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Sinisa Durekovic, NAVTEQ

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Who am I?
Sinisa Durekovic
NAVTEQ, Principal Engineer, Team Lead SPM CE EMEA In-Vehicle

Editor ADASIS v2 Protocol Specification Coordinator ADASIS v2 Horizon Reconstructor Implementation Task Force MAPS & ADAS project 2005-2007 ADASIS Forum since 2005 interactIVe, EcoMove, Genivi, Dynamic Pass Predictor, Curve/Speed Warning, Intelligent ACC, Green ACC,
Principal Consultant at NAVTEQ since 2003 Responsible for ADASRP since 2004 E-mail: sinisa.durekovic@navteq.com Tel: +49 (6196) 589-313
Studied Mathematics at University of Zagreb, Croatia In Software Development since 1986 Working on In-Car Navigation Systems since 1995

What is ADAS?
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is the application of automotive sensor, computational and/or digital map technologies to create driving experiences that are: safer less stressful more productive more economical

ADAS Application: Adaptive Cruise Control

Standard Cruise Control Driver sets desired driving speed Adaptive Cruise Control Using radars/lidars, adjust speed to the vehicle in front

Accelerate to desired speed if lane is clear

ADAS Application: Adaptive Cruise Control

ADAS Application: Adaptive Cruise Control

ACC Issue: Wrong detection of car in front at curve!


ADAS Application: Adaptive Cruise Control

ACC Issue: Acceleration on Highway Exits!


ADAS Application: Adaptive Cruise Control

ACC Issue: Excessive curve/crossing speed!


ADAS Application: Adaptive Cruise Control

ACC Issue: Wrong detection of car in front at curve
Solution approach: Use Digital Map identify such situation and refine locking algorithm

ACC Issue: Acceleration on Highway exits

Solution: Use Digital Map to identify when car will leave the highway

ACC Issue: Excessive Curve/Crossing Speed

Solution: Use Digital Map to detect sharp curves ahead, calculate maximum speed Solution: Reduce speed or stop vehicle at crossings

ACC Issue: Set speed stays set unless driver change it

Solution: Identify Legal Speed Limit ahead; adjust ACC top speed according to the speed limit

Intelligent Adaptive Cruise Control


Evolution of the ACC

Cruise Control + radar Adaptive Cruise Control

+ map with ADAS attributes Intelligent Cruise Control

+ fuel optimization algorithms Green Cruise Control


Use of digital maps with ACC BMW platform

Application was launched in March 2005 in BMW 3, 5, 6 series in Europe Digital map integrated with Adaptive Cruise Control Maps used to adjust acceleration into three classes, high middle and low acceleration.


Freightliner: Run Smart Predictive Cruise


Freightliner: Run Smart Predictive Cruise

Precision Instruments
Predicts the road ahead approximately one mile in front of vehicles Immediate location

Driver-Free Controls
Invisible to the driver functions with no distractions or on-screen messages Same driver interaction as standard cruise control Works seamlessly with standard cruise control


Fuel Economy and Emissions Reduction

fuel consumption [l/100km] trip time [min] number of gearshifts [-] - 2.76 % - 0.03 % - 42.9 %
35.72 36.73 84.99 85.01









BMW Dynamic Pass Predictor


Adaptive Front Lighting

Front lights may project beyond the road, rather than into the curve Wheel sensor-based implementation points lights along the current tangent to the curve which is not sufficient lead

Control of beam elevation on slopes

Control of beam width and range in urban or rural


Conventional Map-Based Conventional



Map-Enabled and Map-Enhanced ADAS Applications

Non-map ADAS Applications
Do not need and cant use digital map Example: Park Distance Control (PDC)

Map-Enhanced ADAS Application

Can function without, but work better with the digital map Example: (Intelligent) ACC

Map-Enabled ADAS Application

Only possible with use of digital map Example: Curve Speed Warning

In any given moment, only part of the Digital Map is required for the ADAS function especially most probable path ahead Electronic Horizon

Map Supported ADAS

Positioning and usage based Applications

Pay as you Drive Insurance Road User Charging Congestion Charging Telematics, E- / B-Call Traffic Probing / Fleet Management

Driver Warning
Driver Warnings & Alerts Curve Speed Warning Lane Departure Warning Overtaking Assistant Drowsiness Monitor

Active Safety
Intelligent Cruise Control Predictive Frontlight Sys Roll-over alert Lane Keeping Assistant Electronic Stability Control Adaptive Brake Systems

Vehicle Efficiency
Green Driving Assistant Green ACC Smart Transmission Hybrid Power Management


ADAS Digital Map is a special Sensor

The ADAS digital map provides important road-based information on the Electronic Horizon which is combined with other sensors or may be used independently

Radar Torque



Lidar GPS


What is an Electronic Horizon?

1. Find current position 2. Find all possible paths 3. Calculate probabilities

Electronic Horizon
4. Starting from current position, follow highest probable path

Most Probable Path


Electronic Horizon
Data structure containing:
Vehicle position location with reference to the map and vehicle dynamics information.

Road network in front of vehicle including attributes all potential driving paths from the current position up to a certain depth.
Probabilites the driving probability of each path Route Information optional route information to influence the driving probabilities dynamically.

Other names:
ADAS Horizon ADASIS Horizon Extended Driver Horizon eHorizon


ADAS Interface Specification (ADASIS) Forum
Initiated by Navteq in May 2001 Goals:
- Define an open standardized data model and structure to represent map data in the vicinity of the vehicle position (i.e. the ADAS Horizon), in which map data are delivered by navigation and/or by a general map data server - Define open standardized API(s) to enable ADAS applications to access the electronic horizon and position-related data of the vehicle
http://www.ertico.com/en/activities/safemobility/adasis_forum.htm#www.ertico.com/adasisforu m A.D.C. GmbH, AISIN AW, Alpine, Autoliv, Blaupunkt, BMW, DaimlerChrysler, Denso, Ford Research Center Aachen, Hella, Honda, Intermap Technologies, Michael Sena Consulting AB, Mitsubishi Electric Automotive Europe, Navigon, Navteq, Nissan, Opel, PSA, Renault, Robert Bosch, Scania, Siemens VDO Automotive, Tele Atlas, Toyota Motor Corporation, Visteon, Volkswagen, Volvo Technology Corporation (VTEC), Volvo Car Corporation, Zenrin Europe BV

EU PReVENT/Maps & ADAS project (2003-2007) Develop, test and validate both: - An applicable standard for gathering, certifying, maintaining and providing safety content enhanced digital map databases to be used in ADAS and Navigation Applications - An applicable standard for an interface between ADAS and the in-vehicle map data sources (not necessarily navigation systems) for accessing map data around the vehicle position

Blaupunkt, BMW, Bosch, Daimler, Ertico, Ford, IVH, Siemens, Navigon, Navteq, Volvo, Transver, Teleatlas
Result: ADASIS v1 Protocol & API

ADASIS v2 Initiative (2008-2010)

ADASIS v1 too complex Goal: To create simpler, more acceptable protocol Navteq (coordinator), Bosch, BMW, Continental, Daimler, Ford, Opel, PSA, TeleAtlas ADASIS v2 Horizon Reconstructor C-Implementation Task Force (Av2HR-C ITF; 2009-2010) Goal: To develop Av2HR as Proof-of-concept Result: ADASIS v2 Protocol & API (April 2010), Av2HR


Architecture of ADAS system (e.g. AFL)

AFL module

is located on the Head Unit directly access EH via proprietary EH

AFL algorithm


EH API is OEM-specific, AFL module need to be adopted for each particular implementation of Head-Unit

EH-based application must be placed on the same Head Unit


Architecture of ADAS system (e.g. AFL)

AFL module Data

is located on the dedicated ECU

required for AFL algorithm are extracted from EH by AFL EH Provider AFL EH Provider sends necessary data over (CAN) bus using AFL-specific protocol Minimum amount of data for the AFL on the bus
AFL module

takes and uses data directly from the


EH API is OEM-specific, having AFL module on another platform is reduced to re-implementation of the EH AFL Provider, but not whole modules

EH applications must have its own provider and protocols


Architecture of ADAS system (e.g. AFL)

AFL module is

located on the dedicated ECU data on the bus

Head Unit sends generic Electronic Horizon

using defined protocol BMW ADAS Audi PSD ADASIS v2 Daimler, Ford, Opel/GM, Genivi (?)
EH Reconstructor on ECU

reconstructs copy of the EH on client side; apps can use defined EH API to access the data
AFL algorithms access Multiple EH

EH data via EH API

applications use same Reconstructor, API and

data stream


ADASIS v2 Reference Architecture

ADAS Horizon Provider
1. ADASIS v2 Horizon Provider (Av2HP) -maintains the ADASIS v2 Horizon; 2. ADASIS v2 Protocol (Av2) -- defines how the ADASIS v2 Horizon will be sent from the Av2HP to the ADAS Applications; 3. ADAS Application -- a client application that receives the ADASIS v2 Protocol messages then reconstructs and uses the ADASIS Horizon; ADASIS v2 Reconstructor -- a common component of ADAS Applications that is built in accordance with this general architecture. The task of the ADASIS v2 Reconstructor is to receive, parse and interpret ADASIS v2 Protocol messages, and, in effect, reconstruct a copy of the ADASIS v2 Horizon on the client side.



ADASIS v2 Reconstructor

ADASIS v2 Reconstructor

ADASIS v2 Reconstructor

ADAS Application 1

ADAS Application 2

ADAS Application 3



ADASIS v2 in Action



ADASIS v2 Protocol


Categories of the Electronic Horizons

Pure Network Digital Path Map Representation Representation ADASIS v2 Horizon Optimized Path Representation


Types of ADASIS v2 Horizons

Stub Stub Path 4 Path 1 Path 2 Stub Stub Path 3 Path 5

Full Horizon

Stub Stub

Path 1 Path 2 Stub Path 4 Path 3

Single Path with sub-paths

Stub Stub

Path 2 Stub

Single Path with stubs

Path 2

Single Path


Positioning of entities on ADASIS v2 Horizon

Position = Path Identifier + Offset


ADASIS v2 Horizon Building Blocks

Path entity container Possible trajectory of the vehicle Uniquely identified by Path Identifier Entities positioned on Av2 Horizon using Path Identifier and Offset STUB denotes start of the path; contains parent Path Identifier and Offset on the parent path where new path starts

POSITION position of the vehicle (Path Id+Offset)

Profile attribute of the path Traffic Sign, Number of Lanes, Curvatures, Location of attribute defined by Path Identifier and Offset PROFILE SHORT attribute values can fit to 10 bits PROFILE LONG attribute values can fit to 32 bits SEGMENT encapsulates most important attributes for a part of path META-DATA auxiliry information about the Av2 Horizon Speed Limit Units, Driving Side,

ADASIS v2 Protocol
6 message types for CAN protocol (but can be implemented on other buses too)
POSITION message specifies the current position(s) of the vehicle
- Up to 4 position candidates supported

STUB message indicates the start of a new path that has origin at the existing one
- Up to 58 paths can be maintained in protocol concurrently

SEGMENT message specifies the most important profiles of a part of the path
- 12 profiles

PROFILE SHORT message describes attribute of the path whose value can be expressed in 10 bits
- 15 standard, 16 system-specific profiles ; arbitrary interpolations supported

PROFILE LONG message describes attribute of the path whose value can be expressed in 32 bits.
- 15 standard, 16 system-specific profiles; arbitrary interpolations supported

META-DATA Message contains utility data.

Each message can, but not need to, have separate CAN identifier
Need at least 1 CAN Id, up to 66 (POSITON+STUB+SEGMENT+META_DATA+62*PROFILE SHORT/LONG) Allows different multiplexing configurations, including AUTOSAR conformance Designed for 10 CAN frames/sec; need minimum 2 CAN frames/sec; no upper limit

Example: PROFILE SHORT message

Always 4 Type of the PROFILE

Cyclic counter for error detection

Update flag

Offset along the path where profile has the first value (left boundary offset)

Path index where profile is located

First profile value (left boundary value)

Distance from left boundary offset to the second value offset (right boundary relative offset)

Second profile value (right boundary value)


Path Attributes Profiles

Values of single link attribute change along the path forming path profile

PROFILE SHORT Type=Speed40 Limit Path=? Offset=0 35 Value=100


PROFILE SHORT Type=Speed Limit Path=? Offset=100 Value=50

PROFILE SHORT Type=Speed Limit Path=? Offset=200 Value=100

v [m/s]





0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 s [m] Speed Profile 175 200 225 250 275 300


Path Profiles Bandwidth or Robustness

Bandwidth: 2 messages for 3 intervals

Robustness: 3 messages for 3 intervals


Path Profiles - Interpolations

Step Interpolation

Linear interpolation

By adding control points to the profile interval, any other interpolation type is supported. For instance, second-degree polynomial interpolation.


Standardized profiles
SEGMENT message
Functional Class Form of Way Effective Speed Limit/Type Number of lanes (both directions) Tunnel Bridge Divided Road Built-up Area Complex Intersection Part of calculated Route

PROFILE SHORT (10-bit values)

Curvature/Radii Route Number Slope Road Accessibility Road Condition Variable Speed Sign Position Heading Change

PROFILE LONG(32-bit values)

Longitude Latitude

Reserved 7 PROFILE SHORT and 13 LONG types Allows 16 system-specific PROFILE SHORT types and 16 LONG types


Reconstructing the Horizon: SEGMENTs & STUBs

Reconstructing the Horizon: SEGMENTs & STUBs

Reconstructing the Horizon: SEGMENTs & STUBs

Reconstructing the Horizon: SEGMENTs & STUBs

Reconstructing the Horizon: SEGMENTs & STUBs

Reconstructing the Horizon: SEGMENTs & STUBs

Reconstructing the Horizon: SEGMENTs & STUBs

Reconstructing the Horizon: SEGMENTs & STUBs

Reconstructing the Horizon: SEGMENTs & STUBs

Reconstructing the Horizon: SEGMENTs & STUBs

Reconstructing the Horizon: SEGMENTs & STUBs

ADASIS v2 Horizon Reconstructor


ADASIS version 2 Horizon Reconstructor (MISRA-C implementation) was developed as common effort of the several companies that formed Implementation Task Force (Av2HR-C ITF). AV2HR-C ITF Goals Refine ADASIS v2 Specification Develop proof-of-concept Av2HR that can be used as base for commercial implementations ADASIS v2 API is public Source code available to ADASIS Forum Members; including MatLab/Simulink support for dSPACE and xPC systems In scope of the project, several Av2 Horizon Providers were developed (e.g. NAVTEQ ADASRP Av2 Plug-Ins)

ADAS Horizon Provider


ADASIS v2 Reconstructor

ADASIS v2 Reconstructor

ADASIS v2 Reconstructor

ADAS Application 1

ADAS Application 2

ADAS Application 3



Two Modules and Three APIs


Message Codec

Decodes messages and takes care about path index/path id conversion and offset conversions


Data Store

Reconstructs and keeps track of ADASIS v2 Horizon

1. 2. 3.

Message Codec API (MC-API)

Event API (Ev-API) Data Store API (DS-API)


Data Store API

Application access to ADASIS v2 Horizon 4 main functions 7 meta-data functions 1 auxiliary function


Event API

Message Codec notifies application about new building block of ADASIS v2 Horizon (Vehicle Position, Stub, Profile, ) 5+1 function


Message Codec API

Communication interface notifies Message Codec about arrival of new CAN frame 1 function


DS-API Example


ADASIS v2 in Genivi
System shall expose the following interfaces:


Base for ADASIS v2 Protocol Generator for CAN Base for ADASIS v2 Data Store that will provide API for embedded ADAS applications

ADASIS v2 Datastore API

To be used by embedded ADAS applications

ADASIS v2 CAN Protocol

To be used by ADASIS client applications

ADASIS v2 in Genivi


ADASIS v2 in Genivi But why !?

Map-enabled/map-enhanced ADAS slowly but surely finds its place in modern cars BMW 7: Speed Limit Warning

Audi A8: Adaptive Front Lighting

Future developments: Ghost Driver Warning, Curve Speed Warning, Intelligent ACC, Green Driving, ADAS applications will play even more important role in HEV and FEV, where every Watt counts

Insurance companies discovered ADAS-type of applications (Pay-as-you drive)

ADAS as extension of Navigation System most important differentiator between in-dash and PND and other mobile devices