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Finished on July 12, 2006, Egypt

CONTENTS

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER

VOLUME ONE
AN INTRODUCTION TO RIG TYPES AND BASIC DRILLING STRING COMPONENTS Rig 10 types

Overview Land Rigs Mobilizing Land Rigs Jack-Up Rigs Mobilizing Jack-Up Rigs Plat or! Rigs "#b!ersibles "e!i-s#b!ersibles "e!i-s#b!ersible Mobilization $rill s%ips &elly ' (op $rives)))11 Making *ole Overview (op $rive "yste! (op $rive Operation &elly "yste!s &elly Operation $rilling "tring +o!ponents))1, Overview $rill Pipe $rill Pipe "pecs -o. ' Pin $rill Pipe Make Up *eavy /alled $rill Pipe "piral *eavy /alled $rill Pipe $rill +ollars "lick ' "piral $rill +ollars +rossover "#bs Rea!ers ' "tabilizers -otto! *ole 0sse!bly Pipe Rack $rill -its)11 Overview Roller +one -its "teel (oot% -it
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER (#ngsten +arbide -it 2i.ed +#tter -it P$+ -it P$+ +o!pact $ia!ond -it +ore -it and -arrel "pecial $rill (ools)))13 Overview $rilling Jars $rilling Jar Operation M/$ M#d Motor $irectional /ells *orizontal /ells

"tring

VOLUME TWO
BASIC BLOWOUT PREVENTION EQUIPMENT Press#re +ontrol)14 Overview -lowo#t (aking a &ick -lowo#t Preventers15 -asic +oncepts -OP Operation -asic -OP 67#ip!ent ,0 Overview $riller8s -OP +ontrol 0cc#!#lator *ydra#lic Lines Operating Lever on 0cc#!#lator +%oke Mani old 9 +%okes +%oke Operation +%oke +ontrol Panel M#d-:as "eparator "eparator Operation 2lare Line ' 2lare Pit (rip (ank (rip (ank Operation "#bsea -OP 67#ip!ent,, Overview Marine Riser "yste!
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER Riser ' :#ideline (ensioner $rill "tring ;alves <-OPs))),= Overview Upper 9 Lower &elly +ocks 2#ll-Opening "a ety ;alve "a ety ;alve Usage 2loat ;alves '

VOLUME THREE
INTRODUCTION TO DRILLING FLUIDS M#d (ypes),> Overview /ater -ased M#d Oil M#d $rilling wit% 0ir 2oa! $rilling 0erated $rilling $rilling 2l#id 2#nction))),1 Overview +leaning t%e *ole +ooling 9 L#brication Protecting /ellbore /alls +ontrolling 2or!ation Press#re Obtaining $own%ole <n or!ation M#d Properties ' 0dditives),3 -entonite -arite P* +a#stic "oda :elled M#d M#d (ests)),4 Overview M#d -alance Mars% 2#nnel Rotational ;isco!eter 2ilter Press +%loride (est

VOLUME FOUR
MUD CIRCULATION & TREATING EQUIPMENT M#d "yste! Overview))),?
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER Overview M#d (anks M#d P#!ps "tandpipe ' Rotary *ose -it ' 0nn#l#s Ret#rn Line@ "%aker ' M#d (anks M#d "torage@ (anks ' Reserve Pit)=0 Overview M#d *o#se -#lk (anks 0ctive (anks "and (rap "ettling (anks Reserve (anks "l#g (ank "#ction (ank +%e!ical (ank Reserve Pit M#d P#!ps)))=1 Overview (riple. P#!p (riple. P#!p Operation $#ple. P#!p P#!p +o!ponents -ladder-(ype P#lsation $a!pener Aonbladder-(ype P#lsation $a!pener "#ction $a!pener $isc%arge Line Relie ;alve "#ction Line Relie ;alve P#!p $isc%arge Line M#d +onditioning => Overview "%ale "%aker $egasser ;ac##! $egasser Operation *ydrocyclone Operation +entri #ge 0gitator Pit ;ol#!e (otalizer +entri #gal P#!p *opper Jet *opper
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER

VOLUME FIVE
HOISTING EQUIPMENT Overview=4 2#nction o *oisting 67#ip!ent *oisting "yste! +o!ponents *oisting "yste! Operation +rown -lock)=5 +rown -lock Operation (raveling -lock ' *ook Overview Motion B*eaveC +o!pensator Motion +o!pensator Operation +o!bination *ook--lock "eparate *ook ' (raveling -lock *ook@ Links ' 6levator 6levator (ypes o 6levators *ook Positioner ' "wivel Lock 0sse!bly *ydra#lic "n#bber $rilling Line))>0 $rilling Line Reeving $rilling Line "#pply B"torageC Reel /ear Points on Line "lipping and +#tting $rilling Line $eadline 0nc%or $rawworks>1 Overview -raking "yste! $isk -rake "yste! 6lectrodyna!ic -rake Latest $rawworks +rown "aver

VOLUME SIX
ROTATING EQUIPMENT, MAST & SUBSTRUCTURE Rotating 67#ip!ent >= Overview &elly ' Rotary (able)))>= &elly 0sse!bly
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER &elly $etail Rotary (able Operation "etting "lips "wivel ' Rotary *ose "wivel Operation (op $rive BPower "wivelC )>1 Overview (op $rive 0dvantages ' $isadvantages (op $rive 0sse!bly Mast ' $erricks))>3 Overview Mast *eig%t ' +apacity "tands +rown /alkaro#nd B/ater (ableC Monkeyboard "tabbing -oard "#bstr#ct#re>4 Overview ;-$oor@ Pipe Ra!p ' +atwalk

VOLUME SEVEN
PIPE HANDLING EQUIPMENT Pipe *andling))>5 Overview Pipe *andling Operation))>5 Making a +onnection wit% &elly Making a +onnection wit% a (op $rive (ripping o#t wit% &elly (ripping in wit% &elly (ripping wit% (op $rive@ 1 (ripping wit% a (op $rive@ , (ripping wit% a (op $rive@ = "lips ' 6levator "yste!s)10 "lips "a ety +la!p on $rill +ollar "lips ' "piders 6levator Li ting "#b 6levator on (op $rive "pinning ' (or7#ing $evices))1, (ongs Make#p +at%ead
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER -reako#t +at%ead *ydra#lic +at%ead Power (ongs "pinning /renc% &elly "pinner <ron Ro#g%neck Pipe (rans er1> Pipe Racking "yste! Rat%ole Mo#se%ole 0ir *oist Pipe (rans er "yste! +ontrols or 67#ip!ent)1> $riller8s console /eig%t <ndicator@ :a#ges@ +ontrols

VOLUME EIGHT
CASING & CEMENTING +asing ' +e!ent11 Overview +asing "peci ications R#nning +asing +asing "tring 11 Overview Progressive +asing "trings)13 +ond#ctor +asing "#r ace +asing <nter!ediate +asing "trings Prod#ction +asing "trings Liner "trings +asing 0ccessories14 Overview :#ide "%oe 2loat +ollar ' "%oe +entralizers "cratc%er +e!enting)1? Overview +asing Point +onditioning t%e *ole R#nning t%e +asing Mi.ing t%e +e!ent
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER 2inis%ing t%e Job

VOLUME NINE
WELL LOGGING, MUD LOGGING & DRILL STEM DESTING /ell 6val#ation30 Overview M#d Logging 9 (esting@ 1)))30 M#d Logging ' (esting M#d Logging Unit Rig Monitors +%ro!atograp% +ore Pl#gging 0pparat#s 2l#oroscope Microscope +o!p#ters ;ac##! Oven M#d Logging 9 (esting@ ,))3, +ore *eat "ealer 0nalytical -alance Porosi!eter :as 0nalyzer D-Ray $i racto!eter +entri #ge $ry "a!ple (ray *+L (esting M#d Logs /ell Logging3= Overview -asic Logging Operation Logging Unit Logging Unit $etails Logging (ools 6lectric Log A#clear Log "onic Log Ot%er Logs $rill "te! (esting3> Overview $"( (ool +o!ponents Lowering $"( (ool "ealing t%e *ole /ater +#s%ion
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER 2l#id 2low Press#re +%arts Reverse +irc#lating Re!oving $"( (ool

VOLUME TEN
POWER SYSTEM & INSTRUMENTATION Power "yste!))34 Overview Pri!e Movers 0+ to $+ Power "yste! $+ to $+ Power "yste! Mec%anical Power "yste! 0+ to $+ Power "yste! 34 Overview $iesel ' 0+ :enerator "+R "witc% ' +ontrol :ear $+ Motors 0+ Motors $+ to $+ Power "yste! 3? Overview $+ Motors 0+ :enerator B0lternatorC Mec%anical $rive Power40 Overview +o!po#nd $rive *ydra#lic ' Pne#!atic Power "yste!s 40 Overview *ydra#lic 2orce *ydra#lic Power Pack Pne#!atically Powered 67#ip!ent Rig 0ir +o!pressor Rig <nstr#!ents))4= Overview $riller8s +onsole /eig%t <ndicator P#!p Rate :a#ge P#!p Press#re :a#ge Rotary (ac%o!eter
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER Rotary (or7#e :a#ge (ong (or7#e :a#ge M#d Ret#rn 2low Rate <ndicator M#d (ank Level <ndicator (rip (ank ;ol#!e <ndicator $rilling Recorder *," <nstr#!entation

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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


;OLUM6 OA6 0A <A(RO$U+(<OA (O R<: (EP6" 0A$ -0"<+ $R<LL<A: "(R<A: +OMPOA6A(" RIG TYPES Overview: Drilling rigs like these bore or drill holes into the earth. Usuall the drill to !ind oil or gas. The work both on land and o!!shore. So"e are big and so"e are relativel s"all. #ig rigs drill ver dee$ holes% &'''' !eet (!t)% *''' "eters (") or "ore+ s"all rigs "a onl drill to a !ew thousand !t or "eters. Peo$le in the oil land des,ribe grou$s o! rigs into basi, t $es: .and% /a,k u$% Plat!or"% Sub"ersible% Se"i0Sub"ersible and Drill Shi$. 1 land rig drills on dr land. There is the "ost ,o""on rig. .ight dut rigs drill holes !ro" *'''02'''!t% or 3'''032''"+ 4ediu" dut rigs drill to de$th ranging !ro" about 5'''0 3''''!t or 3&'''0*'''"+ 6eav dut rigs drill holes !ro" about 3&'''03-'''!t dee$ or *2''02'''"+ Ultra0heav dut rigs drill holes !ro" about 37'''0&2'''!t or "ore (22''0 82''" or "ore). 9rew "e"bers ,an "ove land rigs on tru,ks% tra,tors% trailers% barges% heli,o$ters% heav rolling gear% skids and in rare ,ases% on s$e,iali:ed air0$ressuri:ed e;ui$"ent. S"all light dut rigs are $rett si"$le to "ove. Ultra0heav land rigs ,an be di!!i,ult to "ove. /a,k0U$ 1 /a,k u$ rig% drills o!!shore wells. It has legs that su$$ort de,k and hole. <hen $ositioned over the drilling site% the botto" o! the legs rest on the sea !loor. /a,k u$ rigs ,an drill in water de$th ranging !ro" a !ew !eet or "eters u$ to "ore than 5''!t% over 3&' "eters. #oats to a /a,k U$ rig to a lo,ation with its legs u$. On,e the rig u$ ,rew gets the legs !ir"l $ositioned on the botto" o! the o,ean% the ,an ad=ust the level o! the de,k and the hole0height. Plat!or" 1 $lat!or" rig is a non0"obile o!!shore stru,ture% that is on,e built% it never "oves !ro" the drill site. 9o"$anies drill several wells !ro" the $lat!or". Plat!or" rigs ,an be Tender0 1ssisted Rig. The tender !loats ne>t to the rigid $lat!or"% whi,h is !ir"l $ent to the sea !loor. 4an $lat!or" rigs do not have a tender+ the ?re so large that the ?re sel!0,ontained. #ig $lat!or" rigs in,lude the Steel0/a,ket Plat!or"% the 9aisson T $e% and the 9on,rete Gravit T $e. In dee$ water% rig builders have to "ake $lat!or"s that ield to water and wind "ove"ents. Two 9o"$liant Plat!or" Rigs are the Gu ed0Tower and the Tension0.eg. Sub"ersible Rig 1 sub"ersible rig rests on the sea !loor when it is drilling. <orkers !lood ,o"$art"ents that ,ause the rig to sub"erge and rest on the botto". <hen read to "ove% workers re"ove the water !ro" the ,o"$art"ents% this "akes the rig !loat. #oats ,an then tow the rig to the ne>t site. Rig builders design sub"ersibles to drill in shallow water and in
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


water u$ to about 382 !t dee$% a little lower 2' "eters. Sub"ersible drilling rigs in,lude the Posted #arge Sub"ersible% and the 1r,ti, Sub"ersible. Sub"ersible% #ottle0T $e

Se"i0Sub"ersible 1 Se"i0Sub"ersible rig is a !loating o!!shore drilling rig. It has Pontoons and 9olu"ns. <hen !looded with water% the Pontoons ,ause the unit to $artiall sub"erge to a $redeter"ined de$th. The working e;ui$"ent is asse"bled on de,k. On the drill site% workers ,an either an,hor the rig to the sea !loor or use a s ste" o! thrusters and $ositioners to kee$ the rig over the hole. 6ere% the have it an,hored. 9rew "e"bers "ount the wellhead and blow0out $reventers on the o,ean !loor. S$e,ial hollow $i$e ,alled riser $i$e ,onne,ts the to$ o! the blowout $reventer to the rig. In so"e ,ases% the ,rew uses thrusters to kee$ the rig over the hole% ,alled D na"i, Positioning. The thrusters% whi,h are ,onne,ted to an onboard ,o"$uter% kee$ the rig in $osition. So"e D na"i,all Positioned Se"i0Sub"ersibles ,an drill in water de$ths o! "ore than 82''!t% or over &&'' "eters. <hen kee$ing a rig over the hole% drilling ,rews use the ter" @On0StationA. 6ere is a se"i0sub"ersible rig loaded on a s$e,ial ,arrier. The ,arrier thus allows "oving the rig !ar distan,e over the o,ean. Bor shorter "oves% the rig owner tows the rig to the drill site% or% so"e se"i0sub"ersibles are sel!0$ro$elled. Drill Shi$ 1 drill shi$ is a sel!0$ro$elled !loating o!!shore drilling unit. It usuall uses a sub sea blowout ,ontrol s ste" si"ilar to the one on the se"i0sub"ersible. CE..Y D TOP DRIEES 4aking a 6ole 4an $ie,es o! e;ui$"ent "ake u$ a rotar drilling rig. Part o! it is on sur!a,e and $art o! it is underground% or subsur!a,e. 1ll the e;ui$"ent has one "ain $ur$ose: to $ut a bit at the botto" o! the hole% or it ,an drill or "ake hole. To $ut the bit on the botto"% rig ,rew "e"bers s,rew it into a s$e,ial $i$e. The $i$e is ,alled the @Drill StringA. 9rew "e"bers lower the drill string and atta,h a bit into the hole. Bor the bit to drill% sur!a,e rig e;ui$"ent has to rotate it% unless it is rotated b a "ud "otor. E;ui$"ent also has to $ut weight on it to !or,e the bit?s teeth% or ,utters into the !or"ation. 1s the bit rotates% a ,ir,ulating !luid has to take the drill ,uttings awa !ro" the bit% otherwise% the hole will ,log u$. The !luid whi,h ,ir,ulates is ,alled drilling "ud. Overview To i"$art rotar "otion to the drill string so that the bit ,an turn% either a to$ drive or a Cell D rotar table s ste" is used. Power is trans!erred !ro" the sur!a,e down hole% via the drill string. To$ Drive S ste"s So"e rigs rotate the drill string with a to$ drive unit. To$ drives are e>$ensive but ver
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


e!!i,ient. 9rew "e"bers ,an add drill $i$e and =oints to the drill string ver ;ui,kl and sa!el and the ,an drill the well "ore e!!i,ientl with less ,han,e o! sti,king the drill string in the hole as ,o"$ared with the Cell D rotar table. 1 $ower!ul "otor turns the drive sha!t whi,h is ,onne,ted to the to$ drive. 9rew "e"bers "ake u$ or atta,h the drill string to the drive sha!t. The drive sha!t turns the drill string and bit. Foti,e that the drill string go through an o$ening in the rotar table% the table does not% however% rotate. To$ Drive O$eration 1 link s ste" sus$ends the to$ drive unit !ro" the rig?s traveling blo,k. Drill "ud enters the unit through the goosene,k to the rotar hose% a !le>ible line that ,ondu,ts drilling "ud !ro" the $u"$. 1 "otor and a gear bo> $ower the "ain drive sha!t+ the ,rew "akes u$ the drill string to the drive sha!t. The built0in inside blowout $reventers% I#OP or sa!et valve kee$s !luids !ro" ba,k !lowing u$ the drill string when the driller ,loses it. The ,rew uses the Tor;ue <ren,h asse"bl to "ake u$ and break out (,onne,t D dis,onne,t) the drill string. The elevator links sus$end the elevator+ the rig ,rew lat,hes the elevator around the drill string to allow the to$ drive unit to li!t it u$ or down. Cell S ste"s 1 Cell % a Cell Drive #ushing% a 4aster #ushing and a Rotar Table rotate the drill string and bit on so"e rigs. The Cell is a heav tubular devi,e+ it usuall has either 5 or sides% that is it either has a s;uare or he>agonal ,ross se,tion. S;uare kell s are less e>$ensive than he>agonal ones% but the he> kell s are stronger. So rigs drilling dee$ holes o!ten use the". <hether !our or si>0sided% ,rew "e"bers atta,h or "ake u$ the Cell to the to$ =oint o! $i$e in the drill string. Cell O$eration The Cell % !our0sided or s;uare as an e>a"$le% "oves through a s;uare o$ening in the Cell drive bushing. The Cell drive bushing "eets with the "aster bushing% whi,h the rotar table turns. This rotates the entire drill string and atta,hed bit. The Cell "oves down as the hole dee$ens. DRI.. STRIFG 9O4POFEFTS Overview There?re "an ,o"$onents whi,h "ake u$ the drill string as shown in this gra$hi,. Drill Pi$e Drill $i$e is strong but relativel light weight $i$e. 9rew "e"bers atta,h it to a to$ drive or Cell . Drill $i$e !or"s the u$$er $art o! the drill string. Usuall the drill $i$e rotates% whi,h also rotates the bit. Ea,h se,tion o! $i$e is ,alled a =oint. 9rew "e"bers s,rew together or "ake u$ several =oints and $ut the" into the hole as the bit drills. Drill $i$e as well as other tubulars ,an be s$e,i!ied a,,ording to these ,hara,teristi,s: Dia"eter% Grades or Strength% <eight o! steel% .ength. The dia"eter% weight and strength used de$ends on the si:e o! the hole% the de$th o! the well and the well $ro$erties. 6ere is a
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


t $i,al oil !ield tall book% "an o! these have se,tions in the" whi,h show standard drill $i$e s$e,i!i,ations. DP S$e, Drill $i$e ,o"es in three ranges o! length: range one is 370&& !t or 2.20-.8 "+ range two is &80*' !t% or 7.&0G.3 "+ and range three is *7052 !t% or 33.-03*.8". The "ost ,o""on length is range two% &80*' !t% or 7.&0G.3 ". Sin,e a hole "a be thousands o! !t dee$% ,rew "e"bers "a ,onne,t together hundreds o! =oints o! $i$e. Drill $i$e dia"eter ,an be as s"all as & *H7 in,hes or -'.* "". This si:e weighs 5.72 $ounds $er !oot or 8.&& kg $er "eter. It ,an be as large as - 2H7 in,hes% or 3-7.* "". This $i$e weighs about &8.8' $ounds $er !oot or 53.&3 kg $er "eter. 6owever% 2 in (3&8"") drill $i$e is one o! the "ore ,o""on si:es. It weighs 3G 3H& $ounds $er !oot or &G.'3 kg $er "eter. For"al drill $i$e grades are E82% IG2% G3'2 and S3*2. S3*2 is the strongest. #o> D Pin The rig ,rew "akes u$ or ,onne,ts drill $i$e using threaded se,tions at ea,h end o! the drill $i$e. These threaded se,tions are tool =oints. The !e"ale tool =oint is the bo> end at the drill $i$e+ the "ale tool =oint is the $in end. Tool =oints ,o"e in several si:es and t $es. Drill Pi$e 4ake U$ Tool =oints threads are rugged be,ause the ,rew "akes the" u$ and breaks the" out over and over during the drilling $ro,ess. #ut the have to take ,are not to da"age the". Pro$er ,are and handling o! drill $i$e and other oil !ield tubulars ,an $revent ,orrosion later on the li!e o! the well. 6eav <alled Drill Pi$e (6<DP) 9rew "e"bers "ake u$ a heav walled drill $i$e in the drill string below the drill $i$e. 6<DP (o!ten ,alled heav weight drill $i$e) is "ade u$ between the drill $i$e and drill ,ollars. 6<DP is used to $rovide a transition between the li"ber drill $i$e and the drill ,ollars% whi,h are ;uite sti!!. The use a 6<DP redu,es the stress that sti!! drill ,ollars $ut on the drill string% as a result% 6<DP redu,es !atigue on the regular drill $i$e. It also hel$s kee$ the drill $i$e in tension and "a so"eti"es $rovide weight on the bit% =ust as drill ,ollars do% es$e,iall in dire,tional drilling. 6eav walled DP (or 6eav weight DP) has thi,ker walls and longer tool =oints than standard DP. The longer tool =oints redu,e wear on the $i$e?s bod . The kee$ the bod awa !ro" the side o! the hole. The wear $ad also $revents wear+ it kee$s the "iddle o! the $i$e?s bod awa !ro" the side o! the hole. S$iral 6<DP S$iral 6<DP is another t $e o! 6<DP. S$iral 6<DP has a s$iral groove in the $i$e?s bod . Regular 6<DP has no groove% but s$iral 6<DP has no wear $ad. <hen s$iral 6<DP ,onta,ts the side o! the hole% onl a s"all $art o! the $i$e bod a,tuall tou,hes it.
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


In !a,t% onl the $art o! the $i$e bod between the s$iral grooves tou,hes it. The groove doesn?t tou,h the wall o! the hole% thus redu,ing the sur!a,e ,onta,t area. Redu,ing the sur!a,e ,onta,t area hel$s $revent the $i$e !ro" sti,king. Drill 9ollars (D9) 9rew "e"bers "ake u$ drill ,ollars at the botto" o! the drill string. Drill ,ollars have thi,k walls and are ver heav . The $ut weight on the bit to "ake the bit?s ,utters bite into the ro,k and drill. Drill ,ollars range in dia"eter !ro" *03& in,hes (or 8-.&0*'5.7) ""+ the range in weight !ro" about -2'0332''$ounds (or *''023''kg). This $arti,ular - in,h drill ,ollar weighs about &8'' $ounds (3&&2kg). Sin,e the ,rew usuall installs several D9s% ou ,an see that a bit re;uires a lot o! weight to drill $ro$erl . 6ow "u,h weight de$ends on the t $e o! !or"ation and the si:e and t $e o! bit% where it ,an be several thousand o! $ounds. D9s are nor"all *'0*3 !t (G.50G.2") long and have a threaded !e"ale ,onne,tion at on end and a treaded "ale ,onne,tion at the other end. It is an interesting observation that in the drilling business tubular e;ui$"ent dia"eters and hole0dia"eters are al"ost alwa s "easured in in,hes but lengths are usu. "easured in "eters or !t. JTOO. #OIK: .et?s see how well ou?ve been $a ing attention. In the se,tion on drill $i$e% we told ou what the na"es o! the "ale and !e"ale ,onne,tions re,ord on oil !ield ter"inolog . Using the "ouse% label the $hoto o! the drill ,ollar and then $ress @a,,e$tA to see i! ou?re right. Sli,k D S$iral D9s JTOO. #OIK: So"e D9s are sli,k. The have a s"ooth wall+ so"e have s$iral groove "a,hined into the wall. The rig uses sli,k ,ollars under nor"al ,ir,u"stan,es. The rig uses s$iral ,ollars when drilling in !or"ations where the ,ollars "a sti,k to the wall o! the hole. .arge dia"eter ,ollars are !airl ,lose to the dia"eter o! the well bore. Under ,ertain ,ir,u"stan,es% the ,an ,onta,t the wall o! the well bore and get stu,k. The s$iral in the D9 hel$s $revent the D9 !ro" sti,king to the wall b redu,ing its ,onta,t area. 9rossover Subs 9rossover subs go on the drill string between the DP D D9s and other $oints. 1 ,rossover sub has a s$e,ial bo> and $in threads. 4anu!a,turers design the" to =oin $arts o! the drill string that have di!!erent thread designs. Bor e>a"$le% a drill $i$e?s $in "a not s,rew dire,tl into a drill ,ollar?s bo> so ,rew "e"bers "ake u$ a ,rossover sub in the last =oint o! the DP where =oins the !irst D9?s =oint. The ,rossover sub?s bo> threads "at,h the DP?s $in threads and the ,rossover sub?s $in threads "at,h the D9?s bo> threads. These "at,hing treads allow ,rew "e"bers to =oin the drill $i$e string to the drill ,ollar string. Drilling rigs t $i,all have a large variet o! ,rossover subs. Rea"ers D Stabili:ers
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


9rew "e"bers o!ten "ake u$ rea"ers and stabili:ers in the drill ,ollar string. Usuall the $la,e one or "ore at various $oints on the drill ,ollar string near the botto". Rea"ers and stabili:ers hold the D9 o!! the wall o! the hole to $revent wear on the ,ollars% but even "ore i"$ortant% rea"ers and stabili:ers hel$ guide the bit in the dire,tion that should drill. Rea"ers have ,utters on rollers that a,tuall ,ut the ro,k the ,onta,t. Stabili:ers have blades that tou,h the wall o! the hole but do not ,ut it. #otto" 6ole 1sse"bl (#61) Foti,e the lower $ortion o! the drill string. It in,ludes the bit% D9s% stabili:ers (or rea"ers)% and 6<DP. 9rew "e"bers ,all this $art o! the drill string the #otto" 6ole 1sse"bl or #61 !or short. The ,an "ake u$ "an di!!erent #61s% whi,h one de$ends on the t $e o! !or"ation% whether the rig is drilling straight or dire,tional hole and so on. Pi$e Ra,k The $i$e ra,k is not $art o! the drill string but $la s an i"$ortant su$$orting role. The rig ,rew ,annot $ut drill $i$e and ,ollars on the ground or de,k due to the debris will ruin the". So the store the" on the $i$e ra,k. The also ,lean and ins$e,t the drill string and other tubulars or $i$e on the ra,k. DRI.. #ITS Overview 1s we dis,ussed in the last se,tion% ,rew "e"bers install the bit on the botto" drill ,ollar. Two kinds o! bits are Roller 9one #its and Bi>ed 9utter #its. Bi>ed ,utter bits are also ,alled !i>ed head bits. Roller ,one bits usuall have * ,one0sha$ed devi,es with teeth or ,utters. 1s the bit rotates% the ,one and ,utters rotate to drill ahead. Bi>ed head bits also have ,utters% but "anu!a,turers e"bedded the" in the bit?s head. The bit?s head "oves onl when the bit rotates. It has no "oving $arts like the ,ones on the roller ,one bit. #oth roller ,one bits and !i>ed head bits ,o"e in si:es ranging !ro" onl & or * in,hes (or about 2'082"") in dia"eter to "ore than *- in,hes (about a "eter) in dia"eter. Roller 9one #its Two basi, kinds o! roller ,one bits are available: one has steel teeth and the other has tungsten ,arbide inserts. Steel Tooth #it On a Steel Tooth #it% also ,alled a 4illed Tooth #it% the "anu!a,turer "ills or !orges the teeth out o! the steel that "akes u$ the ,one. Steel tooth bits are the least e>$ensive bits. <hen used $ro$erl % the ,an "ake hole !or "an hours. 4anu!a,turers design steel tooth bits to drill so!t% "ediu" and hard !or"ations. Tungsten 9arbide #it <ith tungsten ,arbide insert bits% the "anu!a,turer $resses ver hard tungsten ,arbide
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


buttons or inserts into holes drilled into the bit?s ,ones. Tungsten ,arbide is a ver hard "etal. Tungsten ,arbide insert bits ,ost "ore than steel tooth bits. 6owever% the usuall last longer be,ause tungsten ,arbide is "ore resistant to wear than steel. In general% tungsten ,arbide insert bits drill "ediu" to e>tre"el hard !or"ations% but ,an also drill so!t !or"ations. So!t !or"ation bits usuall drill best with a "ud o! "oderate weight and high rotar s$eeds. 6ard !or"ation bits% on the other hand usuall drill best with high weight and "oderate rotar s$eeds. Bi>ed 9utter #it Three t $es o! !i>ed ,utter bits are available: Pol ,r stalline Dia"ond 9o"$a,t (or PD9 bits)% Dia"ond #its and 9ore #its. PD9 bit This PD9 bit has ,utters "ade !ro" "an0"ade dia"ond ,r stals and tungsten ,arbide. Ea,h dia"ond and tungsten ,arbide ,utter is ,alled a ,o"$a,t. 4anu!a,turers $la,e the ,o"$a,ts in the head o! the bit. 1s the bit rotates over the ro,k% the ,o"$a,t shears it. PD9 bits are ver e>$ensive% however% when used $ro$erl % the ,an drill so!t% "ediu" or hard !or"ations !or several hours without !ailing. PD9 9o"$a,t 1 ,o"$a,t PD9 la er is ver strong and wear resistant. 4anu!a,turers bond the dia"ond ,r stals to the tungsten ,arbide ba,king under a high $ressure and te"$erature. The tungsten ,arbide ba,king gives the ,o"$a,t high i"$a,t strength+ it also rein!or,es the wear resistan,e $ro$erties o! the ,utters. Dia"ond #it 4anu!a,turers "ake dia"ond bits !ro" industrial dia"onds+ the dia"onds are the bit?s ,utters. Dia"ond is one o! the hardest substan,es. 1 dia"ond bit breaks down the ro,k during drilling b either ,o"$ressing it% shearing it or grinding it as shown in this edi"ation 6ere% the dia"ond is a,ting like sand $a$er wearing the ro,k awa . The e"bed the dia"onds into the "etal "atri> that "akes u$ the head o! the bit. Dia"ond bits are e>$ensive. <hen $ro$erl used% however% dia"ond bits ,an drill !or "an "an hours without !ailing. 9ore #it and #arrel 9rew "e"bers run a ,ore bit in barrel when the geologist wants a ,ore sa"$le o! the !or"ation being drilled. 1 ,ore bit is nor"all a !i>ed head PD9 or dia"ond bit. It has a hole in the "iddle. This o$ening allows the bit to ,ut the ,ore. Dia"onds or PD9?s line the o$ening and sides o! the bit. The rig ,rew !i> the ,ore to a ,ore barrel% the ,ore barrel is a s$e,ial tube% usuall about *'0G' !t (or G0&8 "eters ) long. The run the ,ore barrel at the botto" o! the drill string+ it ,olle,ts the ,ore ,ut b the ,ore bit. 9ores allow geologists to take a look at an a,tual sa"$le o! the !or"ation ro,k. Bro" the sa"$le% the ,an o!ten tell whether the well will be $rodu,tive.
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


SPE9I1. DRI.. STRIFG TOO.S Overview S$e,ial e;ui$"ent o! the drill string in,ludes the drilling =ars% "easure"ent while drilling (or 4<D) tools and "ud "otors. Drilling /ars The rig ,rew installs a drilling =ar in the drill string i! there is a ,on,ern o! be,o"ing stu,k. Drilling =ars are usuall "ade u$ on the u$$er $art o! the botto" hole asse"bl with drill ,ollars $la,ed above and below the =ars. <hen a,tivated% a drilling =ar $rovides a heav blow to the stu,k $ortion o! the drilling string below the =ar. O!ten the blow delivered b the =ar is enough to kno,k loose the stu,k string. Drilling /ar O$eration To ,reate a =arring blow u$ with a h drauli, =ar% the driller lowers the drill string to ,o,k the =ar. Then the driller a$$lies an u$ward $ull. The u$ward $ull $uts the u$ =ar in tension and allows the =ar tri$ "e,hanis" to slowl bleed. Eventuall % the =ar tri$s when the h drauli, oil bleeds $ast the $orts. The drill string ,ontra,ts% ra$idl a,,elerating the botto" hole asse"bl above the =ars. <hen it rea,hes !ull stroke% the =ar "e,hanis" suddenl sto$s the "otion energ o! the string. <hen the "otion suddenl sto$s% it ,onverts the kineti, energ (or energ in "otion) into i"$a,t !or,e on the stu,k $oint. This heav u$ward blow "a !ree the stu,k string below the =ar. 4<D 4easure"ent while drillingL4<D tools are a big hel$ to the driller as the bit drills. 9rew "e"bers usuall $la,e the tool in a s$e,ial drill ,ollar ,lose to the bit. 4<D tools send down0hole ,onditions and trans"it the" to the sur!a,e. There% the driller "onitors the ,onditions in real ti"e. 4ost 4<D tools ,reate $ulses in the drilling "ud+ these $ulses ,arr the down0hole in!or"ation u$ to drilling string to the sur!a,e. In!or"ation ,olle,ted b an 4<D tool in,ludes: Ro,k Pro$erties% the Dire,tion that the bit is drilling% Tor;ue and <eight on bit. 4ud 4otor O!ten% when drilling a dire,tional or a hori:ontal well% a "ud "otor is "ade u$ at the botto" o! the drill string =ust above the bit as shown here. It?s ,alled a "ud "otor be,ause drilling "ud rotates the bit. That is% when using a "ud "otor% onl the bit rotates% not the rest o! the drill string. 4ud $u"$ed down the drill string enters the to$ o! the "ud "otor when $ressuri:ed drilling !luid is !or,ed between the elasti, stator and the e,,entri, steel rotor. 1 tor;ue is a$$lied whi,h ,ause the rotor to rotate. The rotor is ,onne,ted to a drive sha!t whi,h is ,onne,ted to the bit. Fote that all the drill string does not rotate. Dire,tional <ells So"eti"es a well is drilled in an angle. This is ,alled a dire,tional well. The well is
19

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


steered in an angle s$e,i!ied in the drilling $rogra" !or "an di!!erent reasons. Bor e>a"$le% the "a drill dire,tionall so"eti"es i! the oil or gas reservoir does not lie dire,tl under the rig site. 6ori:ontal <ells 6ori:ontal wells are drilled !or "an di!!erent reasons. 9ertain reservoirs ,an be $rodu,ed better i! a hori:ontal $ortion o! the well $asses through the !or"ation. The transition to the hori:ontal seg"ent o! the well begins at so"e $oint in the verti,al $ortion o! the well bore as shown here. This $oint is ter"ed the @Ci,k0O!! PointA. The hori:ontal seg"ent o! the well ,an e>tend !or several thousand !t. s$e,iali:ed drilling e;ui$"ent and te,hni;ues are re;uired to drill hori:ontal wells. ;OLUM6 (/O -0"<+ -OP 6FU<PM6A(

PRESSURE 9OFTRO. Overview: Bluids in the !or"ation are under $ressure. <hen drilled% this $ressure ,an es,a$e to the sur!a,e i! it is not ,ontrolled. For"all drilling "ud o!!sets !or"ation $ressure% that is the weight or $ressure o! the drilling "ud kee$s !luid in the !or"ation !ro" ,o"ing to the sur!a,e. Bor several reasons however% the "ud weight ,an be,o"e lighter than it?s ne,essar to o!!set the $ressure in the !or"ation. <hen this situation o,,urs% !or"ation !luids enter the hole. <hen !or"ation !luids enter the hole% this is ,alled a @ki,kA. 1 blowout $reventer sta,k is used to kee$ !or"ation !luids !ro" ,o"ing to the sur!a,e. These are ,alled @#OPAs. # ,losing a valve in this e;ui$"ent% the rig ,rew ,an seal o!! the hole. Sealing the hole $revents "ore !or"ation !luids !ro" entering the hole. <ith the well sealed or shut in% the well is under ,ontrol. Rig ,rews use a sur!a,e #OP s ste" on land rigs% =a,k0u$ rigs% sub"ersible rigs and $lat!or" rigs. The use a subsea #OP s ste" on o!!shore !loating rigs% like se"i0sub"ersibles and drill shi$s. JTOO. #OIK: <h do ou su$$ose subsea #OP s ste" are used on se"i0sub"ersibles and drill shi$sM #lowout $revention e;ui$"ent is ver large and ver heav . Se"i0 sub"ersibles and drill shi$s are d na"i,% that is the !loat and thus "ove with wind D waves while in working "ode. On !loating rigs% it is not $ra,ti,al to "ount the #OP sta,k on to$ o! the long riser $i$e. The #OP sta,k is "u,h too heav !or the relativel thin and !le>ible walls o! the riser $i$e. 1lso be,ause the riser walls are relativel thin% the ,annot withstand the high $ressures that ,ould develo$ inside the riser when the well?s shut in on a ki,k. So the rig ,rew "ounts the #OP sta,k on the well head at the see !loor and "akes u$ the riser on to$ o! the sta,k. #lowout 1 blow out is dangerous. Bor"ation !luids like gas and oil blow to the sur!a,e and burn. #low outs ,an in=ure or kill% destro the rig% and har" the environ"ent. Rig ,rews there !or trained and work hard to $revent blowouts. Usuall the ?re su,,ess!ul% so blowouts are rare. #ut when the ha$$en% the are s$e,ta,ular and thus o!ten "ake news.
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


Taking a Ci,k 1 ki,k is the entr o! !or"ation !luids into the well bore while drilling. 1 ki,k o,,urs when the $ressure e>erted b the drilling "ud is less than the $ressure in the !or"ation that the drill string is $enetrating. The "ud that ,ir,ulates down the drill string and u$ the hole is the !irst line o! de!en,e against ki,ks. Drilling "ud ,reates additional $ressure as it ,ir,ulates. The "ud $ressure kee$s !or"ation $ressure !ro" entering the well bore. On the rig% the sa "ud kee$s the well !ro" ki,king. So"eti"es however% ,rew "e"bers "a a,,identall allow the "ud level or "ud weight in the hole to dro$% this dro$ in weight or level ,an ha$$en !or several reasons. Bor e>a"$le% the ,rew "a !ail to kee$ the hole !ull o! "ud when the $ull the $i$e out o! it% or the "a $ull the $i$e too !ast% whi,h ,an lower the botto" hole $ressure. <hen the "ud level or "ud weight dro$s% the $ressure e>erted on the !or"ation de,reases. I! either ha$$ens% !or"ation !luids ,an enter the hole. I! the do% the well takes a ki,k. In other words% when the !or"ation $ressure e>,eeds the weight o! the "ud ,olu"n% then the well ,an ki,k. JTOO. #OIK: .i;uids and gases e>ert a !or,e against the ,ontainer. That is the li;uid or gas $ushes against the wall o! the ,ontainer. I! we "easure the a"ount o! $ush or !or,e being e>erted on ea,h unit o! area on the ,ontainer% we have the $ressure o! li;uid or gas. So $ressure is de!ined as Bor,e $er Unit 1rea. 9o""on units that are used to "easure $ressure are Pounds $er S;uare In,h and Cilo$as,als. This gauge shows the down hole $ressure o! the "ud ,olu"n+ this gauge shows the reservoir $ressure. 9hange the $ressure o! the "ud ,olu"n and see what ha$$ens. To kee$ a ki,k !ro" be,o"ing a blowout% the rig ,rew uses blowout $revention e;ui$"ent. #.O<OUT PREEEFTERS #asi, 9on,e$ts The blowout $reventerL#OP sta,k% ,onsists o! several large valves sta,ked on to$ o! ea,h other. These large valves are ,alled blowout $reventers. 4anu!a,turers rate #OP sta,ks to work against $ressure as low as two thousand $ounds $er s;uare in,h or &''' $si% and as high as 32'''$si% that?s about 35''' Cilo$as,als to over 3''''' Cilo$as,als. Rigs usuall have two kinds o! $reventers. On to$ is annular $reventer. It?s ,alled an annular $reventer be,ause it?s around the to$ o! the wellbore in a sha$e o! a ring or an annulus. #elow the annular $reventer are ra" $reventers. The shown o! valves in ra" $reventers ,lose b !or,ing or ra""ing the"selves together. The ,hoke line is a line through whi,h well !luids !low to the ,hoke "ani!old when the $reventers are ,losed. Even though the $reventers shut in the well% the ,rew "ust have a wa to re"ove or ,ir,ulate the ki,k and "ud out o! the well. <hen the #OP shut in the well% "ud D !or"ation !luids e>ert through the ,hoke line to the ,hoke "ani!old. The "ani!old is "ade u$ o! s$e,ial $i$ing and valves. The "ost i"$ortant valve is the ,hoke. The ,hoke is a valve that has an ad=ustable o$ening. 9rew "e"bers ,ir,ulate the ki,k through the ,hoke to kee$ ba,k $ressure on the well. Cee$ing
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


the right a"ount o! ba,k $ressure $revents "ore ki,k !luids !ro" entering the well. 1t the sa"e ti"e% the ,an get the ki,k out o! the well and $ut in heavier "ud to kill the well. That is regain ,ontrol o! it. The well !luids leave the ,hoke "ani!old and usuall to a "ud gas se$arator. 1 "ud gas se$arator se$arates the "ud !ro" the gas in the ki,k. The ,lean "ud goes ba,k to the tanks+ the gas is !lared or burned at a sa!e distan,e awa . #OP O$eration <hen the well takes a ki,k and the #OP is o$en% well !luids !or,e "ud to !low u$ the well bore and into the #OP sta,k. <hen the driller ,loses the annular #OP% !low sto$s. Usuall % drillers ,lose the annular #OP !irst. The ,losed annular #OP diverts the !low o! the ,hoke line% whi,h goes to the ,hoke "ani!old. The driller ,an o$en a valve on the ,hoke line and sa!el ,ir,ulate the ki,k out o! the well through the ,hoke "ani!old. JTOO. #OIK: 6ere is an annular $reventer% ,li,k on it to see how it works. 1n annular #OP ,loses on drill $i$e% drill ,ollars or an sha$e o! tubular in the well. It ,an also ,lose an o$en hole% a hole with no tubulars in it at all. It?s usuall the !irst $reventer used to ,lose in the well. 6ere are !our t $es o! Ra"0Preventers: Pi$e Ra"s% #lind Ra"s% #lind0 Shear Ra"s and Eariable #ore Ra"s (E#R Ra"). 9li,k on ea,h one to see how the ra"s work. Pi$e Ra"s Pi$e ra"s are used when there is drill $i$e in the #OP sta,k. The $i$e ra"s !it around the $i$e% ,losing o!! the annulars. Pi$e ra"s ba,k u$ the annular $reventer. That is then it?s likel at the end the annular #OP !ailed% ,rew "e"bers ,ould shut the $i$e ra"s to seal the well. 1lso so"e $i$e ra" $reventers are used to hang o!! or sus$end the drill string and so"e subsea #OPs. #lind Ra"s #lind ra"s are designed to seal an o$en hole. I! the annular #OP !ails and there?s no $i$e in the hole% the ,rew ,ould seal the hole b ,losing the blind ra"s. #lind0Shear Ra"s #lind0shear ra"s are designed with blades that ,ut through the drill $i$e and then seal the o$en hole. The ?re used in e>tre"el e"ergen,ies% like when an o!!shore !loating rig has to "ove o!! a well that the ?re drilling be,ause o! a hurri,ane or other su,h e"ergen, . #lind shear ra"s allow the" to ,ut the $i$e% seal the hole and then "ove the rig a sa!e distan,e awa . E#R Ra" Eariable #ore Ra"s or E#R are s$e,ial $i$e ra"s that ,an ,lose over a range o! $i$e si:es su,h as 2 in,h dia"eter to * in,h dia"eter. #1SI9 #OP ENUIP4EFT

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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


Overview 6ere are the "a=or $arts o! a land% =a,k0u$% $lat!or" or sub"ersible rig?s blowout $revention e;ui$"ent: the blowout $reventer or #OP sta,k% the driller?s #OP ,ontrol $anel% the #OP o$erating unit a,,u"ulator% the ,hoke "ani!old% the ,hoke ,ontrol $anel% the "ud gas se$arator% the !lare line D !lare $it% the tri$ tank and drill string valves. JTOO. #OIK: Pro"$t ;ui:: You?ve =ust learned the na"es o! the e;ui$"ent used in well ,ontrol o$erations. .et?s see how well ou ,an identi! the e;ui$"ent. Using the "ouse% drag the labels to their ,orre,t lo,ations. <hen ou?ve ,o"$leted this e>er,ise% ,li,k the @a,,e$tA button. Driller?s #OP 9ontrol Bro" this #OP ,ontrol $anel% the driller o$ens and ,loses or ,ontrols the blow out $reventers and the line to the ,hoke "ani!old. Rig builders usuall $la,e the ,ontrol $anel on the rig !loor% ,lose to the driller?s $osition. .ever and swit,hes allow the driller to ;ui,kl o$en and ,lose the $reventers and other valves in the s ste". 1,,u"ulator The a,,u"ulator bottles store or a,,u"ulate h drauli, !luid under ver high $ressure% u$ to *''' $si% over &'''' CPa. This high $ressure !luid ensures that the $reventers ,lose ver !ast. The #OP o$erating unit a,,u"ulator is installed so"e distan,e !ro" the rig !loor. 6 drauli, .ines <hen the driller a,tivates the #OP o$erating unit% it $u"$s the h drauli, !luid through the high $ressure $i$es o! lines into the #OP sta,k. The h drauli, $ressure o$ens or ,loses the $reventers. O$erating .ever on 1,,u"ulator Usuall % the driller o$erates the a,,u"ulator !ro" a ,ontrol $anel on the rig !loor. In an e"ergen, however% ,rew "e"bers ,an o$erate the #OPs b using the ,ontrol valves on the a,,u"ulator itsel!. 9hoke 4ani!old H 9hokes 6ere is a ,hoke "ani!old. Blow gets to it !ro" the #OP sta,k via a ,hoke line. The "ani!old usuall has two or "ore s$e,ial valves that ,alled ,hokes. Usuall well !low goes through onl one o! the ,hokes% the others are ba,k u$s or used under s$e,ial ,onditions. 9hoke O$eration # ad=usting the si:e o! the o$ening in the ,hoke% "aking the o$ening larger or s"aller% the driller ad=ust the a"ount o! the !low through the ,hoke. The s"aller the o$ening% the less !low+ the larger the o$ening% the "ore !low. The less !low% the "ore ba,k $ressure on the well+ the "ore !low% the less ba,k $ressure on the well. This ad=ust"ent o! ba,k
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


$ressure kee$s the $ressure on the botto" o! the hole ,onstant so that no "ore ki,k !luids ,an enter the well. 9hoke 9ontrol Panel The driller or another ,rew "e"ber uses the ,hoke ,ontrol $anel to ad=ust the si:e o! the ,hoke?s o$ening as ki,k !luids !low through it. # wat,hing the $ressure on the drill $i$e and ,asing% and b kee$ing the "ud $u"$ at ,onstant s$eed% the ,hoke o$erator ,an ad=ust the ,hoke to kee$ the $ressure on the botto" o! the hole ,onstant. The ,hoke o$erator "ust kee$ the botto" hole $ressure ,onstant to su,,ess!ull ,ontrol and ,ir,ulate a ki,k out o! the hole. JTOO. #OIK 4ud0Gas Se$arator O!ten% ki,k !luids and "ud !ro" ,hoke "ani!old go through a line to a "ud gas se$arator. Bre;uentl % !or"ation gas is the "ain $art o! a ki,k. 6owever% ki,k !luids "a also ,ontain water% oil% or ,o"bination o! these !luids. In an ,ase% the "ud gas se$arator re"oves the gas !ro" the "ud. <ith the gas re"oved% the $u"$ ,ir,ulates gas0!ree "ud into the "ud tanks and ba,k down the hole. The se$arated gas goes to a !lare line. Se$arator O$eration In the se$arator% "ud with gas in it !ro" ,hoke "ani!old enters the to$ and !alls over several ba!!le $lates. The gas breaks out o! the "ud as it !alls over the ba!!le $lates and goes into the !lare line. The gas0!ree "ud !alls to the botto" outlet where it goes to the "ud tanks !or ,ir,ulation down hole. Blare .ine D Blare Pit The !lare line ,ondu,ts gas !ro" the "ud gas se$arator to a !lare $it on land rigs. The gas is burned or !lared at the !lare $it. Foti,e that the !lare line outlet is a good distan,e awa !ro" the rig !loor% so even while gas is !laring% the ,rew ,an still sa!el work on the rig !loor. O!!shore% where there is no !lare $it% the !lare line ,ondu,ts the gas over the side o! the rig. The line runs over the water% a sa!e distan,e awa !ro" the rig. Tri$ Tank 1 tri$ tank is a s$e,ial "ud tank. It is used when the $ull drill string !ro" the hole% !or e>a"$le% to ,hange out a dull bit. The also use the tri$ tank when the run drill string ba,k into the hole. Pulling the drill string and running it ba,k in is ,alled a @tri$A% whi,h is wh the ,all the s"all tank a @tri$ tankA. The use it to kee$ a,,urate tra,k o! how "u,h "ud the drill string dis$la,es in the hole. Tri$ Tank O$eration <hen the ,rew $ulls drill string !ro" the hole% the "ud level in the hole dro$s. I! the let the "ud level dro$ too !ar% it won?t e>ert enough $ressure to kee$ !or"ation !luids !ro"
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


entering the hole. So% as the ,rew $ulls $i$e% the ,ontinuall ,ir,ulate !luid !ro" the tri$ tank to re$la,e the drill string and kee$ the hole !ull. The also wat,h !or unusual ,hanges% and "a "ake sure that the volu"e o! "ud the $ut in e>a,tl re$la,es the volu"e o,,u$ied b the drill string. Sin,e the volu"es are s"all% the level o! "ud in the tri$ tank is ,alibrated in s"all in,re"ents% su,h as stands o! $i$e% or barrels or liters o! "ud% or both. I! the volu"e the $ut in is less than the volu"e o,,u$ied b the drill string the re"oved% then it?s likel that !or"ation !luids have entered the hole. Bor e>a"$le% let?s sa the ,rew $ulls one stand o! drill $i$e. In this instan,e% the stand dis$la,es .8 barrels or 333 liters. There !or% the should $u"$ .8 barrels or 333 liters o! "ud to re$la,e the stand. The "ud level in the tri$ tank should sure dro$ .8 barrels or 333 liters. I! the level in the tank shows less% then !or"ation !luids have entered the hole and the ,rew "ust take ste$s to ,ontrol the well. SU#SE1 #OP ENUIP4EFT Overview Subsea #OP e;ui$"ent is si"ilar to a sur!a,e sta,k. There are% however% so"e ver i"$ortant di!!eren,es. This se,tion dis,usses these di!!eren,es. Subsea sta,ks atta,h to the wellhead on the sea !loor. 4eanwhile% the rig !loats on the water% hundreds or thousands o! !t or "eters above. 4a=or $arts in,lude: the Subsea #OP sta,k% this is a lot like a sur!a,e #OP sta,k+ other $arts are di!!erent% however. 6ere?s the !le>ible or ball =oint. The "arine riser with a ,hoke line and a kill line% guide lines% the teles,o$i, =oint with riser tensioners% the hose bundle% and two ,ontrol $ods. The driller ,ontrols the subsea #OP valves !ro" ele,tri, #OP ,ontrol $anel on the rig. The subsea hose bundle ,arries the ,ontrol signals and h drauli, !luid !ro" the rig down to the ,ontrol $od and sele,ted subsea #OP valves. 4arine Riser S ste" 4arine riser $i$e is s$e,ial $i$e and !ittings. It seals between the to$ o! the subsea #OP sta,k and the drilling e;ui$"ent lo,ated on the !loating rig. 9rew "e"bers run the drill string into the hole inside the riser $i$e. The riser $i$e also ,ondu,ts drilling !luid u$ to the rig. 4anu!a,turers atta,h two s"aller $i$es ,alled the ,hoke and kill lines to the outside. 9rew "e"bers use the" to ,ontrol the well during a ki,k or s$e,ial o$erations. Guide lines guide and hel$ $osition e;ui$"ent su,h as the #OP sta,k to o,ean !loor. The !le>ible =oint ,uts down on bending stresses on the riser $i$e and #OP. The teles,o$i, =oint ,o"$ensates !or the verti,al "otion o! the !loating rig. Riser D Guideline Tensioner 9rew "e"bers also atta,h the riser tensioning s ste" to it. Riser tensioner lines su$$ort the long riser $i$e. The riser and guide line tensioners $ut ,onstant tension on the riser $i$e and guide lines. This tension sus$ends the riser $i$e. It also ,o"$ensates what the "ove"ent o! the rig ,aused b wave a,tion. Riser tensioner s ste"s usuall range in ,a$a,it !ro" over *''%''' to al"ost 3%'''%''' $ounds (that is 3*2%''' to over 52'%'''
25

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


kg) with 2' !t or 32 "eters o! wire line travel. The utili:e u$ to 3& ,o"$ression loaded tensioners that use air $ressure !or ,o"$ensation. DRI.. STRIFG E1.EES D I#OPS Overview Drill string valves sto$ !luids !ro" !lowing u$ to drill string. O!ten% i! the well ki,ks with the bit o!! botto"% !or"ation !luids !low u$ the annulus% and u$ the drill string. 9rew "e"bers ,lose the drill string valves to sto$ the !low in the string. I! the kell is "ade u$% the ,an ,lose the u$$er or lower kell ,o,k. I! the kell is not "ade u$% then the ,an install a !ull o$ening sa!et valve on the to$ o! the drill string. 1n inside blowout $reventer or I#OP is a one0wa valve% a ,he,k valve the ,an install in the drill string. One side o! the I#OP is a !loat valve that is so"eti"es "ade u$ in the drill string near the bit. It $revents ba,k !low u$ the drill string. 1nother t $e o! I#OP is the Dro$0in valve or DIE. It?s dro$$ed into the drill string and !alls to a s$e,ial landing sub that?s usuall lo,ated near the to$ drill ,ollar and drill ste". It allows the driller to $u"$ "ud down the string. #ut the ,he,k valve won?t allow in!lu> !luid to !low u$ the string. 1nother t $e o! the inside #OP is the 6eav Dut 9he,k Ealve or Gra T $e Ealve a!ter one ,o"$an that "akes it. It?s a $lunger ,he,k valve that the ,rew stab it in the drill $i$e at the sur!a,e. It?s usuall used during stri$$ing o$erations. Stri$$ing is when the ,erw lowers the $i$e in the hole while the #OPs are ,losed D under $ressure. U$$er H .ower Cell 9o,ks 1n u$$er kell ,o,k is lo,ated above the kell . The u$$er kell ,o,k nor"all surves as a ba,k u$ to the lower kell ,o,k. I! the lower kell ,o,k !ailed% ,rew "e"bers will use a s$e,ial o$erating wren,h to ,lose the u$$er kell ,o,k. The ,losed u$$er kell ,o,k $revents !urther !low% it $rote,ts the e;ui$"ent above the kell !ro" high $ressure !low. Usuall ,rew "e"bers ,lose the lower kell ,o,k i! a ki,k $uts risk on the e;ui$"ent above the kell . The "ake it u$ at the botto" o! the kell . 1 ,rew "e"ber uses a s$e,ial o$erating wren,h to ,lose it. The ,rew ,an also ,lose the lower kell ,o,k to kee$ "ud !ro" !alling out o! the kell when the break out the kell to "ake a ,onne,tion. 1 ,o,k is another na"e !or a valve. 9o,k is short !or weather,o,k% whi,h is English ter" !or valve. Bull0O$ening Sa!et Ealve 6ere is a !ull0o$ening sa!et valve. I! the kell is not "ade u$ in the drill string and !low o,,urs. 9rew "e"bers ,an insert the sa!et valve in the drill string. This $ro,edure is ,alled @stabbingA. 1 !ull0o$ening valve has as large an inside o$ening as $ossible. <hen !ull o$en% !low !ro" the !rill $i$e $asses through the valve with no additional restri,tion. This relativel large o$ening allows the ,rew to stab the valve against $ressure ,o"ing out o! the drill string. Sa!et Ealve Usage The ,rew $i,ks u$ the sa!et valve b its li!ting handles. The "ake sure it?s !ull o$en and stab it into the drill $i$e. Then the s,rew it into the $i$e. Binall the use a s$e,ial
26

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


o$erating wren,h to ,lose the valve and shut o!! !low. Driller should "ake sure the rig has the right ,rossover subs at hand on the rig !loor. 9rew "e"bers should be able to "ake u$ the sa!et valves and an drilling string "e"ber ,o"ing out o! the rotar . Bor e>a"$le% i! a drill ,ollar is in the rotar % the sa!et valve?s threads "a not "at,h the drill ,ollar?s threads. The will need the right ,rossover sub to "ake it work. JTOO. #OIK: This well is taking a ki,k. To shut it in% ,hoose one o! the two valves ou see here: a one0wa sa!et valve and a !ull0o$ening sa!et valve. 9li,k on the valve ou wan to use. 6old our "ouse button down and drag the valve to drill $i$eO Good ,hoi,eP The !ull0o$ening sa!et valve is the ,orre,t valve to use in this situation. It ,an be stabbed on the drill $i$e while it?s o$en and then ,lose to shut in the drill string. You?re not done et though% the annulus hasn?t been sealed% so the well is still not !ull se,ured. 9li,k on the ,orre,t $reventer on this #OP sta,k that should be ,losed !irst. That?s rightP The annular $reventer is ,losed !irst. Good =obP You?ve su,,ess!ull ,losed in this well. Bloat Ealves Bloat valves also $revent !low u$ the drill string. 9rew "e"bers $la,e a !loat valve in a sub% a s$e,ial drill string !itting% =ust above the bit. One t $e allows "ud to be $u"$ed down but shut against u$ward !low. Under nor"al ,onditions% $u"$ $ressure "oves drilling "ud through the o$en one0wa valve% and in!lu> o! !or"ation !luids !ro" below ,auses the !loat valve to ,lose. This $revents !urther !low u$ the drill string. ;OLUM6 (*R66 <A(RO$U+(<OA (O $R<LL<A: +LU<$"

OEEREIE< Drilling !luid or drilling "ud as "an $eo$le ,all it is a vitalit in a rotar drilling $ro,ess. The ter" @drilling !luidA in,ludes air% gas% water and "ud. @4udA re!ers to the li;uid that ,ontains solids and water or oil. The "ud is "ade u$ with ,la and other additives that give it desirable $ro$erties. 4UD TYPES <ater #ased 4ud O!ten% water is the base o! drilling "ud. <ater "akes u$ the li;uid $art or $hase o! a water0based "ud. 9rew "e"bers $ut ,la and s$e,ial additives into the water to "ake a "ud with the $ro$erties needed to do its =ob well. Bor e>a"$le% ,la s give it thi,kness or vis,osit . The water in the "ud "a be !resh water% sea water or ,on,entrated brine (salt water). The one used de$ends on its availabilit and whether it gives the "ud the needed $ro$erties to drill the hole e!!i,ientl . Oil 4ud 1t ti"es% down hole drilling ,onditions re;uire the ,rew to add oil to the "ud% or in so"e ,ases% ,rew "e"bers use oil instead o! water as the base o! the "ud. This is ,alled oil0 based "ud. Oil based "ud has "an advantages. It ,an stabili:e the !or"ation and
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


redu,e downhole drilling $roble"s. 6owever% it is harder !or the ,rew to work with be,ause it ,an ,reate sli$$er ,onditions and environ"ental $re,autions "ust be used. Bro" an environ"ental stand$oint% "ud with oil is "ore di!!i,ult to handle be,ause the oil ,lings to the drill ,uttings. The oil "ust be ,leaned o!! the ,uttings be!ore the ?re dis$osed o!. Drilling with 1ir So"eti"es drilling !luid is dr air or natural gas. 6ere% dr air is ,o"ing out o! the rig?s #looe .ine% ,arr ing ver !ine drilled ,uttings. 1ir drilling uses ver large air ,o"$ressors instead o! "ud $u"$s. Drilling with air or gas ,an $revent !or"ation da"age and ,an over,o"e severe lost ,ir,ulation $roble"s. 1nd it allows the bit to drill ver !ast. Down hole ,onditions have to be =ust right !or air or gas to be usable. Bor e>a"$le% the bit ,annot drill through !or"ations ,ontaining large a"ounts o! water. The water "i>es with the ,uttings and the air or gas and ,logs u$ the hole. Boa" Drilling I! s"all a"ounts o! water are $resent in the !or"ations being drilled% s$e,ial e;ui$"ent ,an in=e,t a !oa" agent into the air strea". The !oa" hel$s se$arate the ,uttings and re"ove water !ro" a hole. 1erated Drilling In so"e ,ases% the rig o$erator "a use aerated "ud% whi,h like !oa" drilling% hel$s $revent ,logging o! the well bore. 1erated drilling uses both "ud and air $u"$ed into the stand$i$e at the sa"e ti"e. DRI..IFG B.UID BUF9TIOF Overview <hen ,ir,ulated down the drill string and u$ the hole% drilling "ud serves "an !un,tions. Bor e>a"$le% "ud ,leans the hole% ,ools and lubri,ates the bit D the drill string% li!ts ,uttings to the sur!a,e% ,arries in!or"ation about !or"ations being drilled% stabili:es the well bore% ,ontrols !or"ation $ressure and sus$ends ,uttings when $u"$ing sto$s. 9leaning the 6ole One !un,tion o! "ud is to ,lean the hole. 1 ,lean hole allows the bit to drill into un,ut !or"ation ro,k. 6ere is an e>a"$le o! what ,an ha$$en when ,uttings are not "oved o!! botto". 4ud =ets out o! the bit and "oves ,uttings awa !ro" the botto" o! the hole. The "ud then ,arries the ,uttings u$ the annulus and to the sur!a,e !or dis$osal. 9ooling H .ubri,ation 6eat is en,ountered down hole. Dee$ !or"ations ,an be ver hot and !ri,tion !ro" rotating drilling ,o"$onents generates a lot o! heat. 6igh te"$eratures in,rease drill string and bit wear. Drilling !luid hel$s to redu,e the te"$erature in the drill string down hole while drilling. In addition% drilling !luid $rovides lubri,ation to the drill string and bit
28

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


that hel$s $revent wear. Prote,ting <ellbore <alls 4ud stabili:es the hole% kee$s it !ro" ,aving in. 1s "ud "oves u$ the hole% it usuall !lows b $er"eable !or"ations. Per"eable !or"ations although allow the !luid to !low% when the "ud is ne>t to a $er"eable !or"ation% $ressure !or,es the li;uid $art o! the "ud% the !iltrate% into tin o$enings or $ore s$a,es in the !or"ation. This leaves behind a thin sheet o! solid $arti,les% known as "ud ,ake. These solids $laster the side o! the hole% "u,h like the $laster on the wall o! a building. The wall ,ake hel$s kee$ the well !ro" ,aving in. 9ontrolling Bor"ation Pressure The ,olu"n o! "ud in the well ,reates $ressure down hole% ,alled h drostati, $ressure. The h drostati, $ressure o! the "ud ,olu"n o!!sets !or"ation $ressure. 4ud is the !irst line o! de!en,e in well ,ontrol. 1s long as the hole is !ull o! "ud% that is the right weight% the well ,annot ki,k and $erha$s blowout. 1 ki,k is the entr o! !or"ation !luids into the well bore. The ki,k !or,es drilling "ud out o! the hole. I! ,rew "e"bers !ail to ,ontrol a ki,k% a blowout ,an o,,ur. 1 blowout is the un,ontrolled !low o! drilling "ud and !or"ation !luids out o! the hole. Obtaining Downhole In!or"ation 4ud is also used to obtain in!or"ation about !or"ations down hole. 4ud loggers% b e>a"ining ,uttings at the sur!a,e% ,an gather i"$ortant in!or"ation about the !or"ation being drilled and the ,onditions down hole. 4UD PROPERTIES D 1DDITIEES #entonite In water% or oil based drilling "ud% ,rew "e"bers usuall add ,la % ,alled bentonite% or si"ilar "ineral. #entonite swells in water% there!ore thi,kens the "ud% gives vis,osit % to hel$ ,lean the ,uttings !ro" the hole and $rovide other desirable $ro$erties. JTOO. #OIK: Eis,ous !luids are "ore resistant to !low. 6one is a good e>a"$le o! a vis,ous !luid% $ure water is not vis,ous. #arite #arite is a heav "ineral. The ,rew adds barite to "ud to "ake it heav or dense. #arite is over !our ti"es heavier than water. Dense "ud e>erts "ore $ressure than light "ud. <eighted "ud ,ontrols !or"ation $ressure. This is ,alled @Pri"ar <ell 9ontrolA. JTOO. #OIK: Pri"ar well ,ontrol is using the densit or weight o! the drill !luid to $rovide su!!i,ient $ressure to $revent the in!lu> o! !or"ation !luid into the well bore. I! su!!i,ient "ud $ressure is not used while drilling% the $ressuri:ed !or"ation !luid !or,es the "ud u$ the well bore where it blows out o! ,ontrol. <hen the hole is !ull o! "ud that weighs the
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


right a"ount% the $ressure o! the "ud e;uali:es the $ressure o! the !or"ation% so !or"ation !luids ,an?t enter the well bore. P6 The ,ontrol o! "an "ud $ro$erties de$ends on its P6. The P6 o! "ud is a "easure o! its a,idit or alkalinit . The P6 s,ale runs !ro" ' to 35. I! the "ud is neutral% neither a,idi, nor alkaline% it has a P6 o! 8. 4ud with a P6 below 8 is a,idi,% a P6 above 8 shows that the "ud is alkaline. 4ost drilling "uds re;uire a high P6% at least G% or higher. JTOO. #OIK: Pro"$t ;ui:: <e?ve said that "ost drilling "ud should have a P6 o! G or greater. <ill the "ud be ,alled a,idi, or alkalineM 9austi, Soda #e,ause "ud needs to have a high P6% another ,o""on "ud additive is 9austi, Soda or Sodiu" 6 dro>ide. 9austi, soda is o!ten ,alled @,austi,A. 9rew "e"bers add ,austi, soda to the "ud to ,ontrol P6. 9austi, soda in,reases the P6 value% it "akes the "ud "ore alkaline. In general% ,austi,s are the "ost dangerous ,he"i,als that ou?ll handle on the rig. 6igh strength solutions ,an seriousl burn our skin. #e ver ,are!ul when handling it to avoid in=ur % wear the $ro$er $ersonal $rote,tive e;ui$"ent% also re"e"ber to alwa s add ,austi, soda to water% never add water to ,austi, soda. I! ou do% the ,austi, soda will boil u$% s$latter and ,over ou with a burning ,he"i,al. Gelled 4ud <hen drilling sto$s% sa let the ,rew "ake a ,onne,tion (add a =oint o! drill $i$e to the string)% the driller nor"all sto$s $u"$ing "ud. <hen $u"$ing sto$s% the "ud sto$s "oving. 1t rest% "ud gels% that is it be,o"es a se"i0solid like gelatin. Gelled "ud sus$ends the ,uttings. Gelling kee$s the ,uttings !ro" !alling down hole and $iling u$ around the bit. The abilit o! a gel to kee$ the ,uttings sus$ended is "easured b its gel strength. <hen the driller starts the $u"$ and resu"es "ud?s ,ir,ulation% the "ud?s gel strength redu,es% whi,h allows the drilling !luid to !low easier. 4UD TESTS Overview <e?ve =ust ,overed a !ew ke $oints about "ud additives and the $ro$erties that "ud should have to allow a su,,ess!ul drilling. On the rig% it is i"$ortant !or ,rew "e"bers to ,onstantl "onitor and "aintain these $ro$erties. 1n i"$ortant "e"ber o! the drilling tea" is the "ud engineer. The "ud engineer runs tests on the drilling !luid. The "ud engineer?s =ob is to "onitor and "aintain the "ud?s $ro$erties to the s$e,i!i,ations o! the well o$erator. 6e "a also re,o""end ,hanges to i"$rove drilling% su,h as adding "ore ,austi, soda to in,rease the "ud?s P6. In this se,tion% we will learn about tools that?re used to "onitor "ud $ro$erties. 4ud #alan,e
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


The densit % or weight $er unit volu"e o! the drilling "ud deter"ines how "u,h h drostati, $ressure the "ud ,olu"n e>erts on the !or"ation. It is there!ore i"$ortant to know the "ud?s densit at all ti"es. To deter"ine "ud densit % the "ud engineer or hel$er uses a "ud balan,e. The $erson weighing the "ud $uts a s"all a"ount o! "ud in the "ud ,ontainer at le!t on the balan,e. 6e then slides the ad=ustable ,ounterweight to the right or le!t until the ar" balan,es on the !ork roo". The $erson then reads the "ud densit at the $oint on the ar" ne>t to the ,ounterweight. In "an areas% "ud densit is read in $ounds $er gallon but ,an also be re$orted in $ounds $er ,ubi, !oot% "illigra"s $er liter% and other units. 4ud densit is usuall ,alled "ud weight b the rig ,rew. JTOO. #OIK: 9al,ulate the densit o! "ud b ad=usting the ,ounterweight on the "ud balan,e. 9li,k on the ,orre,t densit when ou?ve !inished. 4arsh Bunnel The vis,osit o! the "ud is thi,kness or resistan,e to !low% is also an i"$ortant !a,tor. The "ud?s vis,osit deter"ines how well it ,an ,arr ,uttings u$ the hole. One "easure o! a "ud?s vis,osit is its !unnel vis,osit . That is how "an se,onds does it take e>a,tl one ;uart o! "ud to !low out o! a s$e,ial !unnel ,alled a 4arsh Bunnel. 1 4arsh Bunnel has a hole in the botto" that?s the standard si:e. The "ud engineer or hel$er $ours one ;uart o! "ud into the !unnel and re,ords the ti"e that it takes to run out into a $it,her or beaker. In this e>a"$le% one ;uart o! "ud !lows out o! the !unnel and into the beaker in *2 se,% so this "ud has a !unnel vis,osit o! *2 se,. 1 less vis,ous or thinner "ud would !low through the !unnel !aster+ a "ore vis,ous or thi,ker "ud would !low through the !unnel slower. Rotational Eis,o"eter This devi,e also "easures "ud?s vis,osit . It is a "ore s,ienti!i, vis,osit "easure than the 4arsh Bunnel. 1 Bann E0G 4eter "easures the "ud?s vis,osit in ,enti$oises. 1 ,enti$oise is a unit o! "easure !or vis,osit % =ust as an in,h is a unit o! "easure !or length. The Bann E0G 4eter works b s$inning a rotor or bob in a sa"$le o! "ud at two di!!erent s$eeds. In addition% a Bann E0G 4eter is used to deter"ine a "ud?s ield $oint% whi,h is a "easure o! the "ud?s resistan,e to !low. 9o"bined with a ti"er% the 4eter also "easures the "ud?s gel strength. Gel strength is the "ud?s abilit to te"$oraril solidi! or gel when it?s not !lowing. JTOO. #OIK: 6ere?s a "ud with high gel strength. 9li,k the button labeled @lower gel strengthA to see what would ha$$en i! the gel strength wasn?t this high. Bilter Press This is a Bilter Press. Inside the white ,ontainer is a $ie,e o! $orous $a$er ,alled !ilter $a$er. 1lso inside the ,ontainer is a "ud sa"$le. The "ud engineer $uts the "ud sa"$le under 3'' $ounds $er s;uare in,h o! $ressure !or *' "inutes. The $ressure !or,es the li;uid $art o! the "ud% the !iltrate% through the !ilter $a$er and into the graduated , linder. # "easuring the a"ount o! the !iltrate% the "ud engineer ,an get an
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


indi,ation o! the a"ount o! !iltrate that will be lost to down hole !or"ations and the a"ount o! solids or wall ,ake build u$ on the wall o! the hole. 9hloride Test 4ud engineers "a run other drilling "ud tests. One ,o""on test is !or salt or ,hloride in the "ud !iltrate. # adding Potassiu" 9hro"ate and other ,he"i,als% the engineer ,an deter"ine i! the hole has $enetrated a salt !or"ation. It ,an also deter"ine whether salt water has entered the well bore% whi,h "a be a sign o! a ki,k. ;OLUM6 2OUR MU$ +<R+UL0(<OA ' (R60(<A: 6FU<PM6A(

4UD SYSTE4 OEEREIE< Overview The rig uses "an $ie,es o! e;ui$"ent to ,ir,ulate and treat or ,ondition the "ud. 4ud Tanks 4ud ,ir,ulation begins here% in the "ud tanks% so"eti"es ,alled $its. 9rew "e"bers $re$are the "ud in these tanks and "ake it read !or ,ir,ulation 4ud Pu"$s The heart o! the ,ir,ulating s ste" is the "ud $u"$. O!ten% rigs have two $u"$s% one $ri"ar $u"$ and one !or ba,k u$. Or% i! hole ,onditions re;uired% the driller ,an ,o"$ound or ,o"bine the two $u"$s to ,ir,ulate large volu"es o! "ud. In !a,t% on dee$ wells% the rig "a have three or !our ,o"$ound $u"$s. The $ower!ul $u"$% or $u"$s% $i,k u$ "ud !ro" the "ud tanks and send it to the drill string and bit. The $u"$ "oves the "ud into the dis,harge line% u$ to stand$i$e and into the rotar hose. Stand$i$e D Rotar 6ose The stand$i$e takes the "ud about hal! wa o! the "ast. The rotar hose is atta,hed to the stand$i$e. The rotar hose is strong% !le>ible hose that "oves with the swivel as it goes u$ and down in the "ast. Bro" the rotar hose% the $u"$ "oves "ud through the swivel and then down the kell and drill string. On rigs with a to$ drive% the "ud "oves through a $assage in the to$ drive and then into the drill string. #it D 1nnulus The $u"$ "oves the "ud down the drill string to the bit. 1t the bit% the "ud =ets out o! the o$enings or no::les in the bit. The =ets o! "ud "ove ,uttings awa !ro" the bit. 4ud then ,ontinues u$ the annulus% ,arr ing the ,uttings with it. Return .ine% Shaker D 4ud tanks Bro" the annulus% the "ud with the ,uttings in it goes through the return line% so"eti"es ,alled the Blow .ine% to the shale shaker. The shale shaker re"oves the ,uttings !ro" the "ud. The "ud then !alls into the "ud tanks% where the "ud $u"$ ,an $i,k it u$ and ,ontinue the ,ir,ulation $ro,ess.
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


JTOO. #OIK: 1rrange this ,ir,ulating e;ui$"ent in $ro$er order% $la,e the "ouse around the ,o"$onent% ,li,k and hold on it and "ove it to its $ro$er $osition. The "ud $u"$ is in $osition% what ,o"es ne>tM 4UD STOR1GE% T1FCS D RESEREE PIT Overview: 4ud is "ade u$ at the rig lo,ation. 4ost rigs have several steel "ud tanks. 4ud and additives are "i>ed and held in the tanks. So"e land rigs also have a reserve $it dug out o! the ground. 4ud tanks are also ,alled "ud $its% a ,arrier over !ro" the da s o! earthen $its% "ud tank is the $re!erred ter". The rig does not ne,essaril use all the "ud tanks at on,e% although it does use several. The a,tive tanks hold "ud the $u"$ a,tivel ,ir,ulates. 4ud 6ouse O!ten% "ud ,o"$onents ,o"e to the rig in sa,ks. For"all % the ,rew stores the sa,ks in a s$e,ial ,o"$art"ent ,alled the "ud house or sa,k roo". The house or roo" kee$s the sa,ks dr and allows the" to be stored with ,are. #ulk Tank These silo0like tanks are bulk tanks or P0tanks. The hold "ud additives like barite and bentonite. 9rew "e"bers use so"e additives in su,h large ;uantities that su$$liers load the" into the bulk tanks to save ti"e and "one . #ulk tanks usuall have their own ho$$er or $neu"ati, s ste" !or trans!erring the additives to the "ud s ste". 1,tive Tank The $u"$ takes the "ud out o! the a,tive "ud tanks and ,ir,ulates it through the s ste". 9rew "e"bers ,onne,t the "ud tanks with the $i$ing and "ani!old. The nu"ber o! a,tive "ud tanks de$ends on the a"ount o! "ud needed to kee$ the hole !ull% and the volu"e re;uired on the sur!a,e to kee$ the "ud in good ,ondition !or ,ir,ulating. Sand Tra$ The sand tra$ is the tank dire,tl below the shale shaker. The shale shaker re"oves "ost o! the ,uttings !ro" the "ud% but so"e are so s"all the shaker ,annot tra$ the". These !all into the sand tra$. The sand tra$ is the !irst settling tank. 9rew "e"bers have to ,lean it regularl to re"ove the built0u$ solids. Settling Tanks So"e s"all or old rigs "a have two or "ore settling tanks in the tank s ste". The allow solids in the "ud to settle out% but settling tanks do not do a ver good =ob as ,o"$ared with newer generation solids0re"oval e;ui$"ent. So% toda % "ost rigs use a dessander and desilter. Reserve Tanks
33

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


Reserve tank is not a $art o! the a,tive "ud tank s ste"% instead% the ,rew uses the" to hold e>,ess "ud% or the "a use the" to "i> a di!!erent t $e o! "ud in the $u"$?s ,urrentl ,ir,ulating. The "a also store heav "ud !or e"ergen, well ,ontrol o$erations. Slug Tank 1 slug tank is a relativel s"all se$arate tank% or it "a be a s"all se$arate $art o! a larger tank. The ,rew uses the slug tank to "i> a slug. 1 slug is a s"all a"ount o! heav "ud that is $u"$ed down the string. 9rew "e"bers "a also use the slug tank to "i> a s"all a"ount o! "ud !or a s$e,ial $ur$ose. Bor e>a"$le% the driller "a need $la,e or s$ot a s"all ;uantit o! high vis,osit "ud% also ,alled a $ill% at so"e $oint down hole. Su,tion Tank The su,tion tank is where the "ud $u"$ $i,ks u$ "ud read to ,ir,ulate down hole. 4ud in the su,tion tank should be ,lean% !ree o! solids D gas% and be $ro$erl !or"ulated or ,onditioned. 9he"i,al Tank 9rew "e"bers use the ,he"i,al tank to "ake s$e,ial ,he"i,als% su,h as ,austi,% that the will $ut into the a,tive "ud tanks. Reserve Pit On so"e land rigs% the rig owner digs a large $it ne>t to the rig. This $it is ,alled the reserve $it. The ,rew $uts waste "ud and run0o!! !ro" the rig site in the reserve $it. In an e"ergen, % the ,an also use it as a $la,e to $ut "ore "ud than the tanks ,an hold. O!ten% the rig o$erator lines the reserve $it with a thi,k $lasti, sheet to $revent li;uids !ro" lea,hing into the soil. 1nd i! the rig is on a "igrator bird !l wa % the o$erator ,overs it with a netting to kee$ the water!owl !ro" landing in it. .and rigs drilling in environ"entall sensitive areas will not have a reserve $it. Instead% waste D run0o!! o! a hole to an a$$roved waste dis$osal area. JTOO. #OIK: 6ere is our ,han,e to be the driller?s assistant and ,arr out task to kee$ the "ud s ste" o$erating $ro$erl . Bor ea,h task the driller gives ou% ,li,k the lo,ation where the task will be ,arried out. <hen ou sele,t the right lo,ation% ou?ll get our ne>t instru,tions. See i! ou ,an ,arr out all !ive tasks be!ore the ti"er runs out. 9li,k @beginA when ou?re read to start. 4UD PU4PS Over Eiew Power!ul "ud $u"$s $i,k u$ "ud !ro" the su,tion tank% and ,ir,ulate the "ud down hole% out the bit% and ba,k to the sur!a,e. 1lthough rigs usuall have two "ud $u"$s% and so"e ti"es three o! !our% nor"all the use onl one at a ti"e. The others are "ainl used as ba,k u$ in ,ase one !ails. So"eti"es however% the rig ,rew "a ,o"$ound the $u"$s. That is% the "a use two% three or !our $u"$s at the sa"e ti"e to "ove large
34

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


volu"es o! "ud when re;uired. Rigs use one o! two t $es o! "ud $u"$s: tri$le> $u"$s or du$le> $lu"$s. Tri$le> $u"$s have three $istons that "ove ba,k D !orth in liners+ Du$le> $u"$s have two $istons that "ove ba,k D !orth in liners. Tri$le> has "an advantages: the weigh *'Q less than a du$le> o! e;ual horse$ower or kilowatts+ the lighter0weighted $arts are easier to handle% and there!ore easier to "aintain. The other advantages in,lude: the ,ost less to o$erate% their !luid end is "ore a,,essible% and the dis,harge "ud "ore s"oothl % that is the tri$le>?s out$ut does not surge as "u,h as du$le>. One o! the "ost i"$ortant advantages o! tri$le> over du$le> $u"$s is that the ,an "ove large volu"es o! "ud at the higher $ressure re;uired !or "odern dee$ hole drilling. Tri$le> $u"$s are graduall $hasing out du$le> units. Tri$le> Pu"$ In a tri$le> $u"$% the $istons dis,harge "ud onl when the "ove !orward in the liner. Then when the "ove ba,k% the draw in "ud on the sa"e side o! the $iston. #e,ause o! this% the ?re also ,alled @single0a,tingA. Single0a,ting tri$le> $u"$s $u"$ "ud at relativel high s$eeds. In$ut horse$ower ranges !ro" &&' to &&'' (!ro" 3-503-53 C<)+ large $u"$s ,an $u"$ over 33'' gallons $er "inute (over 5''' liters $er "inute). So"e big $u"$s have a "a>i"u" rated working $ressure o! over 8''' $si (over 2''''CPa) with 2 in,h (3*8 "") liners. Tri$le> Pu"$ O$eration 6ere?s a s,he"ati, o! a tri$le> $u"$. It has * $istons% ea,h "oving in its own liner. It also has * intake valves and * dis,harge valves. It also has a $ulsation da"$ener in the dis,harge line. .ook at the $iston at le!t% it has =ust ,o"$leted $ushing "ud out o! the liner and through the o$en dis,harge valve. The $iston is at its "a>i"u" $oint o! !orward travel+ the other two $istons are at the other $ositions in their travel% also $u"$ing "ud. #ut right now% ,on,entrate on the le!t one to understand how the $u"$ works. The le!t $iston has ,o"$leted its ba,k stroke% drawing in "ud through the o$en intake valve. 1s the $iston "oved ba,k% it li!ted the intake valve o!! its seat and drew "ud in% a strong s$ring holds the dis,harge valve ,losed. The le!t $iston has "oved !orward% $ushing "ud out through the now o$en dis,harge valve% a strong s$ring holds the intake valve ,losed. The le!t $iston has ,o"$leted its !orward stroke% the !ull length o! the liner% ,o"$letel dis,harging the "ud !ro" it. 1ll three $istons work together to kee$ a ,ontinuous !low o! "ud ,o"ing into and out o! the $u"$. 9rew "e"ber ,an ,hange the liners and $istons% not onl ,an the re$la,e worn0out ones% but the ,an also install di!!erent si:es. Generall the use large liners and $istons when the $u"$ needs to "ove large volu"es o! "ud at relativel low $ressure+ the use s"all liners and $istons when the $u"$ needs to "ove s"aller volu"es o! "ud at relativel high $ressure. JTOO. #OIK: You ,an ,ontrol the $osition o! the $iston with our "ouse to see how the tri$le> $u"$ o$erates at an given $oint in this , ,le. Du$le> Pu"$ In a du$le> $u"$% the $istons dis,harge "ud on one side o! the $iston and at the sa"e
35

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


ti"e% taking in "ud on the other side. Foti,e the to$ $iston and liner. 1s the $iston "oves !orward% it dis,harges "ud on one side as it draws in "ud on the other. Then% as it "oves ba,k% it dis,harges "ud on the o$$osite side and draws in "ud on the side where it earlier dis,harged. Du$le> $u"$s are there!ore double0a,ting. Double0a,ting $u"$s "ove "ore "ud on a single stroke than a tri$le>% however% be,ause the ?re double a,ting% the have a seal around the $iston rod. The seal kee$s the" !ro" "oving as !ast as tri$le>. In$ut horse$ower ranges !ro" 3G' to 38G' (or !ro" 35&03**2C<). The largest $u"$?s "a>. rated working $ressure is about 2'''$si (al"ost *2'''CPa) with - in,h (32& "") liners. JTOO. #OIK: Tri$le> and du$le> $u"$s are ,alled re,i$ro,ating $u"$s be,ause o! the ba,k D !orth "otion o! their $istons. Use our "ouse to "ove this du$le> $u"$?s $iston ba,k D !orth so ou ,an stud the $u"$?s o$eration. Pu"$ 9o"$onents 1 "ud $u"$ has a Bluid End% Power End and Intake D Dis,harge Ealves. The !luid end o! the $u"$ ,ontains the $istons with liners% whi,h take in and dis,harge the !luid or "ud. The $u"$?s $istons draw in "ud !ro" the intake valves and $ush "ud out through the dis,harge valves. The $ower end houses the large ,ranksha!t D gear asse"bl that "oves the $iston asse"blies in the !luid end. Pu"$s are $owered b a $u"$ "otor. .arge "odern D9 ele,tri, rigs use $ower!ul ele,tri, "otors to drive the $u"$. 4e,hani,al rigs use ,hain drives or $ower bands (belts) !ro" the rig?s engines and ,o"$ound to drive the $u"$. #ladder0t $e Pulsation Da"$ener 1 $ulsation da"$ener ,onne,ted to the "ud dis,harge line s"ooth out surges ,reated b the $istons as the dis,harge "ud. This is a standard bladder0t $e da"$ener. The bladder in the da"$ener bod se$arates $ressuri:ed nitrogen gas above !ro" "ud below. The bladder is "ade !ro" s ntheti, rubber and is !le>ible. <hen "ud dis,harge $ressure $resses against the botto" o! the bladder% nitrogen $ressure above the bladder resists it. This resistan,e s"oothes out the surges o! the "ud leaving the $u"$. JTOO. #OIK: 6ere is a $u"$ without a $ulsation da"$ener. See the surges or $ulses o! high $ressure "ud leaving the $u"$. These surges ,an ,ause vibrations and da"age or wear e;ui$"ent. 1dd the $ulsation da"$ener to see the di!!eren,e it "akes. Using our "ouse% ,li,k on the $ulsation da"$ener and drag it into $la,e. Fon0bladder T $e Pulsation Da"$ener 6ere is the latest t $e o! $ulsation da"$ener. It does not have a bladder. It is a s$here about !our !t (3.& ") in dia"eter. It is built into the "ud $u"$?s dis,harge line. The large ,ha"ber is !ull o! "ud. It has no "oving $arts% so it does not need "aintenan,e. The "ud in the large volu"e?s s$here absorbs the surge o! the "ud leaving the $u"$. Su,tion Da"$ener
36

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


1 su,tion da"$ener s"oothes out the !low o! the "ud ,o"ing into the $u"$. 9rew "e"bers "ount it on a tri$le> "ud $u"$?s su,tion line. Inside the steel ,ha"ber is an air0,harged rubber bladder o! dia$hrag". The ,rew ,harges the bladder about 3'032 $si (2'03''CPa). The su,tion da"$ener absorbs surges in the "ud $u"$?s su,tion line ,aused b the !ast "oving $u"$ $istons. The $istons ,onstantl start and sto$ the "ud?s !low through the $u"$. 1t the other end o! the su,tion line% a ,harging $u"$ sends a s"ooth !low o! "ud to the $u"$?s intake. <hen the s"ooth !low "eets the surging !low% the i"$a,t is absorbed b the da"$ener. Dis,harge .ine Relie! Ealve <orkers alwa s install a dis,harge $ressure relie! valve. The install it on the $u"$?s dis,harge side in or near the dis,harge line. I! !or so"e reason% too "u,h $ressure builds u$ in the dis,harge line% $erha$s the drill bit or annulus gets $lugged% the relie! valve o$ens. The o$en valve $rote,ts the "ud $u"$ and s ste" against da"age !ro" over$ressure. Su,tion .ine Relie! Ealve So"e rig owners install a su,tion line relie! valve. The install it on to$ o! the su,tion line% near the su,tion da"$ener. The "ount it on to$% so it won?t ,log u$ with "ud when the s ste" shut down. 1 su,tion relie! valve $rote,ts the ,harging $u"$ and the su,tion line da"$ener. 1 su,tion relie! valve usuall has a & in,h (2' "") seat o$ening. The installer nor"all ad=usts it to a 8' $si (2''CPa) reliving $ressure. I! both o! the su,tion and dis,harge valves !ailed on the sa"e side o! the $u"$% a high ba,k !low or a $ressure surge would o,,ur. The high ba,k!low ,ould da"age the ,harging $u"$ or the su,tion line da"$ener. Pu"$ Dis,harge .ine The dis,harge line is a high $ressure line through whi,h the $u"$ "oves "ud. Bro" the dis,harge line% the "ud goes through the stand$i$e% and rotar hose% to the drill string e;ui$"ent. 4ud 9onditioning Over Eiew: The shale shaker "e,hani,all takes out the large ,uttings !ro" the "ud. It does not% however% re"ove ver !ine ,uttings and other s"all solid $arti,les. These solids ,an be !ine sand $arti,les and other ver !ine "aterials% o!ten ,alled @siltA. Good drilling $ra,ti,e re;uires re"oving these undesirable solids. I! not re"oved% the solids ,an in,rease the weight o! the "ud "ore than re;uired% redu,e the bit?s $enetration rate and signi!i,antl in,rease the rate o! wear on ,ir,ulating e;ui$"ent. The rig uses "e,hani,al solids0 re"oving e;ui$"ent% su,h as h dro, ,lones and ,entri!uges to re"ove the !ine solids. So"eti"es the hole $enetrates a !or"ation that has s"all a"ount o! gas. This gas gets into the "ud% be,o"es entrained in it and "ust be re"oved be!ore the $u"$ re0 ,ir,ulates the "ud ba,k down hole. 1 degasser re"oves entrained gas !ro" the "ud.

37

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


Shale Shaker The shale shaker has ra$idl vibrating s,reens. The "ud and ,uttings !ro" the return line !all onto it. The vibrating s,reens ,at,h the larger ,uttings. These ,uttings !all into the reserve $it% the sea% or other ,ontainer !or dis$osal. The li;uid "ud goes into the sand tra$% whi,h is a s$e,ial "ud tank. Shale shakers look si"$le% in !a,t% though% "anu!a,turers ,are!ull design the" to "ake the s,reens vibrate in a ver 0,ontrolled wa . Degasser So"eti"es% the ,rew sends "ud through a va,uu" degasser. The degasser re"oves gas !ro" the "ud. I! the gas were not re"oved% it ,ould "ake the "ud too light% not dense enough. 1s a result% the well ,ould ki,k% !or"ation !luids ,ould enter the well bore and have to be ,ontrolled to $revent a blowout. 1nother $roble"% i! the driller re,ir,ulates gas0,ut "ud% the gas ,ould ,ause the "ud $u"$ to gas0lo,k. Gas0lo,ked $u"$s $u"$ gas and "ud instead o! =ust "ud% whi,h is highl ine!!i,ient. So to re"ove gas% ,rew "e"bers use a degasser. Ea,uu" Degasser O$eration In a va,uu" degasser% "ud with gas in it enters at the to$ and s$ills out over s$e,ial ba!!le $lates% a s$reader. S$reading out o! the "ud $resents a large sur!a,e area !or the gas to break out. 1lso the va,uu" $u"$ ,reates a va,uu"% $ressure lower than the surround at"os$here inside the degasser. This va,uu" "akes it ver eas !or the gas to es,a$e !ro" the s$read0u$ "ud. The re"oved gas leaves through a vent% whi,h sends the gas a sa!e distan,e awa !ro" the rig. The gas0!ree "ud !alls to the botto" and goes ba,k into the "ud tank?s down strea" !ro" the degasser. 6 dro, ,lone 1 h dro, ,lone s ste" ,onsists o! several ,ones. 4ud enters through a side o$ening at the large end o! ea,h ,one. It swirls around inside the ,one. This ,entri!ugal !or,e or , ,lone "otion throws the larger $arti,les to the side o! the ,one. There the $arti,les "ove to the botto" o! the ,one and dro$ out. 9lean "ud goes out the outlet at the to$. 1 desander has large ,ones% it re"oves $arti,les as s"all as about 5' "i,rons. 1 "i,ron is one "illionth o! a "eter% whi,h is ver s"all. 1 desilter has s"aller ,ones than a desander. Disilters re"ove $arti,les down to about &' "i,rons. 1 "ud ,leaner has steel s"aller ,ones% it re"oves $arti,les down to bout 8 "i,rons. Sin,e barite% the desirable solid% whi,h gives weight to the "ud% is also about 8 "i,rons% s,reens are in,luded on "ud ,leaners to retrieve the barite so that it ,an be returned to "ud s ste". 6 dro, ,lone O$eration Inside the ,one% "ud enters !ro" the side and s$irals down. This "ove"ent !lings the solids to the side. The s$iraling a,tion ,reates a vorte> in the ,enter% so"ewhat like a tornado. It is an area o! lower $ressure% so the vorte> su,ks the li;uid "ud u$ through the ,enter and out through the to$ o! the ,one. 4eanwhile% the solids slide down the side and out o! the botto" o! the ,one. The s"aller the ,one% the s"aller is the $arti,le it ,an
38

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


re"ove% but "ore ,ones are needed to handle a given volu"e o! "ud. 9entri!uge 1 ,entri!uge s$ins "ud at high s$eed. This ,reates ,entri!ugal !or,e. 9entri!ugal !or,e throws the $arti,les to the side o! the ,entri!uge% where the ?re re"oved. 1 ,entri!uge re"oves $arti,les as s"all as &02 "i,rons% whi,h in,ludes barite. So"eti"es% ,rew "e"bers run a ,entri!uge at a s$e,i!i, s$eed to re"ove barite so the rig ,an use it again on a ne>t tool. O,,asionall % the rig owner runs two ,entri!uges% the !irst re"oves the barite% and the se,ond the !iner $arti,les. 9rew "e"bers then re0add the barite to the "ud s ste". 1gitator 9rew "e"bers "ount agitators on one or "ore o! the tanks. 1gitators stir the "ud in the tanks to kee$ solids !ro" settling and to "aintain uni!or" "ud $ro$erties. One $o$ular agitator is the $addle0t $e% an ele,tri, "otor rotates $addle to stir the "ud. Pit Eolu"e Totali:er 1 Pit Eolu"e Totali:er% or PET% alerts the driller to ,hanging the level o! "ud in the tanks. 1 !loat in ea,h tank rises or !alls i! the "ud level rises or !alls. Bor e>a"$le% i! the level rises% the rising !loats send a signal to a re,order and to a digital $anel on the rig !loor. The $anel alerts the driller o! the rise. This devi,e is ,alled a $it volu"e totali:er% or PET% be,ause it "easures the gain or !all in ea,h o! the tanks or $its% totals the gain or !all and sends this in!or"ation to the driller on the rig !loor. I! the "ud level in the tanks !all% the PET also alerts the driller. This !loat in a "ud tank is $art o! a $it volu"e totali:er. Usuall % ,rew "e"bers install a !loat in ea,h a,tive tank. The !loats rise or !all with the "ud level in the a,tive tanks. 4ud level in the tanks is vital in!or"ation. I! the "ud level rises% it o!ten "eans that the well has ki,ked% !or"ation !luids have entered the hole and !or,ed "ud out. The ki,k !luids re$la,e "ud in the hole and ,ause the "ud level in the tanks to rise. On the other hand% i! "ud begins going into a !or"ation% i! "ud is lost to the !or"ation% the "ud tank level dro$s. .ost ,ir,ulation ,an also be a serious $roble". The de,rease in height o! "ud in the hole ,ould lead to a ki,k% be,ause h drostati, $ressure is redu,ed. 1lso drilling without "ud returning to the sur!a,e is like drilling blind% no ,o""uni,ation between the botto" o! the hole and the sur!a,e e>ists. 9entri!ugal Pu"$ The "ud s ste" nor"all has several ,entri!ugal $u"$s. 1 ,entri!ugal $u"$ $uts out relativel low $ressure but it ,an "ove a large volu"e o! "ud. 9rew "e"bers there!ore use the" in several wa s. One =ob a ,entri!ugal $u"$ o!ten does is su$er,harge the "ud intake o! the "ain "ud $u"$. The s"all $u"$ takes the "ud !ro" a su,tion tank% "oves it through a line ,onne,ted to the "ain $u"$ su,tion line and kee$s the su,tion line !ull o! "ud at all ti"es. I! the s ste" does not use a ,harging $u"$% the !or,e o! gravit alone !eeds the $u"$?s su,tion line. So"eti"es% gravit ,annot kee$ the $u"$?s intake ,o"$letel !ull o! "ud. The $u"$?s $istons su,k in the "ud so !ast that gravit ,annot kee$ the su,tion line !ull o! "ud. The ,rew also uses a ,entri!ugal $u"$ to "ake so"e
39

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


"ud ,o"$onents. 6o$$er 1 ho$$er is like a big !unnel. 9rew "e"bers $ut sa,ks o! "ud "aterial into it. The do not% however% use the ho$$er to "i> ,austi, soda. The ho$$er ,an blow dr ,austi, ba,k into the !a,e o! the worker "i>ing it. In addition to being dangerous% adding ,austi, through the ho$$er ,an !lo,,ulate the "ud% ,ause it to ,log u$. JTOO. #OIK: It takes s$e,ial $ersonal $rote,tive e;ui$"ent to handle ,austi, soda. <hen working with ,austi,% one "ust wear goggles% a !a,e shield% rubber gauntlets% sa!et boots% ,overalls% and a hard hat. 9austi, soda should be "i>ed using the ,he"i,al tank% not the ho$$er. /et 6o$$er 1 ,rew "e"ber o$ens the sa,k o! "aterial at the to$ o! the ho$$er and !eeds the "aterial into the !unnel. 1t the sa"e ti"e% a =et o! "ud !ro" a ,entri!ugal $u"$ goes through a no::le at the botto" o! the !unnel. This =et ,reates su,tion. The su,tion $ulls the "aterial into the "ud strea" and thoroughl "i>es it. JTOO. #OIK: .et?s see how well ou?ve learnt the na"es o! "ud ,onditioning e;ui$"ent. Bor ea,h $ie,e o! e;ui$"ent ou see% ,li,k on its na"e. ;OLUM6 2<;6 *O<"(<A: 6FU<PM6A( OEEREIE<: Bun,tion o! 6oisting E;ui$"ent 1 rig is ,o"$li,ated% but easier to understand i! divided into related $arts. In this se,tion% we well ,over the e;ui$"ent used in hoisting. 6oisting e;ui$"ent hangs or sus$ends the drill string in the hole. It also allows the driller to raise and lower the drill string into D out o! the hole. Burther% it allows the driller to ad=ust the weight on the bit% whi,h is re;uired to "ake the bit drill. 6oisting S ste" 9o"$onents The e;ui$"ent used in hoisting is shown here: the 9rown #lo,k% the Traveling #lo,k D 6ook% the Drilling .ine% the Drill .ine Su$$l Reel% the Deadline to ,rown blo,k% the Bast .ine to drawworks% the Drawworks and the Deadline 1n,hor. 6oisting S ste" O$eration 6ere is an overview o! how the hoisting s ste" o$erates. The su$$l reel stores drilling line. To reeve the line% ,rew "e"bers start it at the deadline an,hor. The $ull the line !ro" the su$$l reel and s$ool it around the disk on the an,hor. The then li!t the line to the to$ o! the "ast% to the ,rown blo,k. 9rew "e"bers then reeve the line several ti"es between the ,rown blo,k sheaves and traveling blo,k sheaves. The nu"ber o! ti"es de$ends on how "u,h weight the s ste" needs to li!t. In this ,ase% the run the line 2
40

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


ti"es between the two blo,ks to ,reate 3' lines. On,e the ?ve strung the right nu"ber o! lines% the run the line to the drawworks and !ir"l ,la"$ the line to the dru". The driller then takes in the drilling line% whi,h wra$s around the dru". The driller usuall takes in enough line% so that the line "akes it at least - wra$s around the dru". The then ,la"$ the line at the deadline an,hor. 1s the driller a,tivates the drawworks to take in line% the traveling blo,k "oves u$. The driller uses the brake to sto$ the traveling blo,k at an $osition. <hen the driller releases the brake% the !or,e o! gravit $ulls the traveling blo,k down. JTOO. #OIK: 6ere are the ,o"$onents o! the hoisting s ste"% drag the labels to the a$$ro$riate ,o"$onents. 9RO<F #.O9C 9rown #lo,k O$eration The rig builder "ounts the ,rown blo,k at the to$ o! the "ast. The ,rown blo,k has several $ulle s ,alled sheaves. The blo,k "anu!a,turer "ounts the sheaves side b side on a sha!t. The drilling line runs over the grooves in the sheaves. So"eti"es% like this one% the ,rown blo,k has a s$e,ial !ast sheave. The drilling line runs over the !ast sheave as it leaves or enters the side0b 0side sheaves on the ,rown blo,k. 9rown blo,ks have load ratings that range !ro" about 5&' to 35'' tons (about *7'03*'' "etri, tonnes). Sheave dia"eters range !ro" 5& to 8& in,hes (or about 3'8037' ,"). TR1EE.IFG #.O9C D 6OOC Overview: 1 traveling blo,k also has several side0b 0side sheaves. 1 steel housing en,loses the". 9rew "e"bers thread or reeve the drilling line over the sheaves. JTOO. #OIK: The ,rew "ust use drilling line that is the right si:e !or the sheave groove that it !its in. 6ere are ,ross se,tion o! use o! three dia"eters o! drilling line. Drag ea,h one into this sheave to see what ha$$ens. S"all: the dia"eter o! this wire ro$e is too s"all. The ro$e will "ove ba,k D !orth in the sheave groove% ,ausing it to !latten on one side and wear out $re"aturel . 4ediu": the dia"eter o! this wire ro$e is =ust !ight. The wire ro$e ,an?t "ove ba,k D !orth in the groove and it won?t wear e>,essivel on the sides o! the sheave groove. .arge: the dia"eter o! this wire ro$e is too big. It will rub on the sides o! the sheave groove and wear out $re"aturel . 1 hook is atta,hed to the botto" o! the traveling blo,k. The hook sus$ends the swivel% kell and drill string or a to$ drive D drill string. 4otion (6eave) 9o"$ensator This is a traveling blo,k on an o!!shore !loating rig. It has a drill string "otion ,o"$ensator. The "otion ,o"$ensator is between the traveling blo,k and the hook. O!!shore !loating rigs "ove u$ and down with sea "ove"ents. The "otion ,o"$ensator "aintains drill string $osition b ,ountera,ting u$ D down vessel "ove"ent or heave. On
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


so"e se"i0sub"ersibles and drill shi$s% rig owners "ount the "otion ,o"$ensator on the ,rown or the to$ o! the derri,k. 4otion 9o"$ensator O$eration The ,o"$ensator eli"inates the "otion o! the drill string !ro" hook to the bit. 1s the vessel "oves u$ D down% h drauli, $ressure inside a $iston and , linder kee$ the hook in a !i>ed $osition relative to the sea !loor. The ,o"$ensator kee$s the drill bit on the botto" o! the hole% within the weight on bit li"its set b the driller. 1 t $i,al ,o"$ensator ,an ,o"$ensate !or u$ D down "ove"ent as "u,h as 320&2 !t (5.208.2 "). T $i,all % two si:es o! "otion ,o"$ensators are available: one ,an handle loads u$ to 5''%''' $ounds (or about 37'%'''kg)+ another one whi,h is bigger ,an handle loads u$ to -''%''' $ounds (or about &8'%'''kg). 9o"bination 6ook0#lo,k So"e traveling blo,ks have built0in hooks% the are single integrit unit. The ,o"bination 6ook0#lo,k is shorter% and there!ore allows "ore traveling distan,e when "ast height is li"ited. T $i,al ,o"bination hook0blo,ks have load ratings ranging !ro" 382 tons to -2' tons (about 3-'0 2G' "etri, tonnes). Se$arate 6ook and Traveling #lo,k So"e traveling blo,ks D hooks are se$arate units. In this t $e% the bail o! the hook !its into a ,levis on the botto" o! the traveling blo,k. 9rew "e"bers sus$end the swivel and drill string !ro" the hook. The o$en the hook?s lat,h% insert the swivel?s bail and ,lose the hook?s lat,h. 1 sa!et ,at,h ensures that the hook sta s lat,hed. Se$arate traveling blo,ks are available in load ranges !ro" 3'' to 3&2' tons (or about G' to 33&2 "etri, tonnes). Sheave dia"eters range !ro" &5 to 8& in,hes% -3 to 37* ,". That is & to - !t% or over hal! a "eter to nearl & "eters in dia"eter. 6ooks have load ratings o! !ro" *2' to 3''' tons (about *'' to G'' "etri, tonnes). 6ook% .inks D Elevator The hook has two link ears. The ,rew atta,hes on $ie,e o! !orged links and an elevator to the ears. The lo,k the links to the ears with the link0lo,king ar"s. 9rew "e"bers lat,h the elevator to tubulars% =oints o! drill $i$e and other t $es o! $i$e as the running into D out o! the hole. Elevator 9rew "e"bers lat,h the elevator around the to$ =oint o! the drill $i$e. Then when the driller takes in drilling line% the traveling blo,k goes u$% raising the elevator and atta,hed $i$e. 9onversel % when the driller lowers the traveling blo,k% the elevator and atta,hed $i$e also go down. T $es o! Elevators 9rew "e"bers use "an t $es o! elevators% whi,h one de$ends on the kind and si:e o! the tubulars. Bor e>a"$le% "ost drill $i$e and li!ting subs re;uire a ,enter0lat,h
42

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


bottlene,k elevator. #ut so"e drill ,ollars re;uire a side0door ,ollar t $e elevator+ tubing% a light0weight $i$e used in ,o"$leting wells usuall needs a sli$ t $e tubing elevator+ ,asing% large $i$e the ,rew lines the hole with re;uires a s$e,ial heav 0weight ,asing elevator. The two t $es here are the Single0/oint% 9asing Pi,k0U$ t $e and the 2''0ton (or 52'0"etri, tonne) 9asing Elevator0S$ider. 6ook Positioner D Swivel .o,k 1sse"bl 4ost hooks have two lo,ks: a rotation lo,k and auto"ati, $ositioner lo,k. 9rew "e"bers use a long steel rod% ,alled a she$herd sti,k or a ,he,king hook to unlo,k and lo,k the rotation lo,k and the auto"ati, hook $ositioner. <hen ,rew "e"bers unlo,k the rotation lo,k% the rotate the hook to "ake the elevator !a,e a desired dire,tion. On,e $ositioned% the lo,k the rotation lo,k to kee$ the hook in $osition. 9rew "e"bers ,an also release the rotation lo,k when the hook needs to rotate !reel . The other lo,k% an o$tional auto"ati, hook $ositioner $revents rotation o! the elevator links when the hook is traveling e"$t . For"all % =ust be!ore "aking a tri$ in ,ased hole% ,rew "e"bers unlo,k the rotation lo,k% turn the hook% and relo,k it% so that the elevator !a,es the derri,k "an. This "akes it eas !or hi" to lat,h and unlat,h the elevator. I! ,rew "e"bers are tri$$ing $i$e in o$en hole% the a,tivate the auto"ati, hook $ositioner. This lets the hook rotate !reel when hoisting the drill string% allowing the drill string to turn in o$en hole as it is being $ulled% kee$s it !ro" da"aging the hole and $revents the reeve to drilling line !ro" twisting. Then% when the elevator rea,hes the derri,k "an and the driller sto$s hoisting% the $ositioner auto"ati,all rotates the elevator into ,orre,t $osition !or the derri,k "an. 6 drauli, Snubber Inside the hook is a h drauli, snubber. The snubber is like a sho,k absorber. It $revents drill $i$e boun,e and tool =oint da"age when s$inning out the ,onne,tion. DRI..IFG .IFE Drilling .ine Drilling line is high strength heav 0dut wire ro$e. The "anu!a,turer braids several wires together to !or" the ro$e. Drilling line ,o"es in dia"eters ranging !ro" 8H7 to & in,hes (about &&023 ""). 9rew "e"bers string or reeve drilling line between the ,rown blo,k and the traveling blo,k. The "ore lines the reeve% the "ore weight the s ste" ,an su$$ort. 6ere !or e>a"$le% the reeve the line 2 ti"es between the blo,ks% so that ten lines su$$ort the traveling blo,k. Reeving Drilling .ine 6ere is the ,rown blo,k D traveling blo,k strung together b drilling line. Fote how the traveling blo,k goes u$ D down as the driller takes in or lets out drilling line. The deadline is drilling line that runs to the deadline an,hor. The !ast line is drilling line that runs to the drawworks. Foti,e the !ive wra$s o! drilling line between the ,rown D the traveling blo,k. Bive wra$s "akes !or ten lines. Ten lines ,an li!t ten ti"es the weight o! a single line. 1lso noti,e that the ,rown blo,k has one "ore sheave than the traveling blo,k. This e>tra
43

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


sheave is !or the !ast line. JTOO. #OIK: This $hoto shows the !ast line and the deadline on a rig. Using our "ouse% drag ea,h label onto the ,orre,t line% then ,li,k the @a,,e$tA button to see i! ou?ve gotten it right. Su$$l (Storage) Reel Drilling line ,o"es to the rig on a large su$$l reel. For"all ,rew "e"bers string the needed a"ount o! line through the traveling D ,rown blo,ks and onto the drawworks. Then the kee$ the e>tra line on this su$$l reel. The reason the kee$ the e>tra line is !or a Sli$0and09ut Progra". <ear PointS on .ine 1s the driller raises and lowers the traveling blo,k and its asso,iated loads% the drilling line wears. It tends to wear "ore where it $asses over the traveling blo,k sheaves and the ,rown blo,k sheaves. The line has to bend around the sheaves and this $uts e>tra stress on it. The line also wears "ore where it rea,hes the end o! the drawworks? dru". It has to reverse dire,tion here% and start ba,k the other wa on the dru". This dire,tion ,hange $uts e>tra stress on the line. JTOO. #OIK: Fot onl does the drilling line wear% but the sheaves do also. One thing that the ,rew does to $rolong the li!e o! the sheaves is to rotate the traveling blo,k 37' degrees. 9li,k on it and we?ll see wh this is done. During o$eration% ea,h sheave "oves at a di!!erent s$eed. The one ,losest to the !ast line "oves the !astest and the one ,losest to the deadline "oves the slowest. Sin,e the !aster "oving sheaves wear ;ui,ker% the wear ,an be distributed evenl a"ong the sheaves b rotating the traveling blo,k $eriodi,all . This is o!ten done between wells. Sli$$ing and 9utting Drilling .ine To distribute the wear on the drilling line% the ,rew sli$s the line a $redeter"ined a"ount. Sli$$ing the line "oves the wear $oints on the line. To sli$ the line% ,rew "e"bers lower the traveling blo,k to the rig !loor. The then rig u$ a s$e,ial hang line !ro" the ,rown bea" to the to$ o! the traveling blo,k. The hang line kee$s the blo,k !ro" "oving. <ith the blo,k unable to "ove% the un,la"$ the drilling line at the deadline an,hor. The driller then uses the drawworks to $ull new line o!! the su$$l reel. The line sli$s through the deadline an,hor and stationar traveling blo,k. The worn line reels onto the drawworks? dru". To kee$ too "u,h line !ro" a,,u"ulating on the dru"% ,rew "e"bers ,ut o!! the end o! the worn !ast line and dis,ard it. JTOO. #OIK: This is an e>a"$le o! bird0,aged or wi,ker wire. #ird0,aged wire is unsa!e and needs to be re"oved b sli$$ing D ,utting. #ird0,aged wire is ,aused b sudden dro$$ing o! the traveling blo,k. Driller should raise D lower the traveling blo,k as s"oothl as $ossible.

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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


Deadline 1n,hor This is the deadline an,hor. It !ir"l se,ures the drilling line and kee$s it !ro" "oving. Drilling line ,o"es o!! su$$l reel% and loo$s several ti"es around the an,hor. The rig ,rew then !ir"l ,la"$s the line to the an,hor. The line leaves the an,hor% goes through the ,rown D traveling blo,ks and then to the drawworks. 9la"$ing the deadline to the deadline an,hor "e,hani,all isolates the drilling line !ro" the su$$l reel. #e,ause the line is stationar % it is ,alled the deadline. DR1<<ORCS Overview The drawworks has a large s$ool or dru" around whi,h the ,rew "e"bers wra$ the drilling line. Power !ro" the engines or ele,tri, "otors drives the drawworks? dru". <hen the driller a,tivates its ,ontrol and releases the brake% the dru" reels in drilling line. Reeling in drilling line raises the traveling blo,k and whatever?s atta,hed to it. To lower the traveling blo,k% the driller releases the drawworks? brake. The !or,e o! gravit $ulls the blo,k down. The driller ,ontrols the des,ent b a$$l ing the brake to slow or sto$ the downward travel. The s"allest drawworks are around 22' h$% while the largest have 5''' h$% about 5''0*''' C<. S"all drawworks ,an handle wells drilled to around *''' !t (3'''") dee$+ the largest ,an handle 5''''0!oot or 3&'''0" de$th. #raking S ste" <hen the driller "oves the brake handle down% the drawworks? brake bands e>ert !ri,tion on both ri"s o! the dru". <e?re onl showing one ri" to kee$ it si"$le. This !ri,tion slows or sto$s the dru". <hen the driller li!ts the brake handle a s"all a"ount% tension on the band eases. <ith tension eased% the drawworks? dru" rotates a s"all a"ount to graduall lower the load. <hen the driller li!ts the handle u$ !ull % the bands do not tou,h the dru" ri"s at all% the dru" rotates !reel and the load dro$s in !ree0!all. Disk #rake S ste" 4an new drawworks use a disk brake s ste". Disk brakes are "ore e!!i,ient than dru" brakes. 1 t $i,al disk brake s ste" ,onsists o! three "a=or ,o"$onents: two Disks% one on ea,h end o! the dru"+ a 6 drauli, O$erating S ste"% whi,h ou ,an?t see here% and 9ali$er0and0Pad 1sse"blies. The s ste" has - servi,e ,ali$ers% * on ea,h disk% and & e"ergen, ,ali$ers% one on ea,h disk. <hen the driller engages the brake% h drauli, $ressure $ushes in the $ads inside ea,h servi,e ,ali$er. The $ads ,onta,t the disk and slow or sto$ the dru". I! h drauli, $ressure !ails% the e"ergen, ,ali$er set auto"ati,all . Ele,trod na"i, #rake 4ounted on the end o! the drawworks? dru" sha!t% is an ele,trod na"i, brake. It is an au>iliar brake that uses $ower!ul ele,tro"agnets. The ele,tro"agneti, !or,e works against the turning !or,e o! the drawworks? dru" sha!t. It assists the "e,hani,al dru" or disk brake ou =ust saw. It ,ontrols the s$eed o! the load as it goes down. The driller ,an not ,ontrol the load?s s$eed with the dru" or disk brake alone. The weight o! the load $lus the tre"endous inertia ,reates when "oving is =ust too great. So the driller a,tivates
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


the eletrod na"i, brake. The ele,trod na"i, brake $rovides "ost o! the braking !or,e when the drawworks? dru" is turning. JTOO. #OIK: Drag the labels to $ro$er lo,ation to identi! the ,o"$onents in this $hoto. .atest Drawworks The "ost "odern drawworks? braking s ste" does not use an ele,trod na"i, brake. Instead% the drawworks is $owered b a s$e,ial ,o"$uteri:ed "otor and ,ontrol s ste". The ,o"$uter0,ontrol s ste" allows the drive "otor to $ower the drawworks and $rovide the au>iliar braking !or,e. 9rown Saver 4ounted on the drawworks% near the drawworks? dru"% is a ,rown saver% or a ,rown O0 4ati,% a brand na"e. 1 ,rown saver kee$s the driller !ro" a,,identall raising the traveling blo,k into the ,rown blo,k. It has a $robe that a,tivates an air0a,tuated toggle swit,h i! the driller takes in too "u,h drilling line onto the drawworks? dru". Too "u,h line indi,ates that the driller has raised the traveling blo,k too high in the "ast. I! he raised the blo,k an "ore% it would ,rash into the ,rown blo,k% or se$arate the rotar hose% ,ausing a lot o! da"age. Too "u,h line on the dru" a,tivates the toggle swit,h. The swit,h then i""ediatel engages the drawworks? brake and disengages the drawworks? ,lut,h. 9lut,h disengage"ent dis,onne,ts the drawworks? dru" !ro" its $ower sour,e. The latest drawworks uses an ele,tri,all a,tuated ,rown saver s ste"% but still "aintains the $neu"ati, ,rown saver as ba,k u$. ;OLUM6 "<D RO(0(<A: 6FU<PM6A(@ M0"( ' "U-"(RU+(UR6

ROT1TIFG ENUIP4EFT Overview So"e rigs use a kell and rotar table to rotate the drill string and bit. This s ste" ,onsists o! the Swivel and Rotar 6ose% the Cell 1sse"bl and the Rotar Table. So"e rigs use a to$ drive s ste" to rotate the drill string and bit. 1 "odern to$ drive% also ,alled a $ower swivel% is an integrit unit that in,ludes a Pi$e 6andler 1sse"bl % #lo,k% Swivel and a $ower!ul 4otor or "otors to rotate the drive sha!t. 9rew "e"bers "ake u$ the drill string to the drive sha!t. CE..Y D ROT1RY T1#.E Cell 1sse"bl 9rew "e"bers "ake u$ the kell to the swivel ste". The kell has either !our or si> sides and $asses through a !our or si>0sided o$ening in the kell drive bushing. The kell drive bushing "eets with the "aster bushing% so when the "a,hine inside the rotar table rotates the "aster bushing% the kell drive bushing rotates the kell and atta,hed drill string and bit.

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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


Cell Detail The kell is !lat0sided% with either a s;uare or he>agonal ,ross se,tion. It is s;uare in this drawing. It is hollow so the drill !luid ,an !low through it. The kell "oves through a s;uare or he>agonal o$ening in the kell drive bushing. The kell drive bushing "eets with the "aster bushing in the rotar table. The rotar table turns the "aster bushing% the kell drive bushing% the kell and the atta,hed drill string D bit. The kell ,an "ove verti,all while rotating. Rotar Table O$eration The rotar table $er!or"s two !un,tions. Birst% it trans"its rotar "otion to the "aster bushing% whi,h drives the kell and drill string% and with s ste"s o! sli$s% hangs the drill string. The "aster bushing goes inside an o$ening in the rotar table. S"all "aster bushings are usuall a solid single $ie,e as shown here. .arge "aster bushings are either s$lit or hinged. 9rew "e"bers install a two $ie,e or s$lit insert bowl in a re,e$ta,le in the ,enter o! the "aster bushing. The insert bowl is ta$ered inside and su$$orts the ba,k o! the sli$s. The ,o"e in varied si:es. The ,rew ,hanges out the insert bowls to "at,h with the t $es o! sli$s in use. Insert bowls are also ,alled inserts or bushings. Rotar tables have o$enings that range in dia"eter !ro" 3805G in,hes (5* ," to about3.& "). The s"allest ,an hold a non"oving load o! &2' tons (about &&2 "etri, tonnes). The largest ,an hold a non"oving load o! 7'' tons (about 8&2 "etri, tonnes). So"e s"all rotaries ,an s$in as !ast as 2'' revolutions $er "inute% r$"+ large rotaries s$in a bit slower% with u$$er ranges about *'' r$". Setting Sli$s 4anu!a,turers ta$er the inside o! the insert bowl. The ta$er it to "at,h the ta$er o! the ba,k o! the sli$s. The sli$s grab the drill string and sus$end it inside the insert bowl. The insert bowl !its inside the rotar table?s "aster bushing. Sus$ending the drill string in this "anner allows ,rew "e"bers to dis,onne,t the kell or to$ drive and break out =oints o! drill $i$e. 9rew "e"bers ,an re"ove the insert bowls to $rovide a larger o$ening through the rotar table. I! ne,essar % the ,an also re"ove the "aster bushing. The "a have to do this to run a large hole o$ener bit or large ,asing. 9asing is $i$e that the ,rew runs to line the walls o! the hole a!ter the drill it. Swivel D Rotar 6ose 1 rotar table D kell s ste" in,ludes a swivel D rotar hose. The swivel has a bail% like the bail or the handle on a bu,ket% onl "u,h larger. The swivel bail hangs !ro" the hook on the traveling blo,k. The swivel allows the atta,hed kell D drill string to rotate. 1t the sa"e ti"e% the rotar hose ,ondu,ts drilling "ud into a ,urved $i$e% ,alled the goosene,k. The goosene,k atta,hes to the swivel and ,arries drilling !luid to the swivel via the wash$i$e. The rotar hose is !le>ible% steel0rein!or,ed hose that allows the swivel to "ove u$ D down within the "ast. 1 $assage wa inside the swivel ste" ,ondu,ts the high $ressure drilling "ud into the kell and drill string.

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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


Swivel O$eration 6ere is an isolated view o! the swivel. The bail hangs the swivel !ro" a hook% whi,h is not shown. The rotar hose ,ondu,ts drilling "ud to the goosene,k. 4ud !lows through the goosene,k% down the wash$i$e% and into the ste" D drill string below. <ash$i$e $a,king seals the high $ressure "ud in the wash$i$e as the ste" rotates. The ste" rotates on heav 0dut radial bearings D thrust bearings. The "ain thrust bearings su$$ort the entire weight o! the drill string as it rotates. Swivels have dead load ,a$a,ities ranging !ro" 32' to 3&2' tons% about 3*2 to 33&2 "etri, tonnes. 1n oil reservoir lubri,ates the bearings and rotating $arts. JTOO. #OIK: 6ere are all the $ie,es o! the rotating asse"bl . Put the" together% starting !ro" the rig !loor and working our wa u$. Drag ea,h $ie,e into $la,e with our "ouse. TOP DRIEE (PO<ER S<IEE.) Overview So"e rigs use a to$ drive s ste" to rotate the drill string D bit. 1 to$ drive has a $ower!ul "otor or "otors% and a drive sha!t. The ,rew atta,hes the drill string to the drive sha!t. <hen the "otor rotates the drive sha!t% the atta,hed drill string D bit also rotate. 9rew "e"bers atta,h the to$ drive to Guide Rails or Tra,ks% whi,h kee$s the whole unit !ro" rotating. <ith a to$ drive% the rotar table does not rotate the drill string. To$ Drive 1dvantages D Disadvantages The "ost i"$ortant bene!it o! a to$ drive is that it redu,es drilling ti"e. It also rotates the drill string "ore e!!i,ientl than the kell D rotar table s ste". Burther% it handles stands and $i$e "ore e!!i,ientl . 1 to$ drive s ste" $rovides "ore variable rotating $ower than a rotar table. It allows drill string rotation and ,ir,ulation at an $oint in the hole% when tri$$ing in% drilling% or tri$$ing out. These !eatures hel$ $revent hole $roble"s. It $rovides ra$id res$onse to well ki,ks during tri$$ing or running ,asing. The driller ,an "ake u$ and re"otel shut the built0in I#OP to sto$ drill string !low !aster than the ,rew ,an set sli$s% stab and ,lose a !ull o$ening sa!et valve. In highl deviated holes% it hel$s to $revent the $i$e !ro" getting stu,k b allowing the driller to i""ediatel rea" or ba,k rea" the drill ste". I! the ,rew ,an "ake three =oint stands o! $i$e be!ore drilling starts% a to$ drive ,an drill tri$le stands% instead o! =ust one =oint% as is ne,essar on a kell drive rig. 4aking u$ * =oint stands redu,es the nu"ber o! ,onne,tions re;uired to 3H*. In "an ,ases on large o!!shore rigs% the ,rew no longer needs to la down $i$e between wells. That is the ,rew ,an set stands ba,k verti,all in the derri,k% and the rig ,an be "oved a short distan,e without the $i$e being laid down. To$ drives have a !ew disadvantages. The ?re "ore e>$ensive to "aintain and the ?re ver large. #e,ause o! the additional weight% the rig?s drilling line wears !aster. The are "ore di!!i,ult to "ove on land rigs that "ust be disasse"bled. To$ Drive 1sse"bl 1 to$ drive does not use a kell or the rotating ,o"$onents o! the rotar table. The to$ drive in,ludes a traveling blo,k and an integrated swivel. The rotar hose ,ondu,ts drilling "ud to the integrated swivel via an S0$i$e asse"bl . 1 $assage inside the swivel
48

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


drive sha!t dire,ts "ud into the drill string. The to$ drive "otor% ,onne,ts to the traveling e;ui$"ent at the integrated swivel asse"bl . Drive "otor horse$ower ranges !ro" -'' u$ to &3'' (or 5&' to 32'' C<). The "otor turns the "ain drive sha!t through a gear bo> or trans"ission. 9rew "e"bers "ake u$ a saver sub on the botto" o! the drive sha!t and "ake u$ the drill string onto the saver sub. The saver sub ,uts down on wear D tear to the drive sha!t?s threads. To$ drive have hoisting ,a$a,ities ranging !ro" *2' to 82' tons (or *32 to -7' "etri, tonnes). Guide tra,ks or rails in the "ast kee$ the to$ drive unit !or" rotating as the "otor in the drive sha!t asse"bl turns the drill string. The to$ drive dull asse"bl "oves u$ or down on the guide rails. Servi,e loo$s whi,h are bundled ,ables and hoses trans!er the re;uired ele,tri,% $neu"ati,% and h drauli, $ower between the "ast?s stand$i$es and the =un,tion bo>es lo,ated on the to$ drive. The to$ drive unit also in,ludes a $i$e handler asse"bl that has an u$$er inside blowout $reventer% I#OP% a lower I#OP and a tor;ue wren,h. The tor;ue wren,h "akes u$ (or ,onne,ts) or breaks out (or dis,onne,ts) =oints o! drill $i$e. The driller ,ontrols the to$ drive?s o$eration !ro" a ,onsole. The $i$e handler asse"bl also in,ludes links% an elevator% and an auto"ati, .ink0Tilt asse"bl . The driller a,tivates the link0tilt asse"bl to $osition the links and elevator at the "ouse hole !or $i,king u$ or la ing down drill $i$e. The link0tilt asse"bl also assists the derri,k "an in ra,king stands. JTOO. #OIK 41ST D DERRI9CS Overview The rig?s "ast is a strong tower that su$$orts the e;ui$"ent atta,hed to the traveling blo,k D hook. 9rew "e"bers so"eti"es use the words @"astA and @derri,kA inter,hangeabl . In realit % a "ast stands inde$endentl on the rig !loor and is raised as a single $ie,e unit. In the old da s% rig owners used a lot o! derri,ks. 1 standard derri,k as it?s ,alled% is usuall bolted together. It has !our legs% bea"s and girds% or ,ross bra,es. Unlike the "ast% the derri,k ,annot be lowered or raised as a single unit. Toda "asts are "u,h "ore ,o""on than derri,ks. 4ast 4anu!a,turers usuall weld and $in the "ast together !or easier to asse"bl or disasse"bl . 1 sel!0ere,ting "ast "a be a 9antilever t $e% a !olding t $e% or a teles,o$ing t $e. JTOO. #OIK: Trans$orting 4ast: On,e take a look at so"e o! the alternative wa s that heav roading here ,an be used to trans$ort a "ast to the land rig well site. These trans$ort "ethods ,an be used in terrain that?s !airl !lat and o$en% like desert. 6ere ou see a "ast together with the substru,ture being towed in the u$right $osition. 6ere is another "ast being towed with its substru,ture. 6owever% this one is being towed in a hori:ontal $osition. On,e it?s at the well lo,ation% it will be raised u$ into $osition using the drawworks. This "ast is also being towed in a hori:ontal $osition% but its substru,ture is towed se$aratel . The "ast will have to be "ounted and raised on the substru,ture on,e it arrives at the well lo,ation.
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


6eight D 9a$a,it 1 "ast or derri,k is tall% nor"all having a ,lear height !ro" 3'' to 3-' !t (*'02' "). The ?re also strong+ the ?re able to su$$ort stati, weights ranging !ro" &82%''' $ounds to *3H5 "illion $ounds (or 3&2%''' to 3.2 "illion kg). 1 rig?s "ast "ust be tall enough to allow ,rew "e"bers to set ba,k drill $i$e% tubing and other tubulars the $ull out o! the hole during a tri$ out. It also has to be tall enough to allow the driller to raise the traveling blo,k above the height o! the derri,k "an?s "onke 0board.

Stands <ith the traveling blo,k high in the "ast% and the elevator at the derri,k "an?s $osition on the "onke 0board. The derri,k "an sets ba,k drill string ele"ents or stands. 4ost rigs $ull three0=oint stand o! drill $i$e and drill ,ollars. 1 three0=oint stand is three "ade0u$ =oints o! drill $i$e or ,ollars. S"all rigs "a $ull two or even one =oint stand. In rare ,ases% a reall large rig "a $ull !our0=oint stand. Regardless o! the nu"ber o! =oints% $ulling $i$e in stands instead o! a single =oint at a ti"e s$eeds u$ the tri$$ing $ro,ess. 9rown <alkaround (<ater Table) The working $lat!or" at the to$ o! the derri,k or "ast that $er"its a,,ess to the ,rown blo,k is ,alled the walkaround. It is also ,alled the water table. 4onke 0board The "onke 0board is the derri,k "an?s working $lat!or" when ,rew "e"bers $ull $i$e or run it ba,k into the hole. The derri,k "an sets stands o! $i$e ba,k into a !inger board% a $lat!or" with $ro=e,tions that holds the to$ o! the $i$e in $la,e as it stands in the "ast. Stabbing #oard 1 stabbing board is si"ilar to the "onke 0board. It is a s"all $lat!or" in the "ast or derri,k about *'05' !t (or G03&") above the rig !loor. 1 drilling ,rew "e"ber% usuall the derri,k "an% works on the $lat!or" when running ,asing or tubing. The derri,k "an guides the to$ o! the ,asing or tubing !ro" the stabbing board. The ,rew "e"ber ,alls the stabber% ad=ust the stabbing board?s height with a h drauli,% ele,tri, or air0$owered "otor. The height varies de$ending on the length o! the ,asing or tubing being "ade u$ and running into the hole. JTOO. #OIK 6ere is a $i,ture o! a rig. <hen ou?re given a rig ,o"$onent% ,li,k on the $hoto where the ,o"$onent is lo,ated. SU#STRU9TURE Overview The substru,ture is a rugged set o! bea"s. It su$$orts the "ast or derri,k and the heav hoisting D rotating e;ui$"ent. It also su$$orts the drilling tubulars on the rig !loor. It "ust
50

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


be high enough to a,,o""odate the blowout $reventer sta,k underneath the rig !loor. E0Door% Pi$e Ra"$ D 9atwalk 9rew "e"bers hoist $i$e and e;ui$"ent !ro" the ,atwalk u$ to the rig !loor b raising it u$ the $i$e ra"$. The hoist it onto the rig !loor through the E0door. JTOO. #OIK The E0Door takes its na"e !ro" the earl da s o! the oil $at,h. On old standard derri,ks% this o$ening looked like a large u$ side down @EA. The na"e?s stu,k% even though toda the o$ening "a not look "u,h like a @EA. ;OLUM6 "6;6A P<P6 *0A$L<A: 6FU<PM6A( PIPE 61FD.IFG Overview The rig ,rew needs $i$e handling e;ui$"ent !or several reasons. One is to "ake a ,onne,tion% to add a =oint o! $i$e as the hole dee$ens+ another is to tri$ the $i$e% to take the $i$e out and $ut it ba,k in the hole% so the ,an ,hange out bit% $ut a new botto" hole asse"bl and drill string or $er!or" an other a,tion that re;uires the drill string?s re"oval !ro" the hole. 9rew "e"bers ,an "ake ,onne,tions either b using a kell D rotar table s ste" or a to$ drive unit. 6andling $i$e% tri$$ing it in and out o! the hole% ,onne,ting =oints together% and "oving it around the rig !loor re;uires a lot o! e;ui$"ent. In,luded in this e;ui$"ent are the elevator% sli$s% tongs% $ower tongs% s$inning wren,hes% ,atheads% kell s$inner% Iron Roughne,k% rathole% "ousehole and air hoist. 4u,h o! this e;ui$"ent is ,ontrolled at the driller?s ,onsole. Trans!erring $i$e !ro" the de,k to the rig !loor "a also involve s$e,ial handling e;ui$"ent. JTOO. #OIK: 6ere is a little e>er,ise to hel$ ou learn the na"es o! all this e;ui$"ent. <hen ou?re given the na"e o! a ,o"$onent% ,li,k on it with our "ouse. I! ou don?t get it the !irst ti"e% kee$ tr ing until ou do. PIPE 61FD.IFG OPER1TIOF 4aking a 9onne,tion with Cell Foti,e that the kell is drilled down% that is the rig ,an drill no dee$er without adding a =oint o! $i$e. 6ere?s the se;uen,e to "ake a ,onne,tion with the kell and rotar table s ste". The driller $i,ks u$ the kell with the hoisting s ste" and the !loor ,rew sets the sli$s to sus$end the drill string in the hole. Using large wren,hes% ,alled tongs% the ,rew loosens or breaks out the kell !ro" the drill string. The lat,h one set o! tongs ,alled the ba,k u$ tongs around the drill $i$e to kee$ the $i$e !ro" turning when the a$$l break out tor;ue with the se,ond set o! tongs% ,alled the lead tongs. The driller a,tuates the break out ,athead% whi,h is an auto"ati, win,h on the drawworks. The break out ,athead $ulls a line atta,hed to the lead tongs and loosens the ,onne,tion. <ith the ,onne,tion loosened% the driller s$ins $ut the drill $i$e !ro" the kell % usuall b slowl turning the rotar table. The ba,k u$ tongs lat,hed onto the kell saver sub% kee$s the kell !ro" turning as the $i$e s$ins out. The ,rew then "oves the
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


kell over to the new =oint o! $i$e $la,ed in the "ousehole% a lined o$ening in the rig !loor that holds the =oint to be added. The stab the kell into the new =oint. The lat,h the ba,k u$ tongs around the tool =oint o! the $i$e =oint in the "ousehole. The ba,k u$ tongs kee$ the =oint !ro" turning as the driller s$ins u$ the kell into the =oint% using the kell s$inner. The kell s$inner is a $neu"ati, or h drauli, devi,e "ounted near the to$ o! the kell . To "ake u$ the kell onto the drill $i$e to !inal tightness% the ,rew lat,hes the lead tongs around the kell while holding the ba,k u$ tongs on the $i$e?s tool =oint bo>. The driller then a,tuates the "ake u$ ,athead on the drawworks. The "ake u$ ,athead $ulls a ,hain atta,hed to the lead tongs and tightens the kell onto the drill $i$e =oint. The driller% using the hoisting s ste"% $i,ks u$ the kell and new drill $i$e =oint out o! the "ousehole% and the ,rew guides it to the drill $i$e =oint% hanging in the rotar table. The ,rew stabs the new =oint into the sus$ended =oint% and the driller a,tuates the kell s$inner to s$in u$ the new =oint. JTOO. #OIK: 9li,k on the $la button to see a video o! the kell being "ade u$. On,e bond u$% the ,rew lat,hes the ba,k u$ D lead tongs around the =oints to "ake the" u$ to !inal tightness. <ith the =oints "ade u$% the driller $i,ks u$ the kell and drill string. The ,rew $ulls the sli$s% and the driller lowers the kell and "eets the kell drive bushing with the "aster bushing. Drilling then ,ontinues. 4aking 1 9onne,tion with a To$ Drive 6ere is how to "ake a ,onne,tion using a to$ drive. 1!ter drilling down the stand% the ,rew sets the sli$s. The driller sto$s ,ir,ulation% and the ,rew breaks out the saver sub !ro" the drill $i$e using the tor;ue wren,h and the to$ drive?s $i$e handler. The driller then uses the to$ drive?s drilling "otor to uns,rew the ,onne,tion. The driller $i,ks u$ the to$ drive and a ,rew "e"ber o$ens the drill $i$e elevators to allow it to $ass over the bo> o! the $i$e% setting in the sli$s. The driller raises the to$ drive asse"bl to the "onke 0board. The derri,k "an lat,hes the tri$le drill $i$e stand in the elevators. The elevators $i,k u$ the stand and the !loor ,rew stabs the botto" $in into the drill $i$e bo> in the rotar table. JTOO. #OIK: 9li,k on the $la button to see the =oint being stabbed into the drill string. The driller lowers the to$ drive to stab the saver sub into the bo> at the to$ o! the stand. Using the to$ drive?s drilling "otor% the driller s$ins u$ both the to$ ,onne,tion and the lower ,onne,tion at the rotar table. The rotar hel$ers use ba,k u$ tongs to kee$ the ,onne,tion stationar as the $i$e s$ins. Binall % the driller begins ,ir,ulation% the ,rew $ulls the sli$s and drilling resu"es. JTOO. #OIK: 6ere is our ,han,e to su$ervise the "aking o! a ,onne,tion% using a to$ drive. The stand has been drilled down and it?s ti"e to set the sli$s. The to$ drive has alread been broken u$ !ro" the drill string and atta,hed to the stand o! $i$e in the "ast. Raise the stand o! drill $i$e b ,li,king on the to$ driveO GoodP Fow lower the tool =oint
52

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


on to the drill string b "oving the to$ drive downwards with our "ouse. 1,tivate the to$ drive b ,li,king on it with our "ouse. .i!t the drill string b "oving the to$ drive u$wards. 1nd !inall % re"ove the sli$s b dragging the" out o! the insert bowls. E>,ellent workP Fow ou are read to "ake hole. Tri$$ing Out with Cell 6ere is a ,rew on a rig with the kell D rotar table s ste" tri$$ing $i$e out o! the hole. That is the rotar hel$ers% the derri,k "an and the driller are working together to $ull the drill string !ro" the hole. 4a be to ,hange the bit% or so"ething si"ilar. Birst% the ,rew sus$ends the drill string in the hole with sli$s. Then the break out the kell asse"bl . The swing the asse"bl over to a lined hole% ,alled the rathole% and the driller lowers the asse"bl into the rathole. <ith the kell asse"bl in the rathole% the ,rew unhook the swivel bail !ro" the hook% this a,tion !rees u$ the elevator. 9rew "e"bers lat,h the elevator around the =oint o! $i$e hanging in the rotar table o$ening. The driller% using the hoisting s ste"% then li!ts the $i$e !ro" the hole. Usuall % the driller li!ts $i$e until the third =oint ,lears the rotar table o$ening. The !loor hands then set the sli$s around the to$ o! the !ourth =oint. Using the tongs and a s$inning wren,h% the ,rew breaks out the three0=oint stand !ro" the drill string and sets it ba,k in the "ast. 4eanwhile% u$ on the "ast% the derri,k "an handles the u$$er end o! the three0=oint stand. 6e $la,es the to$ o! the stand into a !ingerboard% a series o! $ro=e,tions near the derri,k "an?s work $lat!or" ,alled the "onke 0board. The driller% rotar hel$ers and derri,k "an re$eat the $ro,ess until all the drill string is out o! the hole. Tri$$ing with Cell 6ere% the ,rew is tri$$ing $i$e ba,k into the hole. The !loor0hands% derri,k "an and the driller work together to get the drill string ba,k into the hole. Tri$$ing in is $rett "u,h the o$$osite o! tri$$ing out. The driller sends the elevator u$ to the "onke 0board% where the derri,k "an lat,hes the elevator around the to$ o! the stand. The driller then $i,ks u$ the stand a little% and the rotar hel$er guides the lower end over to the string hanging in the rotar table o$ening. The stab the stand% using the s$inning wren,h to s$in u$ the stand and "ake it u$ to !inal tightness with the tongs. The ,rew re$eats this $ro,ess until all the string is ba,k in the hole. Tri$$ing with To$ Drive% 3 <hen tri$$ing with a to$ drive% ,rew "e"bers use the drive?s elevator as "u,h as the use a ,onventional elevator when tri$$ing with a kell D rotar table rig. <ith a to$ drive% the driller ,an $osition the links D elevator ,lose to the derri,k "an on the "onke 0board. The driller "oves the links D elevator b a,tuating the re"ote0,ontrolled link0tilt "e,hanis" on the to$ drive. 4oving the links D elevator "akes it eas !or the derri,k "an to lat,h D unlat,h the elevator around the drill $i$e stand?s to$ tool =oint. Tri$$ing with a To$ Drive% & The drilling ,rew ,an also $osition the elevator in an dire,tion b unlo,king the rotation lo,k and rotating the $i$e handler asse"bl . #eing able to $osition the $i$e handler
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


asse"bl in an dire,tion enables the derri,k "an and rotar hel$ers to $osition the elevator where the need it to "ake a lat,h. The elevator returns to its original $osition when rotated b the drill string. Tri$$ing with a To$ Drive% * One advantage o! a to$ drive over a ,onventional kell s ste" is its abilit to rea" or ba,k rea" at an $osition in the "ast while tri$$ing. The driller ,an rotate and "ove the string u$ D down through tight se,tion o! hole. These a,tions ,an rea" out the tight se,tion o! hole. S.IPS D E.EE1TOR SYSTE4 Sli$s 9rew "e"bers use wedge0sha$ed gri$$ing devi,es ,alled sli$s to sus$end the drill string in the hole. The !it it around the to$ =oint o! $i$e and wedge in the ta$er o! the rotar table?s o$ening. Sli$s have seriated inserts or dies. The inserts gri$ the outside dia"eter o! the sus$ended tubular. To set the sli$s% ,rew "e"bers $la,e the" around the $i$e. The driller then slowl lowers the $i$e until the sli$s ,an take u$ the load. The seriated inserts or dies in the sli$s !ir"l hold the $i$e. To re"ove the sli$s% ,rew "e"bers gras$ the sli$s? handles. 1nd as the driller $i,ks u$ the $i$e% the li!t the" out o! the rotar table o$ening and set the" aside. Sa!et 9la"$ on Drill 9ollar <hen using drill ,ollars and other tubulars that don not have an elevator shoulder% ,rew "e"bers install a sa!et ,la"$ above the drill ,ollar sli$s. I! the gri$$ing ele"ents on the drill ,ollar sli$s !ailed% the drill ,ollar will slide down. #e!ore the ,ollars ,ould slide all o! the wa out o! the sli$s% however% the sa!et ,la"$ would hold the ,ollars against the to$ o! the sli$s. Sli$s D S$iders 9rew "e"bers use several t $es o! sli$s and s$iders. 1 s$ider% like sli$s% sus$ends $i$e in the hole% but s$iders do not !it inside the rotar table?s o$ening. Instead% the rest on to$ o! it. S$iders are used instead o! sli$s when the rotar table?s bushing si:e is not ,o"$atible with the tubulars being run. 6ere ou ,an see Drill Pi$e Rotar Sli$s% Drill 9ollar Sli$s% Drill Pi$e 9oil0S$ring Power Sli$s and 1ir0Powered Tubing S$ider and a 82'0ton 1ir09ontrolled 9asing S$ider. 9rew "e"bers use ea,h one to hold the ,orres$onding drill $i$e% drill ,ollars% ,asing or tubing. Power sli$s are $owered b a heav dut % high strength ,oiled s$ring or b air. Instead o! "anuall $la,ing air0$owered sli$s in the "aster bushing% ,rew "e"bers or the driller o$erate the" b re"ote ,ontrol. Elevator 9rew "e"bers lat,h the elevator around the to$ o! $i$e =oint in the drill string. On,e lat,hed% the driller ,an raise and lower $i$e in and out o! the hole. 9rew "e"bers atta,h the elevator to the hook with & !orged high grade steel rods ,alled links or bails. One end o! the links !its into the link ears on the hook% link lo,king ar"s se,ure the links into the
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


ears. 9rew "e"bers then atta,h the elevator to the other end o! the links. 4ost elevators are hinged. 9rew "e"bers o$en and ,lose the" b o$erating the lat,h with two handles on ea,h side. Foti,e that this elevator has a ta$ered seat. This ta$er "at,hes the ta$er on a tool =oint o! a length o! drill $i$e. <hen $ro$erl lat,hed% the tool =oint ta$er rests in the elevator ta$er and "akes a !ir"% $ositive gri$ without da"aging the drill $i$e. .i!ting Sub On drill string "e"bers that do not have an elevator shoulder% ,rew "e"bers "ake u$ a li!ting sub into the end o! the =oint. Bor instan,e% this drill ,ollar does not have a shoulder% it is sli,k. So the ,rew "ade u$ the li!ting sub. The lat,h the elevator onto the ta$er on the li!ting sub to raise or lower drill ,ollars into and out o! the hole. Elevator on To$ Drive On a to$ drive% the links holding the elevator have an air0o$erated or $neu"ati, tilt "e,hanis". The driller a,tivates the tilt "e,hanis" when the $i$e is being $ulled !ro" the hole. <hen the to$ o! the drill string rea,hes the derri,k "an?s $osition at the "onke board% the driller ,an tilt the to$ o! the stand o! the $i$e toward the derri,k "an. The derri,k "an ,an then unlat,h the elevator and set the stand ba,k in the !inger board. The !inger board is a ra,k that su$$orts the to$ o! the stands o! $i$e being sta,ked in the "ast or derri,k. JTOO. #OIK: It?s ti"e !or a ;ui,k ;uestion: <hi,h one o! these tubulars would re;uire a sa!et ,la"$M 9li,k on the ,orre,t one and then $ress the @a,,e$tA button. SPIFFIFG D TORNUIFG DEEI9ES Tongs Tongs are large wren,hes that ,rew "e"bers use to "ake u$ and break out $i$e. The ,rew uses two sets o! tongs to "ake u$ D break out $i$e. One set is the lead tongs. The lead tongs a$$l tor;ue to tighten or loosen the ,onne,tion. The other set is the ba,k u$ tongs. The ba,k u$ tongs kee$ the lower =oint o! $i$e !ro" turning as the lead tongs a$$l tor;ue to the u$$er =oint. JTOO. #OIK: /ust what is tor;ue% well tor;ue is a twisting !or,e. 6ere !or,e is a$$lied in a straight line. Bor,e a$$lied in a straight line is not tor;ue. Tor;ue is !or,e a$$lied in a turning or twisting "otion. 6ere is a to$ view o! a tong ar". <e ,an ,al,ulate the tor;ue or the twisting !or,e that the tong ar" is $utting on the $i$e b "ulti$l ing the length o! the tong ar" b the a"ount o! line0$ull in $ounds or kilogra"s a$$lied to it. In this ,ase% the tong ar" is 5.& !t or 3.*" long and &''' lbs or G'' kg o! line0$ull is a$$lied to it. 9li,k on the tong ar" to rotate it. <ith this length o! ar" and this a"ount o! line0$ull% the tong a$$lies 75'' !t0lbs or 338' kg0" o! tor;ue to the $i$e. That?s 5.& ti"es &''' e;uals 75'' and 3.* ti"es G'' e;uals 338'. To in,rease the tor;ue% ou ,an either a$$l "ore $ounds or kilogra"s o! $ull or ou ,an a$$l the sa"e a"ount o! the line0$ull but use a longer tong
55

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


ar". Bor e>a"$le% here the tong ar" is 2 !t or 3.2 " long. The line0$ull is% however% the sa"e &''' lbs or G'' kg. 9li,k on the tong ar" to see how "u,h tor;ue the longer ar" gives. It?s 3'''' !t0lbs or 3*2' kg0" o! tor;ue with a 2 !t (or 3.2") tong ar". Bive ti"es &''' e;uals 3'''' and 3.2 ti"es G'' e;uals 3*2'. So in,rease o! the length o! the tong ar" or the line0$ull in,reases the tor;ue. 4akeu$ 9athead 9rew "e"bers use the tongs in ,on=un,tion with s$e,ial ,atheads or win,hes on the drawworks. <hen "aking u$ drill $i$e% the driller a,tuates the "ake u$ ,athead on the drawworks. The ,athead takes in the tong $ull line% a ,hain in this ,ase% and e>erts a strong $ull on the tong ar". This $ull ,auses the lead tongs to a$$l tor;ue to the =oint to "ake it tight. #reakout 9athead <hen breaking out $i$e% ,rew "e"bers use the break out ,athead on the drawworks. The break out ,athead takes in the tong $ull line and e>erts a strong !or,e on the tong ar". This !or,e breaks out the $i$e ,onne,tion. 6 drauli, 9athead This is a h drauli, ,athead. It?s an au>iliar tor;uing devi,e. It hel$s ,rew "e"bers break out and "ake u$ ver large drill ,ollars. Eer large ,ollars re;uire a lot o! "ake u$ tor;ue so "u,h in !a,t that the break out ,athead?s $ulling !or,e "a not be strong enough. One solution is to use a h drauli, ,athead with rig tongs. The h drauli, ,athead in,ludes a h drauli, , linder housing and a wire asse"bl . The h drauli, ,athead is ,ontrolled re"otel b the driller !ro" his $osition on the rig !loor. This devi,e $rodu,es a sa!e% $ower!ul% and stead tong line $ull to break high tor;ue ,onne,tions. Power Tongs 4anu!a,turers "ake "an t $es and si:es o! $ower ,asing D tubing tongs. 9rew "e"bers use the" to ,onne,t ,asing and tubing ,ou$lings. Power tongs allow !ast and uni!or" "akeu$ D break out o! ,onne,tions. The "ake u$ tor;ue ,an be $reset b ad=usting a built0in $ressure0relie! valve. S$inning <ren,h 1,,o"$an ing a rig?s regular tongs is the s$inning wren,h or $i$e s$inner. 9rew "e"bers use a s$inning wren,h to s$in u$ or s$in out $i$e ,onne,tions. Bor e>a"$le% on,e a ,onne,tion is lubri,ated and stabbed% the $la,e the s$inning wren,h on the u$$er =oint and a,tivate the wren,h. Rollers engage the $i$e and turn it ra$idl until shoulder "eet shoulder. Then the ,rew lat,hes the regular tongs to "ake u$ the =oint to !inal tightness. The ,an also reverse the dire,tion o! the s$inning wren,h to s$in out a =oint that it loosens with the regular tongs. Cell S$inner To s$in u$ or s$in out the Cell % "ost rigs have a Cell s$inner. The Cell s$inner is
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


h drauli,all or $neu"ati,all o$erated. <hen the driller a,tivates it% the Cell s$inner ra$idl s$ins u$ or s$ins out the Cell !ro" a =oint o! drill $i$e. 9rew "e"bers atta,h it to the Cell below the swivel. Iron Roughne,k So"e rigs have this verti,al $i$e handling devi,e. The "anu!a,turer ,alls it an Iron Roughne,k. It ,o"bines the lead tongs and ba,k u$ tongs into a single $a,kage. The built0in tongs are h drauli,all $owered% sel!0,ontain tor;ue wren,hes. The allow the ,rew to "ake u$ and break out =oints without using ,atheads on the drawworks. 1n Iron Roughne,k "ounts on the rig !loor and rolls into $la,e on tra,ks. It redu,es the labor involved in "aking u$ and breaking out $i$e. 6owever% ,rew "e"bers have to "aintain it ,are!ull to ensure $ro$er o$eration. PIPE TR1FSBER Pi$e Ra,king S ste" So"e rigs working in rough seas or harsh environ"ents use auto"ated $i$e ra,king s ste". The rig owner "ounts the ra,king s ste" on the rig !loor and to the "ast. The devi,e ra,ks $i$e stands in the "ast?s !ingerboard. The o$erator ,ontrols the $i$e ra,ker !ro" a re"ote station and views the o$eration !ro" a ,a"era lo,ated dire,tl above the !ingerboard. The $i$e ra,king s ste" works in ,on=un,tion with the Iron Roughne,k. 1nother t $e o! $i$e ra,king s ste" !ound on drill shi$s ra,ks the drill $i$e stands in hori:ontal ra,ks outside the "ast or derri,k. Rathole 9rew "e"bers $la,e the Cell asse"bl in the rathole when the ?re read to "ake a tri$. The rathole is "ade o! large dia"eter $i$e that e>tends below the rig !loor. The rathole also $rotrudes above the rig !loor to "ake it easil a,,essible. 4ousehole The "ouse hole is a length o! large dia"eter $i$e that e>tends below the rig !loor. The ,rew $la,es a =oint o! drill $i$e in the "ousehole in $re$aration !or adding it to the drill string. JTOO. #OIK: Drag ea,h label to its $ro$er lo,ation b the "ousehole and the rathole% then% $ress the @a,,e$tA button. 1ir 6oist 9rew "e"bers use an air hoist to "ove $i$e and other drilling e;ui$"ent around the rig !loor. 1n air hoist is an air0$owered win,h that ,ontains a reel o! wire ro$e. <hen a ,rew "e"ber a,tuates the hoist% it takes in ro$e to li!t a $ie,e o! e;ui$"ent. It also has a wire ro$e guide that the ,rew "e"ber uses to kee$ the line !ro" winding unevenl on the reel. Usuall rigs have several air hoists $la,ed around the rig !loor. Pi$e Trans!er S ste" So"e rigs use auto"ati, $i$e trans!er s ste" to $i,k u$ and la down tubulars. The $i$e
57

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


trans!er s ste" also "oves tubulars onto the $i$e de,k. The auto"ati, $i,k0u$ and la 0 down s ste" (P.S) hoists tubulars !ro" the E0Door $osition to a verti,al $osition. The P.S ,onsists o! the Guide Rail 1sse"bl % 6 drauli, .i!t 1r" with slue ,a$a,it % 9arriage% <in,h and ,ontrol ,onsole. The s ste" ,an $i,k u$ or la down drill $i$e% drill ,ollars or ,asing =oints weighing u$ to 8''' lbs (over *'''kg) and u$ to &' in,hes (or 2'' "") in dia"eter. The Pi$e De,k 4a,hine (or PD4) has a h drauli,all ,ontrolled "e,hani,al ar". This ar" "oves tubulars between the $i$e ra,k on de,k and the drill !loor. The PD4 $i,ks u$ the tubular !ro" the $i$e ra,k% "oves $er$endi,ularl on a !loor tra,k% and then lowers the tubular to a ,onve er. The ,onve er ,arries the $i$e u$ to the E0Door. There% the P.S $i,ks u$ the tubular and "oves it to the elevator !or hoisting. Pi$e trans!er s ste"s are used on =a,k0u$s% se"i0sub"ersible% $lat!or" and land rigs. 9OFTRO.S BOR ENUIP4EFT Driller?s 9onsole The driller ,ontrols the rig?s o$erations !ro" this $osition at a ,onsole. The ,onsole is usuall on the rig !loor% either in the o$en ne>t to the drawworks or on the latest rigs in a ,ontrol house on the !loor. <eight Indi,ator% Gauges% 9ontrols One i"$ortant gauge on the instru"ent $anel is the weight indi,ator. It tells the driller the weight on the bit and the hook load. The hook load is the weight that is sus$ended !ro" the traveling blo,k and hook. <eight on bit is the $ortion o! the botto" hole asse"bl weight a,ting on the bit. Several gauges show the driller $u"$ $ressure% $u"$ rate% rotar s$eed% rotar tor;ue and tong line tor;ue. The driller?s ,ontrol $anel allows the driller to o$erate the rotating% hoisting and "ud $u"$ e;ui$"ent on the rig. ;OLUM6 6<:*( +0"<A: ' +6M6A(<A: 91SIFG D 9E4EFT Overview: Eirtuall ever well drilled re;uires ,asing D ,e"ent. 9asing is steel $i$e that the ,rew $uts into the well bore. The ,asing $revents the hole !ro" ,aving in and seals o!! !or"ations. To do its =ob% though% the ,asing has to be ,e"ented in $la,e. 1 ,e"ent ,rew $u"$s ,e"ent down inside the ,asing and u$ the annulus. The ,e"ent hardens or sets to hold the ,asing in $la,e. 9asing S$e,i!i,ations 9asing is steel $i$e that ,o"es to the rig in individual =oints. 1 ,asing ,rew ,ou$les the =oints together to run the" into the well bore. 9asing ,o"es in three ranges o! lengths. Range one is 3- to &2 !t (or 5.77 R 8.-&") long+ range two is &2 R *5 !t (or 8.-&03'.*-") long+ range three is *5057 !t (or 3'.*-R35.-*") long. The length used de$ends on the well owner?s re;uire"ent and the $h si,al re;uire"ents o! the well. 9asing also ,o"es in di!!erent grades or strengths. <hi,h strength is used de$ends on the well?s ,hara,teristi,s.

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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


Running 9asing To run the ,asing% the ,rew =oins the =oints with threaded ,onne,tions ,alled ,ou$lings or ,ollars. Do not ,on!use ,asing ,ollars with drill ,ollars. 9asing ,ollars are ,ou$lings. The use s$e,ial heav 0dut elevators and large ,asing sli$s% ,alled s$iders. The "ake u$ the ,asing =oints with "ulti0s$eed $ower ,asing tongs. Power ,asing tongs not onl s,rew the threaded ,onne,tions together% but also tor;ue the" to the ,orre,t a"ount. JTOO. #OIK: <hi,h o! these is a ,asing ,ollarM 9li,k on the ,asing ,ollar with our "ouse and then ,li,k on the @a,,e$tA button. 91SIFG STRIFG Overview # the ti"e the ,rew drills the well to !inal de$th% it usuall has several strings o! ,asing in it. These strings are ,alled ,ondu,tor ,asing% sur!a,e ,asing% inter"ediate ,asing and $rodu,tion ,asing. Foti,e that the ,ased well looks so"ething like a teles,o$e $ulled out a !ull length. That is as the ,rew drills the well dee$er% the si:e o! the hole and the si:e o! the ,asing gets s"aller in dia"eter. 1l"ost or alwa s% the drilling ,ontra,tor ,an not begin drilling at the sur!a,e and go all the wa to total de$th in one ste$. Bor one thing% !or"ations near the sur!a,e tend to ,ru"ble and ,ave in easil % so ,ondu,tor ,asing $revents ,ave0ins. Bor another thing% !or"ations near the sur!a,e "a also hold !resh water that the well ,an not ,onta"inate. So sur!a,e ,asing $rote,ts !resh water :ones. Bor still another thing% dee$ !or"ations are so"eti"es so0,alled troubleso"e !or"ations. That is the ,an be drilled b ad=usting the $ro$erties o! the drilling "ud% but on,e drilled need to be sealed o!! to $revent $roble"s in drilling the dee$er $ortion o! the well. So inter"ediate ,asing seals o!! troubleso"e :ones. So"eti"es dee$ wells re;uire "ore than one inter"ediate ,asing string. Binall % on,e the $rodu,ing :one is drilled% it needs to be $rote,ted and sealed. So $rodu,tion ,asing isolates the $rodu,ing :one. JTOO. #OIK: 6ere are all o! the ,asing strings unlabeled. To the right ou?ll see all o! the labels. Using our "ouse% drag ea,h label to the $ro$er $la,e on the diagra". <hen ou?ve !inished% ,li,k on the @a,,e$tA button. PROGRESSIEE 91SIFG STRIFGS 9ondu,tor 9asing The !irst string o! ,asing is the ,ondu,tor ,asing. The hole drilled !or is $rett big% o!ten as "u,h as *- in,hes or "ore (al"ost a "eter in dia"eter). The ,ondu,tor hole has to start u$ $rett big be,ause as drilling goes on% the hole?s dia"eter de,reases. In so"e ,ases% the rig will ha""er the ,ondu,tor ,asing in $la,e i! the ground near the sur!a,e is reall so!t. I! the ,ondu,tor hole is drilled% the ,asing is ,e"ented in it. Using a bit whose dia"eter is s"all enough to easil go inside the ,ondu,tor ,asing% the rig drills the hole below the ,ondu,tor to a $res,ribed de$th. Sur!a,e 9asing The dia"eter o! the sur!a,e hole ,an still be relativel large% sa 38 in,hes (over 5'' ""
59

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


or even "ore). The sur!a,e hole?s de$th is usuall set b Regulator 1gen,ies. The re;uire that the sur!a,e hole be drilled through all !resh water :ones% and the sur!a,e ,asing be set and ,e"ented to $rote,t the :ones !ro" da"age b additional drilling o$erations. This ste$ ,ould be !ro" hundreds to thousands o! !t or "eters. For"all ,rew "e"bers ni$$le u$ or ,onne,t the #OPs to the sur!a,e ,asing at the well head. So this ,asing "ust be strong enough to su$$ort the #OP sta,k. In addition% it has to withstand the gas or !luid $ressures the well "a en,ounter. Sur!a,e ,asing also has to be strong enough to su$$ort the additional ,asing strings hanging inside o! it. Inter"ediate 9asing Strings To drill the inter"ediate hole% the o$erator ,hooses a still s"aller in dia"eter bit whi,h easil !its inside the sur!a,e ,asing. 1 bit o! about 3& in,hes (or *'' "") in dia"eter is one e>a"$le o! the si:e. Inter"ediate ,asing is also ,e"ented in the $la,e to seal o!! troubleso"e !or"ations like lost ,ir,ulation :ones or abnor"all $ressured :ones. It is o!ten the longest se,tion o! ,asing in the well. 1lso the ,rew ,onne,ts or ni$$les u$ the #OPs to the to$ o! the inter"ediate ,asing b using an ada$ter and ,asing head or a drilling s$ool whi,h is sta,ked on or ,onne,ted to the to$ o! the sur!a,e ,asing well head. It there!ore an,hors the #OPs !or the drilling ,o"es later. Re"e"ber that the ,rew has to ni$$le u$ a sta,k o! #OPs to ea,h string o! ,asing that?s run into the well. Birst% the ni$$le u$ on the sur!a,e ,asing% then on the inter"ediate ,asing% and !inall on the $rodu,tion ,asing. To drill to !inal de$th below the inter"ediate ,asing% the rig owner sele,ts a bit whose dia"eter is s"all enough to !it inside the inter"ediate ,asing% sa !ro" 7 to 3' in,hes (or &''0&2' ""). Produ,tion 9asing Strings This $art o! a hole $enetrates the $rodu,ing :one. <hen ,e"ented in $la,e% $rodu,tion ,asing seals o!! the $rodu,tion :one and readies it !or $rodu,tion. Produ,tion ,asing also houses and $rote,ts the tubing and other e;ui$"ent used to $rodu,e the well. The o$erator usuall $er!orates% $uts holes in this ,asing when the well is ,o"$lete% alread !or work to begin. <ell ,o"$letion is the ter" des,ribing the a,tivities and "ethods o! $re$aring the well !or $rodu,tion o! oil or gas. Oil and gas !low into the well through the $er!orations. .iner Strings So"eti"es well owners run liners instead o! ,asing into the well. 1 liner is a shorten string o! ,asing used to ,ase the s"aller o$en hole se,tion below an e>isting ,asing string in the hole. It?s =ust like ,asing% e>,e$t that a liner does not run all the wa to the sur!a,e. Instead% the ,asing ,rew hangs it !ro" the botto" o! a $reviousl run ,asing or liner string using a s$e,ial $ie,e o! e;ui$"ent ,alled a liner hanger. In this ,ase% there is an inter"ediate liner and a $rodu,tion liner. Using liners saves "one sin,e the do not e>tend to the sur!a,e. JTOO. #OIK: Bor ea,h t $e o! ,asing ou see% ou?ll be given the dia"eter. Using our
60

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


"ouse% ,li,k on the ,orre,t na"e o! the ,asing shown. 91SIFG 199ESSORIES Overview: #e,ause the ,rew will ,e"ent the ,asing string in $la,e% the also have to install so"e s$e,ial devi,es on this string% whi,h ,o"e to $la during the ,e"enting o$eration. Guide Shoe The guide shoe is a heav steel and ,on,rete !itting that the ,rew "akes u$ on the end o! the !irst ,asing =oint to go in the hole. It guides the ,asing $ass the rough s$ots and ledges on the well bore. It also has an o$ening in the end. Drilling "ud enters this o$ening when the ,rew runs the ,asing into the well bore. .ater% ,e"ent will ,o"e out o! this o$ening on its wa into the annulus. Bloat 9ollar D Shoe Usuall % the ,rew installs a !loat ,ollar in the se,ond or the third ,asing =oint run into the well bore. Or so"eti"es the install a !loat shoe. <hether a !loat shoe or a !loat ,ollar is used% ea,h has a one0wa valve in it. Bluids ,an !low downwards through the valve% but ,an not !low u$ward $ass the valve. The !loat ,ollar or !loat shoe kee$s drilling "ud !ro" entering the ,asing string as the ,rew runs it into the hole. Cee$ing the ,asing e"$t o! "ud allows the ,asing to $artiall !loat in the "ud. That is% in the annulus% =ust as a hollow steel boat !loats on water. .etting the ,asing !loat ,uts down on stress and !atigue on the hoisting e;ui$"ent. #ut the ,rew ,an not kee$ the ,asing totall e"$t o! "ud. I! the did% the h drostati, $ressure o! the "ud in the annulus ,ould ,rash the ,asing. So !ro" ti"e to ti"e% the ,rew $uts "ud into the inside o! the ,asing !ro" the sur!a,e to o!!set h drostati, $ressure. The !loat valve also holds the ,e"ented $la,e on,e it is dis$la,ed into the annulus+ otherwise it would u0tube% ba,k into the ,asing. 9entrali:ers On various =oints o! ,asing% ,rew "e"bers also install ,entrali:ers. 9entrali:ers kee$ the ,asing !ro" leaning against the side o! the hole. In other words% ,entrali:ers kee$ an o$ening between the outside wall o! the ,asing and the wall o! the hole. 9entrali:ers redu,e drag and di!!erential sti,king while running the ,asing. Drag is resistan,e to "otion ,aused b the ,asing ,onta,ting the well bore. Di!!erential sti,king ha$$ens when the ,asing ,onta,ts a $er"eable !or"ation in the well bore. 1nd the $ressure in the hole is greater than the $ressure in the !or"ation. The higher hole $ressure tenses the hole the ,asing in ,onta,t against the area o! lower !or"ation $ressure. Cee$ing the ,asing o!! the wall o!! the hole also ensures that ,e"ent will surround the outside o! the ,asing and bond it se,urel to the hole. JTOO. #OIK: In order !or the ,e"ent to !ill the annulus $ro$erl % it is i"$ortant that the ,asing string be as ,entered as $ossible. 9li,k on the button "arked% add ,entrali:ers to see the e!!e,t o! ,entrali:ers. 6ere ou see a ,asing string that has :ero $er,ent stando!!%
61

OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


this "eans that it?s u$ against the side o! the well bore. 9hange the stando!! to see how stando!! e!!e,ts ,e"enting. 10 percentG This string has a 2'Q stando!!. 1s the ,e"ent !lows u$ the annulus% it will !ill the wider side o! the annulus "ore ;ui,kl . This leads to an inade;uate ,e"ent =ob+ 41 percent: This string has a 82Q stando!!. -8Q stando!! is the "ini"al a,,e$table stando!!. So it?s 82Q% this ,e"ent is ade;uate. 6owever% it?s not o$ti"al+ 100 percentG 6ere the string has a 3''Q stando!!. That "eans it is $er!e,tl ,entered. 1t 3''Q stando!!% the ,e"ent !lows evenl on both sides o! the ,asing% leading to a good ,e"ent =ob. S,rat,her 1nother devi,e that hel$s ensure a good bond o! ,e"ent to the hole is a s,rat,her. De$ending on the well bore?s ,hara,teristi,s% ,rew "e"bers install several on the ,asing string. /ust be!ore the $u"$ the ,e"ent into the ,asing in hole% the rotate the ,asing string. <hen "ove it u$ D down% that is re,i$ro,ate it. De$ending on the t $e o! s,rat,hers the install. In either ,ase% the s,rat,hers re"ove wall ,ake le!t b the drilling "ud during drilling. Re"oving the wall ,ake% solid $arti,les in the "ud is sti,k to the wall o! the hole% hel$s the ,e"ent bond better to the hole. JTOO. #OIK: .et?s see what ha$$ens when the ,e"ent does not bond $ro$erl to the hole. 9li,k on the buttons to ,o"$are a good ,e"ent =ob to a bad one. GOOD: The ,e"ent in this well bore is $ro$erl bonded+ the $rodu,tion !luids enter the ,asing through $er!orations% and !low u$ the ,asing to the sur!a,e. Bluids and gas !ro" other !or"ations are not allowed into the well. #1D: The ,e"ent in this well bore is not $ro$erl bonded to the hole. This ,reates ,hannels that allow the !luids D gases !ro" !or"ations besides the one being $rodu,ed to enter the annulus. This is undesirable sin,e the well and other !or"ations ,an be da"aged. 9E4EFTIFG Overview 6ere is an overview o! ,asing ,e"ented in a well% ,alled $ri"ar ,e"enting% the ,e"ent?s "ain =obs are to ,o"$letel isolate or totall seal o!! all the oil% gas and water :ones !ro" the well bore% and to bond the ,asing !ir"l to the wall o! the hole. 9asing Point 6ere% the ,rew has drilled the well to the ,asing $oint% the de$th at whi,h the ?ll set and ,e"ent ,asing. 9onditioning the 6ole The driller ,ir,ulates drilling "ud to ,lean the hole and "ake sure the "ud is in good ,ondition. Then the ,rew $ulls the drill string out o! the hole. Running the 9asing The ne>t ste$ in $ri"ar ,e"enting is !or the ,asing ,rew to run the ,asing into the well% one =oint at a ti"e. Foti,e that at the botto" o! the ,asing% the guide shoe and !loat ,ollar. 1lso noti,e the ,entrali:ers and s,rat,hers. The guide shoe guides the !irst =oint o! ,asing
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


into the well bore. 1 valve in the !loat ,ollar lets the ,rew !loat the ,asing into the well to lessen the load on the rig?s hoisting s ste". 9entrali:ers kee$ the ,asing o!! the wall o! the hole to ensure a good ,e"ent =ob. 1nd s,rat,hers re"ove wall ,ake to ensure a good ,e"ent bond to the wall o! the hole. 4i>ing the 9e"ent The ,e"enting ,rew ne>t to read the ,e"enting unit. The ,e"enting unit ra$idl "i>es water% dr ,e"ent% and s$e,ial additives to the ,e"ent to "ake a li;uid ,e"ent slurr . 1 high $ressure ,e"ent $u"$ing unit "oves the slurr down the ,asing. Pu"$ing 9e"ent To get the ,e"ent slurr down the ,asing% the ,e"enting ,rew "akes u$ a ,e"enting head% also ,alled a $lug0retainer% on the to$ =oint o! ,asing sus$ended in rig?s elevator. The ,e"enting head has an inlet !or the ,e"ent slurr !ro" the ,e"ent $u"$. Slurr enters the head at the ,onne,tion on the side. The valves on the head allow the ,rew to ,ontrol the $oint at whi,h the slurr enters the head. Bro" the ,e"enting head% the slurr goes into the ,asing. The head also holds s$e,ial $lugs ,alled wi$er $lugs. The wi$er $lug retainers kee$ the wi$er $lugs in head until the ,rew releases the" to allow the $lugs to be $u"$ed down the ,asing. The !luid inlet allows the ,rew to $u"$ "ud% water or s$e,ial dis$la,e"ent !luid% the !luid that $ushes the ,e"ent into the annulus. This head holds two wi$er $lugs% a botto" wi$er $lug% and a to$ wi$er $lug. The botto" $lug goes into the ,asing !irst. It wi$es "ud o!! the inside o! the ,asing and se$arates the "ud !ro" the ,e"ent. The to$ $lug !ollows the last o! the ,e"ent into the ,asing. It wi$es ,e"ent o!! the inside o! the ,asing and se$arates ,e"ent !ro" the dis$la,e"ent !luid. JTOO. #OIK: O!ten the wi$er $lugs are identi!ied b di!!erent ,olors to avoid ,on!usion. The botto" $lug is usuall red or orange. It has a dia$hrag" that breaks when the $lug gets to the botto" o! the ,asing string+ so that the ,e"ent ,an $ass through the $lug. The to$ $lug is usuall bla,k. Binishing the /ob 9e"ent $u"$ $ressure "oves the ,e"ent slurr to the ,e"enting head where a ,rew "e"ber releases the botto" wi$er $lug. Slurr $ushes the botto" $lug down the ,asing until it seats in the !loat ,ollar. <hen the $lug seats% ,ontinued $u"$ $ressure on the slurr ra$tures the dia$hrag" on the botto" o! the $lug. This allows ,e"ent slurr to go out the guide shoe and into the annulus. <hen the ,al,ulated a"ount o! ,e"ent slurr has been $u"$ed% a ,rew "e"ber releases the to$ wi$er $lug. Dis$la,e"ent !luid !or,es the to$ wi$er $lug down the ,asing until it seats in the !loat ,ollar on the to$ o! the botto" $lug. #e,ause the to$ $lug is solid% $u"$ $ressure rises when the $lug seats. 1 shar$ rise in $u"$ $ressure signals the $u"$ o$erator to shut down the $u"$. The !loat valve holds the ,e"ent in $la,e% not allowing it to u0tube ba,k into the ,asing on,e it is dis$la,ed into the annulus. The ,e"enting =ob is ,o"$lete. De$ending on hole ,onditions and the t $e o! ,e"ent used% the ,e"ent slurr hardens or sets u$ !ir"l generall with 3& to &5 hours.
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER

;OLUM6 A<A6

/6LL LO::<A:@ MU$ LO::<A: ' $R<LL "(6M (6"(<A:

<E.. EE1.U1TIOF Overview One ;uestion that o!ten !a,es the well owner is @will this well $rodu,e oil and gasMA To hel$ answer this ;uestion% one or "ore "ethods o! evaluation are used in,luding: 4ud .ogging% <ell .ogging and Drill Ste" Testing (or DST). 4ud logging involves doing tests on the drilling "ud and ,uttings ,ir,ulated out o! the hole+ well logging is the re,ording o! in!or"ation about subsur!a,e geologi, !or"ations+ drill ste" testing is a wa to test a !or"ation using the drill ste"% a s$e,ial tool D $a,ker asse"bl installed in the drill ste"% re,ords down hole $ressures and te"$eratures and retrieves !luids e>a"$les. 4UD .OGGIFG H TESTIFG 3 4ud .ogging D Testing 1s the bit drills% drilling "ud li!ts ,uttings u$ the hole. The drilling "ud also ,arries tra,es o! an h dro,arbons D other substan,es the hole "a have $enetrated. There!ore% ,at,hing and anal :ing the "ud and the ,uttings that ,o"e to the sur!a,e ,an tell the well owner and geologist a great deal about what?s going on down hole as the bit drills. 1nal :ing the drilling !luid is ,alled "ud logging. 4ud .ogging Unit 1n overview o! a land rig shows the "ud logging unit. O!!shore% a si"ilar skid0"ounted unit houses the "ud logging e;ui$"ent. #oth ,ontain so$histi,ated data a,;uisition s ste" and e;ui$"ent !or anal :ing drilling !luid D ,uttings. 6ere is the inside o! a "ud logging unit. You ,an see so"e o! the e;ui$"ent used to anal :e or log "ud. This drawing o! a "ud logging unit shows "an ite"s o! e;ui$"ent used to anal :e and "onitor the drilling $ro,ess. Fot all rigs will have su,h a set0u$ and so"e will even have "ore so$histi,ated set0u$s. Rig 4onitors Rig "onitors give read0out to the "ud logger% a $erson whose s$e,ialt is observing and anal :ing "ud D ,uttings. The rig "onitors show the rate o! $enetration (or ROP)% how !ast the bit is drilling% weight on the bit (or <O#)% total hook load% Cell or to$ drive height% rotar s$eed (or RP4)% rotar tor;ue (the twisting !or,e on the drill string)% $it volu"e (the level o! "ud in the "ud tanks)% "ud weight (in and out o! the hole)% "ud te"$erature% $u"$ strokes% ,asing D stand $i$e $ressure% and other in!or"ation. 4ud loggers ,an ,o"bine rig in!or"ation with other in!or"ation !ro" the driller% the wire line o$erator and area well re,ords to hel$ i"$rove the well?s $rogress. 9hro"atogra$h 1 ,hro"atogra$h dis$la s the $er,entages o! h dro,arbon gases in the "ud returning to the sur!a,e. The ,hro"atogra$h has sensors in the "ud return line. These sensors
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


dete,t su,h gases as "ethane% ethane% and $ro$ane that "a be in the "ud. 9ore Plugging 1$$aratus The ,ore $lugging a$$aratus takes a s"all $lug out o! a ,ore sa"$le. The "ud logger ,an anal :e the $lug to get an idea o! what the larger ,ore sa"$le "a ,ontain. Bluoros,o$e 1 !luoros,o$e ,ontains an ultra violet la"$. <hen the "ud logger or geologist $uts ,uttings or $lug under the !luoros,o$e% the ,uttings or $lug glow or !luores,e i! the ,ontain h dro,arbons. 4i,ros,o$e 1 "i,ros,o$e% this unit has two% hel$s the "ud logger or geologist identi! the !or"ations. # looking at ,uttings or $lugs under the "i,ros,o$e% the loggers ,an note ver s"all ro,k ,hara,teristi,s% the "a also !ind !ossils that hel$ identi! the ro,k. JTOO. #OIK: 1 !ossil is the re"ains or i"$ressions o! a $lant or ani"al o! $ast geologi,al ages% that?d been $reserved in or as ro,k% be,ause ,ertain kinds o! !ossils tend to o,,ur in ,ertain kinds o! ro,k. Identi! ing the !ossils hel$s identi! the ro,k. 9o"$uters 9o"$uters hel$ "ud loggers anal :e and inter$ret an i"$ortant in!or"ation the gain !ro" "ud logging e;ui$"ent. In so"e logging units% $ower!ul ,o"$uters dire,tl read drilling in!or"ation% $ro,ess it% and $rint out detail re$orts on the status o! the well. Ea,uu" Oven 4ud loggers use a va,uu" oven to dr u$ !or"ation sa"$les. Then the evaluate the dried sa"$les !or !urther !a,ts about the !or"ations being drilled. 4ud .ogging D Testing & 9ore 6eat Sealer Geologists use a ,ore heat sealer to "ake an air0tight ,ontainer !or ,ores. The heat seal air0tight ,ontainer kee$s an !or"ation !luids in the ,ore !ro" leaking out while it is being shi$$ed to a ,ore laborator !or anal sis. 1nal ti,al #alan,e .oggers use an anal ti,al balan,e to a,,uratel weigh ro,k sa"$les. The ,al,ulate a ro,k?s densit D $orosit !ro" e>a,t a,,urate weight. Porosi"eter 1 $orosi"eter "easures ro,k $orosit % the a"ount o! $ore s$a,e in a ro,k. The "ore $ore s$a,e a ro,k has% the "ore s$a,e available !or the ro,k to store oil and gas. JTOO. #OIK: Bor"ation !luids su,h as oil% water D gas ,an !low through ro,k !or"ations
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


when the ro,k has e"$t s$a,es or $ores and the s$a,es are ,onne,ted ($er"eable). 9li,k on the "agni! ing glass to get a ,loser look at the $ore s$a,es. The ratio o! the volu"e o! e"$t s$a,e to the volu"e o! solid ro,k is ,alled $orosit . The "easure at the ease at whi,h the !luid !lows is ,alled $er"eabilit . Gas 1nal :er .oggers use a gas anal :er to e>a"ine sa"$les o! gas !ro" the well. Gas anal :ers not onl indi,ate what kind o! h dro,arbon gases the "ud brings u$% but also non0 h dro,arbon gases% su,h as h drogen sul!ide and ,arbon dio>ide. JTOO. #OIK: Gas that has h drogen sul!ide in it is ,alled sour gas+ gas that ,ontains little or no h drogen sul!ide is ,alled sweet gas. I0ra Di!!ra,to"eter 1n I0ra di!!ra,to"eter $enetrates a ro,k sa"$le with >0ra s. Di!!erent t $es o! ro,k rea,t di!!erentl to the >0ra s% whi,h allows well loggers to identi! a ro,k?s stru,ture. 9entri!uge The ,entri!uge s$ins !or"ation !luid sa"$les at a high0rated s$eed. .oggers $ut the !luid sa"$les into a test tube and then $ut the test tube into the ,entri!uge. The s$inning or ,entri!ugal "otion se$arates the !luid into its ,o"$onents. The heaviest ,o"$onents (usu. water) ,olle,t on the botto" o! the tube% the lighter ,o"$onents (su,h as oil) ,olle,t in the tube above the water. Dr Sa"$le Tra 1 dr sa"$le tra holds dr ro,k sa"$les. .oggers $ut dr sa"$les on the tra and then $la,e the tra under the "i,ros,o$e where the e>a"ine the sa"$les. 4i,ros,o$i, e>a"ination o! dried sa"$les tells loggers and geologists "u,h about a !or"ation?s ,hara,teristi,s. 69. Testing 4ud loggers use h dro,hlori, a,id or 69. to test !or li"estone. I! the logger $uts a dro$ o! h dro,hlori, a,id on a sa"$le and the sa"$le bubbles u$ or !i::es% then the sa"$le ,ontains li"estone. .i"estone so"eti"es holds h dro,arbons. 4ud .ogs This is a ,o"$uter0generated "ud log% and it?s "ost basi,. The log re,ords the rate o! $enetration% $er,ent h dro,arbons !ound in the "ud at various de$ths% and the $er,entage o! ro,k t $es in sa"$les ,aught at the shale shaker. The log "a also re,ord other well ,hara,teristi,s to hel$ the well owner drill the well e!!i,ientl and sa!el . JTOO. #OIK: <hat would ou use to !ind out i! ,uttings ,ontain h dro,arbonsM <E.. .OGGIFG
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


Overview In "ost wells% the owner orders a well log. 1 well log ,an review whether there is enough oil or gas in a !or"ation to go to the e>$ense o! running and ,e"enting $rodu,tion ,asing to ,o"$lete the well. #asi, .ogging O$eration To log a well% the well owner usuall ,alls a well logging ,o"$an . On land rigs% the logging ,o"$an sends a tru,k0"ounted logging unit to the well. O!!shore% the logging unit is usuall $er"anentl installed on the rig. In either ,ase% the logging unit lowers a logging tool on ,ondu,tive wire line into the well to the de$th o! investigation. The unit then reels in the tool. 1s the tool ,o"es u$ the hole it dete,ts ,ertain as$e,ts o! the !or"ations it $asses. It sends this in!or"ation u$ the ,ondu,tive wire line to the sur!a,e. On the sur!a,e% ,o"$uters in the logging unit re,ord the in!or"ation. The ,o"$uters then $rint out the in!or"ation% $rint a log that the well owner ,an e>a"ine. O!ten the log gives enough in!or"ation !or the well owner to deter"ine whether oil or gas e>ists in the !or"ation. .ogging Unit 6ere is a logging tru,k% it ,ontains the ,o"$uters% the wire line on a reel and the ,ontrols that "ake the logging o$eration work. O!!shore% instead o! a tru,k% the e;ui$"ent is installed in a s"all house% a logging unit. .ogging Unit Details The logging unit% whether tru,k0"ounted or skid0"ounted% houses ,ondu,tive wire line on a reel% wire line ,ontrols whi,h allow an o$erator to lower% sto$ and raise the wire line% and the ,o"$uters that re,ord and dis$la the in!or"ation rela !ro" a logging tool through the ,ondu,tive wire line. .ogging Tools The well owner ,an ,hoose !ro" "an t $es o! logging tools. Plus% the owner ,an run so"e o! the tools in ,o"bination. .ogging ,o"$anies grou$ logging tools into !our broad areas: ele,tri,% nu,lear% soni,% and other. Ele,tri, .og Ele,tri, logging tools "easure and re,ord ,ertain ele,tri,al $ro$erties o! the !or"ation. This is a re,ording% a log% "ade b an ele,tri, logging tool as it ,a"e u$ out o! the well% $assed the !or"ations. The s;uiggles on the log ,alled ,urves. Foti,e that the ,urves "ove to the le!t and to the right on the log. This is ,alled de!le,tion. 1 $erson !a"iliar with these ,urves ,an look at the wa the de!le,t and learn a lot about the !or"ations. 1 basi, $re"ise o! the sa"$le listed ele,tri, logs is that the salt water ,ondu,ts ele,tri,it ,onsiderabl better than oil. Thus a !or"ation ,ontaining oil de!le,ts the log?s ,urve di!!erent !ro" a !or"ation ,ontaining salt water. Fu,lear .og
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


1 nu,lear log% so"eti"es ,alled a radioa,tive log% looks a lot like an ele,tri, log be,ause it has ,urves that de!le,t le!t D right. Fu,lear logs "easure either natural or indu,ed radiation in the !or"ation. Fatural radiation ,an indi,ate the t $e o! ro,k and its densit . #o"barding the !or"ation with a low level radioa,tive sour,e and a logging tool ,an indi,ate whether li;uids or gases are in the !or"ation. Soni, .og 1 soni, log re,ords the ti"e that it takes sound to travel through a !or"ation. 1 soni, logging tool ,reates a sound that hits the !or"ation ro,k near the tool. Sound "oves !aster through solid ro,k than through ro,k that has !luid !illed $ores. The ,urves re,ord the travel ti"es% and allow an e>$ert to deter"ine whether the ro,k is solid or !luid0!illed. I! !luid0!illed% the !luid "ight be oil or gas. Other .ogs 4an other logging tools are available. 1 ,o""on one is a ,ali$er log. This log shows the dia"eter o! the hole and an irregularities in it. One thing ,ali$er logs ,an do is hel$ the ,e"enting ,rew deter"ine the volu"e o! the hole. <ith hole0volu"e known% the ,rew knows how "u,h ,e"ent the will need to $ro$erl ,e"ent the ,asing. DRI.. STE4 TESTIFG Overview In addition to logs% the well o$erator will so"eti"es order a drill ste" test. The drill ste" test% or DST% te"$oraril $rodu,es h dro,arbons through the rig?s drill string or ste". DSTs also "easure and re,ord !or"ation $ressure and te"$erature data. To deter"ine !or"ation $er"eabilit and the "akeu$ o! h dro,arbons% the well owner "a run a drill ste" test% DST tool. The ,rew runs this asse"bl on the drill string% or the drill ste" as is so"eti"es ,alled. The test evaluates a sele,ted test :one. <hile ;ual. logging% DSTs hel$ well owner de,ide whether to run ,asing and ,o"$lete the well. 1 DST tool lets !or"ation !luids !low to the sur!a,e or so"eti"es into a sa"$le ,ha"ber inside the down hole tool. <hile the well !lows% the well owner ,an deter"ine the $rodu,ing ,hara,teristi,s o! the well. Su,h in!or"ation allows the owner to $rodu,e the well "ore e!!i,ientl when ,o"$leted. DST Tool 9o"$onents 6ere is a drill ste" test tool% "ade u$ on the botto" o! the drill ste". Bro" to$% it has a reverse ,ir,ulation sub% shut0in valve% h drauli, b $ass% re,order% h drauli, =ar% sa!et =oint% $a,ker% $er!orated $i$e and an an,hor shoe. The ,rew lowers this asse"bl to the de$th the well owner wants to test% in this ,ase% the botto" o! the hole. You?ll see what the $arts do as ou go along. JTOO. #OIK:.et?s see i! ou ,an build a DST tool !ro" a botto" u$. 6ere are the label $arts o! the DST. Using our "ouse% drag ea,h ,o"$onent into $la,e in the $ro$er order. .owering DST Tool
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


The ,rew lowers the DST tool into the hole on the drill $i$e a!ter the well is well0,ir,ulated and ,onditioned with drilling !luid. The h drauli, b $ass is o$en% be,ause the DST $a,ker has li"ited ,learan,e with the u$$er ,asing in o$en well bore. The o$en b $ass allows drilling !luid in the hole to !low u$ inside the tool as the ,rew lowers it. .etting drilling !luid !low u$ inside the tool $revents it !ro" ,reating $ressure surges. Pressure surges ,ould !ra,ture the !or"ation to be tested. Sealing the 6ole <ith a DST tool on the botto"% the driller sla,ks o!! the drawworks? brake to $ut weight on the tool. <eight ,auses the $a,ker to e>$and. The $a,ker seals o!! the hole beneath it. <ith the hole sealed b the e>$anded $a,ker% the DST o$erator rotates the drill string. Rotation o$ens $orts inside the DST tool. <ith the $orts o$en% !or"ation !luids !low into the tool and to the sur!a,e. During this ti"e% ,rew "e"bers ,losel "onitor annulus $ressure. The "onitor annulus $ressure to "ake sure the $a,ker "aintains a good seal between the hole se,tion being tested and the annulus above the $a,ker. <ater 9ushion The test ,rew $uts water into the drill $i$e above the DST tool. This is a water ,ushion. The water ,ushion su$$orts the drill $i$e against "ud $ressure in the annulus% until the test starts. The water ,ushion also $uts h drostati, $ressure on the !or"ation when the DST tool $orts are o$en. The h drostati, $ressure is however% not enough to kee$ the !or"ation !ro" !lowing into the DST tool. The water ,ushion is =ust that% a ,ushion. It kee$s the !or"ation !luids !ro" surging with great !or,e into the tool and the drill string. I! allowed to surge% the !or,e ,ould da"age the re,ording instru"ents and the tool and the !or"ation ro,k. Bluid Blow <ith the $orts o$en in the DST tool% !or"ation !luids !low. The $ush an drilling !luid in the hole below the $a,ker into the tool. Then the !low u$ the tool and the drill string to the sur!a,e. The test ,rew !irst lets the well !low !or a short ti"e to ,lear out the drill ste". The then shut in the well !or a ti"e to allow $ressure to build. The well owner then allows the !luid to !low !or a !ew hours o! !or several da s de$ending on the well. Produ,ed !luids are ,ontained in a holding tank or burned o!! i! the rea,h the sur!a,e. During the !low $eriod% the owner deter"ines the well?s $rodu,tion $otential and !luid $ro$erties. Pressure 9harts 1!ter letting a well !low !or the re;uired ti"e% the test ,rew ,loses the shut0in valve b rotating the drill string. The !low o! !or"ation !luids sto$s. <ith !lows sto$$ed% !or"ation $ressure builds u$ inside the tool. This $ressure build u$ is re,orded on a $ressure ,hart in the tool. .ater the well owner e>a"ines the ,hart on the sur!a,e. The re,ord o! the $ressure build u$ rate gives in!or"ation about the $er"eabilit and si:e o! the !or"ation. JTOO. #OIK: Per"eabilit is the ;ualit o! a !or"ation that allows oil and gas to !low
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OILWELL DRILLING -----SCHLUMBERGER


through the $ore s$a,es o! ro,k. 6ighl $er"eable !or"ations allow !luids to !low easil . 1 !or"ation with low $er"eabilit is ,alled @tightA !or"ation. It is harder to $rodu,e than a !or"ation with high $er"eabilit . Reverse 9ir,ulating To re"ove the DST tool !ro" a hole% the driller !irst o$ens the reverse ,ir,ulation sub. The driller usuall o$ens the reverse ,ir,ulation valve h drauli,all b $u"$ing drilling !luid down the annulus. This in,reased $ressure in the annulus o$ens the sub. <ith the sub o$en% drilling !luid reverse ,ir,ulates down the annulus and u$ the tool and drill string to the sur!a,e. Reverse ,ir,ulation $u"$s the re"aining !or"ation !luids out o! the drill ste" and $uts drilling !luid ba,k in. The drilling !luid kills the well% that is the drilling !luid on,e again kee$s the !or"ation $ressure under ,ontrol. Re"oving DST Tool To $ull the drill string D DST tool !ro" a hole% the driller !irst releases the $a,ker b easing u$ on a string. I! ne,essar % the driller uses the built0in h drauli, =ar to =ar on the DST tool. In "ost ,ases% =arring loosens the $a,ker and !rees the tool. I! the driller ,an not $ull the $a,ker !ree !or so"e reason% he ,an se$arate the tool at the sa!et =oint. Re"oving the tool above the sa!et =oint gets all o! the tool above the $a,ker% in,luding the re,order with its data. ;OLUM6 (6A PO/6R "E"(6M ' <A"(RUM6A(0(<OA

PO<ER SYSTE4 Overview There?re three basi, wa s a rig distributes or trans"its $ower: an 19 to D9 $ower s ste"% or S9R $ower s ste"% a D9 to 19 $ower s ste"% and a "e,hani,al $ower s ste". 1t the heart o! ever rig $ower s ste"% whether ele,tri,al or "e,hani,al% is the $ri"e "over. 1 $ri"e "over is the rig?s "ain sour,e o! $ower. 4ost rigs have "ore than one $ri"e "over. Pri"e "overs are al"ost alwa s large and tu"ult ,o"bustion engines. So"e e;ui$"ent on the rig re;uires h drauli, $ower and $neu"ati, $ower. The rig?s h drauli, D $neu"ati, s ste"s also obtain their $ower !ro" one o! the three basi, distribution s ste"s. JTOO. #OIK: /ust what is $ower and how is it "easured. <ell% to understand $ower% we have to understand !or,e and work. Think about a !or,e is a $ush or a $ull. I! a ,onstant !or,e is a$$lied over a distan,e% we have work. <ork S Bor,e I Distan,e. Power is the a"ount o! work done $er unit o! ti"e. See these horses $ulling their loads% the to$ one is "oving "u,h slower than the se,ond. #ut b the ti"e the ?ve gone the sa"e distan,e% the ?ve done the sa"e a"ount o! work. The botto" one though% !inished !ive ti"es ;ui,ker than the !irst. So it did !ive ti"es as "u,h work $er se,ond as the to$ one. That "eans the botto" horse delivered 2 ti"es as "u,h $ower as the to$ one. Pri"e 4overs
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.arge diesel engines are the "ain $ower sour,e% the $ri"e "overs% !or "ost rigs. These engines o!ten $rodu,e !ro" 2'' to over 7''' h$ (or *2'02-'' C<). Rig builders usuall house several engines together to drive the rig?s e;ui$"ent. The also kee$ e>tra engine sets available !or ba,k0u$ engines. 4ost rig engines are diesel% be,ause unlike gasoline engines% the ,an $rodu,e a lot o! $ower when running slow. 1lso diesel !uel is not as volatile as gasoline% so it is sa!er to use% trans$ort and store. JTOO. #OIK: 1 diesel engine takes ,he"i,al energ or !uel and ,onverts it to "e,hani,al energ % rotational !or,e to $ower the rig e;ui$"ent. 19 to D9 Power S ste" 6ere is an 19 to D9 $ower s ste". The $ri"e "over% usuall a diesel engine% su$$lies $ower to the 19 generator% also ,alled an alternator. Bro" the 19 generator% 19 ,urrent is sent to the S9R (the sili,on ,ontrolled re,ti!ier). 1n S9R is a high0te,h solid state ele,tri, devi,e. The S9R ,onverts 19 to D9 ,urrent% whi,h drives the heav rig e;ui$"ent% su,h as the "ud $u"$s% the drawworks% and the rotar s ste". 1u>iliar loads su,h as s"all $u"$s and rig lighting need lower voltage 19 $ower% so a trans!or"er ste$s down or redu,es the voltage to the rig?s au>iliar ele,tri, e;ui$"ent. D9 to D9 Power S ste" 6ere is a D9 to D9 $ower s ste". The $ri"e "overs% usuall diesel engines% $ower D9 generators. Bro" the generator% D9 ,urrent goes through a ,ontrol $anel dire,tl to D9 "otors. The D9 "otors $ower the "ud $u"$s% the drawworks% and the rotar s ste". 1 s"aller 19 generator is also $art o! the s ste". It su$$lies 19 ,urrent !or e;ui$"ent that works best with this ,urrent t $e% !or e>a"$le% a ,he"i,al "i>ing $u"$ re;uires 19 $ower. 4e,hani,al Power S ste" 6ere is a "e,hani,al rig s ste". 4e,hani,all $owered rig?s usuall s"aller than those rigs whi,h use ele,tri, $ower. The $ri"e "over drives a "e,hani,al ,o"$ound trans"ission% whi,h in turn% $owers the drawworks% the rotar table% and the "ud $u"$s. 1u>iliar loads su,h as s"all "otors are su$$lied with 19 !ro" an alternator ,onne,ted to the $ri"e "over. 19 to D9 PO<ER SYSTE4 Overview 1lternating ,urrent $ut on b the 19 generators goes through heav 0dut ele,tri, ,ables to a s$e,ial devi,e ,alled sili,on ,ontrolled re,ti!ier (or S9R). The S9R ,onverts 19 to D9. Other heav 0dut ele,tri, ,ables ,arr D9 ele,tri,it to the D9 "otors. The D9 "otors ,onvert ele,tri,al energ ba,k into "e,hani,al energ to drive the $ower!ul hoisting% rotating and ,ir,ulating e;ui$"ent. Diesel D 19 Generator Rig owners like to use 19 generators be,ause the ,an be built to be ver $ower!ul !or
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their si:es% whi,h is an advantage over D9 generators. 1lso rig e;ui$"ent ,an distribute 19 easier than D9. #ut dire,t ,urrent has ,ertain advantages when driving large e;ui$"ent. 4ainl D9 "otors $rodu,e a lot o! tor;ue at low s$eed that the drillers ,an easil ,ontrol. Using re"ote swit,hes on this ,onsole to ,ontrol the S9R ,ontrol $anel% the driller ,an sele,t and deliver the $ower !ro" the various generators wherever it is re;uired. #ut so"e 19 generators $ower big "otors. In !a,t% "ost o! toda ?s diesel ele,tri, rigs use 19 generators and a s ste" ,alled an S9R $ower s ste". 6ere% a large 19 generator% an alternator% is ,onne,ted to the diesel engine $ri"e "over. 1s the engine "e,hani,all drive the 19 generator% the generator $rodu,es alternating ,urrent% or 19 ele,tri,it . 19 is like the ele,tri,it used in "ost ,ities and ho"es. JTOO. #OIK: Re"e"ber% an ele,tri, generator or alternator takes "e,hani,al energ and ,reates ele,tri,al energ . 1n ele,tri, "otor does =ust the o$$osite. It takes ele,tri,al energ and ,reates "e,hani,al energ . S9R Swit,h D 9ontrol Gear E;ui$"ent in this ele,tri,al ,abinet ,onverts or re,ti!ies (as the ele,tri, ter") "ost o! the 19 ,urrent $rodu,ed b the 19 generators into dire,t ,urrent. 1s "entioned be!ore% rig owners usuall $re!er D9 ,urrent !or driving the ver large e;ui$"ent that re;uires $re,ise variable s$eed ,ontrol and high tor;ue. The ,ontrol e;ui$"ent in,ludes solid state ele,tri,al ,o"$onents ,alled sili,on ,ontrolled re,ti!iers or S9Rs. 6eav dut ele,tri,al ,ables ,o"e out o! the ,abinet and ,arr D9 ele,tri,it to the $ower!ul "otors% driving the ,ir,ulating% hoisting and rotating e;ui$"ent. D9 4otors Usuall large D9 "otors su$$l $ower to the "ud $u"$s% the drawworks% and the rotar table or to$ drive. So"eti"es the drawworks "e,hani,all drive the rotar table% but on so"e rigs the rotar table has its own "otor. The driller ,an ,ontrol the s$eed o! a D9 "otor ver a,,uratel % whi,h is wh rig owners use D9 instead o! 19 "otors. <ith a,,urate s$eed0,ontrol% the driller ,an a,,uratel set the s$eed the drawworks sli$s% the "ud $u"$ o$erates% and the rotar table turns on rigs without a to$ drive. 19 4otors Earious s"all ,o"$onents on a rig need $ower% too. Bor instan,e% these two ,entri!ugal $u"$s "ove "ud !ro" a tank to su$er,harge the intake o! the "ud $u"$s. In this ,ase% it is "ore e!!i,ient to use s"all "otors to $ower the ,entri!ugal $u"$s rather than using the $ri"e "overs% h drauli, !luid or air. 6ere is another 19 "otor+ it $owers the $addles on the "ud agitator in a "i>ing tank. 19 "otors generall $ower e;ui$"ent that does not re;uire a lot o! horse$ower. So the var in $ower !ro" less than 3 h$ (or .82 C<) to "ore than 32' h$ (3'' C<). JTOO. #OIK: 6ere is a ,hart ,overing the uses o! advantages o! 19 D D9 "otors. Drag ea,h test bo> to its $ro$er $la,e on the ,hart% then ,li,k on @a,,e$tA.

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D9 to D9 PO<ER SYSTE4S Overview Bor ele,tri, $ower distribution% so"e rigs use D9 to D9 $ower. D9 to D9 was the !irst ele,tri, $ower s ste". In a D9 to D9 s ste"% ea,h engine drives a D9 generator. The D9 generator ,onverts the rotating "e,hani,al energ o! the diesel engine into D9 ele,tri,it . 6eav dut ele,tri,al ,ables ,arr D9 ele,tri,it via the ,ontrol $anel to large 3''' h$ (or 8'' C<) D9 "otors. The "otors ,onvert the ele,tri,it ba,k into "e,hani,al energ . This "e,hani,al energ $owers the hoisting% rotating D ,ir,ulating e;ui$"ent. D9 4otors Bor large e;ui$"ent% "ost rig owners $re!er D9 "otors over 19 "otors. D9 "otors $ut out high tor;ue (twisting !or,e) at low s$eed. Burther% the driller ,an easil ,ontrol the tor;ue !ro" his ,onsole on the rig !loor. Cee$ in "ind% though% that re,ent te,hnologi,al advan,es are allowing ,o"$uteri:ed ,ontrols and variable s$eed 19 "otor drives to be used where onl D9 "otors were used in the $ast. 19 Generator (1lternator) This is a generator (or alternator) on a D9 to D9 rig. It generates the 19 ele,tri,it that D9 to D9 rigs need. The alternator $owers s"aller e;ui$"ent on a D9 to D9 rig% like the s"all 19 "otors on ,entri!ugal $u"$s% air ,onditioners% lights% !ans% water0"aker units and other s"all e;ui$"ent. JTOO. #IIK: <hi,h o! these two "otors do ou think is an 19 "otorM Sele,t one and then ,li,k the @a,,e$tA button. 4E961FI91. DRIEE PO<ER Overview 4e,hani,al drive rigs nor"all ,o"$ound (or ,onne,t) two or "ore engines to drive the "ain $u"$ing% rotating and hoisting e;ui$"ent. Generall s"all to "ediu" si:e land rigs use "e,hani,al drives. The use ,lut,hes% ,onverters% ,hains% sha!ts% belts or ,o"$ounding trans"issions to ,onne,t the $ri"e "overs to the driven e;ui$"ent. 6ere is a ,o""on wa to get $ower to the ,o"$onents on a "e,hani,al drive rig. This shows three engines that the rig owner ,o"$ounded. That is the $ower !ro" ea,h engine goes through a series o! s$ro,kets and ,hains D housing% ,alled a ,o"$ound. The ,o"$ound trans!ers engine $ower to the drawworks% the rotar table% and the "ud $u"$s. JTOO. #OIK: You?ve $robabl noti,e that the engines and "otors are ,o""onl rated a,,ording to the a"ount o! $ower the $rodu,e in horse$ower or kilowatts. Power is the a"ount o! work $er!or"ed over a $eriod o! ti"e. In the English s ste" o! "easure"ents% $ower is o!ten "easured in !oot0$ounds $er se,ond. One !oot0$ound $er se,ond is the a"ount o! $ower that would li!t a one0$ound weight one !oot o!! the ground in one se,ond. 9li,k on the weight with our "ouse to li!t it. One horse$ower is e;ual to 22' !oot0$ounds $er se,ond. So one horse$ower is the a"ount o! $ower that would li!t 22' !oot0$ounds one !oot o!!
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the ground in one se,ond. 9li,k on the weight. In the "etri, s ste" o! "easure"ents% $ower is o!ten "easured in =oules $er se,ond. 1 =oule is e;uivalent to one Fewton0"eter. One =oule $er se,ond is the a"ount o! $ower that would li!t a .3'& kg ob=e,t one "eter o!! the ground in one se,ond. 9li,k on the weight with our "ouse to li!t it. One horse$ower is e;ual to 85- =oules $er se,ond. So one horse$ower is the a"ount o! $ower that would li!t a 8-.3 kg ob=e,t one "eter o!! the ground in one se,ond. 9li,k on the weight. 9o"$ound Drive In a ,o"$ound drive% engine $ower usuall goes through tor;ue ,onverters to the s$ro,kets D ,hains. Steel guards ,over the s$ro,kets D ,hains% re"oved here so ou ,an see the". Tor;ue ,onverters s"oothl trans!er engine $ower to the ,o"$ound. 6ere ou ,an see the steel guards ,overing the "a,hiner in the ,o"$ound. Fot onl do the guards $rote,t $ersonnel% the also kee$ a lubri,ating oil s$ra ,on!ined to the ,hains D s$ro,kets. 1lso% note that large E0belts ,alled $ower bands drive the "ud $u"$s. Steel shrouds also guard the". 6YDR1U.I9 D PFEU41TI9 PO<ER SYSTE4 Overview 4an tools use h drauli,s to trans"it $ower. E>a"$les in,lude the Cell s$inner% the Iron Roughne,k% and ,asing tongs. 6 drauli, Bor,e 6 drauli,s "eans trans"itting $ower b $ushing on a ,on!ined li;uid. 6ere is a $iston "oving inside a , linder. 6 drauli, !luid !ills the , linder to the le!t o! the $iston. The $iston?s sur!a,e area is 3' in&. I! a $u"$ $uts 3''' $ounds $er s;uare in,h (or $si) o! h drauli, !luid $ressure on one side o! the $iston% this 3''' $si a,ts on the 3' in & $iston to $rodu,e 3'''' lbs o! !or,e. That?s a lot o! !or,e available !or $owering ,ertain tools and e;ui$"ent. 6 drauli, Power Pa,k 6ere is a t $i,al h drauli, $ower $a,k used on "an rigs. It has an ele,tri,al "otor or internal ,o"bustion engine to $ower the high $ressure $u"$. The $u"$ takes h drauli, !luid !ro" the reservoir and sends it out a high strength steel0rein!or,ed hose to the devi,es needing h drauli, $ower. The !luid returns to the reservoir a!ter it $asses through the Cell s$inner or other tool. The h drauli, $ower $a,k is a ,losed s ste"+ the !luid is used over and over. Pneu"ati,all Powered E;ui$"ent 9ertain ,ontrols% valves and tools on the rig are air o! $neu"ati,all o$erated. Bor instan,e% the driller uses $neu"ati, ,ontrols on the driller?s ,onsole to engage D disengage ,lut,hes on e;ui$"ent like the drawworks. The rig ,rew "a use air0$owered hand tools% like a grinder. The also use an air hoist% an air $owered win,h% to hoist and "ove relativel light e;ui$"ent onto and around the rig !loor. 4an diesel engines on rigs have an air starter% whi,h is air0o$erated "otor that turns the engine ,ranksha!t over to
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start it. Binall % a !loating rig?s "otion ,o"$ensator o$erates large a"ounts o! ,o"$ressed air to ,o"$ensate !or vessel heave or kee$ing the drill string in $osition. JTOO. #OIK: <hi,h o! the rig t $es uses a "otion ,o"$ensatorM Sele,t the ,orre,t answer or answers and then $ress @a,,e$tA. Rig 1ir 9o"$ressor 1n air ,o"$ression s ste" $rovides air $ressure to o$erate the $neu"ati, ,ontrols% valves D tools on the rig. Rigs use rotar s,rew ,o"$ressors or re,i$ro,ating ,o"$ressors to ,o"$ress air. 1 t $i,al re,i$ro,ating air ,o"$ressor has two% three or !our $istons "oving inside , linders. The ,o"$ressor takes in air !ro" the at"os$here% and raises its $ressure% that is% ,o"$resses it. The volu"e tanks stores a given a"ount or volu"e o! ,o"$ressed air that is read !or use when needed. JTOO. #OIK: 1ir% ,o"$ressed 3'' $ounds $er s;uare in,h% or -8' CPa% ,an be dangerous. 9are "ust be taken when working on or around air s ste"s. 1lwa s wear $ro$er sa!et e;ui$"ent% su,h as a hard hat% e e D ear $rote,tion% work ,lothes and work boots. Fever atte"$t to o$en a ,o"$onent o! an air s ste" or a se,tion o! $i$e without "aking sure that all o! the air has been bled o!! !irst. Periodi,all ,he,k $ressure and te"$erature gauges to be sure the ?re at the $ro$er level. 1lso% ins$e,t $i$es and vessels !or ,orrosion. 1nd be aware% i! there?s a !ire on the rig% an break in the air s ste" instantl adds o> gen !ro" the air to !an the !la"es. RIG IFSTRU4EFTS Overview 1 drilling rig has "an instru"ents and gauges. The hel$ the driller and other ,rew "e"bers kee$ tra,k o! the drilling o$eration. Rig instru"ents var !ro" the "ost basi, to so$histi,ated ,o"$uters with video dis$la s. 6ere we?ll ,over the basi,s. Driller?s 9onsole The driller?s ,onsole is the driller?s work station on the rig !loor. It has several instru"ents and gauges. 1ll o! the" hel$ drillers tra,k the drilling $ro,ess and kee$ the" in!or"ed o! the situation. Indi,ators and gauges on the driller?s ,onsole in,lude the weight indi,ator% the $u"$ rate indi,ator% "ud $u"$ $ressure gauge% rotar ta,ho"eter% rotar tor;ue gauge% tong tor;ue gauge% "ud return "ud !low rate indi,ator% "ud tank level indi,ator and tri$ tank volu"e indi,ator. <eight Indi,ator The weight indi,ator is the largest gauge on the driller?s $anel. It indi,ates the hook load% and weight on the bit. The hook load is the total a"ount o! the weight hanging !ro" the hook. <eight on the bit (or <O#) is the a"ount o! weight $ut on the bit b the drill string. It is less than the hook load. The weight indi,ator is e>tre"el sensitive to hook load ,hanges. Drillers ,an use the hook load ,hanges to "onitor the a"ount o! drag or !ri,tion the well bore $uts on the drill string when the "ove the $i$e u$ or down. Or be,ause it
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is so $re,ise% the driller ,an use it to "onitor the o$eration o! down hole tools re;uiring s"all variations in weight. Pu"$ Rate Gauge The $u"$ rate gauge shows the nu"ber o! ti"es one "ud $u"$ $iston "oves $er "inute. This ,onsole has two $u"$ rate gauges be,ause this rig has two "ud $u"$s. The driller ,an deter"ine the total volu"e o! "ud being $u"$ed b "ulti$l ing the $u"$ rate b the nu"ber o! $istons in the $u"$ ti"es the a"ount o! "ud ea,h $iston $u"$s. Pu"$ Pressure Gauge The "ud $u"$ $ressure gauge shows drillers the a"ount o! $ressure the $u"$ is $utting out. The "onitor $u"$ $ressure !ro" the stand$i$e to ensure that it is the ,orre,t a"ount needed to kee$ the hole ,lean and return ,uttings ba,k to the sur!a,e. Rotar Ta,ho"eter The rotar ta,ho"eter shows the revolutions $er "inute (or r$") o! the rotar table or a to$ drive unit. Drillers "onitor rotar r$" be,ause the need to know the rate the bit is turning. Di!!erent bits rotate at di!!erent r$"s. R$" ranges !or a bit are s$e,i!ied b the "anu!a,turer. Rotar Tor;ue Gauge Drillers use the rotar tor;ue gauge to see how "u,h twisting !or,e or tor;ue the rotar is a$$l ing to the drill string. Cnowing rotar tor;ue hel$s kee$ drillers !ro" $arting the drill string be,ause o! too "u,h rotar tor;ue. Parting the drill string in this "anner is ,alled @twisting0o!!A. Tong Tor;ue Gauge 1 tong tor;ue gauge hel$s the driller and the rotar hel$ers "ake u$ the drill $i$e and drill ,ollars with the right a"ount o! tor;ue. Too little tor;ue or tightness in the ,onne,tion "a leak or uns,rew while drilling+ too "u,h tor;ue ,an da"age or gall threads% whi,h ,ause the" to leak and eventuall to ,o"e a$art. JTOO. #OIK: These two $hotos show how i"$ortant it is to $ro$erl tor;ue u$ the ,onne,tions. #oth o! these ,onne,tions were under tor;ued% whi,h lead to severe erosion. 4ud Return Blow Rate Indi,ator Drillers use the "ud return !low rate gauge as a relative indi,ator o! how "u,h drilling !luid is returning at the !low line. The sensor is "ounted in the "ud return line% the !low line. 1 $addle inside the return line "oves as "ud !lows $ast it. 1s the $addle "oves% it sends a signal to a readout $anel% "ounted on the driller?s ,ontrol ,onsole $anel. The driller sets the readout so that as long as return !low is nor"al with ,onstant $u"$ s$eed and out$ut% no alar" sound or lights u$. 6owever% when the return !low rate ,hanges% in,reases or de,reases% the $addle?s "otion also ,hanges. This ,hange in $addle "otion
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sends a signal to the driller?s readout and sounds or alu"inates an alar". 1 ,hange in the return !low rate o! the "ud "a indi,ate one o! the two things: i! the !low rate de,reases% "ud "a be being lost to a down hole !or"ation+ i! the !low rate in,reases% !or"ation !luids "a have entered the hole and are !or,ing drilling "ud out. So a "ud return !low rate indi,ator ,an hel$ drillers dete,t ki,ks and loss o! ,ir,ulation. 4ud Tank .evel Indi,ator This "ud tank has a s$e,ial !loat in it. It goes u$ or down as the "ud level in the tank rises or !alls. Usuall several "ud tanks have !loats in the". The !loats send a signal to a digital totali:ing $anel "ounted on the driller?s ,onsole. This $anel takes the tank level signals !ro" all the !loats in the tanks% totals the" and sends the in!or"ation to the ,hart re,order ne>t to the $anel on the rig !loor ,lose to the driller?s ,onsole. I! the level o! "ud in the tanks !alls and no one has re"oved "ud !ro" the tanks% then that it is likel that "ud is being lost to a down hole !or"ation. I! the level o! "ud in the tanks rises and no one?s added "ud to the s ste"% then it is likel that !or"ation !luids are !lowing into the well. Thus a "ud tank level indi,ator is another tool to hel$ the driller dete,t ki,ks and loss o! ,ir,ulation. Tri$ Tank Eolu"e Indi,ator 1 tri$ tank volu"e indi,ator hel$s the driller "onitor the a"ount o! "ud being dis$la,ed b the tubulars or wire ro$e being run in and $ulled out o! the hole. 9rew "e"bers ,al,ulate tubular dis$la,e"ent be!ore ea,h tri$ using tables !ro" a handbook. Then during a tri$% the ,o"$are the ,al,ulated volu"es to the a,tual dis$la,e"ent. 9lose "onitoring o! the tri$ tank during tri$s is ,ru,ial to $ro$er well ,ontrol. JTOO. #OIK: 6ere is a ;ui,k little review !or ou. 9li,k on the weight indi,ator on this ,ontrol $anel then ,li,k on the @a,,e$tA button. Drilling Re,order 1 drilling re,order "akes a re,ord o! drilling variables su,h as the hook load% weight on bit% rate o! $enetration% tor;ue% $u"$ strokes and $u"$ $ressure during drilling. It?s usuall lo,ated in the doghouse on the rig !loor. The driller $uts a ,hart onto the revolving dru". Several $ens with ink in the" tra,e re,ords onto the ,hart. Drilling re,orders "a have !ro" one to several $ens de$ending on how the ?re hooked u$. The re,order gets signals !ro" sensors "ounted near the gauges that "easure the drilling variables. Bor instan,e% a load ,ell on the dead line an,hor sends its hook load and weight on bit. 6ere is a $hoto o! a drill re,order. Fote that it has a hinged $le>iglass ,over+ the drillers ,an raise it to ,hange the ,hart when ne,essar . 6&S Instru"entation 6 drogen Sul!ide% 6&S or Sour Gas% is the "ost $oisonous gas en,ountered in drilling o$erations. It o,,urs worldwide in various ,on,entrations asso,iated with gas% oil and water $rodu,ed !ro" wells. It is e>tre"el to>i,% e>$losive and heavier than air. It is also ,olorless so ou ,an not see it. In low ,on,entrations% it s"ells like rotten eggs% but ou
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,an not de$end on our sense o! s"ell to es,a$e har". 6 &S ;ui,kl deadens our abilit to s"ell. <here 6&S "a be $resent% rigs are e;ui$$ed with sensors% auto"ati, "onitors and alar"s. This is an audible and visual 6 &S alar". The horn sounds a siren or the light !lashes brightl i! the ?re a,tivated b 6 &S sensors $la,ed on the rig. This 6 &S sensors $la,e near the "ud tanks+ others "a be at the bell ni$$le on the rig !loor% shale shakers% !low line% rig a,,o""odation?s air intake and other $la,es on the rig. <hen a sensor $i,ks u$ 6&S gas above a $redeter"ined level% the "onitor triggers both the visual and audible alar"s. U$on hearing or seeing the alar"% ,rew "e"bers ,an take a,tion to avoid in=ur or death. You?ll re,eive detailed 6 &S training i! our rig is working in an area where 6&S "a be en,ountered.

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