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SEMINAR ON DEMONSTRATION METHOD OF TEACHING

SUBMITTED TO: MRS. AMITA SHILPA GOTTLIEB, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR (OBG), STATE COLLEGE OF NURSING, DEHRADUN.

SUBMITTED BY: K.CHITRA, M.Sc [NURSING] 1ST YEAR, STATE COLLEGE OF NURSING, DEHRADUN.

SUBJECT: NURSING EDUCATION SUBMITTED ON: 21:10:2013

TEACHING STRATEGIES AND METHODS INTRODUCTION: The term strategy in its simple meaning stands for the type of strategy used by the teachers in carrying out their teaching or instructional job. The word strategy derived from the Greek word strategia which may defined as plans and specific ways devised and employed for the realization of a goal. Teaching is a purposeful activity performed by the teacher for guiding, directing and showing the right path to the learners in their pursuit for the realization of the set teaching learning objectives. DEFINITION Teaching strategy is a generalized plan for lesson which include structure, desired learner behavior in terms of goals in instruction and an outline of planned tactics necessary to implement the strategy.e stones and metisis[1972]. OBJECTIVES To ensure that certain learning will be acquired in as brief a period as possible. To induce students to engage in exchange of ideas. To minimize the number of wrong response on the students attempt to as concept, principle etc. CHARACTERISTICS OF TEACHING STRATEGIES Developing the desire to do work with the highest measures. To induce students to engage in exchange of ideas. To minimize the number of wrong responses on the students attempt to learn as concept, principles etc. Developing the desire to do work with the highest measures of efficiency of which one is capable. Developing the capacity for clear thinking. To expand the range students desires and interests. Providing opportunities to students to apply practically the knowledge that has been acquired by them. Provide numerous opportunities of participation in freely accepted and activities in which discipline and cooperation are constantly in demand. To transform present bookish school into work school or activity school or college. Quickening of interest and training in efficient techniques of learning. To train the students in the art of study. They should train the students in the use of reference material such as table of contents and index in books of intelligence. To be such as they balance the claims of individual work with cooperation and group work.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN METHODS AND STRATEGIES. Teaching method A teaching method stands for the effective presentation of the specific contents of a subject in such as ways as may be properly grasped and understood by the students. The term method relatively an old term is related with pedagogy. The nature of the subject matter decides the selection of a method for carrying out teaching task. A teaching method is based on the assumption that teaching is an art The effectiveness of a teaching method is evaluated in terms of mastery over the subject matter by using achievement test In teaching strategy emphasis is laid over teaching activities for the proper organization of teaching-learning environment The steps taken in teaching method are quite rigid and fixed. Generally it is difficult in the style and steps represented by the method Teaching strategy Teaching strategy stands for the creation of appropriate teaching learning environment leading to help the students in the realization of the set teaching learning objectives The term strategy in relatively a new term belonging to military science and educational technology Nature of teaching learning objectives is the deciding factor for the selection of suitable teaching strategy. A teaching strategy assumes that teaching is science and quite technical in nature The effectiveness of teaching strategy is evaluated in terms of the realization of the set objectives by using criterion reference test In teaching strategy emphasis is laid over teaching activities for the proper organization of teaching learning environment Teaching strategy is quite flexible. In its application it is always subjected to modification and in the interest of the best realization of the set objectives in the present circumstances

TRIAD OF TEACHING LEARNING PROCESS: Teaching Learning objective

Learner

Teaching Strategy

CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHING STRATEGIES:


AUTOCRATIC DEMOCRATIC NURSING

Lecture Demonstration Tutorial Narration Description Explanation Illustration Programmed Role-Playing

Group discussion Question- Strategy Discovery or Heuristic Problem solving Project Independent Homework Drill / Practice Execution Employing audio-visual aids Brain storming Sensitivity training strategy Computer assisted method

Lecture Demonstration Discussion Problem discussion Project method Simulation Role play Self instruction module Micro teaching Laboratory Seminar Field trip Programmed instructional learning Team teaching Workshop Computer Questioning Self instructional activities

DEMONSTRATION METHOD INTRODUCTION: A demonstration is useful either by itself or accompany of formal or informal talk in the classroom, laboratory or clinical area DEFINITION: 1. A demonstration can be defined as visualized, explanation of facts, concepts and procedures 2. It is physical display of the form, outline or a substance of object or events for the purpose of increasing knowledge of such objects or events 3. It can be defined as visualized explanation of facts and procedures and the involvement of showing what and how 4. Demonstration is relatively uncomplicated process in that it does not require extensive verbal elaboration GUIDELINES: 1. It should be planned and rehearsed by the teacher before hand 2. The equipments used for the demonstration must be visible for the whole class 3. Adequate lighting arrangements be made on demonstration table and a proper background table need to be provided

4. All the equipments are placed in order before starting the demonstration. The equipments likely to be used should be placed in the left hand of the table and it should be arranged in the same order in which it is likely to be used 5. Before the demonstration a clear statement about the purpose of demonstration be made to the students 6. The teacher make sure that the demonstration method leads to active participation of the students in the process of teaching 7. The demonstration should be quick and slick 8. The demonstration should be interesting so that it captures the attention of the students 9. The active participation of the students the teacher may call individual student in turn to help for the demonstration processing 10. The teacher should write the summary of the principles arrived at because of demonstration on the blackboard. It is used for drawing the necessary diagram USES OF DEMONSTRATION METHOD: 1. To demonstrate experiments and the use of experimental equipment in the science laboratory, medical, nursing, etc. 2. To demonstrate procedure in the classroom and the ward to review or revise the procedure to meet the special situation or to introduce new procedure 3. To teach the patient / client a procedure of treatment that he carry out in the home 4. To demonstrate the procedure at the bedside or at the conference hall in the ward or in the natural setting which has more meaning level 5. To demonstrate different approaches in establishing support with the client, the more effective nurse-patient relationship may be established CHARACTERISTICS OF DEMONSTRATION: 1. Demonstrator should understand the entire procedure before attempting to perform 2. Equipments needed should be assembled and pretested before demonstration 3. Knowledge [Theoretical aspects] of the procedure should be given to the student before starting the procedure or the demonstration 4. Positive approach should be used 5. Everybody should have good view of the demonstration 6. The person in-charge of the demonstration should accompany it with the running comments that are related to the materials used, amounts, process taking place, and anticipate the results 7. The setting of demonstration should be as true to life as possible at the live model cost area 8. A discussion period should always follow the demonstration 9. The students should be provided with opportunities for prompt practice of the procedure [Demonstration] STEPS TO DEMONSTRATE PSYCHOMOTOR SKILL: A. BEFORE DEMONSTRATION: 1. Formulate behavioral objectives 2. Perform the skills and analysis thereby determine pre-requisites

3. Assess entry behaviors of learners and determine prerequisites 4. Formulate the lesson plan with particular reference to a. Ensure optimum level visibility b. Preparation for all materials B. DURING THE DEMONSTRATION: 1. State the objectives to the learners 2. Motivate them by explaining why the skill is important 3. Demonstrate the total skill at normal speed 4. Write the sequence of skills on the chalk board as checklist 5. Demonstrate them according to the sequence 6. Obtain feedback by questioning and observation of non-verbal behavior 7. Avoid the use of negative examples and the variations in technique C. AFTER THE DEMONSTRATION: 1. Provide immediate supervised practice with adequate time allowance 2. Provide verbal rather than physical guidance 3. Make the environment psychologically safe by providing friendly atmosphere and constructive criticism 4. Remember that initial interest may vary so provide motivation and encouragement 5. Remember that learners will acquire skill at different rates, individualize the planning to later for the fast and slow learner 6. Replace the both 7. Discuss COMMON ERRORS IN DEMONSTRATION: Equipment may not be ready for use There may not be an apparent relation between demonstration and the topic dealt Blackboard not up to the mark Teacher may be in a hurry to arrive at generalization without allowing students to arrive at generalization from facts level 5. Teacher may talk too much which will mask the enthusiasm of the students 6. Teacher may not have allowed sufficient time for re-coloring of data 7. Teacher may fail to ask the right type of questions level DEMONSTRATION METHOD: ADVANTAGES It activates several senses and visibly showing the process that often helps in retention Complex skills becomes more understandable Provides observational learning Clarifies underlying principle Comments interest Correlate theory and practice Helps teacher to evaluate students response Facilitates return demonstration DISADVANTAGES Inability to compete with the different level of students knowledge and competency Mastering psychomotor skill is often stressful to the students Requires adequate resources to perform demonstration including man, money and material Unlimited workload for giver and the receiver Limited practice due to ineffective cost maintenance 1. 2. 3. 4.

DEMONSTRATION IN NURSING EDUCATION: 1. It is performed both in direct and indirect way with or without supervision based upon the efficiency of the students 2. Teaching learning takes place in natural setting that is in the reality experience, Eg: Clinical area Bed side procedure a. Teaching and learning new procedure b. Modification of the nursing procedure to meet the felt needs and to overcome the emergency situation c. Application of the scientific principle in the performing of the nursing procedure d. Usage and the rationalization of the advanced gadgets e. Developing the observation and the psychomotor skills in the nursing procedure f. Effective way of establishing the communication and IPR techniques g. Performing the act of health education as per the felt needs of the patients and the family members in the area TECHNIQUES FOR THE DEMONSTRATION: TEACHER RESPONSIBILITIES Time management according to the standard of the listeners Perform the procedure similar to the natural setting Make the originality of the procedure by arranging the model for the procedure Obtain necessary equipment that are needed for the procedure Perform in such way that is to be done before the observers Provide the advanced information and the referral materials for the further references and discussions Arrange the physical setup by all means and redemonstrate in case of necessity Explain the purpose of the procedure Maintain logical sequence and pace when needed Coordinate the procedure with the running commentaries Provide discussion period immediately after demonstration Provide opportunities based upon the objectives to be met as per the need Evaluate the individual after the procedure Plan assistance for the further learning purposes STUDENTS RESPONSIBILITIES Familiarize with the objectives for demonstration Study written material and suggested references Observe patients and equipments as example for the planned discussions Oral steps must be demonstrated with the written information Contribute for discussion after the completion of the procedure Basic principle Modification Clarification

the

Return level of performance and redemonstration Practice until being perfect Self evaluation on knowledge and skill

SUMMARY: Since there are various strategy, Demonstration is the only technique were we SEE, HEAR, TOUCH the sense of learning that make the scenario ALIVE and bring Teaching Learning is lively activity. This demonstration class includes objectives, methods, advantages and disadvantages of the above teaching strategy, DEMONSTRATION method. CONCLUSION: Thus an instructional strategy is the purposeful concerned and determined plan of action which ensure that certain learning activity will be acquired in lively stages and induce students to indulge in exchange of ideas and therefore increases the number of positive response in the teaching learning process level REFERENCES: Book Reference: Basavanthappa B.T. Nursing Education 2nd edition by Jaypee brothers & Co publishing unit, Pg: No. 483 486 Neeraja K.P. Textbook of Nursing Education 1st edition published by Jaypee brothers, 2003, Page : No. 251 254 Pramila R. Nursing Communication and Educational Technology 1st edition by Jaypee brothers, Pg : No. 256 E - Reference: www.http/J.G Nyquist wehrli Teaching and Education development creating and educational curriculum for learners at any level AABB conference-2003

DEMONSTRATION

ADVANTAGES It activates several senses and visibly showing the process that often helps in retention Complex skills becomes more understandable Provides observational learning Clarifies underlying principle Comments interest Correlate theory and practice Helps teacher to evaluate students response Facilitates return demonstration

DISADVANTAGES Inability to compete with the different level of students knowledge and competency Mastering psychomotor skill is often stressful to the students Requires adequate resources to perform demonstration including man, money and material Unlimited workload for giver and the receiver Limited practice due to ineffective cost maintenance

TECHNIQUES:

TEACHER RESPONSIBILITIES Time management according to the standard of the listeners Perform the procedure similar to the natural setting Make the originality of the procedure by arranging the model for the procedure Obtain necessary equipment that are needed for the procedure Perform in such way that is to be done before the observers Provide the advanced information and the referral materials for the further references and discussions Arrange the physical setup by all means and redemonstrate in case of necessity Explain the purpose of the procedure Maintain logical sequence and pace when needed Coordinate the procedure with the running commentaries Provide discussion period immediately after demonstration Provide opportunities based upon the objectives to be met as per the need Evaluate the individual after the procedure Plan assistance for the further learning purposes

STUDENTS RESPONSIBILITIES Familiarize with the objectives for the demonstration Study written material and suggested

references Observe patients and equipments as example for the planned discussions Oral steps must be demonstrated with the written information Contribute for discussion after the completion of the procedure Basic principle Clarification Return level of performance and redemonstration Practice until being perfect Self evaluation on knowledge and skill Modification