Craig 1
Mechatronics
Modeling with Bond Graphs
The Practice
of
Multidisciplinary
Systems Engineering
Dr. Kevin Craig
Professor of Mechanical Engineering
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Bond Graphs K. Craig 2
Systems and Modeling
What is a system?
What is the systems viewpoint?
What is a subsystem? What is a component?
What is a state-determined system?
What is a model?
Why model?
Analysis?
Identification?
Synthesis?
Hydroelectric Plant
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IEEE Control Systems Magazine
Vol. 14, No. 4, August 1994
Bond Graphs K. Craig 4
Bond Graphs K. Craig 5
Engineering System Investigation Process
Physical
System
System
Measurement
Measurement
Analysis
Physical
Model
Mathematical
Model
Parameter
Identification
Mathematical
Analysis
Comparison:
Predicted vs.
Measured
Design
Changes
Is The
Comparison
Adequate ?
NO
YES
START HERE
The cornerstone of
modern engineering
practice !
Engineering
System
Investigation
Process
Bond Graphs K. Craig 6
Physical & Mathematical Modeling
Less Real, Less Complex, More Easily Solved
Truth Model Design Model
More Real, More Complex, Less Easily Solved
Hierarchy Of Models
Always Ask: Why Am I Modeling?
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Electro-Dynamic Vibration Exciter
Physical System vs. Physical Model
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Electro-Pneumatic
Transducer
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This system can be
collapsed into a
simplified
approximate overall
model when
numerical values
are properly
chosen:
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Temperature Feedback
Control System:
A Larger-Scale
Engineering System
Bridge
Circuit
Amplifier Controller
Electro-
Pneumatic
Transducer
Valve
Chemical
Process
Thermistor
R
V
e
E
R
C
Desired
Temperature
(set with R
V
)
Block Diagram of an Temperature Control System
Actual
Temperature
(measured with
R
C
)
e
M
p
M x
V
T
C
Bond Graphs K. Craig 11
Introduction to Bond Graphs
Similar forms of equations are generated by dynamic
systems in a wide variety of domains, e.g., electrical,
mechanical, and fluid. Such systems are analogous.
The bond-graph method is a graphical approach to
modeling in which component energy ports are
connected by bonds that specify the transfer of energy
between system components. Power, the rate of energy
transport between components, is the universal currency
of physical systems.
The graphical nature of bond graphs separates the
system structure from the equations.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 12
Bond graphs are thus ideal for visualizing the essential
characteristics of a system.
With bond graphs, designing and analyzing the structure
of a system perhaps the most important part of the
modeling task can often be undertaken using only a
pencil and paper. The focus can then be placed on the
relationships among the components and subsystems.
Bond graphs can provide an engineer early with
information about constrained states, algebraic loops,
and the benefits and consequences of potential
approximations and simplifications.
Bond graphs offer qualitative insight to the engineer, in
addition to being used for numerical analysis.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 13
Collection
of
Engineering
Multiports
Generally, when two
subsystems or
components are joined
together physically, two
complementary variables
are simultaneously
constrained to be equal
for the two subsystems.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 14
Places at which subsystems can be interconnected are
places at which power can flow between the
subsystems.
Such places are called ports, and physical subsystems
with one or more ports are called multiports.
A system with a single port is called a 1-port, a system
with two ports is called a 2-port, and so on.
The variables that are forced to be identical when two
multiports are connected are called power variables,
because the product of the two variables considered as
functions of time is the instantaneous power flowing
between the two multiports.
Power can flow in either direction, so a sign convention
for the power variables is needed.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 15
Since power interactions are always present when two
multiports are connected, it is useful to classify the various
power variables in a universal scheme and to describe all
types of multiports in a common language.
All power variables are called either effort or flow.
A curse of system analysis that becomes evident as soon
as problems involving several energy domains are studied
is that it is hard to establish notation that does not conflict
with conventional usage. The context in which the symbols
are used will resolve any possible ambiguities in meaning.
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The power flowing into or out of a port is the product of
an effort and a flow variable.
Momentum is defined as the time integral of an effort.
Displacement is the time integral of a flow.
Energy E(t) is the time integral of power, P(t). p and q
are called energy variables.
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
P t e t f t power
p t e t dt momentum
q t f t dt displacement
= =
= =
= =
( )
( )
( )
( )
dp t
e t dp edt
dt
dq t
f t dq f dt
dt
= =
= =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
E t P t dt e t f t dt
e t dq t f t dp t
= =
= =
Effort can be a function of a displacement
Flow can be a function of a momentum
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
E q e q dq
E p f p dp
=
=
( ) ( )
0
q
0
q
E q e q dq E = +
Displacement-Modulated
Transformer
Bond Graphs K. Craig 62
Power Conversion with Transformers and Gyrators
The effort and flow variables within each physical
domain have different units and therefore cannot be
directly connected.
However, since power is the universal currency of
physical systems, the power-converting bond-graph
components TF (generic transformer) and GY (generic
gyrator) provide a means for converting power and thus
connecting different domains.
The TF component generalizes an electrical
transformer, which has the property that the ratio of the
voltages (efforts) at the two terminals is the inverse of
the ratio of current, which is consistent with the fact that
the power is conserved, i.e., instantaneous power at the
input port equals instantaneous power at the output port
at each instant of time.
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Gearbox
n = gear ratio
e
1
= ne
2
f
1
= nf
2
Bond Graphs K. Craig 64
The GY component is the same as the TF component
insofar as power is conserved. The difference is that
flow at one port depends on effort at the other, and
vice versa.
The name gyrator arises from the property of a
gyroscope that angular velocity (flow) is converted into
torque (effort).
In the linear case, the TF and GY components have
the equations:
n and k are non-dimensional constants describing the
corresponding physical system.
In both cases, the input and output power is the same.
TF GY
e
1
= ne
2
f
1
= nf
2
e
2
= kf
1
e
1
= kf
2
Bond Graphs K. Craig 65
DC Motor
k = back emf constant = torque constant
e
2
= kf
1
e
1
= kf
2
Bond Graphs K. Craig 66
3-Port Junction Elements
There are two basic 3-port elements. These are also power
conserving. They allow all energy domains to be assembled
into overall system models. The 3-ports are called junctions,
since they serve to interconnect other multiports into
subsystem or system models. These 3-ports represent one
of the most fundamental ideas behind bond graph formalism.
The idea is to represent in multiport form the two types of
connections called series and parallel connections.
The first is the flow junction, 0-junction, or common effort
junction. The efforts on all bonds of a 0-junction are always
identical and the algebraic sum of the flows always vanishes.
Taken together, the equations imply that power on all the
bonds sums to zero. Power is neither dissipated nor stored.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 67
The second is the effort junction, 1-junction, or common
flow junction. The 1-junction has a single flow, and the
sum of the effort variables on the bonds vanishes. As
with the 0-junction, the power on all bonds sum to zero.
Physical
Interpretation
of
0- and 1-junctions
in several domains
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Basic 3-Ports
0-Junction
1-Junction
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Summary of Basic 3-Ports
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Examples of Systems
Involving
Basic 3-Ports
Note:
A 0-junction
has only a
single effort
and a 1-
junction has
only a single
flow,
independent of
the sign
convention.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 71
0
common-effort
junction
1
common-flow
junction
e
1
= e
2
= e
3
f
1
f
2
f
3
= 0
f
1
= f
2
= f
3
e
1
e
2
e
3
= 0
Bond Graphs K. Craig 72
Parallel Connection
Series Connection
f, v
x
1
, v
1
B
K
K
f, v
B
When two elements carry the same force they are
said to be connected in parallel. When two
elements have the same velocity they are said to be
in series.
Mechanical
Series & Parallel
Components
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Summary
The symbols 0 and 1 are chosen to be neutral with
respect to the physical domain.
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Example: Simple RCI System
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Fluid Resistor
Pure and Ideal Fluid Resistor
Most fluid resistors are nonlinear.
A sharp-edged orifice is an example.
2 1
f
p p
q
R
=
2
2 1
2
1
p p q
2A
=
A
2
>> A
1
Bond Graphs K. Craig 77
A pure and ideal fluid resistor behaves exactly like
a pure and ideal electrical resistor when the
voltage-pressure and current-flow analogy is used.
Fluid Capacitor
Fluid capacitors are found in numerous hydraulic
and pneumatic systems. Examples include
reservoirs, pressurized tanks, spring-loaded
accumulators, and air-charged accumulators.
An open reservoir is often used in a hydraulic
system as a capacitor.
A spring-loaded accumulator is another example.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 78
dh
q A Conservation of Mass
dt
ghA
p gh pressure at the tank bottom
A
=
= =
f
dh 1 dp
dt g dt
A dp
q
g dt
dp
q C
dt
=
=
Bond Graphs K. Craig 79
In this spring-loaded
accumulator, a spring rather
than gravity provides the
pressure increase. A volume
flow rate entering the bottom of
the tank causes the spring to
compress a distance x. This
increases the pressure p in the
tank.
dx
q A Conservation of Mass
dt
kx
p pressure in the tank
A
=
=
2
f
dx A dp
dt k dt
A dp
q
k dt
dp
q C
dt
=
=
=
Bond Graphs K. Craig 80
The energy stored in a fluid capacitor is given by:
Fluid Inductor
A mass of fluid is quite similar to a solid mass in
motion. The fluid mass has inertia and a force is
required to accelerate or decelerate the fluid.
2
f
1
E C p
2
=
Consider an ideal (no viscosity
and hence no friction forces)
incompressible fluid in an
unsteady (flow velocity is not a
constant) flow through a pipe.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 81
The fluid mass is A, the net force acting on the
mass is A(p
2
p
1
), and the acceleration of the fluid
mass is dU/dt.
From Newtons 2
nd
Law
A pure and ideal fluid inductor behaves exactly
like a pure and ideal electrical inductor.
The energy stored in a fluid inductor is given by:
( )
2 1
2 1
2 1 f
dU
A p p A
dt
dU dq
p p
dt A dt
dq
p p L
dt
=
= =
=
2
f
1
E L q
2
=
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Bond Graphs K. Craig 83
Causality Considerations for the Basic Multiports
Some of the basic multiports are heavily constrained with
respect to possible causalities, some are relatively
indifferent to causality, and some exhibit their constitutive
laws in quite different forms for different causalities.
Causality for Basic 1-Ports
A source impresses either an effort or flow time history
upon whatever system is connected to it.
In the linear case, with a finite slope of the e-f
characteristic, the 1-port resistor is indifferent to the
causality imposed on it.
In considering the causality of the 1-port capacitance and
the 1-port inertia, integral causality and derivative causality
result.
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Causal Forms for Basic 1-Ports
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The bond-graph
representation is acausal and
represents an equation. The
addition of a causal stroke
assigns the input and output
of each R component. This
causal assignment is not part
of the initial modeling but is
added later. Bond-graph
components are reusable
within different causal
contexts, whereas block
diagram components are not.
The causal stroke
perpendicular end bar
indicates the direction in
which the effort signal is
directed.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 86
Integral causality
Derivative causality
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Derivative causality
Integral causality
Bond Graphs K. Craig 88
Causality for Basic 2-Ports and 3-Ports
For a transformer, there are only two possible causality
assignments . As soon as an e or f has been assigned as
an input to the transformer, the other e or f is constrained to
be an output.
Similarly for the gyrator, as soon as the causality for one
bond has been determined, that for the other is also.
The causal properties of the 3-port 0-junction and 1-junction
are somewhat similar to those of the basic 2-ports.
Although each bond of the 3-ports, considered alone, could
have either of two possible causalities assigned, not all
combinations of bond causalities are permitted by the
constitutive relations of the element.
Only when some real system models have been assembled
is it clear why causal information is so important.
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Causal Forms for Basic 2-Ports and 3-Ports
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For a 3-port 0-junction there are only three different
permissible candidates in which each of the three bonds
in succession plays the role assigned to bond 1 in the
previous table. For a n-port 0-junction this description of
the constraints on causality is still valid and there are
exactly n different permissible causal assignments.
For a 3-port 1-junction the same considerations apply as
for a 3-port 0-junction except that the roles of the efforts
and flows are interchanged. Clearly, there are three
permissible causalities for a 3-port 1-junction, and there
are n permissible different causal assignments for a n-
port 1-junction.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 91
Causality and Block Diagrams
Block diagrams indicate input and output quantities for
each block and thus are inherently causal.
When causal strokes are added to a bond graph, one
may represent the information by a block diagram.
It should be possible to correlate the signal flow paths in
the block diagrams with the equations in the tables and
with the bond graph representation.
Note that when one rigorously maintains the spatial
arrangements with efforts above and to the left of bonds
and flows below and to the right, the block diagrams
have fixed patterns.
Block diagrams are more complex graphically than bond
graphs because a single bond implies two signal flows.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 92
Block diagrams have an unfortunate drawback; they
represent assignment statements rather than equations.
A block diagram cannot be drawn until the inputs and
outputs of each component are specified.
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Block Diagrams
for
1-Ports
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Block Diagrams
for
2-Ports
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Block Diagrams
for
3-Ports
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System Causality
RCI System
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The 0 junction corresponds to the 1
st
summation block.
The 1 junction corresponds to the 2
nd
summation block.
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Interconnected
Drive Train
Model:
Bond Graph
and
Block Diagram
Bond Graphs K. Craig 99
Exercises
Draw block diagrams for the following bond graphs ,
assuming that all 1-ports are linear.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 100
System Models
We are now ready to model the world armed with our
bond-graph arsenal of C, I, R, S
e
, S
f
, 0, 1, TF, and GY.
However, it is not true that every system you may
encounter will be reducible to a simple bond graph. But
the number of physical systems which can be
represented by a bond graph is amazingly very large.
We initially will look at single-energy-domain systems,
i.e., systems that involve only one type of power, e.g.,
electrical, mechanical, hydraulic.
Devices involving two or more types of power have
transducer elements coupling the different energy
domains.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 101
Electrical Systems
Any electrical circuit can be modeled by a bond graph
containing elements of the set {0, 1, C, I, R, S
e
, S
f
}.
Notice that the elements TF and GY are not included. That
is because these elements are properly used in
representing electrical networks, a more general class than
circuits.
First we will model circuits, then networks.
So the question is how do we use the junction elements to
construct an overall bond graph model of an electrical
circuit. Sometimes for simple circuits it is easy to
recognize that some elements have the same current
(flow) and others have the same voltage (effort). For these
circuits, bond graph construction can be accomplished by
inspection.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 102
Simple Electric Circuit
Bond Graphs K. Craig 103
To arrive at the bond graph, we proceed as follows:
C and R
1
have the same voltage and thus are attached to
the same 0-junction.
L and R
2
have the same current and so are attached to
the same 1-junction.
The bond joining the 0-junction and 1-junction enforces
the fact that the current through the inductor is the sum of
the currents through the capacitor and resistor R
1
.
All the 1-port R, C, and I elements have the power half-
arrows defined such that whenever the voltage drop
across the element is in the direction defined as positive
and the current is simultaneously in the defined positive
direction, the power is flowing into the element. We
always define positive power directions for R, C, and I
such that this is true.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 104
Most of the time, electric circuits are too complex to model
by inspection. There may be parts that are obviously in
series or parallel (common current or common voltage), but
constructing the overall bond graph model is much easier if
a procedure can be followed that ensures success
regardless of the complexity of the circuit.
So lets develop a fool-proof circuit construction procedure
with the aid of an example.
Step 1: Assign a power convention to the circuit schematic.
This step must always be done. Show the positive
voltage drop and current directions. For the I, R, and C
elements, the positive voltage drop is shown in the
same direction as the positive current. This ensures
that power is directed inward on the corresponding bond
graph element.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 105
For the source elements, it is not critical which
directions are chosen for positive voltage drop and
positive current. If positive current is defined such that
the current moves uphill against positive voltage,
then positive power will come from the source into the
rest of the circuit. If either the positive voltage
direction or current direction is chosen in the opposite
direction, then positive power will be absorbed by the
source.
Step 2: Label each node voltage on the circuit schematic
and use a 0-junction to represent each node voltage.
A node voltage is the voltage above and below or the
left and right of each circuit element. Label the node
voltages using letters. Every bond that touches a
particular 0-junction has an identical voltage.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 106
Step 3: Establish the positive voltage drops across the
elements using the 1-junctions.
Remember that 1-junctions add efforts (voltages)
according to the power convention. By properly
directing the half arrows on 1-junctions, the proper
voltage drop can be established across each bond
graph element.
Step 4: Remove all bonds that have zero power.
Before the bond graph can be used for equation
derivation or simulation, the reference voltage must be
established. Our reference is e
e
and it is zero since it is
the ground voltage. Since every bond that touches a 0-
junction has the identical voltage, all bonds inside the
curve on the figure have zero voltage and each of those
bonds carries no power.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 107
We can either append an effort source of zero voltage
to one of the 0-junctions representing e
e
, or we can
simply erase all the bonds that carry no power.
Step 5: Simplify the bond graph by using the bond graph
identities.
This is not an absolutely necessary step. By
removing the 0-junctions and 1-junctions with a
through power convention, a much neater picture
emerges.
Also the loop structure e
b
to e
c
has been reduced.
We establish the voltage drop e
b
-e
c
once, and then
attach I and C elements associated with L
1
and C
2
to a 0-junction constrained to have this voltage drop.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 108
Electric Circuit Example
Step 1
Step 2
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Step 3
Step 4
Bond Graphs K. Craig 110
Step 5
Bond Graphs K. Craig 111
Exercise
Consider the Wheatstone bridge. This circuit is
typically used with strain gages as the resistive
elements, R
1
through R
4
, and the voltage across the
load resistance, R
L
, is the output that is indicative of
any change in the bridge resistances.
Step 1 is completed. Construct the bond graph.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 112
Bond Graphs K. Craig 113
Electrical Networks
An electrical network is an extension of electrical circuits
to include transformers and gyrators.
An electrical transformer is a common electromagnetic
device used to step voltages up or down while doing the
opposite to current.
Electrical gyrators are exhibited in Hall effect transducers
where voltage across a semiconductor material is related
to a current through the material perpendicular to the
voltage drop direction.
The basic rules for bond graph construction remain
unchanged.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 114
The figure shows the electrical symbol for a transducer
where N indicates the turns ratio across the device.
Positive voltage drops and current directions are chosen
such that positive power is into the device on the left side
and out of the device on the right side.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 115
An electrical network with an isolating transformer is
shown below. Positive voltage drops and current
directions are shown. Notice that positive power flows in
on the left side of the transformer and out on the right
side.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 116
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Bond Graphs K. Craig 118
State-Space Equations
Bond graphs are an acausal representation. By
assigning a causal stroke to each bond, a causal
representation can be generated.
The causally complete model can be converted into
other causal representations such as state-space
equations and block diagrams.
The causal strokes on a bond graph provide sign posts
to guide the generation of state-space equations and
block diagrams. State-space equations can be
generated by hand.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 119
Causal Assignment
Abstracting the physical system as an acausal bond
graph provides a complete description of the
corresponding model.
There are many ways of representing the system as a
set of equations. The state-space representation for
system analysis and simulation is preferred.
For proper causal completion, which will result in a
set of explicit assignment statements, it is necessary
that exactly one bond impose a flow on each 1
junction.
Similarly, exactly one bond must impose an effort on
each 0 junction.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 120
The causality of TF and GY components is also subject
to constraints if self-consistent models are to be
generated. In particular, causality is transmitted
unaltered through TF components, that is, one
impinging bond imposes effort (flow), while the other
has effort (flow) imposed on it.
Causality is reversed through a GY component so that
both impinging bonds impose effort (or flow) and have
flow (or effort) imposed on them.
Within these guidelines, causality can be assigned
arbitrarily.
After specifying the causality at the external interfaces, it
is generally advisable for the modeler to specify the
preferred causality of the system C and I components,
which may have integral or derivative causality.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 121
For simulation or state-space representations,
integral causality is usually preferable since it
leads to ordinary differential equations.
Bond graphs can help engineers decide which
approximations are useful before generating the
equations, e.g., deciding whether to model a shaft
connecting two rotating masses as either rigid or
compliant.
Bond Graphs K. Craig 122
Steps:
Identify the states
The system states are the
integrated flows q associated
with C components and the
integrated efforts p associated
with the I components, in integral
causality. Here, they are q
1
and
p
1
.
Write state derivatives in terms
of states and inputs
Write outputs in terms of states
and inputs
1 1
0
1
dq p
f
dt m
=
1 1 1
1 1
1 1
dp q p
r e
dt c m
=
1 1
1 0
1 1
p q
f e
m c
= =
1 1
c c o 1 1
1
1 1 1
m m o r 1 o r 1 1 1
1 1
dq p
f f f f f
dt m
dp q p
e e e e e e e r f r
dt c m
= = =
= = = = =
Bond Graphs K. Craig 123
Bond Graph Case Study
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Bond Graphs K. Craig 125