400,000
Utility 250 125 160 615 600 1,000,000 370,000
Table 2. NewDesign Values Added to Footnote 2 of Table 4CReference Design Values for Mechanically Graded Dimension Lum-
ber of the 2005 NDS Supplement Design Values for Wood Construction.
Species
Modulus of Elasticity
E (10
6
) (psi)
Specific Gravity
G
Shear Parallel to Grain
F
v
(psi)
Compression
Perpendicular to Grain
F
c
(psi) Grading Rules Agency
Douglas Fir-Larch (N) 1.0 and higher 0.49 180 625 NLGA
1.2 to 1.9 0.49 180 625
2.0 to 2.2 0.53 180 715
2.3 and higher 0.57 190 715
22 WOOD DESIGN FOCUS
There were specific changes to Tables 5A, 5A-Expanded,
and 5B. An overviewis provided belowand is organized by
NDS Supplement table number.
Table 5A Design Values for Structural Glued Laminated
Softwood Timber (Members stressed primarily in bending)
and Table 5A Expanded Design Values for Structural Glued
LaminatedTimber (Members stressedprimarily inbending).
Table 5Aof the NDSSupplement is includedfor reference.
Design values for tension parallel to grain, F
t
, compression
parallel tograin, F
c
, andspecific gravity, G, are revisedfor the
16F stress class. The 2001 NDS Supplement showed different
values for this stress class in Table 5Avs. 5A-Expanded. Anal-
ysis indicatedthat the values inTable 5A-Expandedwere cor-
rect, so Table 5A was updated accordingly.
Shear parallel to grain (horizontal shear) design values
have increased for prismatic members, and adjustment fac-
tors in accordance with Footnote d have been revised. Hori-
zontal shear values in the 2001 NDS Supplement were based
on full-scale tests of laminated beams, which were reduced
by 10 percent based on judgments made at that time. Shear
values for non-prismatic members were those derived ac-
cording to ASTM D3737 from tests of small shear-block
specimens. Since that time, the structural glued laminated
timber industry has revised its recommendations and has
elected to publish test-based shear values for prismatic
members, removing the 10 percent reduction. This change
is reflected in the 2005 NDS Supplement consistent with rec-
ommendations of AITCandAPA. Footnote dadjustment fac-
Table 3. New Design Values Added to Table 4D Reference Design Values for Visually Graded Dimension Lumber (5 by 5 and
larger) of the 2005 NDS Supplement Design Values for Wood Construction.
Species and
commercial
grade
Size
classification
Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)
Bending
F
b
Tension
parallel to
grain
F
t
Shear
parallel to
grain
F
v
Compression
perpendicular
to grain
F
c
Compression
parallel to
grain
F
c
Modulus of Elasticity Grading
Rules
Agency E
E
min
Alaska Cedar
Select Structural 1400 675 155 525 925 1,200,000 440,000
WCLIB
No. 1 Beams and
Stringers
1150 475 155 525 775 1,200,000 440,000
No. 2 750 300 155 525 500 1,000,000 370,000
Select Structural 1300 700 155 525 975 1,200,000 440,000
No. 1 Posts and
Timbers
1050 575 155 525 850 1,200,000 440,000
No. 2 625 350 155 525 600 1,000,000 370,000
Baldcypress
Select Structural 1150 750 200 615 1,050 1,300,000 470,000
SPIB No. 1 5 5 & larger 1000 675 200 615 925 1,300,000 470,000
No. 2 625 425 175 615 600 1,000,000 370,000
Table 5. Shear parallel to grain design value (F
v
) comparison for Southern Pine and Douglas Fir glued laminated timber from
1991 to present, psi.
1991 NDS Supplement 1997 NDS Supplement 2001 NDS Supplement 2005 NDS Supplement
Douglas Fir
Prismatic Members, F
v
165 190 240 265
Notched/Connections/Cyclic, F
v
165 190 192 (=240 0.8) 191 (=265 0.72)
Radial Tension (Reinforced), F
rt
55 (=165/3) 63 (=190/3) 56 (=240 0.7 / 3) 63 (=191/3)
Southern Pine
Prismatic Members, F
v
200 240 270 300
Notched/Connections/Cyclic, F
v
200 240 216 (=270 0.8) 216 (=300 0.72)
Radial Tension, F
rt
67 (=200/3) 80 (=240/3) 63 (=270 0.7 / 3) 72 (=216/3)
Table 4. NewNon-NorthAmericanSpecies AddedtoTable 4Finthe 2005NDSSupplement DesignValues for WoodConstruction.
Species Grading Rules Agency
Montane pine South Africa WCLIB
Norway Spruce Romania and the Ukraine
WCLIB
Silver fir (Abies alba) Germany, NE France, and Switzerland
WCLIB
Southern Pine Misiones Argentina
SPIB
Southern Pine Misiones Argentina, free of heart center and medium grain density
SPIB
Winter 2004 23
Use with Table 5A Adjustment Factors
Bending About X-X Axis
Loaded Perpendicular to Wide Faces of
Laminations
Bending About Y-Y Axis
Loaded Parallel to Wide Faces of
Laminations Axially Loaded
Faste-
ners
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in Bending
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Stress Class F
bx
+
(psi)
F
bx
- a
(psi)
F
cx
(psi)
F
vx
d
(psi)
E
x
(10
6
psi)
E
x min
(10
6
psi)
F
by
(psi)
F
cx
(psi)
F
vy
d,e
(psi)
E
y
(10
6
psi)
E
y min
(10
6
psi)
F
t
(psi)
F
c
(psi)
E
axial
(10
6
psi)
G
16F-1.3E 1600 925 315 195 1.3 0.67 800 315 170 1.1 0.57 675 925 1.2 0.42
20F-1.5E 2000 1100 425 210
f
1.5 0.78 800 315 185 1.2 0.62 725 925 1.3 0.42
24F-1.7E 2400 1450 500 210
f
1.7 0.88 1050 315 185 1.3 0.67 775 1000 1.4 0.72
24F-1.8E 2400 1450
b
650 265
c
1.8 0.93 1450 560 230
c
1.6 0.83 1100 1600 1.7 050
j
26F-1.9E
g
2600 1950 650 265
c
1.9 0.98 1600 560 230
c
1.6 0.83 1150 1600 1.7 0.50
j
28F-2.1E SP
g
2800 2300 740 300 2.1
i
1.09
i
1600 650 260 1.7 0.88 1250 1750 1.7 0.55
30F-2.1E SP
g,h
3000 2400 740 300 2.1
i
1.09
i
1750 650 260 1.7 0.88 1250 1750 1.7 0.55
a
For balanced layups, F
bx
-
shall be equal to F
bx
+
for the stress class. Designer shall specify when balanced layup is required.
b
Negative bending stress, F
bx
-
, is permitted to be increased to 1850 psi for Douglas Fir and to 1950 psi for Southern Pine for specific combinations. De-
signer shall specify when these increased stresses are required.
c
For structural glued laminated timber of Southern Pine, the basic shear design values, F
vx
and F
vy
, are permitted to be increased to 300 psi, and 260 psi,
respectively.
d
The design value for shear, F
vx
and F
vy
, shall be decreased by multiplying by a factor of 0.72 for non-prismatic members, notched members, and for all
members subject to impact or cyclic loading. The reduced design value shall be used for design of members at connections that transfer shear by me-
chanical fasteners (NDS 3.4.3.3). The reduced design value shall also be used for determination of design values for radial tension (NDS 5.2.2).
e
Design values are for timbers with laminations made froma single piece of lumber across the width or multiple pieces that have been edge bonded. For
timbers manufactured frommultiple piece laminations (across width) that are not edge bonded, value shall be multiplied by 0.4 for members with 5,
7, or 9 laminations or by 0.5 for all other members. This reduction shall be cumulative with the adjustment in footnote (d).
f
Certain Southern Pine combinations may contain lumber with wane. If lumber with wane is used, the design value for shear parallel to grain, F
vx
, shall
be multiplied by 0.67 if wane is allowed on both sides. If wane is limited to one side, F
vx
shall be multiplied by 0.83. This reduction shall be cumulative
with the adjustment in footnote (d).
g
26F, 28F, and30Fbeams are not producedby all manufacturers, therefore, availability may be limited. Contact supplier or manufacturer for details.
h
30F combinations are restricted to a maximum 6 in. nominal width.
i
For 28F and 30F members with more than 15 laminations, E
x
= 2.0 million psi and E
x min
= 1.04 million psi.
j
For structural glued laminated timber of Southern Pine, specific gravity for fastener design is permitted to be increased to 0.55.
Design values in this table represent design values for groups of similar glued laminated timber combinations. Higher design values for some properties
may be obtainedby specifying a particular combinationlistedinTable 5AExpanded. Designvalues are for members with4or more laminations. For 2and
3 lamination members, see Table 5B. Some stress classes are not available in all species. Contact structural glued laminated timber manufacturer for
availability.
Table 5A. Reference Design Values for Structural Glued Laminated Softwood Timber (Members stressed primarily in bending)
(Tabulateddesignvalues are for normal loaddurationanddry service conditions. See NDS 5.3for a comprehensive descriptionof
design value adjustment factors.)
24 WOOD DESIGN FOCUS
tors were revised to keep shear values for non-prismatic
members essentially unchanged.
Historically, radial tension design values for structural
glued laminated timber were established as one-third of
shear parallel to grain design values. In the 1991 NDS, radial
tension values were 67 psi for Southern Pine and 55 psi for
Douglas Fir-Larch, respectively. For Douglas Fir-Larch, radial
reinforcement designed to carry all induced stresses was re-
quiredtoutilize this value, otherwise the radial tensionvalue
was limited to 15 psithis point was clarified in the 2005
NDS. Comparing 2005 to 1991 NDS Supplements, increased
shear values for non-prismatic members of Douglas Fir-Larch
and Southern Pine have resulted in small increases for radial
tension design values in these species. The slightly increased
radial stresses are recommended by AITC and APA and are
considered appropriate and preferable to multiple adjust-
ment factors as were used in the 2001 NDS.
Table 5B Design Values for Structural Glued Laminated
Softwood Timber (Members stressed primarily in axial ten-
sion or compression)
Table 5B of the NDS Supplement incorporates the follow-
ing changes:
Re-formatting of bending design values for bending
about the X-X axis, F
bx
. If special tension laminations are
included, tabulated values may be adjusted according to
applicable footnotes.
New combinations for Southern Pine were added with
extra information regarding slope of grain differences.
Shear value columns were consolidated for bending
about the Y-Y axis, F
vy
, and shear values were updated
consistent with Table 5A discussion above.
Conclusion
The 2005 NDS Supplement has been updated to include
the latest design values for visually graded lumber and tim-
ber, mechanically graded lumber, and structural glued lami-
nated timber. An overview of those changes has been pre-
sented. The most notable change to all design value tables
in the NDS Supplement is the addition of minimummodulus
of elasticity values for beam and column stability, E
min
, de-
sign. The change to shear design values for prismatic glued
laminated timber members is another significant modifica-
tion.
The 2005 NDS Supplement is part of the 2005 AF&PA
Wood Design Package which will be published in the first
quarter of 2005. For more information, visit AF&PAs Ameri-
can Wood Council website at www.awc.org.
The authors are Director of Technical Services, Western Wood
Products Association; Manager of Technical Services, Ameri-
can Institute of Timber Construction; and Senior Manager of
Engineering Research, American Wood Council, respectively.