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Aymen I. Zreikat and Khalid Al-Begain, Mobile Computing and Networking Research Group, Department of Computing, University of Bradford, BD7 1DP, Bradford, UK

Abstract

The coverage of a mobile system depends signicantly on the geographical nature of the covered area. The signal propagation can be dramatically different in downtown area with many high buildings than in a building free area. This is particularly critical in third generation (3G) mobile systems based on Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) air interfaces where the power management is a core part of the call admission control of the system. Therefore, performance studies of such systems based on free space assumptions may lead to optimistic results. In this paper, the performance of a 3G UMTS mobile network covering an urban area and surrounding suburban areas is considered. For modelling the propagation, the COST-231 extended Hata model has been used which represents more realistic propagation models for urban-suburban environments. Based on this model, closed expressions have been derived for the capacity bounds in the existence of interference due to non-ideal orthogonality of codes in the used CDMA system and background noise. These expressions are used to develop a network level sophisticated call admission control (CAC) algorithm to achieve nearly equal blocking probability and balanced utilization over the whole network area. Detailed simulation is used to study the performance of the network under different trafc and interference conditions. The results show that the proposed CAC algorithm performs very well in achieving equal blocking probability by releasing the load on the heavily loaded central area and, thus, achieving better balanced load on the network under different interference conditions. Additionally, some design and environment parameters are studied like the height of the base station and the average height of the mobile. Keywords: 3G Mobile Networks, Propagation Models, Capacity Bounds, Performance Evaluation.

1 Introduction

Coverage and capacity optimization have always been hot research topics in the Third Generation (3G) mobile networks. The dynamic nature of the capacity stems from the characteristics of the physical air interface which uses the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) concept [1][2]. Therefore, the traditional static call admission control (CAC) alogirthms that were suitable for 2G mobile networks (For example [3]) are not applicable to 3G networks like the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) [2]. In CDMA systems like UMTS, the scarce resource is the transmission power. Given the Frequency Division Duplex mode (FDD) of the UMTS, the power budget of the uplink and downlink are independent of each other. The power of the uplink is limited by the transmission power of the user equipment (UE) while the power budget of the down link depends only on the capabilities of the Node B (Base station). Furthermore, the Wide band CDMA (W-CDMA) used in UMTS uses a set of spreadI.J. of SIMULATION Vol. 4 No. 3&4 21

ing sequences or codes with optimal correlation characteristics to separate user connections. The interference of the different signal depends on this correlation and increases with the increase of the number of multiplexed data streams. Since most services require a given signalto-noise rate, the number of admitable data streams will be fewer than number of available codes [11][4]. As a result, many CAC algorithms were proposed in the literature that are based on either admitted power level ([10], [9], [12]) or on the value of the Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR) ([18],[19]). In [5], the authors proposed a new CAC algorithm based on capacity bounds of the UMTS system due to both interference and limited transmission power of the UE. This algorithm was extended in [7] to a multicell CAC using the soft handover feature of the UMTS network. In the later, the new connection request will be transferred to one of the accessible neighboring Node B-s if there is no available capacity in the nearest Node B or if the admission of this new connection will disturb any of the existing connections unless this connection can be accommodated in another cell. The CAC algorithm aims to uses the soft handover feature of the UMTS systems to provide multiple goals: (i) provide ISSN 1473-804x online, 1473-8031 print

A. Zreikat, K. Al-Begain: Simulation of 3G Networks in Realistic Propagation Environments efcient utilization of the available capacity, (ii) protect the QoS of existing connections, and (iii) prevent the loss of coverage resulting from the so-called Cell Breathing [11]. The main problem with the performance evaluation presented in [7] is that it assumes free space propagation within the investigated area. This assumption is usually not realistic and leads to optimistic prediction of the system performance. In reality, the propagation of the transmitted signal depends largely on the geographical and building intensity of the area ([15],[20]). In this paper, the same CAC algorithm of [7] is implemented in a UMTS network of 7 Node B over an area that represent and medium size town with a highly built city center and surrounding less built suburban area. For this sake, the COST 231 Urban-Suburban propagation models [6] is used which is an extended version of the Hata model [16]. In a previous work[8], the authors have derived capacity bounds for different propagation environments including dense urban, urban, suburban, rural in addition to the free space environment. The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 introduces the investigated environment by dening the used propagation model and summarizes the capacity bounds as the maximum number of users and maximum distance covered by the Node B in both urban and suburban environments. In Section 3, the CAC is introduced. Section 4, then, denes the simulation settings and the numerical results of the investigation before some concluding remarks are given at the end of the paper. work is going on the multi service case, this paper will concentrate on the introduction of the CAC algorithm for single service case. For this service class, we introduce where SF is the Service Factor, as the spreading factor and SNR is the minimum Signal-toNoise ratio required for this service. It is assumed that each Node B can ideally serve connections at service factor .

Suburban

Suburban

d1

d2 d3

Suburban Suburban

2.1 Basic assumptions

The actual capacity and the coverage of each cell within the network depends strongly on the interference levels in the cell. The interference stems from some basic noise, , and the interference from the non-ideal orthogonality of the codes in the used CDMA system. Let denote this non-orthogonality factor.

In this investigation, we do not consider mobility as it makes the introduction of the algorithm much more complex. This matter will be the subject of later work.

The investigation of this paper is based on a cluster of UMTS mobile network comprising 7 Node B stations (7 cells as shown in Figure 1 ). In [7] the Call Admission control algorithm is presented in a network of 7 cells where the ideal free propagation model is assumed. Whereas, in this paper, different propagation environments (urban, suburban) have been assumed using the extended Hata model,[8]. The middle cell is the urban (hot spot) area and the 6 surrounding cells are the suburban ones. It is assumed that every UE will be softly connected to the three nearest Node B-s, but the actual data transmission will take place through one at a time. The term Softly means that the UE and Node B are exchanging signaling information but no resources are allocated to the connection initiated by the UE unless a proper CAC procedure has taken place. Although the I.J. of SIMULATION Vol. 4 No. 3&4 22

2.2

Capacity bounds

In this section, the capacity bounds for urban-suburban environments are introduced,[8].

2.2.1 Extended COST-231 Hata model The original Hata model was published in 1980 by Masaharu Hata [16]. Hata took the information in the eld strength curves produced by Yoshihisa Okumura [17] and formed a set of equations for the path loss. The general Hata model has two limitations. It has a limited path ISSN 1473-804x online, 1473-8031 print

A. Zreikat, K. Al-Begain: Simulation of 3G Networks in Realistic Propagation Environments length and a limited frequency range. Therefore, a number of modied models have been produced to extend the path length and frequency range in order to cope with the requirements of the new technology. The Hata empirical model uses a propagation equation split up into two terms. A term that has a logarithmic dependence on distance, , and a term that is independent of distance. The Hata model also includes adjustments to the basic equation to account for urban, suburban, dense urban, rural propagation losses.

= (98>T,W F( 0&0X!Q#&%'7(9*-,/.UYP[Z

,<!(\8>T, .](F0VC

"!Q#&%'7(9*-,/.UYP 3,H5^`_ and JL>abY

Where:

(3)

2.2.3 Extended COST-231 Hata model for suburban environments From (1), the suburban model is given by :

"!$#&%')(+*-,/.102 354!2#6%'7(987:;,<. = +( 87>",?@(A ".B CC!2#6%'(+8):D,E, !F#&%')(GH,IKJL> * 8: 8> M

(1)

Lc X .]4"!Ide#&%')( 4

* 3 ,gfh.UCP

(4)

Where, is a propagation loss in environment of type , in dB. is the frequency of the transmission in MHz. is the height of base station or transmitter in meters (30-200m). is the height of the mobile or receiver in meters (110m). is the distance between the receiver and the transmitter in kilometers (1-20km). mobile antenna correction factor. is the correction factor which has different value for each environment.

Which means that the Hata propagation model for the suburban can be written as:

* 3 , f hi.]Ce

(5)

= (98>N, JL>

Where:

As can be readily seen, the path loss in the free space model depends only on the frequency and the distance. Whereas the other propagation models further parameters are introduced such as : the height of the mobile ( ), height of the base station ( ).

8):

8>

= (98>T,W F( 0&0X!Q#&%'7(9*-,/.UYP[Z

,<!(\8Pjk, .](F0VC

"!Q#&%'7(9*-,/.UYP 3,H5^`_ and JL>abY

2.3

(6)

Note that, the above general formula (1) has been given for urban environments. However, the formulae for other environments can be obtained from this formula by adopting the suitable correction factors.

2.2.2

I.J. of SIMULATION Vol. 4 No. 3&4

where is the received power, is the transmission power, is a function of , the height of the mobile and , the height of the base station, and the frequency, f. is the environment type, 0 for urban and 1 for suburban is the distance between the mobile and the base station, is the frequency in MHz,

lIm ln < *

(7)

o

8:

(2) 23

A. Zreikat, K. Al-Begain: Simulation of 3G Networks in Realistic Propagation Environments Clearly from (7), the distance,

(8)

The CAC algorithm aims to:1. Provide a required QoS for admitted connections by not allowing more connections than the network can serve efciently. 2. Protect existing connections from being disturbed because of the admission of a new connection. 3. Distribute the load over the network in an efcient way by transferring the new calls or even some existing connections from the heavily loaded cell to those with lighter load. 4. Avoid coverage loss due to the so-called cell breathing; i.e., when the coverage of more than one neighboring cell shrinks below a certain limit.

The complete derivation of the extended Hata model for each environment is in the Appendix at the end of this article. The propagation loss for the extended Hata model in an urban environment in the PCs (Personal Communication services) range is given by:

"!$#&%')(+*-,/.102 354!2#6%'7(987:;,<. = +( 87>",?@(A ".B CC!2#6%'(+8):D,E, !F#&%')(GH,IKJL> (9) The values of o (+87>_;87:$_D*-, for each propagation environment are given in (10, 11. s&utL9uwvE9txe v|\ 9+c 9 ~ F G\F |9|\ ~ uU E +\ s&utL9uwvE9txe ~ c u v|g +9 9 ~ F G\F |9|\ E |+ F V +EH+ | According to the above equation: (8), (10), (11)

(10) (11)

-The formula for the maximum distance between the UE and Node B can be dened as:

}r ~v |

(12)

Registration phase: (a)- The UE measures the signal power of all accessible Node B-s. (b)- The UE selects the 3 best signals and softly registers at these Node B-s. Let , and denote the distances to these Node B-s in ascending order. The information (cell-number, received power level) for these 3 stations are stored in UE (as we do not consider movement, otherwise the power levels should be measured and the list should be updated dynamically). The UE will attempt to connect to the one of these three Node B in the same order and the connection will only be rejected if it is rejected by all three Node B-s. The CAC algorithm works as follows:-

c _E

F } r ~ v c

?Fr1 p
?Er rs& utL 9uwvE\tx<{

(13)

The Call Admission Control algorithm:Assume that Node B is the closest with distance to the new UE asking for connection (In other words, the UE falls into the coverage area of cell ). Therefore, the UE will try rst to get admission in this Node B as follows:

5

3 CAC Algorithm

The CAC algorithm is implemented in a network of 7 cells. Let denote the numbers of existing active connections where denotes the number of active users in cell , . In the case of a new UE appearing in the network, the UE must perform a registration phase before being able to request resources for actual transmission of information which is controlled by CAC algorithm. I.J. of SIMULATION Vol. 4 No. 3&4 24

tg `0_$2$Q_Z

>X (G0t, as shown in equation 5 3. IF >i (A b0w, then goto REJ, otherwise continue with next step. 2 4. Calculate 5>X (A)t, for all other cells b 0!$!2!DZH_\ .

2. Calculate 12 above. ISSN 1473-804x online, 1473-8031 print

1. For cell , IF then goto the Step labeled REJ, otherwise continue with next step.

-0aj9(+k_F>X t ,

,E,L1z ^" ^" 6. For cell , check for all existing active connections 06 , IF for any connection the distance >X (Ay0t, then goto

5. For all neighboring cells to cell , ( ) check : IF , where is the distance between Node and Node then goto REJ otherwise continue with next step. TRANSFER, otherwise goto ACCEPT. 7. TRANSFER: is a procedure to transfer an active connection to another cell to which the UE is softly connected. Therefore, this procedure is a complete replica of this CAC algorithm except for the TRANSFER in order to avoid an innite loops. If the TRANSFER of Connection is successful then goto ACCEPT, otherwise goto REJ.

This assumption is not realistic for packet switched networks but if we consider the system operation at burst level where we assume that a group of packets will be buffered for transmission in the UE before initiating the call admission procedure , then this assumption can be acceptable.

8. REJ The connection cannot be admitted to cell , therefore , that is try with next cell (Node B), (a)(b)- IF then Goto to Step 1 otherwise goto REJECT connection.

] (AL15,

Parameter Number of codes Radius of the cell Spreading factor Service factor Signal to noise ratio Max. transmission rate Basic noise Interference factor Wave length Height of the mobile Height of the base station

Symbol N r SF S SNR

Values 64 578.03m 64 chips/symbol 32 2 db 125 mW -80 dBm 0.30, 0.50, 0.70 0.15m 2m,5m 50m,100m

9. ACCEPT connection of the UE in cell . Goto END. 10. REJECT connection of the UE. 11. END

4.2

Numerical results

4.2.1 The effect of the interference factor, ( ) The system has been studied via a detailed simulation using the parameters as shown in Table 1. The investigation will concentrate on the most important performance measures, the blocking probability and the utilization versus the call rate. All the result obtained in this paper were set to 95% condence intervals. The performance of the system in such environment can be inuenced by many factors including the interference levels, the physical characteristics of the network, like the height of the Node Bs and the height of buildings in the area. In this paper, we present only results that show the capability of the proposed CAC algorithm on achieving equal blocking probabilities over the whole area of the network by balancing the load even in different interference conditions and different trafc loading (the hotspot scenario). In this investigation, we set the Base station height (average mobile height) in the urban and suburban areas to be 100m and 50m, 5m and 2m, respectively. Figures 2 - 7 show results grouped into three sets according to different values of interference factor =0.3, 0.5, 0.7, respectively. Each set consists of two gures for the blocking probability and cell utilization. The utilization in the this case is calculated as the proportion of usage of the available bandwidth (codes). 25 ISSN 1473-804x online, 1473-8031 print

4 The Simulation

4.1 Trafc model

As mentioned earlier, the studied system comprises 7 cell where the central cell is heavily built area (Urban propagation model used) and the surrounding cell are modeled with Suburban propagation model. The arrival process over the whole network is assumed to follow a Poisson process. The trafc is assumed to be uniformly distributed over the coverage area of each Node B. Two different trafc patterns are considered in this paper: homogeneous and hotspot. In the homogeneous case, the load is equal for all cells. In the hotspot scenario, we assign a double load of the calls to cell number one which is in the center of the network while the other six cells have the same load. The latter is suitable for modelling a metropolitan area where the central Node B serves the city center area. The location of the user in the cell is chosen randomly and then the absolute coordinates of the user is determined by the Node B. The call duration is assumed to be exponentially distributed with mean and the user leaves the system as soon as the call ends.

0w

A. Zreikat, K. Al-Begain: Simulation of 3G Networks in Realistic Propagation Environments Figures 2 and 3 show the case when =0.30 which represents low interference level between codes. It can be seen that at lower trafc values the network can achieve very low blocking probability while maintaining good utilization. It can be noticed that the utilization of the central node is signicantly higher as a result of the higher load in this area. As the load increases, the blocking probability increases in all areas of the network but the CAC algorithm will keep the blocking level equal or very close in the central and suburban areas. This is achieved by transferring some of the connections to the outer zones and , therefore, the utilization of these cells will increase at a faster rate approaching the level of utilization in the central cell.

Utilization 1

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 2.0 Legend Urban Suburban

2.5

4.0

4.5

In Figure 4 and 5 where =0.50, representing moderate interference level, show similar behavior but with slightly higher blocking probability and lower utilization values. An interesting observation can also be seen in the utilization gure where the utilization in the suburban area goes even higher than the heavily loaded central area. This happens because at this interference level and load, the capacity of the system will be likely interference limited and, therefore, the full system capacity cannot be utilized. This limitation comes faster into effect in the worst propagation conditions in the urban area than in the suburban area.

0.001

1.0e4

This effect can be seen even more clearly when the interference factor is high =0.70 (6,7). In this case, it can be seen that the system reaches its maximum achievable utilization at lower load values and, therefore, the blocking probability grows very fast. In all cases, the results show that the CAC algorithm is working perfectly on achieving its main objective which is equal (or nearly equal) blocking probability over the whole coverage area of the network.

2.5

4.0

4.5

0.10 0.01

3.0 3.5 Call rate [Call/s]

Utilization 1

0.001

2.5

4.0

4.5

4.0

4.5

26

0.10 0.01

case when the average height of the mobiles is high as in case 3 (10m, 5m), the system start behaving like in the Free-space propagation model as there will be many connections in the line-of-sight with the Node B. (See Fig. (12,13)).

Legend Urban Suburban

1.0e6 2.0

2.5

4.0

0.10

Urbanhm=2m Suburbanhm= 1m

4.5

0.01

0.001

1.e4

0 2.0

2.5

3.0

Utilization 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 Legend Urban Suburban

3.5

4.0

4.5

4.0

4.5

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 2.0 2.5 3.0

4.2.2

3.5

4.0

4.5

Figure 9: Utilization at hm=(2m,1m) In the rest of the paper, we investigate two parameters. The rst is the average height of the mobile which can be an indication to the height of the buildings in the area. The second parameter is an important design parameter, namely, the height of the Node B transmitters. Three sets of the average mobile heights for (Urban, Suburban) areas are considered as follows: (2m,1m), (5m, 2m), and (10m, 5m). Figures 8 and 9 show the blocking probabilities for both areas in the rst case. The curves show that the blocking probability is relatively high although comparable in both areas (thanks to the CAC algorithm). However, the utilization on the central urban area is severely low. This means that it is of the worst scenarios to have people using their mobiles in the ground oors in a highly built area. As the height of the mobiles increase as in Figures (10,11), the blocking probability and the utilization improve signicantly. The blocking probability becomes even lower than that in the suburban areas (again as a result of the CAC). Finally, as extreme I.J. of SIMULATION Vol. 4 No. 3&4 27

Blocking Probability Legend 1.0 0.10 0.01 0.001 1.e4 Urbanhm=5m Suburbanhm=2

0 2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

A. Zreikat, K. Al-Begain: Simulation of 3G Networks in Realistic Propagation Environments determining the performance of urban-suburban network. In this study, the height of Node B in the central urban area is given three values (50m, 100m, 150m) while the height of the Node B in the suburban area is kept xed to 50m.

Legend Utilization 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 2.0 2.5 3.0 Urbanhm=5m Suburbanhm=2m

3.5

4.0

4.5

The Figures show results on the blocking probability and the utilization for the urban area (Fig. 14,15) and the suburban areas (Fig. 16,17) for the hb values. The curves show clearly that increasing the height of the urban Node B from 50m to 100m has a noticeable advantage on both the blocking probability and the bandwidth utilization in the urban area. There is also some improvement as the height goes up to 150m but with much less volume. This result hints to that there should be an optimization issue in cost-performance in this regard which is out the scope of this paper.

0.10

0.01

0.001

1.e4

0 2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

As for the suburban areas, interestingly, it can be seen in Fig. 16 that the improvement of performance in the urban area merges to the blocking probability in the suburban areas, as well. This is because of the CAC algorithm works on network bases rather than on one cell. Of course, the volume of the improvement follows the same argument as above. Another interesting observation is that the utilization of the suburban areas (Fig. 17) is marginally affected by this parameter. This leads to thinking that the drop in the blocking probability in these areas comes because of less transferred connections from the central area.

0.10

0.01

The last observations give another evidence on the effectiveness of the proposed call admission control on achieving network wide performance improvement.

0.001

1.e4

Blocking Probability

0 2.0

2.5

3.0

0.01

1.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

0.10

0.001

1.e4

4.2.3

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

Figure 14: Blocking probability As the height of the mobile affects the performance of both the urban and the suburban areas, the height of the base station (Node B) is also an important parameter in I.J. of SIMULATION Vol. 4 No. 3&4 28 ISSN 1473-804x online, 1473-8031 print

A. Zreikat, K. Al-Begain: Simulation of 3G Networks in Realistic Propagation Environments were derived from the extended Hata model. The algorithm provides protection to the QoS in the network, equal blocking probabilities over the coverage area and avoids loss of coverage due to cell breathing. The performance of the network cluster comprising 7 cells is investigated using a detailed simulation taking into account the inuence of the interference on the capacity/coverage of the network. The hotspot trafc scenarios is considered where the load in the central cell is higher than that in the suburban cells. The simulation results show that the proposed CAC algorithm performs well and achieves nearly equal blocking probability over the network by balancing the load over the network and thus achieving better utilization in the network. This statement has also been supported by investigation on other parameters in the network like the average height of the mobiles and the height of the Node B in the central area. However, the presented results cover only a small proportion of the investigation which may include some network design aspects, as well. These are the basic material for future papers.

Utilization 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

0.10

0.01

0.001

1.e4

References

Traffic intensity (Erlang)

[1] T. S. Rappaport, Wireless Communications (Prentice-Hall), Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1996. [2] Flavio Muratore,UMTS, Mobile Communications for the future.WILEY, 2000.

Utilization 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 2.0

[3] Begain K., Bolch G. and Telek M. (2000): Scalable Schemes for Call Admission and Handover Handling in Cellular Networks with Multiple Services Journal on Wireless Personal Communications, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 15 (2): 125-144. [4] J. Schueller, K. Begain, M. Ermel, T. Mueller, M. Schweigel: Performance Analysis of a Single UMTS Cell, In Proceeding of the European Wireless Conference, Dresden, Germany, Sept. 2000. [5] K. Al-Begain and A. Zreikat ,Interference Based CAC for Up-link Trafc in UMT S Networks, in Proceedings of World Wireless Congress, 2002, 2831 June 2002, pp. 298 -303, San Francisco, USA. [6] COST231 (1999), Digital Mobile Radio: Towards Future generation systems,Final Report, EUR18957, Ch. 4 [7] Aymen I. Zreikat, Khalid Al-Begain, SoftHandover based CAC in UMTS Systems,Accepted in ITC2003 Proceedings, to be held in Tahiti, Feb. 22- Mar. 01, 2003. 29 ISSN 1473-804x online, 1473-8031 print

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3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5 Conclusions

A new Call Admission Control algorithm for urbansuburban network has been presented in this paper based on the soft handover feature of the UMTS systems. The capacity bounds for both the urban and suburban, [8], I.J. of SIMULATION Vol. 4 No. 3&4

A. Zreikat, K. Al-Begain: Simulation of 3G Networks in Realistic Propagation Environments [8] Aymen I. Zreikat, Khalid Al-Begain and Kevin Smith, A Comparative Capacity/Coverage Analysis for CDMA Cell in Different Propagation Environments ,submitted to Kluwer,2002. [9] A. Capone and S. Redana, Call Admission Control Techniques for UMTS, In em Proceedings of IEEE VTC 2001 Fall, Atlantic City, NJ, October 2001. [10] M. Andersin, Z. Rosberg, J. Zander, soft and safe admission control in cellular networks, IEEE/ACM transaction on Networking, Vol. 5, no. 2, April 1997, pp. 255-265. [11] K. S. Gilhouse, et al, On the capacity of a cellular CDMA Systems, IEEE Trans. on VT, Vol. 40, No. 2,pp. 303-311, 1991. [12] D. Kim, Efcient Interactive Admission control in Power Controlled Mobile systems, IEEE in Vehicular Technology, Vol. 49, No. 3, May 2000, pp. 1017-1028. [13] E. Zehavi and E. Tiedemann, The PCs CDMA Systems Overview, IEEE Universal Personal Comm. Conf., pp. 83-88, 1994. [14] Y. Ishikawa and N. Umeda, Capacity design and performance of Call Admission Control in Cellular CDMA Systems, IEEE Journal on Selected Area in Communications, Vol. 15, pp. 1627-1635, Oct. 1997. [15] Parsons, J. D., Mobile radio propagation channel, Wiley & Sons, second edition, p.76, 2000. [16] Hata, M., Empirical Formula for propagation loss in land mobile radio services , IEEE Trans. Veh. Technology, Vol. 29, 1980, pp. 317-325. [17] Okumura et al., Y. , Field Strength and its Variability in VHF and UHF Land Mobile Radio Service, Review of the Electrical Communications Laboratory, Vol. 16, no. 9-10, September -October 1968. [18] I. M. Kim, B. C. Shin and D. J. Lee, SIR-based Call Admission Control by Intercell Interference predictionfor DS-CDMA Systems, IEEE Communication Letters, Vol. 4, pp. 29-31, Jan. 2000. [19] Z. Liu and M. E. Zarki, SIR-based Call Admission Control for DS-CDMA Cellular Systems,IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 12, pp. 638-644, May, 1994. [20] W. C. Jakes, Microwave Mobile Communications, IEEE Press, 1974, ISBN 0-7803-1069-1. I.J. of SIMULATION Vol. 4 No. 3&4 30 Khalid Al-Begain received his High Diploma (1986), the Specialization Diploma of Communication Engineering (1988) and his Ph.D. degree in Communication Engineering (1989) from the Technical University of Budapest in Hungary. From 1990, he held the position of a Assistant Professor at the Deptartment of Computer Science of the Mutah University/Jordan. In 1996,he became an Associate Professor at the same university. In 1997 he moved to the Department of Computer Science at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg in Germany as Alexander von Humboldt research fellow. Furthermore, he spent one year as Guest Professor at the Chair of Telecommunications, Dresden University of Technology, Germany. From 2000 to 2003, he has been Senior Lecturer and Director of Postgraduate Research in the Department of Computing of the University of Bradford, UK. He is currently Professor in the School of Computing in the University of Glamorgan, Cardiff, Wales and the head of Mobile Computing and Networking research group. He co-authored the book Practical Performance Modelling published by Kluwer Academic Publishers and more than 60 journal and conferences papers. He is senior member of the IEEE and many other scientec organisations. He also serves as Guest Editor for a special issue of this journal on Analytical and Stochastic Modelling Techniques and as Conference Chair for the ASMT03 to be held in Nottingham,UK in June 2003. His research interests are performance modelling and analysis of computer and communication systems, analytical modelling and design of wireless mobile networks. ISSN 1473-804x online, 1473-8031 print

Biographies

Aymen I. Zreikat obtained his BSc in Computer Science from Yarmouk University, Jordan in 1990 and MSc in Computational Engineering from University of Erlangen, Germany in 2000. In Jan, 2001, he joined the Mobile Computing and Communications Research Group in the Department of Computing of Bradford University, UK as research/Ph.D. student where he is in his nal year. His area of research is in the Performance Evaluation and Resource Management of 3G Mobile networks in which he has a set of journal and conference publications in this eld.

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