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Chemicals & Human Health Toxicology Problem Set: Student Sheet Directions Answer the re!

"uestions #circle the answer in the Pre!$uestions column%. 'o to the website www.biology.ari(ona.edu)chh and clic* on the lin* to the Toxicology Problem Set. C. +rite the correct answer in the column labeled Correct Answer. All o, the answers can be ,ound in the Toxicology Problem Set. D. -x lain the correct answer.
A. &.

Pre-Questions (circle the answer you think is correct)

Which statement is the most correct?

A. Chemicals

Corr ect Ans wer (write the letter of the correct answer from the website) #

Explain (explain the correct answer)

manufacture by humans are more an!erous to human health than naturally occurrin! chemicals"
&. #oth

natural an human-ma e chemicals are potentially toxic to humans"

%i&e an example of each $atural toxic substance' (a on is a naturally occurrin! ra ioacti&e !as that enters homes an buil in!s from the rocks an soil beneath them" )an-ma e toxic substance' *ea -base paints or pestici es such as ++,"

C. $aturally

occurrin! chemicals are more poisonous to humans than synthetic chemicals"

-ne of the items below is a ha.ar ous substance" /our are sources of ha.ar ous substances" Which one is a ha.ar ous substance?
A. clo!!e furnace &. ci!arette C. a o! D. paint applie before

E What is a common health effect of this ha.ar ? Cause an aller!ic reaction in many people" What is the source for this ha.ar ? ,he source of ust mite parts is ust mites" *ist 4 a itional examples of a ha.ar an its source' *ea ' paint applie before 01235 batteries5 water pipes" C +escribe the primary ways a ha.ar can enter the bo y' ,here are three primary ways that a ha.ar can !et into humans' throu!h the !ut5 calle in!estion6 throu!h the skin5 calle absorption6 an throu!h the lun!s5 calle inhalation" Which route of entry may result in more of the toxicant in the bloo an why? - 7e smokes one of the ci!arettes6 the smoke has entere his bo y throu!h his lun!s an can cause harm"

0123 -. ust mite parts Which of the followin! is $-, a possible route of entry for a ha.ar ?
A. in!estion &. absorption C. exposure D. inhalation

www.biology.ari(one.edu)chh /A0-:

Toxicology Problem Set

When ++,5 a pestici e5 enters the human bo y5 it is "


+efine solubility' 8olubility means whether it can issol&e in water or lipi s" *ipi s are a type of fat" What type of chemical is more easily eliminate from the bo y5 watersoluble or fat-soluble? Water-soluble #ase on your answer abo&e5 is ++, easily eliminate from our bo ies? Why? $o5 it is not" #ecause it !ets store in fats an can remain in the bo y for a &ery lon! time"

Water soluble an is easily excrete in urine" in the bones"

&. 8tore C. $ot

toxic5 but is processe by en.ymes an becomes a ifferent compoun which is toxic"

D. /at

soluble an can be store in fat tissue" Who took the lar!est osa!e of aspirin?
A. an

a ult woman who wei!hs 049 lbs" an took :;; m! of aspirin

&. a

teena!e boy who wei!hs 0:9 lbs" an took <;; m! of aspirin

C. a

baby who wei!hs 4; lbs" an took 0;; m! of aspirin Chihuahua who wei!hs 9 lbs" an took 9; m! of aspirin

+efine ose' ,he ose is the specific amount of a chemical that enters the bo y" Calculate the ose for each person=animal in the >uestion (show your calculations an inclu e units)' /or example the a ult woman wei!hs 049 lb an took :;; m! of aspirin" 7er ose is :;;m!=049 lb or 4"? m!=lb" @t is important to express ose in terms of bo y wei!ht because a small person who in!ests the same amount of a chemical as a lar!e person recei&es a much hi!her ose"

D. a


Toxicology Problem Set

Which will $-, help you etermine the ose of a ha.ar ous !as recei&e by a person?
A. their &. their


respiration rate

Will the ose be hi!her or lower if' a person breathes more rapi ly? 7i!her A person is expose once? *ower A person is expose o&er years? *ower ,he !as is easily absorbe ? *ower

len!th of exposure to the !as source of the !as

C. the

D. their

fre>uency of exposure to the !as concentration of the

-. the

3. the

!asAs chemical an biolo!ical properties


Toxicology Problem Set

)ost ha.ar ous substances exhibit a B ose-response relationship"B What oes this mean?
A. ,he


+raw a oseresponse cur&e'

harm cause by the ha.ar increases as the amount of ha.ar enterin! the bo y ( ose) increases"

&. @t

oes not matter how bi! a ose you recei&e5 you will always ha&e same amount of harm=sickness"

C. Exposure

to the ha.ar always results in harm" percent of the people will ie when expose to ;"0 m!=k!"

D. /ifty

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Toxicology Problem Set

A family home has a clo!!e furnace that is pro ucin! carbon monoxi e5 a ha.ar ous !as" Which family member is likely to be harme the most?
A. #illy5


%i&e 4 reasons for your answer' 7e is the youn!est an therefore smallest person in the house5 an alon! with his mother5 )rs" $!uyen5 he spen s the most time in the home"

the son who is in 0st !ra e

&. #aby

8hea5 who is !oin! to be in preschool next year

C. Carla5

the nanny who cares for the to ler e&ery week ay mornin! $!uyen5 the mother who works at home"

D. )s"

-. )r"

$!uyen5 the father who works at the Dni&ersity All of the people liste below li&e in the same house" Who is )ost likely to experience toxic effects from the secon -han smoke?
A. the

+ Explain your answer' A personAs health status can affect their response to a ha.ar " @n this case5 the au!hter who has asthma is most likely to suffer harmful effects because her lun!s are alrea y experiencin! an illness an are less healthy than the other people who li&e there"

!ran mother5 who is &ery fit &. the mother5 who smokes C. the father5 who smokes D. the teena!e au!hter5 who has asthma -. the son5 who is in 9th !ra e

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Toxicology Problem Set

,here are se&eral ways to control or re uce your exposure to a ha.ar " -penin! a win ow in a room full of people who are smokin! is an example of controllin! your exposure to en&ironmental tobacco smoke by "
A. treatin!

the symptoms of the ha.ar ilutin! the ha.ar

Explain your answer' #y openin! the win ow5 fresh air will enter the room an the concentration of ci!arette will be re uce " ,his ecreases your exposure to ci!arette smoke5 but oes not completely eliminate exposure" %i&e 4 a itional examples of how to control or re uce exposure to a ha.ar ' -ther ways to control a ha.ar are remo&in! the source of the ha.ar 5 wearin! protecti&e !ear5 istancin! you from the ha.ar 5 an treatin! the symptoms cause by the ha.ar "


&. C.

istancin! yourself from the ha.ar

D. remo&in!

the ha.ar Which en&ironmental : health scientist woul etermine ways to pre&ent an re uce exposure to secon han smoke? 4. a toxicolo!ist 6. an epi emiolo!ist 7. an in ustrial hy!ienist 8. an occupational an en&ironmental me icine physician 9. a pharmacolo!ist

+o any of the careers escribe in this >uestion interest you? Why or why not? - Ees5 the en&ironmental me icine is the career that most intereste me" #ecause @Fm &ery concern about me ical an health care

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