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Department of Electrical Engineering

School of Electrical Engineering

REVIEW OF MAGNETIC BALLAST DISCHARGE LAMP MODELS M.Sc. M Sc J. J Molina School of Electrical Engineering (UCV) Dr. L. Sainz, Dr. J. J. Mesas p Electrical Engineering g g( (ETSEIB, , UPC) ) Dep. June 2011

Introduction
The

number of discharge lamps (DLs) in power distribution systems is increasing because they have a longer life and higher lighting efficiency than incandescent lights. lights

Despite

their small power, these lamps may be an important source of harmonics because a large number of them can be connected to the same bus.

Introduction
Many

works on harmonic currents injected into installations by magnetic ballast lamps have been conducted. supply l voltage lt and d pure linear li inductive ballast are usually y assumed in these studies. the arc voltage is modeled as a square waveform voltage source. source

Sinusoidal Si id l

Moreover,

Introduction
The

paper presents an review of the magnetic ballast DL models in the literature. the square arc voltage and ballast li linear i d t inductance assumptions ti are discussed di d and laboratory y measurements.

Moreover,

Discharge lamp modeling


Discharge
R A L b ( i)

lamp model
Equation characterizing the current
R i ( ) + 1 d ( b ( ) ) d + v A = v( ),

U Usual l assumption ti i in th the modeling d li of f th the DL DLs:


Magnetic ballast

v
B

The

ballast inductance is considered linear


v A = V A if i > 0, v A = V A if i < 0

vA
C
i, vA VA i 0 VA vA

vA

Square arc voltage

Bulb

I
1

II
2 = 1 +
2 (rad)

Different models of the DLs


The following g hypotheses yp are considered in these models: 1. Discharge lamp general model (model A) Non-sinusoidal supply voltage Linear inductive ballast with its associated resistance 2. Discharge lamp simplified model with sinusoidal supply voltage (model B)) Sinusoidal supply voltage Linear Li i d ti ballast inductive b ll t with ith its it associated i t d resistance i t

Different models of the DLs


The following hypotheses are considered in these models: 3. Discharge lamp simplified model neglecting ballast resistance i t ( d l C) (model Non-sinusoidal supply voltage Linear Li pure inductive i d ti ballast b ll t 4 Discharge lamp simplified model with sinusoidal 4. supply voltage and neglecting ballast resistance (model D ) Sinusoidal supply voltage Linear pure inductive ballast

Simulations
To

compare the DL models, a DL (R = 0.1 0.1XL, L = 30 mH and VA = 65 V) fed by a nonsinusoidal supply voltage with V1 = 100 V and V1 = 0 0 (50 Hz) and 3rd, 3rd 5th and 7th harmonic voltages (magnitude: 10%, phase angle: 0) was simulated with the PSpice program. program

Simulations of different models


200 Model A
9.65 A

15 Model B

0.7
9.75 A

Model A Model B

180

0
v i

0.35

h (Deg)
Model A Model C

v(V)

Ih (A)

200 200 Model A Model C

15 15

9.65 A

10.73 A

0.35

h (Deg)
Model A Model D

Ih (A)

i(A)

0 0.7

180 180

v(V)

200 200 Model A Model D v(V)

15 15

9.65 A

10.62 A

0.35

h (Deg)

Ih (A)

200 0

(rad) (a)

15 2

i(A) i(A)

0 0.7

180 180

5 h

180

5 h

(b)

Simulations of different models


200 Model A
9.65 A

15 Model B

0.7
9.75 A

Model A Model B

180

0
v i

0.35

h (Deg)
Model A Model C

v(V)

Ih (A)

200 200 Model A Model C 0

15 15

9.65 A

10.73 A

It can be observed that the assumption of sinusoidal supply voltage 0.35 0


i(A) 0

could only be reasonable under low harmonic distortion conditions, conditions and
200 200 15 approximation 0 180 A under these model B could be a correct of model 0.7 15
10.62 A

h (Deg) h (Deg)

Ih (A)

i(A)

0 0.7

180 180

v(V)

conditions
v(V) 0

Model A Ih (A)
9.65 A

Model A

180

Model D i(A) 0 0.35

Model D 0

200 0

(rad) (a)

15 2

5 h

180

5 h

(b)

Simulations of different models


200
v(V) 0.7 and Model D) can 180 yield acceptable The simplified models (Model C 15 Model A Model A
9.65 A 9.75 A

resistance are small enough. i


v

0.35

h (Deg) h (Deg) h (Deg)

B results when the values of both the harmonic Model distortion and the ballast Model B Ih (A) i(A) 0

200 200 Model A Model C

15 15

0 0.7
10.73 A 9.65 A

Model A Model C

180 180

Ih (A)

v(V)

i(A)

0.35

200 200 Model A v(V) Model D

15 15

0 0.7
10.62 A 9.65 A

Model A Model D

180 180

Ih (A)

i(A)

0.35

200 0

(rad) (a)

15 2

5 h

180

5 h

(b)

Considerations on the DL Models


200 100 vA (V) 0

Arc

voltage model
To analyze Metal this, 400 a W SYLVANIA Tubular

Halide

100 100 200 0 (rad)


Actual arc voltage Square arc voltage

lamp (MH HSI HSI-T T 400/4K model) with a LOYJE


2

magnetic ballast (4.340 (4 340IS model) was tested in the laboratory. laboratory

h= |VAh, m VAh|/VAh, m (%)

150

50 40 30 20 10 0 1 3 5 h 7 9

VAh (V)

100

50

5 h

Considerations on the DL Models


200 100 vA (V) 0

Arc

voltage model

It is i worth th noting ti that th t the th square

wave model cannot correctly fit th arc voltage. the lt Th Thus, i this in thi case, the lamp non-square arc voltage must t be b represented t d b by another th
0 (rad)
Actual arc voltage Square arc voltage

100 100 200

voltage source to better model DL b h i behavior


2

h= |VAh, m VAh|/VAh, m (%)

150

50 40 30 20 10 0 1 3 5 h 7 9

VAh (V)

100

50

5 h

Considerations on the DL Models


Ballast
1.5

inductance
Figures shows the nonlinear saturation curve of the LOYJE magnetic

b(Wb)

1.5 15
400 v v(V)

ballast. By observing the ballast magnetic ballast saturation


10 5 0 i (A) 5 10 15

curve
5

and

the that fit

DL the the

consumed current, it can be


i(A)

concluded

linear

inductance

model

cannot correctly ballast.

400 0

(rad)

5 2

Considerations on the DL Models


Ballast
1.5

inductance

b(Wb)

the ballast non-linear saturation

curve must be considered in DL behavior modeling and it could be


10 5 0 i (A) 5 10 15 pp by y a p piecewise linear approximated saturation curve
5

1.5 15
400 v v(V)

i i(A)

400 0

(rad)

5 2

Conclusions

The square arc voltage and ballast linear inductance assumptions are the usual h hypotheses th of f these th models. d l Th These hypotheses must be analyzed in detail in further studies because they could not fit y actual DL behavior correctly. Other hypotheses are sinusoidal supply voltage lt and d ballast b ll t pure inductance. i d t Th These can provide acceptable results when the values of both the harmonic distortion and g the ballast resistance are small enough.

Acknowledgments

This research was carried out with the S Spanish i h government (grant ( DPI2010 15448) DPI2010-15448) and the Universidad Central de Venezuela financial support, which the authors gratefully acknowledge.

Department of Electrical Engineering

School of Electrical Engineering

REVIEW OF MAGNETIC BALLAST DISCHARGE LAMP MODELS M.Sc. M Sc J. J Molina School of Electrical Engineering (UCV) Dr. L. Sainz, Dr. J. J. Mesas p Electrical Engineering g g( (ETSEIB, , UPC) ) Dept. June 2011