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Chapter #23 Identifications Thomas Nast A cartoonist for the New York Times and drew many famous

political cartoons, including many of Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall. The cartoon showed condemning evidence of the corrupt ringleader and he was jailed shortly afterwards. Horace Greely In 1872, the Republicans re-nominated Grant causing some of the "reform-minded" Republicans to leave their party and create the Liberal Republican Party. They nominated Greely, editor of the New York Tribune. The Democrats also nominated him. There was much mudslinging involved in this election and Greely lost, in more ways than one. Along with the loss of the presidency, Greely lost his job, his wife, and his mind within one month of the election.

Roscoe Conkling Conkling was the leader of a group for Republicans called the Stalwarts. These people loved the spoils system and supported it wherever it was threatened. They were opposed by the HalfBreeds, led by James G. Blaine. Conkling, a senator from New York, and Blaine's infighting caused the nomination of the politically neutral Rutherford B. Hayes in 1876. James G. Blaine Blaine was the champion of the Half-Breeds, a political machine of the Republican party. A congressman from Maine, he was very good with the people and was candidate for president in 1884. However, other Republicans, like the Mugwumps, wouldn't support him. They considered him a political villain. He became Secretary of State during Garfield's administration and tried to persuade Garfield towards the Half-Breed political machine.

Samuel Tilden Tilden was a New York lawyer who rose to fame by bagging Boss Tweed, a notorious New York political boss. Tilden was nominated for president in 1876 by the Democratic party because of his clean-up image. This election was so close that it led to the Compromise of 1877. Even though Tilden had more popular votes, the compromise gave the presidency to the Republicans and allowed the Democrats to stop Reconstruction in the South.

Charles J. Guiteau In 1881, Charles J. Guiteau shot President Garfield in the back in a Washington railroad station. Guiteau allegedly committed this crime so that Arthur, a Stalwart, would become president. Guiteau's attorneys used a plea of insanity, but failed and Guiteau was hanged for murder. After this event, politics began to get cleaned up with laws like the Pendleton Act.

Hard or Sound Money The metallic or specie dollar is known as hard money. It was extremely important during the late 1860's and early 1870's, especially during the Panic of 1873. It was in opposition with "greenbacks" or "folding money." The issuing of the "greenbacks" was overdone and the value depreciated causing inflation and the Panic of 1873. "Hard money" advocates looked for the complete disappearance of the "folding money." The creditors and wealthy supported hard money, the debtors and poor supported cheap money. Gilded Age The Gilded Age was a period in U.S. history around 1870-1900 that seemed fine on the outside, but was politically corrupt internally. This term was coined by Mark Twain. Although reunited between the North and South and as business boomed, strong NorthSouth divisions remained and corruption in both business and politics was common. Bloody-Shirt The slogan "waving the bloody-shirt" was an election tactic where a party, usually the Republicans, would nominate an old military figure and/or keep reminding the nation of the Civil War. Tweed Ring The Tweed Ring or Tammany Hall was group of people in New York City who worked with and for "Boss" Tweed. He was a crooked politician and money-maker. The ring supported all of his deeds. The New York Times finally found evidence to jail Tweed. Without Tweed, the ring did not last. These people, the "Bosses" of the political machines, were very common in America for that time.

Credit Mobilier Scandal This was a railroad construction company that consisted of many of the insiders of the Union Pacific Railway. The company hired themselves to build a railroad and made incredible amounts of money from it. In merely one year, they paid dividends of 348%. In an attempt to cover themselves, they paid key congressman and even the Vice-President stocks and large dividends. All of it being exposed in the scandal of 1872.

Whiskey Ring In 1875, whiskey manufacturers had to pay a heavy excise tax. Most avoided the tax, and soon tax collectors came to get their money. The collectors were bribed by the distillers. The Whiskey Ring robbed the treasury of millions in excise-tax revenues. The scandal reached as high as to the personal secretary of President Grant. Resumption Act The Resumption Act stated that the government would contract greenbacks from circulation and redeem paper currency in gold at face value beginning in 1879. This was the policy of contractionlessening paper money. It worked, as the amount of money per capita did decrease between 1870-80. This was good for creditors (rich), bad for debtors (poor).

Crime of '73 This crime occurred when Congress stopped the coinage of the silver dollars against the will of the farmers and westerners who wanted unlimited coinage of silver. With no silver coming into the federal government, no inflation resulted. Westerners from silver-mining states joined with debtors in demanding a return to the "Dollar of Our Daddies." This demand was essentially a call for inflation, which was halted by contraction (reduction of the greenbacks) and the Treasury's accumulation of gold. A compromise over the coinage of silver came with the Bland-Allison Act of 1878. The law instructed the Treasury to coin between 2 million and 4 million dollars in silver each month.

Bland-Allison Act This act was a compromise concerning the coinage of silver designed by Richard P. Bland. It was put into effect in 1878. The act stated that the Treasury had to buy and coin between $2 and $4 million worth of silver bullion each month. The government put down hopes of inflationists when it bought only the legal minimum.

Half-Breed A Half-Breed was a Republican political machine, headed by James G. Blaine around 1869. The Half-Breeds pushed Republican ideals and were almost a separate group that existed within the party.

Compromise of 1877 The compromise took place during the electoral standoff in 1876 between Hayes (Republican) and Tilden (Democrat). The Compromise of 1877 meant that the Democrats reluctantly agreed that Hayes would take office if he ended Reconstruction in the South.

Civil Service Reform This was the idea that government officials should earn their positions rather than have their jobs given to them. It was supposed to clean up corrupt political machines like Boss Tweeds Tammany Hall who gave government jobs to buddies in exchange for loyalty.

Pendleton Act This was what some people called the Magna Carta of civil-service reform. It prohibited, at least on paper, financial assessments of jobholders. It created a merit system of making appointments to government jobs on the basis of aptitude rather than who-you-know, or the spoils system. It set up a Civil Service Commission, charged with administering open competitive examinations to applicants for posts in the classified service. The people were forced, under this law, to take an exam before being hired to a governmental job or position.

"Billion Dollar" Congress The 51st Congress, had access to approximately a $1 billion surplus in the Treasury. The "Billion Dollar" Congress passed the Pension Act of 1890, which provided pensions for all Union Civil War veterans who had served for 90 days and were no longer capable of manual labor. This policy solved the dilemma of the existing surplus and conveniently scored votes for the Republicans.

Chapter #23.1 Guided Reading Questions The "Bloody Shirt" Elects Grant Know: Ulysses S. Grant, Ohio Idea, Repudiation, Horatio Seymour, Bloody Shirt 1 Was General Grant good presidential material? Why did he win? The People did not want a professional politician as President during Reconstruction. They felt that a good general would make a good president. Republicans gained popularity for Grant by "waving the bloody shirt"; reviving gory memories of the Civil War.

The Era of Good Stealings Know: Jim Fisk, Jay Gould, Black Friday, Boss Tweed, Graft, Thomas Nast, Samuel J. Tilden 2. "The Man in the Moon...had to hold his nose when passing over America." Explain. This refers to the high level of post-civil-war political corruption, racism, sickness, and poverty (Era of Good Stealings).

A Carnival of Corruption Know: Credit Mobilier, Whiskey Ring, William Belknap 3. Describe two major scandals that directly involved the Grant administration. 1.) BLACK FRIDAY: Fisk & Gould plotted to dominate the gold market by convincing Grant to make sure that the treasury would not release any gold; on black Friday they bid ludicrously high on gold, forcing countless business people out of the gold market; the treasury decided to release the gold for themselves 2.) CREDIT MOBILIER: The Credit Mobilier Joint Stock Company was organized to build the union pacific railroad; involved in a scandal in 1872 in which high government officials were accused of accepting bribes.

The Liberal Republican Revolt of 1872 Know: Liberal Republicans, Horace Greeley 4. Why did Liberal Republicans nominate Horace Greeley for the presidency in 1872? Why was he a less than ideal candidate? The Liberal Republicans thought that the Grant Administration, and the president personally, were fully corrupt. More important they thought that the goals of Reconstruction had been achieved. These goals were first the destruction of slavery and second the destruction of Confederate nationalism. Greeley was a less than ideal candidate because he was seen as an oddball farmer with a long record of vehement attacks on the democrats on which he called on for support.

Depression and Demands for Inflation Know: Panic of 1873, Greenbacks, Hard-money, Crime of '73, Contraction, Soft-money, Bland-Allison Act 5. Why did some people want greenbacks and silver dollars? Why did others oppose these kinds of currency? Many populist organizations favored an inflationary monetary policy on the grounds that it would enable debtors (often farmers who had mortgages on their land) to pay their debts off with cheaper, more readily-available dollars; those who suffered under this policy were the creditors such as banks and landlords...they opposed greenbacks/silver dollars.

Pallid Politics in the Gilded Age Know: Gilded Age, Grand Army of the Republic, Stalwarts, Roscoe Conkling, Half-Breeds, James G. Blaine 6. Why was there such fierce competition between Democrats and Republicans in the Gilded Age if the parties agreed on most economic issues? There were indeed general philosophical differences between the two major parties. Republicans tended to favor greater government involvement in economic and social issues. They retained old Hamiltonian and Whig beliefs in the value of federal action in promoting economic development. They also were more likely to support various restrictions on alcohol and modified forms of Sabbatarianism. Democrats, on the other had, tended to favor small government and states' rights. They opposed government intervention in the economy and they resisted moralistic encroachments on personal freedoms.

The Hayes-Tilden Standoff, 1876 Know: Rutherford B. Hayes, Samuel J. Tilden 7. Why were the results of the 1876 election in doubt? The election of 1876 became notorious not so much for its tactics, but for the conflicted resolution that followed an apparent victory. On election night, as the votes were counted and the results circulated about the country by telegraph, it was clear that Samuel J. Tilden had won the popular vote. His final popular vote tally would be 4,288,546. The total popular vote for Hayes was 4,034,311. The US Senate was controlled by Republicans, the House of Representatives by Democrats. As a way to somehow sort out the results, the Congress decided to set up what was called the Electoral Commission. The newly formed commission had seven Democrats and seven Republicans from the Congress, and a Republican Supreme Court Justice was the 15th member. The vote of the Electoral Commission went along party lines, and the Republican Rutherford B. Hayes was declared to be the president. The election was deadlocked, however, Tilden had 184 electoral votes, one vote short of the required majority. Four states, Oregon, South Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida had disputed elections, and those states held 20 electoral votes.

The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction Know: Compromise of 1877, Electoral Count Act, David Davis, Civil Rights Cases (1883), 8. How did the end of Reconstruction affect African-Americans? White democrats resume political power in South & exercised it ruthlessly, blacks who tried to assert their rights faced unemployment, eviction, and physical harm. Blacks and poor whites forced into sharecropping and tenant farming

Chapter #23.2 Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age Big Picture Themes 1. The government did reach the billion dollar level for the first time. This was largely due to military pension plans. The plans were very popular and revealed the goal of the legislators pass something that will get me reelected. 2. Populism started. This was a farmer and worker movement that sought to clean up the government, bring it back to the people, and help the working man out.

Chapter #23.2 Identifications

James A. Garfield James Garfield was elected to the presidency in 1880. He barely won the popular vote, but won by a huge margin in the electoral college. He was assassinated, so that the Stalwarts could be in power in the government. This brought about reforms in the spoils systems. Chester A. Arthur Arthur was the vice president of James A. Garfield. After President Garfield was assassinated, in September of 1881, Arthur assumed the presidency. He was chosen to run as vice president, primarily, to gain the Stalwarts votes. Arthur was left in charge of the United States with no apparent qualifications. He, in turn, surprised the public with his unexpected vigor in prosecuting certain post office frauds and wouldn't help the Conklingite cronies when they came looking for favors. He was also in favor of civil service reform. Charles J. Guiteau In 1881, Charles J. Guiteau shot President Garfield in the back in a Washington railroad station. Guiteau allegedly committed this crime so that Arthur, a Stalwart, would become president. Guiteau's attorneys used a plea of insanity, but failed and Guiteau was hanged for murder. After this event, politics began to get cleaned up with laws like the Pendleton Act. Grover Cleveland Cleveland was the Democratic presidential candidate for the 1884 election. His Republican opponent, James G. Blaine, was involved in several questionable deals, but Cleveland had an illegitimate child. Consequently, the election turned into a mudslinging contest. Cleveland won, becoming the first Democratic president since Buchanan. He took few initiatives, but he was effective in dealing with excessive military pensions. He placated both North and South by appointing some former Confederates to office, but sticking mostly with Northerners. Cleveland also forced Congress to discuss lowering the tariff, although the issue could not be resolved before he was defeated by Benjamin Harrison in the 1888 election. Resumption Act The Resumption Act stated that the government would contract greenbacks from circulation and redeem paper currency in gold at face value beginning in 1879. This was the policy of contractionlessening paper money. It worked, as the amount of money per capita did decrease between 1870-80. This was good for creditors (rich), bad for debtors (poor).

Crime of '73 This crime occurred when Congress stopped the coinage of the silver dollars against the will of the farmers and westerners who wanted unlimited coinage of silver. With no silver coming into the federal government, no inflation resulted. Westerners from silver-mining states joined with debtors in demanding a return to the "Dollar of Our Daddies."

Bland-Allison Act Demand was essentially a call for inflation, which was halted by contraction (reduction of the greenbacks) and the Treasury's accumulation of gold. A compromise over the coinage of silver came with the Bland-Allison Act of 1878. The law instructed the Treasury to coin between 2 million and 4 million dollars in silver each month. Half-Breed A Half-Breed was a Republican political machine, headed by James G. Blaine around 1869. The Half-Breeds pushed Republican ideals and were almost a separate group that existed within the party. Mugwump People who left republican party and would join the Democrats for elections. Pendleton Act of 1833 This was what some people called the Magna Carta of civil-service reform. It prohibited, at least on paper, financial assessments of jobholders. It created a merit system of making appointments to government jobs on the basis of aptitude rather than who-you-know, or the spoils system. It set up a Civil Service Commission, charged with administering open competitive examinations to applicants for posts in the classified service. The people were forced, under this law, to take an exam before being hired to a governmental job or position.

Thomas B. Reed Thomas Reed was a Republican Speaker of the House during the 1890's. He was nicknamed the "Czar" of Congress because he of his dominance. Reed changed the House rules singlehandedly. He believed that the majority should legislate, in accord with democratic practices, and not be crippled by a filibustering minority. Reed's Congress was the first in peacetime to pull together one billion dollars. The Congress opened the federal purse in the Pension Act of 1890. "Czar" Reed drove through Congress many bills, conspicuous among them the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890. Under Reed many bills were passed that gave money to businesses and Civil War veterans. When the Democrats won control of the House two years later, in 1892, they paid Reed the compliment of adopting some of his reforms for speedier action.

"Billion Dollar" Congress The 51st Congress, had access to approximately a $1 billion surplus in the Treasury. The "Billion Dollar" Congress passed the Pension Act of 1890, which provided pensions for all Union Civil War veterans who had served for 90 days and were no longer capable of manual labor. This policy solved the dilemma of the existing surplus and conveniently scored votes for the Republicans.

Pension Act This act showered pensions on all Union Civil War veterans who had served for 90 days and who were now unable to do manual labor. This program foreshadowed the 20th century welfare programs.

Chapter #23.2 Guided Reading Questions The Birth of Jim Crow in the Post-Reconstruction South Know: Redeemers, sharecropping, tenant farming, Jim Crow laws, Plessy v. Ferguson 1. Analyze the data in the lynching chart on page 513. It is the persons in the united states in the United States lynched by race. In every year, from 1882 the number of lynching corresponded to the data. The worst year was in 1892.

Class Conflicts and Ethnic Clashes Know: Great Railroad Strike of 1877, Denis Kearney, Coolies, Chinese Exclusion Act 2. What was the significance of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877? The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 was the first major strike in an industry that propelled America's industrial revolution. It was the first national strike.

Garfield and Arthur Know: James A. Garfield, Charles J. Guiteau, Chester A. Arthur, Pendleton Act of 1883 3. What new type of corruption resulted from the Pendleton Act? Corporate campaign finance donations, marriage of politics and big business

The Blaine-Cleveland Mudslingers of 1884 Know: James G. Blaine, Tattooed man, Mugwumps, Grover Cleveland, Ma, ma where's my pa?, Rum, Romanism and Rebellion 4. Explain how character played a part in the presidential election of 1884. The issue of personal character marked was paramount in the 1884 campaign. Former Speaker of the House James G. Blaine had been prevented from getting the Republican presidential nomination during the previous two elections because of the stigma of the "Mulligan letters". Governor Grover Cleveland, on the other hand, was known as "Grover the Good" for his personal integrity; in the space of the three previous years he had become successively the mayor of Buffalo and then the governor of the state of New York, cleaning up large amounts of Tammany Hall's graft. Cleveland had an affair and an illigitimate child, the two candidates used these scandals against each other.

Old Grover" Takes Over 5. Assess the following statement: "As president, Grover Cleveland governed as his previous record as governor indicated he would." Grover Cleveland had been a good, fair governor, and the same was true of his presidency. Said government should not support the people, people support the government, vetoed act for farmers.

Cleveland Battles for a Lower Tariff 6. What were the reasons behind Cleveland's stance in favor of lower tariffs? Cleveland supported lower tariffs because it meant lower prices for consumers and less protection for monopolies.

The Billion Dollar Congress Know: Thomas Reed, Civil War pensions, McKinley Tariff Act of 1890 7. Explain why the tariff was detrimental to American farmers. The tariff raised the gave the bounty of 2 cents per pound to American sugar producers and raised agricultural tariffs.

The Drumbeat of Discontent Know: Populists 8. What was the most revolutionary aspect of the Populist platform? Defend your answer with evidence. The nomination of William Jennings Bryan on a free-silver platform was probably most revolutionary in the populist platform. , nationalization of railroads, income tax, recall elections, referendums, reelection of senators.

Cleveland and Depression Know: Grover Cleveland, Depression or 1893, William Jennings Bryan, Sherman Silver Purchase Act 9. What could Cleveland have done to lessen the impact of the financial turmoil? His intervention in the Pullman Strike of 1894 to keep the railroads moving angered labor unions nationwide and angered the party in Illinois; his support of the gold standard and opposition to Free Silver alienated the agrarian wing of the Democratic Party. He could have helped the labor union and not supported the gold standard.

Cleveland Breeds a Backlash Know: Wilson Gorman Tariff 10. Is the characterization of the Gilded Age presidents as the forgettable presidents a fair one? Explain. Yes, because none of them did a very good job of helping the country out of the postReconstruction era.

Chapter #24: Industry Comes of Age Big Picture Themes 1. Before the Civil War, railroads had become important. After the war, railroads boomed and were critical to the nation. Railroads, along with steel, were to be the skeleton on which the nations economy would be built. 2. A class of millionaires emerged for the first time ever. Tycoons like Carnegie and Rockefeller made fortunes. This type of wealth was championed by Social Darwinism where the strong win in business. 3. Unfortunately, many of the mega-industries, like railroads, grew at the expense of the little mans interest. As businesses, they were out to make money, and they did. But the working man cried foul. 4. To right these wrongs, the beginnings of anti-trusts began (to bust the monopolies) and organized labor got a jumpstart (although they were still rather ineffective). Chapter #24: Identifications Government Subsidies Subsidies are monies given by the government to businesses. The purpose is for the government to encourage those businesses since they would benefit the entire nation. In the 2nd half of the 1800s, railroad companies received large government subsidies. Usually, the railroad companies got (1) favorable loans and (2) huge tracts of land adjoining the railroad tracks. These subsidies would link the east and west coast, tie the nation together, help the military move around, and help the postal system. Transcontinental Railroad This was a railroad across the continent. The Union Pacific (from Omaha, NE) and Central Pacific (from Sacramento, CA) linked together at Promontory Point, Utah in May 1869. The labor was mostly done by Irish Paddies and Chinese workers.

Cornelius Vanderbilt He was a railroad tycoon. He earned his 1st fortune as a shipping magnate in New York where he gained the nickname The Commodore while shipping. Then, turned to railroads by consolidating the lines from NYC to Chicago. Jay Gould Gould manipulated the stocks of railroad companies to his own benefit. Typically, a railroad company would begrossly over-praised which led the public to buy into it, then the bamboozlers like Jay Gould would sell off huge portions for profit.

Interstate Commerce Commission Set up by the Interstate Commerce Act, the ICC attempted to regulate the railroads. It had only mild success but served as the first time Washington tried to regulate business for the good of society.

Vertical Integration This was a business method where a corporation bought out other businesses (though not competitors) along its line of production. For instance, Carnegie might buy land in the Mesabi Range just for the iron ore, then buy the ships to haul the ore, then buy the railroads to haul it, etc. The companies were not competitors, but Carnegie used them, so he figured he might as well own them.

Horizontal Integration This was a business method where the company bought out its competitors. For instance, Standard Oil would buy out smaller oil competitors until it controlled nearly all of the oil industry. Trusts A trust is a business that essentially is a monopoly a company with no competition. Trusts could drive smaller businesses to the wall by (1) undercutting prices trusts would lower rates so theyd actually take a loss. The trust could afford to take the loss but the small business couldnt and went out of business. Then the trust would raise prices. Or (2) enjoying economies of scale since trusts bought in huge quantities, they got discounts, and therefore could afford to charge lowerrates than small businesses while still making a profit.

J.P. Morgan He was a banker and financier. He orchestrated several blockbuster deals in railroads, insurance, and banking. He bought Andrew Carnegies steel operation for $400 million to start the U.S. Steel Company. He symbolized the greed, power, arrogance, and snobbery of the Gilded Age business. Sherman Anti-Trust Act This was an 1890 law attempting to outlaw trusts. It was only slightly successful, if that, since it lacked real teeth. However, combined with the Interstate Commerce Act, 1887, it started the governments attempt to regulate business for the good of society. Also, it foreshadowed the Clayton Anti-trust Act that did have real teeth to it. Yellow Dog Contracts These were agreements that employers forced workers to sign where workers pledged not join a union.

Blacklists Blacklists were names that employers kept of union agitators and trouble makers. This scared workers into action since once they were on the list, no company would hire them again.

Haymarket Square incident This was an 1886 explosion in Chicago during labor disorders that killed several people including police officers. The explosions appeared to be the result of anarchists yet the public largely placed blame on labor unions thus hurt their cause.

Chapter #24 Guided Reading Questions

The Iron Colt Becomes an Iron Horse Know: Land grants 1. What were the advantages and disadvantages of government subsidies for the railroads? The railroads would often sell the land and make money off the land that was paid for by citizens (their tax money goes to the government, which gave the land grants). They also withheld land from other users until they figured out where their tracks would lay. A benefit was that railroad companies were able to expand further west. Granting land was a "cheap" way to subsidize a muchdesired transportation system, because it avoided new taxes for direct cash grants.

Spanning the Continent with Rails Know: Union Pacific, Central Pacific, Paddies, Leland Stanford 2. Describe how the first transcontinental railroad was built. The Central Pacific Railroad Company started building in Sacramento and continued east across the Sierra Nevada, while a second company, the Union Pacific Railroad, built westward from the Missouri River, near the Idaho-Nebraska border (Omaha). The two lines of track met in the middle.

Binding the Country with Railroad Ties Know: The Great Northern, James J. Hill 3. Explain how the railroads could help or hurt Americans.

Americans would be connected across the country, which would help travel time, the ability to connect with different types of people, and allow people to get produce and meats from different parts of the country (due to the decreased travel time). People could also begin to move west. Trade with Asia increased. However, railroad construction was laced with scandal and corruption, which hurt Americans financially (ex. Credit Mobilier). Also, the work was very dangerous, and many people were killed on the job. In addition, railroads created many millionaires who could control the public and place large taxes on farmers.

Railroad Consolidation and Mechanization Know: Cornelius Vanderbilt, Pullman Cars 4. What technological improvements helped railroads? More efficient and economical steel rails, standard gauge of track (which reduced need for numerous car changes), the Westinghouse air brake which increased safety, and other safety devices like the telegraph.

Revolution by Railways Know: Time Zones 5. What effects did the railroads have on America as a whole? Railroads created a huge domestic market for raw materials and manufactured goods and spurred industrialization and urbanization; stimulated mining and agriculture; took farmers to land and goods to people; started cities, created more millionaires, drove creation of time zones.

Wrongdoing in Railroading Know: Jay Gould, Stock Watering, Pools 6. What wrongdoing were railroads guilty of? Stock watering (which enabled railroad stock promoters to inflate their claims about a given line's assets and profitability and sell stocks and bonds in excess of the railroad's actual value) as well as other corruption such as bribery.

Government Bridles the Iron Horse Know: Wabash, Interstate Commerce Commission 7. Was the Interstate Commerce Act an important piece of legislation? Yes, it prohibited rebates and pools and required the railroads to publish their rates openly. Most important, it set up the Interstate Commerce Commission to administer and enforce the new legislation.

Miracles of Mechanization Know: Mesabi Range, Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Edison 8. What factors made industrial expansion possible? Abundant liquid capital, natural resources like oil and coal, cheap labor in immigrant population, and easier transportation of raw materials and goods thanks to railroads.

The Trust Titan Emerges Know: Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan, Vertical Integration, Horizontal Integration, Trust, Interlocking Directorate 9. How did businesses organize to try to maximize profits? Used horizontal integration (allying with competitors to monopolize a market), trusts (consolidations of formerly competing companies' stocks into a single enterprise large enough to drive out remaining competitors), and interlocking directorates (placing officers of a larger competitor on the various boards of directors of competitors).

The Supremacy of Steel Know: Heavy Industry, Capital Goods, Consumer Goods, Bessemer Process 10. Why was steel so important for industrialization? The metal ultimately held together the new civilization, from skyscrapers to coal scuttles, while providing it with food, shelter, and transportation. Steel making, notably rails for railroads, typified the dominance of "heavy industry," which concentrated on making "capital goods," as distinct from the production of "consumer goods" such as clothes and shoes. The production of steel also became a major market.

Carnegie and Other Sultans of Steel Know: Andrew Carnegie, J.P. Morgan 11. Briefly describe the careers of Andrew Carnegie and J.P. Morgan. After accumulating some capital, Carnegie entered the steel business. By 1900 he was producing one-fourth of the nation's Bessemer steel. Morgan made a legendary reputation for himself by financing the reorganization of railroads, insurance companies, and banks (banker's banker). Carnegie, looking to sell his business, bartered with Morgan until they finally came to the agreement of 400 million dollars. Morgan went on to buy other businesses and develop the first 1.4 billion dollar business.

Rockefeller Grows an American Beauty Rose Know: Kerosene 12. How was John D. Rockefeller able to become so wealthy? By ruthlessly employing horizontal integration and trusts to near-monopolize the oil industry with his Standard Oil Company of Ohio.

The Gospel of Wealth Know: Social Darwinism 13. How did the wealthy justify their wealth? Social Darwinism and the Gospel of Wealth (the rich were meant to be rich, and had worked hard to achieve it, so they deserved it).

Government Tackles the Trust Evil Know: Sherman Anti-Trust Act 14. What two methods were tried by those who opposed the trusts? Labor unions and strikes.

The South in the Age of Industry 15. How successful were Southerners at industrializing? Their success was limited (often by Northerner industrialists) but they found some success with the innovation of the machine made cigarette.

The Impact of the New Industrial Revolution on America 16. Describe the positive and negative effects of the industrial revolution on working Americans. The nation of farmers and independent producers was becoming a nation of wage earners. Industrialization gave women more independence. Brought corruption in economy and politics, widened class divides, connected nation more than ever, increased urbanization (and poor conditions in those urban areas).

In Unions There is Strength Know: Scabs, Lock-out, Yellow-dog Contract, Black List, Company Town

17.

What conditions existed in America that led Jay Gould to say, "I can hire one half of the working class to kill the other half"? Job security was so low, workers were so easily replaced, people were always searching for and trying to keep their jobs to support themselves and their families so strikes were usually ineffective and often detrimental to the strikers.

Labor Limps Along Know: National Labor Union, Knights of Labor 18. Explain the similarities and differences between the National Labor Union and the Knights of Labor. The National Labor Union Skilled included unskilled and farmers but excluded the Chinese; they didn't try very hard to aid women and blacks. The Knights were created in 1869 as a secret society and sought to include all workers, barred only "nonproducers;" broad goals included economic and social reform, codes for safety and health; they frowned upon industrial warfare and wanted an 8 hour work day.

Unhorsing the Knights of Labor Know: Haymarket Square 19. What factors led to the decline of the Knights of Labor? They became involved in many failing May Day strikes in 1886. In Chicago they were accidentally involved with anarchists when the Haymarket Square Bomb occured in conjunction with a Knights of Labor strike. Another fatal handicap of the Knights was their inclusion of both skilled and unskilled workers.

The AF of L to the Fore Know: American Federation of Labor, Samuel Gompers, Closed Shop 20. How was the AFL different from previous unions?

The A F of L became a union organizing skilled workers, those men who had a craft. Samuel P. Gompers realized a successful union would not succeed if it became a political organization so he concentrated on the "bread and butter" issues--better wages, better working conditions, collective bargaining agreements, hours worked, and safety issues.

Makers of America: The Knights of Labor Know: Mother Jones, Terence Powderly 21. Were the Knights conservative or revolutionary in their ideas? Knights had conservative ideas. The highly conservative leadership of the Knights of Labor issued a secret circular describing their position. Varying Viewpoints: Industrialization: Boon or Blight 22. To what degree is it possible for common people to improve their status in industrial America? It was very difficult- often in perpetual debt.

Chapter #25: America Moves to the City Big Picture Themes

1. Cities grew because factories grew. The Industrial Revolution kicked into gear in America in the late 1800s and factories needed workers, so people flocked to the cities. 2. Problems arose as cities boomed. The problems included: exploitation of immigrant laborers, poor/unhealthy work conditions, over-crowdedness and sanitation problems, corrupton, and nativism (anti-immigrant feelings). 3. Booker T. Washington & W.E.B. DuBois were the top black leaders. They disagreed on how to help blacksWashington encouraged blacks to obtain a practical skill at a trade school, DuBois encouraged blacks to study anything they wished, even academic subjects. 4. The roles of women began to change, if only slightly. More women worked, though most were still at home. The new woman was idealized by the althletic, outgoing Gibson Girl.

Chapter #25 Identifications Florence Kelley Kelley was a lifelong battler for the welfare of women, children, blacks, and consumers. She served as a general secretary of the National Consumers League and led the women of Hull House into a successful lobby in 1893 for an Illinois anti-sweatshop law that protected women workers and prohibited child labor. Mary Baker Eddy Eddy founded the Church of Christ, Science (Christian Science) in 1879. She preached that her practice of Christian Science healed sickness. To her, there was no need for a doctor, if you had enough faith, you could heal yourself. She wrote a widely purchased book, Science and Health with a Key to the Scriptures.

William James James was a philosopher on Harvard faculty, who wrote Principles of Psychology, The Will of to Believe, Varieties of Religious Experience, and Pragmatism. He criticized Booker T. Washington as selling blacks short by encouraging only trade jobs and acquiescing to segregation. Henry George George was a journalist-author and an original thinker. He saw poverty at its worst in India and wrote the classic Progress and Poverty. This book in 1879 broke into the best-seller lists. He believed that the pressure of a growing population with a fixed supply of land pushed up property values. Horatio Alger Alger was a popular writer of the Post-Civil War time period. Alger was a Puritan New Englander who wrote more than a hundred volumes of juvenile fiction during his career, most

with a "rags-to-riches" theme. He is most famous for his books Luck and Pluck and for Ragged Dick.

Mark Twain Twain was America's most popular author, but also a renowned platform lecturer. He mixed "romantic" type literature with comedy to entertain his audiences. In 1873, along with the help of Charles Dudley Warner, he wrote The Gilded Age and named the period it looked good on the outside, but underneath, had problems. The greatest contribution he made to American literature was the way he captured the frontier realism and humor through the common dialect that his characters. Nativism Philanthropy This occurs when wealthy millionaires give back some of the money they have earned to benefit society. The money would be sent to benefit the libraries, the arts, and the colleges. An example of two of the most famous philanthropists would be Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller. Social Gospel The Social Gospel was preached by many people in the 1880s and said the churches should get involved in helping the poor. Some disagreed and didn't think that they should be helped because it was their fault they were poor. This was Social Darwinism. Settlement House This was a house where immigrants came to live upon entering the U.S. At Settlement Houses, instruction was given in English and how to get a job, among other things. The first Settlement House was the Hull House, which was opened by Jane Addams in Chicago in 1889. These centers were usually run by educated middle class women. The houses became centers for reform in the women's and labor movements.

Women's Christian Temperance Union The WCTU was organized in 1874 and the white ribbon was the symbol of purity. It was led by Frances E. Willard and the league stood for prohibition (or temperance). In 1919, the 18th Amendment was passed for national prohibition. Eighteenth Amendment In 1919 this amendment did away with all alcohol, making it illegal. It was also known as prohibition.

Chapter #25: Guided Reading Questions

The Urban Frontier Know: Louis Sullivan, Walking Cities, Department Stores, Tenements 1. What factors led to the growth of cities in the second half of the 1800's? Industrial jobs drew people off their farms and into factory centers; Other Attractions=glitter of city lights, electricity, indoor plumbing, telephones, engineering marvels. The perfection of the skyscraper allowed more living space on less land.

The New Immigration 2. How were the new immigrants different from the old immigrants? The New Immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe (instead of western Europe); they included Italians, Slovaks, Croats, Greeks, and Poles; many worshipped in orthodox churches or synagogues. They were largely poor and illiterate, not used to democracy.

Southern Europe Uprooted 3. Why did the new immigrants come to America in such large numbers? They left their native countries because Europe seemed to have no room for them, because America seemed so promising, and because they sought religious freedom.

Makers of America: The Italians Know: Birds of Passage, padron 4. How did Italian immigrants live their lives in America? They clustered in tightly knit urban communities and worked as industrial laborers.

Reactions to the New Immigration Know: Political Bosses, Social Gospel, Jane Addams, Hull House, Settlement houses, Lillian Wald, Florence Kelley 5. How did political bosses help immigrants? They traded jobs and services for votes. They often found housing for immigrants, gave them food and clothing, and helped set up schools, parks, and hospitals in ethnic communities.

Narrowing the Welcome Mat

Know: Nativists, Anglo-Saxon, American Protective Association, Statue of Liberty 6. In 1886, what was ironic about the words inscribed on the base of the Statue of Liberty? Their welcoming ideal contradicted the recent federal laws which blocked the Chinese and undesirables (such as criminals and paupers) from the nation.

Churches Confront the Urban Challenge Know: Dwight Lyman Moody, Cardinal Gibbons, Salvation Army, Mary Baker Eddy, YMCA 7. What role did religion play in helping the urban poor? Christian socialism pricked the consciences of the middle class for future reform, city programs like YMCA helped needy. Catholic leaders employed growing influence to assist reform movements.

Darwin Disrupts the Churches Know: Charles Darwin, Origin of the Species, Fundamentalists, Modernists, Colonel Robert G. Ingersoll, 8. What effect did the theory of evolution have on Christian churches? Charles Darwins theory on evolution created many rifts in the church. Modernist clergymen were thrown out of office and unbelief was promoted.

The Lust for Learning Know: Normal Schools, Kindergarten, Chautauqua 9 What advances took place in education in the years following the Civil War? Public education continued its upward climb. the ideal of tax-supported elementary schools, adopted on a nationwide basis before the civil war, was still gathering strength. Americans were accepting the truism that a free government cannot function sucessfully if the people are shackled by ignorance. 1870, more and more states were making at least a grade school education compulsory and this gain helped check the frightful abuses of child labor. 1880's and 1890's the spread of high schools developed. before the civil war, it was common to have private schools and tax supported schools were rare. now a grade school education was the birthright of every citizen. Free textbooks being provided by taxpayers, teacher-training schools expanded, kindergartens gained support, New Immigration brought vast new strength to private Catholic parochial schools public schools however excluded millions of adults-->partially remedied by the Chautauqua movement:organizers achieved success through nationwide public lectures, extensive courses of home study Crowded cities provided better educational facilities illiteracy rate fell from 20% to 10.7%. Booker T. Washington and Education for Black People

Know: Booker T. Washington, Tuskegee Institute, Accomodationist, George Washington Carver, W.E.B. Du Bois, NAACP 10. Explain the differences in belief between Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois. Washington's self-help approach to solving the nation's racial problems was labeled "accommodationist" because it stopped short of directly challenging white supremacy, instead promoting practical education and economic independence. Du Bois demanded complete and immediate equality for blacks in society, economy, and life.

The Hallowed Halls of Ivy Know: Vassar, Howard, Morrill Act, Land Grant Colleges, Hatch Act 11. What factors allowed the number of college students to dramatically increase? In the years after the Civil War, college enrollment dramatically increased due to land grants that allowed the development of multipurpose institutions with programs characteristic of the leading twentieth-century universities (elective approach) throughout the country. Plus philanthropy.

The March of the Mind Know: William James 12. Describe some of the intellectual achievements of the late 1800s. Advances in public health and increased philosophy and psychology (William James). Elective selection of courses in higher education.

The Appeal of the Press Know: Joseph Pulitzer, William Randolph Hearst, Yellow Journalism 13. How did the ability to produce newspapers inexpensively change their content? Cheaper newspapers meant appealing to the masses who could now afford them; content became riddled with sex, scandal, rumor, and human-interest.

Apostles of Reform Know: Edwin L. Godkin, Henry George, Edward Bellamy 14. How did writers in the 1870's and 1880's try to address the problems of their time? In magazines, newspapers, and novels, writers promoted social reform, civil-service reform, honesty, and economic growth.

Postwar Writing Know: Dime novels, Horatio Alger, Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson 15. Did the trends in writing after the Civil War make it a good period for literature? Explain. The literature post-Civil war had fantastic historical context that made it real and effective.

Literary Landmarks Know: Kate Chopin, Mark Twain, Bret Harte, William Dean Howells, Stephen Crane, Henry James, Jack London, Frank Norris, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Charles W. Chestnut, Theodore Dreiser. 16 What did many writers in the late 1800's have in common? Writers such as Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, Bret Harte, William Dean, Howells and Chopin began relating their literary work to some of the realism of an industrial society.

The New Morality Know: Victoria Woodhull, Anthony Comstock 17. What evidence demonstrated a battle raging over sexual morality? The antics of the Woodhull sisters and Anthony Comstock exposed to daylight the battle going on in late-nineteenth-century America over sexual attitudes and the place of women.

Families and Women in the City Know: Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Carrie Chapman Catt, National Women Suffrage Association, Ida B. Wells 18. What changes were occurring in the women's rights movement? Newest leader Carrie Chapman Catt stressed the desirability of giving women the vote if they were to continue to discharge their traditional duties as homemakers and mothers in the increasingly public world of the city. Women had special responsibility for the health of the family and the education of children, the argument ran. On the farm, women could discharge these responsibilities in the separate sphere of the isolated homestead. But in the city, they needed a voice on boards of public health, police commissions, and school boards. By thus linking the ballot to a traditional definition of women's role, suffragists registered encouraging gains as the new century opened.

Prohibition of Alcohol and Social Progress

Know: Women's Christian Temperance Union, Carrie Nation, Anti-Saloon League, 18th Amendment, Clara Barton 19. What social causes were women (and many men) involved in the late 1800's? Women's suffrage, temperance/prohibition, animal protection.

Artistic Triumphs Know: James Whistler, John Singer Sargent, Mary Cassatt, George Inness, Thomas Eakins, Winslow Homer, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Metropolitan Opera House, Henry H. Richardson, Columbian Exposition 20. Why is this section titled "artistic triumphs?" This section was about the suppression on art that failed to take flight in America. It discusses the ups and downs and the new outcomings of forms of art.

The Business of Amusement Know: Vaudeville, P.T. Barnum, Buffalo Bill Cody, Annie Oakley, James Naismith 21. What forms of recreation became popular from 1870 to 1900? Baseball, football, croquet, boxing, bicycling, basketball, Wild West shows, circuses, minstrel shows.

Chapter #26.1 The Great West Big Picture Themes 1. Native Americans out West faced two options: agree to settle on a reservation or fight the U.S. Army as hostiles. Some chose reservations, others to fight, but all were cleared out. . Chapter #26.1 Identifications Sitting Bull He was one of the leaders of the Sioux nation. He was a medicine man "as wily as he was influential." He became a prominent Indian leader during the Sioux War from 1876-1877. The war was touched off when a group of miners rushed into the Black Hills of South Dakota in 1875, sacred Indian land. The well-armed warriors at first proved to be a superior force. During Custer's Last Stand in 1876, Sitting Bull was "making medicine" while another Indian, Crazy Horse, led the Sioux. When more whites arrived at this Battle of Little Big Horn, Sitting Bull and the other Sioux were forced into Canada. The Sioux will return later and lead the "Ghost Dance" revival. George A. Custer He was a former general of the Civil War famous for his golden curls and flamboyance. He was nicknamed the "boy general." During the Sioux War of 1876-1877, he attacked 2,500 Sioux warriors near the Little Big Horn River in Montana and was completely wiped out. He, and his 264 men's defeat, was mainly due to being outnumbered and Custers arrogant attack without waiting for reinforcements.

Chief Joseph He was chief of the Nez Perce Indians of Idaho. His people didnt want gold hunters to trespass on their beaver river. To avoid war, and save his people, Chief Joseph tried retreating to Canada. They were cornered 30 miles from safety and he surrendered in 1877.

Sioux Wars The Sioux Wars lasted from 1876-1877. These were spectacular clashes between the Sioux Indians and white men. They were spurred by gold-greedy miners rushing into Sioux land. The white men were breaking their treaty with the Indians. The Sioux Indians were led by Sitting Bull and they were pushed by Custer's forces. Custer led these forces until he was killed at the battle at Little Bighorn. Many of the Indians were finally forced into Canada, where they were forced by starvation to surrender.

Ghost Dance This was a tradition that tried to call the spirits of past warriors to inspire the young braves to fight. It was crushed at the Battle of Wounded Knee after spreading to the Dakota Sioux. The Ghost Dance led to the Dawes Severalty Actof 1887. This act tried to reform Indian tribes and turn them into "white" citizens. It essentially aimed to break up the tribes.

Dawes Severalty Act This 1887 law dismantled American Indian tribes, set up individuals as family heads with 160 acres, tried to make rugged individualists out of the Indians, and attempted to assimilate the Indian population into that of the American. Battle of Wounded Knee In 1890, a group of white Christian reformers tried to bring Christian beliefs to the Indians. Fearing the Ghost Dance, American troops were called in. While camped outside of an Indian reservation, a gun was fired and the troops stormed the reservation killing Indian men, women, and children. This battle and this year marked the end of the Wild West as by then, the Indians were either moved to reservations or dead. This year, 1890, was when the U.S. government stated the frontier was gone.

Chapter # 26.1 Guided Reading Questions The Clash of Cultures on the Plain Know: Indian Territory, Sioux, Great Sioux Reservation, Tenth Cavalry 1. Describe the effect of westward expansion on Native Americans. Westward expansion limited Native American freedoms. With the new reservation system, Indians lost land and we bunched together in small, unattractive boundaries. Families were separated, and culture was lost through the conversion of Indian-to-White ways.

Receding Native Americans Know: George Armstrong Custer, Bozeman Trail, Sitting Bull, Battle of Little Big Horn, Chief Joseph, Geronimo 2. How was the West "won?" Colonel Custer found gold in the Black Hills of South Dakota (sacred Sioux land), and hordes of gold-seekers invaded the Sioux reservation in search of gold, causing Crazy Horse and the Sioux to go on the warpath, completely decimating Custers Seventh Calvary at Little Big Horn in the process. The Indians were subdued due to (1) the railroad, which cut through the heart of the West, (2) the White mans diseases, (3) the extermination of the buffalo, (4) wars, and (5) the loss of their land to White settlement.

Bellowing Herds of Bison Know: Buffalo Bill Cody 3. How were the Buffalo reduced from 15 million to less than a thousand? Buffalo was reduced from 15 million to less than a thousand through the hunting for their furs by the masses from westward expansion.

The End of the Trail Know: Helen Hunt Jackson, Ghost Dance, Battle of Wounded Knee, Dawes Act, Carlisle Indian School, Indian Reorganization Act 4. What did the government do to try to assimilate Native Americans? To assimilate Native Americans, the government used the Dawes Severalty Act, which granted Native Americans citizenship if they displayed English-like behavior after 25 years in the country. Also, the Carlisle Indian School effectively and slowly destroyed Native American culture when the children were taken from their families and taught English culture, instead of learning Indian culture from their parents. The government also outlawed many religious practices native to the Native Americans, like the ghost dance.

Mining: From Dishpan to Ore Breaker Know: Pike's Peak, Comstock Lode, Silver Senators 5.. How did the discovery of precious metals affect the American West? The discovery of precious metals in the American West led to the increase in westernized movement, and also spurred a more industrialized society in the west. Gaps between political parties widened, as different parties had different views on the values of these precious metals, and the "American dream" became more clear, as many people became prosperous from the metals.

Makers of America: The Plains Indians 6. How was the cu1lture of the Plains Indians shaped by white people? The Plains Indians were nearly wiped out by white people. The white settlers took over the Indians' land and waged war on the Indians.

Beef Bonanzas and the Long Drive Know: Long Drive, Wild Bill Hickok 7. Why was cattle ranching so profitable in the 1870's? Cattle-ranching was so profitable in the 1870's because there was a very high demand for the leather and meat obtained from cattle.

The Farmers Frontier Know: Homestead Act, Great American Desert, John Wesley Powell, Joseph F. Glidden 8. Did the Homestead Act live up to its purpose of giving small farmers a descent life on the plains? The Homestead Act did not live up to its purpose, because also ten times as much land that actual small farmers obtained was taken by greedy land-grabbing promoters. While a considerable amount of farmers were able to make successful lives with this cheap land, most of it was obtained through fraud by business-minded people.

Know: Boomers, Sooners, 1890, Frederick Jackson Turner, Yellowstone 9. What were some milestones in the closing of the West? Some milestones in the "closing" of the West were that the population of the United States had exponentially increased, and many nature-preservation steps were being taken, such as the founding of Yellowstone in 1872.

The Fading Frontier Know: Francis Parkman, George Catlin, Frederic Remington 10. What effects has the frontier had on the development of the United States? The frontier was accountable for the opening of many new opportunities for immigrants to be successful, vast, new areas of land to be filled, and as such, a huge population increase. The frontier, because of its profitability, also promoted industrialization.

Chapter #26.2 Agricultural Revolution and Populism Big Picture Themes 1. Miners looking for silver and/or gold fled to Colorado and Nevada seeking quick fortune. A few found it, the vast majority didnt. 2. Cattle became king in Texas as cowboys drove herds north to the Kansas railroads and reaped quick money. 3. Farmers struggled out west due to several problems: weather, insects, high mortgage rates, high railroad shipping rates, and low prices for their crops. 4. The farmers struggles led to the Peoples (or Populist) Party. This party sought cheap money (or silver money) in order to create inflation and thus make it easier to pay off debts. Chapter #26:2 Identifications Joseph F. Glidden In 1874, Glidden invented a superior type of barbed wire and in 1883 the company was producing 600 miles of the product each day. Barbed wire was the main cause of the end of the open range, long drive cowboy days.

James B. Weaver He was a Civil War general chosen as the presidential candidate of the Populist party. He was a Granger with an apt skill for public speaking. He ended up getting three percent of the popular votes, which seems small, but which is really a large number for a third party candidate. Oliver H. Kelly Oliver H. Kelly was an energetic Mason from Minnesota. Kelly was the National Grange of the Patron's of Husbandry's leading spirit. The Grange's primary objectives were to stimulate the minds of the farm people by social, educational, and fraternal activities. The Grange was organized in 1867. Kelly had picnics, musical events, and lectures trying to appeal to enough of the farmers to reach his goals of self-improvement. The movement later got into the push for greenbacks and inflation.

Mary Elizabeth Lease Mary Lease became well known during the early 1890's for her actions as a speaker for the Populist party. She was a tall, strong woman who made numerous and memorable speeches on behalf of the downtrodden farmer. She

denounced the money-grubbing government and encouraged farmers to speak their discontent with the economic situation.

Comstock Lode In 1859, a great amount of gold and silver was discovered in Nevada at the Comstock Lode. The "fifty-niners rushed to Nevada in their own hopes of getting rich, which caused Nevada to become a state.

Long Drive The Long Drives took place in the 1870s and 80s in the Western plain states. Cattle ranchers needed a way to easily transport their cattle to eastern cities. Cowboys would round up a herd of cattle and "drive" them from Texas to Kansas which held the nearest railroad.

Homestead Act This law, passed in 1862, stated that a settler could acquire up to 160 acres of land and pay a minimal fee of $30.00 just for living on it for five years and settling it. A settler could acquire it for only six months and pay $1.25 an acre. This was important because previously land had been sold for profit and now it was basically being given away. About half a million families took advantage of this offer. Unfortunately, it was often too good to be true and the land was ravaged by drought and hard to cultivate.

Patrons of Husbandry The Patrons of Husbandry was a group organized in 1867, the leader of which was Oliver H. Kelley. It was better known as The Grange. It was a group with colorful appeal and many passwords for secrecy. The Grange was a group of farmers that worked for improvement for the farmers.

Granger Laws During the late 1800's an organization of farmers, called the Grange, strove to regulate railway rates and storage fees charged by railroads, warehouses, and grain elevators through state legislation. These such laws were passed, but eventually reversed, and were referred to as the Granger Laws.

Farmers' Alliance This was the first "national" organization of the farmers, which led to the creation of the Populist party. The Farmers' Alliance sponsored social gatherings, were active in politics, organized cooperatives, and fought against the dominance of the railroads and manufacturers.

Populists The Populists were a political group which began to emerge in 1891. They gained much support from farmers who turned to them to fight political injustice. They used a progressive platform. James B. Weaver ran as their presidential candidate in 1892. They had an impressive voter turnout. They were also known as the People's Party. Jacob S. Coxey Coxey was a leader of the unemployed during the depression in 1894. He led a march to Washington, demanding that the government begin an inflationary public works program.

Williams Jennings Bryan Bryan was an eloquent congressman from Nebraska. During the extra Congress session in the summer of 1893, Bryan held the galleries spellbound for three hours as he championed the cause of free silver. Despite his efforts, however, President Cleveland alienated the Democratic silverites. He also ran against McKinley in the presidential elections of 1896 and lost.

Bimetallism Bimetallism was the use of silver and gold in the economic system. This issue divided much of the United States during the late 19th century because the bankers and industrialists wanted at least a limited amount of silver, if not to get rid of it and the farmers wanted unlimited coinage of silver.

Free Silver Silverites were in favor of silver over gold in terms of currency. States with a lot of silver wanted unlimited coinage of silver. This would cause inflation (rising prices). This was desired because it enabled debtors, such as farmers, to more easily pay off debts. If money was worth very little (as with inflation) its easier to get more money and therefore pay off ones debt. They were said to like cheap money. Depression of 1893 This was the most devastating economic recession of the century. It occurred while Grover Cleveland was president and it lasted for four years. It was caused by overbuilding, overspeculation, labor disorder, and agricultural problems. Because of these things, many businesses collapsed and an abundance of people became unemployed. Cross of Gold Speech William Jennings Bryan became the hero of the Democratic party in the election of 1896 with his Cross of Gold speech. This speech supported the silver standard for currency, as opposed to the gold standard, and it also supported the unlimited coinage of silver.

Chapter #26.2 Guided Reading Questions The Farm Becomes a Factory Know: Montgomery Ward, Combine 1. Explain the statement, "The amazing mechanization of agriculture in the postwar years was almost as striking as the mechanization of industry." Historians generally agree that the Civil War was the first modern war, meaning the first in which technology and industrial strength played a significant role.

Deflation Dooms the Debtor Know: Deflation 2. What problems faced farmers in the closing decades of the 19th century? The farmers of the West became attached to the one-crop economy - wheat or corn - and were in the same lot as the southern cotton farmers. The price of their product was determined in a unprotected world market by the world output. In 1870, the lack of currency in circulation forced the price of crops to go down. Thousands of farms had mortgages, with the mortgage rates rising ever higher.

Unhappy Farmers 3. How did nature, government, and business all harm farmers? The good soil of the West was becoming poor, and floods added to the problem of erosion. Beginning in the summer of 1887, a series of droughts forced many people to abandon their farms and towns. Farmers were forced to sell their low-priced products in an unprotected world market, while buying high-priced manufactured goods in a tariff-protected home market. Farmers were also controlled by corporations and processors. Farmers were at the mercy of the harvester trust, the barbed-wire trust, and the fertilizer trust, all of which could control the output and raise prices to high levels. Even though farmers made up the population in 1890, they never successfully organized to restrict production until forced to do so by the federal government 50 years later.

The Farmers Take Their Stand Know: The Grange, Cooperatives, Greenback-Labor Party, James B. Weaver 4. How did the Grange attempt to help farmers? The Grange in the late 1800's helped farmers by getting them organized in relation to their crops. They helped the farmers figure out what they needed to grow and when they needed to grow certain things to get the best prices.

Prelude to Populism Know: The Farmers Alliance, Mary Elizabeth Lease 5. What steps did the Farmers Alliance believe would help farmers? The Farmers' Alliance operated free mills and gins that small farmers could use. They believed in graduated income taxes, sub-treasures-warehouses, and government ownership of railroads.

Coxeys Army and the Pullman Strike Know: Coxeys Army, Eugene V. Debs, Pullman Palace Car Company 6. Why did President Cleveland send in federal troops during the Pullman Strike? The strike was broken by President Cleveland because the railroad workers had stopped the trains, harming commerce in the US.

Golden McKinley and Sliver Bryan Know: Mark Hannah, William McKinley, William Jennings Bryan, Cross of Gold speech 7 Was William McKinley a strong presidential candidate? Explain. He was respected and former Civil war major who served in Congress and represented in Ohio and his father supported him financially and supported him through his political years.

Class Conflict: Plow holders versus Bondholders Know: Fourth Party System 8. The free-silver election of 1896 was probably the most significant since Lincolns victories in 1860 and 1864. Explain. This election was the most important once since Abraham Lincoln,

Republican Standpatters Enthroned Know: Dingley Tariff Bill 9. Did McKinley possess the characteristics necessary to be an effective president? McKinley was calm and conservative, who worked well with his party and avoided major confrontations. The Dingley Bill passed in order to replace the Wilson-Gorman law and raise more revenues, which raised to 46 percent.

Varying Viewpoints: Was the West Really Won? Know: Frederick Jackson Turner 10. Which criticism of the Turner Thesis seems most valid? Explain The idea that the American character was shaped only by the western wilderness was wrong. Sure, the railroad expansions, cowboy lifestyles, and precious metal rushes shaped the United States, but it didn't entirely define it. The culture of the United States was also defined in the eastern cities, where many centers of activities occurred.