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Milk From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the fluid produced by the mammary glands

of mammals. For m ilk derived from plants, see Plant milk. For other uses of the word, see Milk (d isambiguation). Page semi-protected A glass of pasteurized cow milk Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the prim ary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other t ypes of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother' s antibodies to the baby and can reduce the risk of many diseases in the baby. I t also contains many other nutrients.[1] As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from mammals during or soon after pregnancy and used as food for humans. Worldwide, dairy farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk in 2011.[2] India is the world's largest producer and co nsumer of milk, yet neither exports nor imports milk. New Zealand, the European Union's 28 member states, Australia, and the United States are the world's large st exporters of milk and milk products. China and Russia are the world's largest importers of milk and milk products.[3][4] Throughout the world, there are more than 6 billion consumers of milk and milk p roducts. Over 750 million people live within dairy farming households. Milk is a key contributor to improving nutrition and food security particularly in develo ping countries. Improvements in livestock and dairy technology offer significant promise in reducing poverty and malnutrition in the world.[5] Contents 1 Types of consumption 1.1 Nutrition for infant mammals 1.2 Food product for humans 2 Terminology 3 Evolution of lactation 4 History 4.1 Industrialization 5 Sources of milk 5.1 Sources aside from cows 6 Production worldwide 6.1 Production yields 6.2 Price 7 Grading 8 Physical and chemical properties of milk 8.1 Lipids 8.2 Proteins 8.2.1 Caseins 8.3 Salts, minerals, and vitamins 8.3.1 Calcium phosphate structure 8.4 Carbohydrates and miscellaneous contents 8.5 Appearance 9 Processing 9.1 Pasteurization 9.2 Microfiltration 9.3 Creaming and homogenization 10 Nutrition and health 10.1 Cow's milk 10.2 Nutritional value 10.3 Recommended consumption 10.4 Medical research

11 12 13

14 15 16 17 18 19

10.5 Lactose intolerance 10.6 Possible harms 10.7 Flavored milk in US schools Bovine growth hormone supplementation Criticism Varieties and brands 13.1 Reduction or elimination of lactose 13.2 Additives and flavoring 13.3 Distribution 13.3.1 Australia and New Zealand 13.3.2 India 13.3.3 Pakistan 13.3.4 United Kingdom 13.3.5 United States 13.4 Packaging 13.5 Spoilage and fermented milk products Language and culture Other uses See also References Bibliography External links

Types of consumption There are two distinct types of milk consumption: a natural source of nutrition for all infant mammals and a food product for humans of all ages that is derived from other animals. Nutrition for infant mammals Main article: Breastfeeding A human baby feeding on its mother's milk A goat kid feeding on its mother's milk In almost all mammals, milk is fed to infants through breastfeeding, either dire ctly or by expressing the milk to be stored and consumed later. The early milk f rom mammals is called colostrum. Colostrum contains antibodies that provide prot ection to the newborn baby as well as nutrients and growth factors.[6] The makeu p of the colostrum and the period of secretion varies from species to species.[7 ] For humans, the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months and breastfeeding in addition to other food for two years or more.[8 ] In some cultures it is common to breastfeed children for three to five years, and the period may be even longer.[9] Fresh goats milk is sometimes substituted for breast milk. This risks the child developing electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, megaloblastic anemia, and a host of allergic reactions.[10] Food product for humans Holstein cattle, the dominant breed in industrialized dairying today In many cultures of the world, especially the Western world, humans continue to consume milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other animals (especially cattle, goats and sheep) as a food product. Initially, the ability to digest milk was l imited to children as adults did not produce lactase, an enzyme necessary for di gesting the lactose in milk. Milk was therefore converted to curd, cheese and ot her products to reduce the levels of lactose. Thousands of years ago, a chance m utation spread in human populations in Europe that enabled the production of lac tase in adulthood. This allowed milk to be used as a new source of nutrition whi ch could sustain populations when other food sources failed.[11] Milk is process

ed into a variety of dairy products such as cream, butter, yogurt, kefir, ice cr eam, and cheese. Modern industrial processes use milk to produce casein, whey pr otein, lactose, condensed milk, powdered milk, and many other food-additive and industrial products. The sugar lactose is found only in milk, forsythia flowers, and a few tropical s hrubs. The enzyme needed to digest lactose, lactase, reaches its highest levels in the small intestines after birth and then begins a slow decline unless milk i s consumed regularly.[12] On the other hand, those groups who do continue to tol erate milk often have exercised great creativity in using the milk of domesticat ed ungulates, not only of cattle, but also sheep, goats, yaks, water buffalo, ho rses, reindeers and camels. The largest producer and consumer of cattle and buff alo milk in the world is India.[13] Per capita consumption of cow's milk and cow's milk products in selected countri es in 2005 2006[14] Country Milk (liters) Cheese (kg) Butter (kg) Finland 183.9 19.1 5.3 Sweden 145.5 18.5 1.0 Ireland 129.8 10.5 2.9 Netherlands 122.9 20.4 3.3 Norway 116.7 16.0 4.3 Spain 119.1 9.6 1.0 Switzerland 112.5 22.2 5.6 United Kingdom 111.2 12.2 3.7 Australia 106.3 11.7 3.7 Canada 94.7 12.2 3.3 Terminology The term milk is also used for white colored, non-animal beverages resembling mi lk in color and texture such as soy milk, rice milk, almond milk, and coconut mi lk. In addition, a substance secreted by pigeons to feed their young is called c rop milk and bears some resemblance to mammalian milk.[15] Dairy relates to milk and milk production, e.g. dairy products. Evolution of lactation The mammary gland is thought to have been derived from apocrine skin glands.[16] It has been suggested that the original function of lactation (milk production) was keeping eggs moist. Much of the argument is based on monotremes (egg-laying mammals).[16][17][18] The original adaptive significance of milk secretions may have been nutrition[19] or immunological protection.[20][21] This secretion gra dually became more copious and accrued nutritional complexity over evolutionary time.[16] History Drinking milk in Germany in 1932 Humans first learned to regularly consume the milk of other mammals following th e domestication of animals during the Neolithic Revolution[22] or the developmen t of agriculture. This development occurred independently in several places arou nd the world from as early as 9000 7000 BC in Southwest Asia[23] to 3500 3000 BC in the Americas.[24] The most important dairy animals cattle, sheep and goats were firs t domesticated in Southwest Asia, although domestic cattle has been independentl y derived from wild aurochs populations several times since.[25][26] Initially a nimals were kept for meat, and archaeologist Andrew Sherratt has suggested that dairying, along with the exploitation of domestic animals for hair and labor, be gan much later in a separate secondary products revolution in the 4th millennium BC.[27] Sherratt's model is not supported by recent findings, based on the anal ysis of lipid residue in prehistoric pottery, that show that dairying was practi ced in the early phases of agriculture in Southwest Asia, by at least the 7th mi llennium BC.[28][29] From Southwest Asia domestic dairy animals spread to Europe (beginning around 70

00 BC but not reaching Britain and Scandinavia until after 4000 BC),[30] and Sou th Asia (7000 5500 BC).[31] The first farmers in central Europe[32] and Britain[33 ] milked their animals. Pastoral and pastoral nomadic economies, which rely pred ominantly or exclusively on domestic animals and their products rather than crop farming, were developed as European farmers moved into the Pontic-Caspian stepp e in the 4th millennium BC, and subsequently spread across much of the Eurasian steppe.[34] Sheep and goats were introduced to Africa from Southwest Asia, but A frican cattle may have been independently domesticated around 7000 6000 BC.[35] Ca mels, domesticated in central Arabia in the 4th millennium BC, have also been us ed as a dairy animal in North Africa and the Arabian peninsula.[36] The earliest Egyptian records of burn treatment describe burn dressings using milk from moth ers of male babies.[37] In the rest of the world (i.e., East and Southeast Asia, the Americas and Australia) milk and dairy products were historically not a lar ge part of the diet, either because they remained populated by hunter-gatherers who did not keep animals or the local agricultural economies did not include dom esticated dairy species. Milk consumption became common in these regions compara tively recently, as a consequence of European colonialism and political dominati on over much of the world in the last 500 years. In the Middle Ages, milk was called the virtuous white liquor because alcoholic beverages were more reliable than water.[38] Industrialization Preserved Express Dairies three-axle Milk Tank Wagon at the Didcot Railway Centr e, based on an SR chassis The growth in urban population coupled with the expansion of the railway network in the mid 19th century, brought about a revolution in milk production and supp ly. Individual railway firms began transporting milk from rural areas to London from the 1840s and 50s. Possibly the first such instance was in 1846, when St Th omas s Hospital in Southwark contracted with milk suppliers outside London to prov ide milk by rail.[39] The Great Western Railway was an early and enthusiatic ado pter, and began to transport milk into London from Maidenhead in 1860, despite m uch criticism. By 1900, the Company was transporting over 25 million gallons ann ually.[40] The milk trade grew slowly through the 1860s, but went through a peri od of extensive, structural change in the 1870s and 80s. Urban demand began to grow, as consumer purchasing power increased and milk beca me regarded as a required daily commodity. Over the last three decades of the 19 th century, demand for milk in most parts of the country doubled, or in some cas es, tripled. Legislation in 1875 made the adulteration of milk illegal - this co mbined with a marketing campaign to change the image of milk. The proportion of rural imports by rail as a percentage of total milk consumption in London grew f rom under 5% in the 1860s to over 96% by the early 20th century. By that point, the supply system for milk was the most highly organized and integrated of any f ood product.[39] 1959 milk supply in Oberlech, Vorarlberg, Austria. The first glass bottle packaging for milk was used in the 1870s. The first compa ny to do so may have been the New York Dairy Company in 1877. The Express Dairy Company in England began glass bottle production in 1880. In 1884, Hervey Thatch er, an American inventor from New York, invented a glass milk bottle, called 'Th atcher's Common Sense Milk Jar', which was sealed with a waxed paper disk.[41] L ater, in 1932, plastic-coated paper milk cartons were introduced commercially.[4 1] In 1863, French chemist and biologist Louis Pasteur invented pasteurization, a m ethod of killing harmful bacteria in beverages and food products.[41] He develop ed this method while on summer vacation in Arbois, to remedy the frequent acidit y of the local wines.[42] He found out experimentally that it is sufficient to h eat a young wine to only about 50 60 C (122 140 F) for a brief time to kill the microb

es, and that the wine could be nevertheless properly aged without sacrificing th e final quality.[42] In honor of Pasteur, the process became known as "pasteuriz ation". Pasteurization was originally used as a way of preventing wine and beer from souring.[43] Commercial pasteurizing equipment was produced in Germany in t he 1880s, and the process had been adopted in Copenhagen and Stockholm by 1885.[ 44][45] Sources of milk Modern dairy farm in Norway. The females of all mammal species can by definition produce milk, but cow milk d ominates commercial production. In 2011, FAO estimates 85% of all milk worldwide was produced from cows.[46] Human milk is not produced or distributed industrially or commercially; however, milk banks exist that allow for the collection of donated human milk and its re distribution to infants who may benefit from human milk for various reasons (pre mature neonates, babies with allergies, metabolic diseases, etc.).[47] In the Western world, cow's milk is produced on an industrial scale and is by fa r the most commonly consumed form of milk. Commercial dairy farming using automa ted milking equipment produces the vast majority of milk in developed countries. Dairy cattle such as the Holstein have been bred selectively for increased milk production. About 90% of the dairy cows in the United States and 85% in Great B ritain are Holsteins.[12] Other dairy cows in the United States include Ayrshire , Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Jersey, and Milking Shorthorn (Dairy Shorthorn). Sources aside from cows Other significant sources of milk Goats (2% of world's milk) Buffaloes (11%)

Aside from cattle, many kinds of livestock provide milk used by humans for dairy products. These animals include buffalo, goat, sheep, camel, donkey, horse, rei ndeer, yak. The first four respectively produced about 11%, 2%, 1.4% and 0.2% of all milk worldwide in 2011.[46] In Russia and Sweden, small moose dairies also exist.[48] According to the US National Bison Association, American bison (also called Amer ican buffalo) are not milked commercially;[49] however, various sources report c ows resulting from cross-breeding bison and domestic cattle are good milk produc ers, and have been used both during the European settlement of North America[50] and during the development of commercial Beefalo in the 1970s and 1980s.[51] Production worldwide Milk production and consumption[citation needed] Main article: Dairy farming Top ten cow milk producers in 2010[52] Country Production (tonnes) US 87,446,130 India 50,300,000 China 36,036,086 Russia 31,895,100 Brazil 31,667,600 Germany 29,628,900 France 23,301,200 New Zealand 17,010,500 United Kingdom 13,960,000

Turkey 12,480,100 World 599,438,003 In 2010, the largest producer of milk and milk products was India followed by th e United States, China, Germany, Brazil, and Russia.[3][53] All European Union m embers together produced about 138 million tonnes of milk in 2011.[54] Girl milking a cow by hand Increasing affluence in developing countries, as well as increased promotion of milk and milk products, has led to a rise in milk consumption in developing coun tries in recent years. In turn, the opportunities presented by these growing mar kets have attracted investment by multinational dairy firms. Nevertheless, in ma ny countries production remains on a small scale and presents significant opport unities for diversification of income sources by small farmers.[55] Local milk c ollection centers, where milk is collected and chilled prior to being transferre d to urban dairies, are a good example of where farmers have been able to work o n a cooperative basis, particularly in countries such as India.[56] Production yields FAO reports[46] Israel dairy farms are the most productive in the world, with an yield of 12,546 kilograms (27,659 lb) milk per cow per year. This survey over 2 001 and 2007 was conducted by ICAR (International Committee for Animal Recording [57]) across 17 developed countries. The survey found that the average herd size in these developed countries increased from 74 to 99 cows per herd between 2001 to 2007. A dairy farm had an average of 19 cows per herd in Norway, and 337 in New Zealand. Annual milk production in the same period increased from 7,726 to 8 ,550 kg per cow in these developed countries. The lowest average production was in New Zealand at 3,974 kilograms (8,761 lb) per cow. The milk yield per cow dep ended on production systems, nutrition of the cows, and only to a minor extent d ifferent genetic potential of the animals. What the cow ate made the most impact on the production obtained. New Zealand cows with the lowest yield per year gra zed all year, in contrast to Israel with the highest yield where the cows ate in barns with energy-rich mixed diet. Top ten buffalo milk producers in 2010[58] Country Production (tonnes) India 62,400,000 Pakistan 22,279,000 China 3,100,000 Egypt 2,725,000 Nepal 1,066,870 Iran 279,800 Myanmar 248,400 Italy 210,200 Sri Lanka 46,990 Bangladesh 36,000 World 92,517,217 The milk yield per cow in the United States, the world's largest cow milk produc er, was 9,954 kilograms (21,945 lb) per year in 2010. In contrast, the milk yiel ds per cow in India and China the second and third largest producers were respec tively 1,154 kilograms (2,544 lb) and 2,282 kilograms (5,031 lb) per year.[59] Price It was reported in 2007 that with increased worldwide prosperity and the competi tion of bio-fuel production for feed stocks, both the demand for and the price o f milk had substantially increased worldwide. Particularly notable was the rapid increase of consumption of milk in China and the rise of the price of milk in t he United States above the government subsidized price.[60] In 2010 the Departme nt of Agriculture predicted farmers would receive an average of $1.35 per US gal lon of cow's milk (35 cents per liter), which is down 30 cents per gallon from 2

007 and below the break-even point for many cattle farmers.[61] Grading See also: Food grading In the United States, there are two grades of milk, with Grade A primarily used for direct sales and consumption in stores, and Grade B used for indirect consum ption, such as in cheese making or other processing. The differences between the two grades are defined in the Wisconsin administrati ve code for Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection, chapter 60.[62] Grade B generally refers to milk that is cooled in milk cans, which are immersed in a b ath of cold flowing water that typically is drawn up from an underground water w ell rather than using mechanical refrigeration. Physical and chemical properties of milk Milk is an emulsion or colloid of butterfat globules within a water-based fluid that contains dissolved carbohydrates and protein aggregates with minerals.[63] Because it is produced as a food source for a neonate, all of its contents provi de benefits to the growing young. The principal requirements of the neonate are energy (lipids, lactose, and protein), biosynthesis of non-essential amino acids supplied by proteins (essential amino acids and amino groups), essential fatty acids, vitamins and inorganic elements, and water.[64] Butterfat is a triglyceride (fat) derived from fatty acids such as myristic, palmitic, and oleic acids. Lipids Main article: Butterfat Initially milk fat is secreted in the form of a fat globule surrounded by a memb rane.[65] Each fat globule is composed almost entirely of triacylglycerols and i s surrounded by a membrane consisting of complex lipids such as phospholipids, a long with proteins. These act as emulsifiers which keep the individual globules from coalescing and protect the contents of these globules from various enzymes in the fluid portion of the milk. Although 97 98% of lipids are triacylglycrols, s mall amounts of di- and monoacylglycerols, free cholesterol and cholesterol este rs, free fatty acids, and phospholipids are also present. Unlike protein and car bohydrates, fat composition in milk varies widely in the composition due to gene tic, lactational, and nutritional factor difference between different species.[6 5] Like composition, fat globules vary in size from less than 0.2 to about 15 micro meters in diameter between different species. Diameter may also vary between ani mals within a species and at different times within a milking of a single animal . In unhomogenized cow's milk, the fat globules have an average diameter of two to four micrometers and with homogenization, average around 0.4 micrometers.[65] The fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K along with essential fatty acids such a s linoleic and linolenic acid are found within the milk fat portion of the milk. [12] Proteins Normal bovine milk contains 30 35 grams of protein per liter of which about 80% is arranged in casein micelles. Caseins Main article: Casein The largest structures in the fluid portion of the milk are "casein micelles": a ggregates of several thousand protein molecules with superficial resemblance to a surfactant micelle, bonded with the help of nanometer-scale particles of calci um phosphate. Each casein micelle is roughly spherical and about a tenth of a mi

crometer across. There are four different types of casein proteins: as1-, as2-, , and ?-caseins. Collectively, they make up around 76 86%[64] of the protein in mi lk, by weight. Most of the casein proteins are bound into the micelles. There ar e several competing theories regarding the precise structure of the micelles, bu t they share one important feature: the outermost layer consists of strands of o ne type of protein, k-casein, reaching out from the body of the micelle into the surrounding fluid. These kappa-casein molecules all have a negative electrical charge and therefore repel each other, keeping the micelles separated under norm al conditions and in a stable colloidal suspension in the water-based surroundin g fluid.[12][66] Milk contains dozens of other types of proteins beside the caseins including enz ymes. These other proteins are more water-soluble than the caseins and do not fo rm larger structures. Because the proteins remain suspended in the whey left beh ind when the caseins coagulate into curds, they are collectively known as whey p roteins. Whey proteins make up approximately 20% of the protein in milk, by weig ht. Lactoglobulin is the most common whey protein by a large margin.[12] Salts, minerals, and vitamins Minerals or milk salts, are traditional names for a variety of cations and anion s within bovine milk. Calcium, phosphate, magnesium, sodium, potassium, citrate, and chlorine are all included as minerals and they typically occur at concentra tion of 5 40 mM. The milk salts strongly interact with casein, most notably calciu m phosphate. It is present in excess and often, much greater excess of solubilit y of solid calcium phosphate.[64] In addition to calcium, milk is a good source of many other vitamins. Vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, K, E, thiamine, niacin, bioti n, riboflavin, folates, and pantothenic acid are all present in milk. Calcium phosphate structure For many years the most accepted theory of the structure of a micelle was that i t was composed of spherical casein aggregates, called submicelles, that were hel d together by calcium phosphate linkages. However, there are two recent models o f the casein micelle that refute the distinct micellular structures within the m icelle. The first theory attributed to de Kruif and Holt, proposes that nanoclusters of calcium phosphate and the phosphopeptide fraction of beta-casein are the centerp iece to micellular structure. Specifically in this view, unstructured proteins o rganize around the calcium phosphate giving rise to their structure and thus no specific structure is formed. The second theory proposed by Horne, the growth of calcium phosphate nanocluster s begins the process of micelle formation but is limited by binding phosphopepti de loop regions of the caseins. Once bound, protein-protein interactions are for med and polymerization occurs, in which K-casein is used as an end cap, to form micelles with trapped calcium phosphate nanoclusters. Some sources indicate that the trapped calcium phosphate is in the form of Ca9(P O4)6; whereas, others say it is similar to the structure of the mineral brushite CaHPO4 -2H2O.[67] Carbohydrates and miscellaneous contents A simplified representation of a lactose molecule being broken down into glucose (2) and galactose (1) Milk contains several different carbohydrate including lactose, glucose, galacto se, and other oligosaccharides. The lactose gives milk its sweet taste and contr ibutes approximately 40% of whole cow's milk's calories. Lactose is a disacchari de composite of two simple sugars, glucose and galactose. Bovine milk averages 4 .8% anhydrous lactose, which amounts to about 50% of the total solids of skimmed milk. Levels of lactose are dependant upon the type of milk as other carbohydra

tes can be present at higher concentrations that lactose in milks.[64] Other components found in raw cow's milk are living white blood cells, mammary g land cells, various bacteria, and a large number of active enzymes.[12] Appearance Both the fat globules and the smaller casein micelles, which are just large enou gh to deflect light, contribute to the opaque white color of milk. The fat globu les contain some yellow-orange carotene, enough in some breeds (such as Guernsey and Jersey cattle) to impart a golden or "creamy" hue to a glass of milk. The r iboflavin in the whey portion of milk has a greenish color, which sometimes can be discerned in skimmed milk or whey products.[12] Fat-free skimmed milk has onl y the casein micelles to scatter light, and they tend to scatter shorter-wavelen gth blue light more than they do red, giving skimmed milk a bluish tint.[66] Processing Milk products and productions relationships (Click for details) In most Western countries, centralized dairy facilities process milk and product s obtained from milk (dairy products), such as cream, butter, and cheese. In the US, these dairies usually are local companies, while in the Southern Hemisphere facilities may be run by very large nationwide or trans-national corporations ( such as Fonterra). Pasteurization Main article: Pasteurization#Milk Pasteurization is used to kill harmful microorganisms by heating the milk for a short time and then immediately cooling it. The standard High Temperature Short Time (HTST) process produces a 99.999% reduction in the number of bacteria in mi lk, rendering it safe to drink for up to three weeks if continually refrigerated . Dairies print expiration dates on each container, after which stores will remo ve any unsold milk from their shelves. A side effect of the heating of pasteurization is that some vitamin and mineral content is lost. Soluble calcium and phosphorus decrease by 5%, thiamin and vita min B12 by 10%, and vitamin C by 20%.[68] Because losses are small in comparison to the large amount of the two B-vitamins present, milk continues to provide si gnificant amounts of thiamin and vitamin B12. The loss of vitamin C is not nutri tionally signifigant, as milk is not an important dietary source of vitamin C. A newer process, ultrapasteurization or ultra-high temperature treatment (UHT), heats the milk to a higher temperature for a shorter amount of time. This extend s its shelf life and allows the milk to be stored unrefrigerated because of the longer lasting sterilization effect. Microfiltration Microfiltration is a process that partially replaces pasteurization and produces milk with fewer microorganisms and longer shelf life without a change in the ta ste of the milk. In this process, cream is separated from the whey and is pasteu rized in the usual way, but the whey is forced through ceramic microfilters that trap 99.9% of microorganisms in the milk[citation needed] (as compared to 99.99 9% killing of microorganisms in standard HTST pasteurization). The whey then is recombined with the pasteurized cream to reconstitute the original milk composit ion. Creaming and homogenization A milking machine in action Upon standing for 12 to 24 hours, fresh milk has a tendency to separate into a h igh-fat cream layer on top of a larger, low-fat milk layer. The cream often is s old as a separate product with its own uses. Today the separation of the cream f rom the milk usually is accomplished rapidly in centrifugal cream separators. Th

e fat globules rise to the top of a container of milk because fat is less dense than water. The smaller the globules, the more other molecular-level forces prev ent this from happening. In fact, the cream rises in cow's milk much more quickl y than a simple model would predict: rather than isolated globules, the fat in t he milk tends to form into clusters containing about a million globules, held to gether by a number of minor whey proteins.[12] These clusters rise faster than i ndividual globules can. The fat globules in milk from goats, sheep, and water bu ffalo do not form clusters as readily and are smaller to begin with, resulting i n a slower separation of cream from these milks. Milk often is homogenized, a treatment that prevents a cream layer from separati ng out of the milk. The milk is pumped at high pressures through very narrow tub es, breaking up the fat globules through turbulence and cavitation.[69] A greate r number of smaller particles possess more total surface area than a smaller num ber of larger ones, and the original fat globule membranes cannot completely cov er them. Casein micelles are attracted to the newly exposed fat surfaces. Nearly one-third of the micelles in the milk end up participating in this new membrane structure. The casein weighs down the globules and interferes with the clusteri ng that accelerated separation. The exposed fat globules are vulnerable to certa in enzymes present in milk, which could break down the fats and produce rancid f lavors. To prevent this, the enzymes are inactivated by pasteurizing the milk im mediately before or during homogenization. Homogenized milk tastes blander but feels creamier in the mouth than unhomogeniz ed. It is whiter and more resistant to developing off flavors.[12] Creamline (or cream-top) milk is unhomogenized. It may or may not have been pasteurized. Milk that has undergone high-pressure homogenization, sometimes labeled as "ultra-ho mogenized," has a longer shelf life than milk that has undergone ordinary homoge nization at lower pressures.[70] Homogenized milk may be more digestible than un homogenized milk.[71] Kurt A. Oster, M.D., who worked during the 1960s through the 1980s, suggested a link between homogenized milk and atherosclerosis, due to damage to plasmalogen resulting from the release of bovine xanthine oxidase (BXO) from the milk fat gl obular membrane (MFGM) during homogenization. Oster's hypothesis has been widely criticized, however, and has not been generally accepted by the scientific comm unity. No link has been found between atherosclerosis and milk consumption.[71] Nutrition and health See also: Fat content of milk The composition of milk differs widely among species. Factors such as the type o f protein; the proportion of protein, fat, and sugar; the levels of various vita mins and minerals; and the size of the butterfat globules, and the strength of t he curd are among those that may vary.[14] For example: Human milk contains, on average, 1.1% protein, 4.2% fat, 7.0% lactose (a sug ar), and supplies 72 kcal of energy per 100 grams. Cow milk contains, on average, 3.4% protein, 3.6% fat, and 4.6% lactose, 0.7 % minerals[72] and supplies 66 kcal of energy per 100 grams. See also Nutritiona l value further on. Donkey and horse milk have the lowest fat content, while the milk of seals and w hales may contain more than 50% fat.[73][74] Milk composition analysis, per 100 grams[75][76] Constituents Unit Cow Goat Sheep Water buffalo Water g 87.8 88.9 83.0 81.1 Protein g 3.2 3.1 5.4 4.5 Fat g 3.9 3.5 6.0 8.0 ----Saturated fatty acids g 2.4 2.3 3.8 4.2

----Monounsaturated fatty acids g ----Polyunsaturated fatty acids g Carbohydrate (i.e the sugar form of Lactose) 4.9 Cholesterol mg 14 10 11 Calcium mg 120 100 170 Energy kcal 66 60 95 110 kJ 275 253 396 463 Cow's milk

1.1 0.1 g 8 195

0.8 0.1 4.8

1.5 0.3 4.4

1.7 0.2 5.1

These compositions vary by breed, animal, and point in the lactation period. Milk fat percentages Cow breed Approximate percentage Jersey 5.2 Zebu 4.7 Brown Swiss 4.0 Holstein-Friesian 3.6 The protein range for these four breeds is 3.3% to 3.9%, while the lactose range is 4.7% to 4.9%.[12] Milk fat percentages may be manipulated by dairy farmers' stock diet formulation strategies. Mastitis infection can cause fat levels to decline.[77] Nutritional value Cow's milk (whole) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 252 kJ (60 kcal) Carbohydrates 5.26 g - Sugars 5.26 g - Lactose 5.26 g Fat 3.25 g - saturated 1.865 g - monounsaturated 0.812 g - polyunsaturated 0.195 g Protein 3.22 g - Tryptophan 0.075 g - Threonine 0.143 g - Isoleucine 0.165 g - Leucine 0.265 g - Lysine 0.140 g - Methionine 0.075 g - Cystine 0.017 g - Phenylalanine 0.147 g - Tyrosine 0.152 g - Valine 0.192 g - Arginine 0.075 g - Histidine 0.075 g - Alanine 0.103 g - Aspartic acid 0.237 g - Glutamic acid 0.648 g - Glycine 0.075 g - Proline 0.342 g - Serine 0.107 g Water 88.32 g Vitamin A equiv. 46 g (6%) Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.044 mg (4%) Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.183 mg (15%) Vitamin B12 0.45 g (19%) Choline 14.3 mg (3%) Vitamin D 2 IU (0%) Calcium 113 mg (11%) Magnesium 10 mg (3%)

Potassium 132 mg (3%) Sodium 43 mg (3%) 100 mL corresponds to 103 g.[78] Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database Processed cow's milk was formulated to contain differing amounts of fat during t he 1950s. One cup (250 ml) of 2%-fat cow's milk contains 285 mg of calcium, whic h represents 22% to 29% of the daily recommended intake (DRI) of calcium for an adult. Depending on the age, milk contains 8 grams of protein, and a number of o ther nutrients (either naturally or through fortification) including: Biotin Iodine Magnesium Pantothenic acid Potassium Riboflavin Selenium Thiamine Vitamin A Vitamin B12 Vitamins D Vitamin K The amount of calcium from milk that is absorbed by the human body is disputed.[ 79] Calcium from dairy products has a greater bioavailability than calcium from certain vegetables, such as spinach, that contain high levels of calcium-chelati ng agents,[80] but a similar or lesser bioavailability than calcium from low-oxa late vegetables such as kale, broccoli, or other vegetables in the Brassica genu s.[81][82] Recommended consumption The U.S. federal government document Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010[83] recommends consumption of 3 glasses of fat-free or low-fat milk for adults and c hildren 9 and older (less for younger children). This recommendation is disputed by some health researchers who call for more study of the issue,[84] given that there are other sources for calcium and vitamin D. The researchers also claim t hat the recommendations have been unduly influenced by the American dairy indust ry, and that whole milk may be better for health due to its increased ability to satiate hunger. Medical research A 2006 study found that for women desiring to have a child, those who consume fu ll fat dairy products may slightly increase their fertility, while those consumi ng low-fat dairy products may slightly reduce their fertility.[85] Numerous studies have found that conjugated linoleic acid, found mainly in milk, meat and dairy products, provides several health benefits including prevention of atherosclerosis, different types of cancer, and hypertension and improved imm une function.[86][87][87] There is recent evidence suggesting consumption of milk is effective at promotin g muscle growth[88] and improving post exercise muscle recovery.[89] In 2010, scientists at the Harvard School of Public Health identified a substanc e in dairy fat, trans-palmitoleic acid, that may substantially reduce the risk o f type 2 diabetes. The researchers examined participants who have been followed for 20 years in an observational study to evaluate risk factors for cardiovascul

ar diseases in older adults. During followup it was found that individuals with higher circulating levels of trans-palmitoleic acid had a much lower risk of dev eloping diabetes, with about a 60% lower risk among participants in the highest quintile (fifth) of trans-palmitoleic acid levels.[90] Lactose intolerance Main article: lactose intolerance Lactose, the disaccharide sugar component of all milk, must be cleaved in the sm all intestine by the enzyme lactase in order for its constituents, galactose and glucose, to be absorbed. The production of the enzyme lactase declines signific antly after weaning in all mammals. Consequently, many humans become unable to d igest lactose properly as they mature. There is a great deal of variance, with s ome individuals reacting badly to even small amounts of lactose, some able to co nsume moderate quantities, and some able to consume large quantities of milk and other dairy products without problems. The gene in humans that controls lactase production, and hence lactose tolerance/intolerance, is labeled C/T-13910.[91] An individual who consumes milk without producing sufficient lactase may suffer diarrhea, intestinal gas, cramps and bloating, as the undigested lactose travels through the gastrointestinal tract and serves as nourishment for intestinal mic roflora that excretes gas in processes known as fermentation and anaerobic respi ration. It is estimated that 30 to 50 million Americans are lactose intolerant, includin g 75% of Native Americans and African Americans, and 90% of Asian Americans. Lac tose intolerance is less common among those descended from northern Europeans.[9 2] Other genetic groups that have a lower prevalence of lactose intolerance are the Tuareg of the Sahara, the Fulani of the West African Sahel, and the Beja and Kabbabish of Sudan, as well as possibly the Tutsi population of the Uganda Rwanda area.[93] Another locus of lactose tolerance is in Northern India.[91] Lactose intolerance is a natural process and there is no reliable way to prevent or reverse it. Possible harms Some studies suggest that milk consumption may increase the risk of suffering fr om certain health problems. Cow milk allergy (CMA) is an immunologically mediate d adverse reaction to one or more cow's milk proteins. Rarely is it severe enoug h to cause death.[94] Milk contains casein, a substance that breaks down in the human stomach to produ ce casomorphin, an opioid peptide. In the early 1990s it was hypothesized that c asomorphin can cause or aggravate autism spectrum disorders,[95][96] and caseinfree diets are widely promoted. Studies supporting these claims have had signifi cant flaws, and the data are inadequate to guide autism treatment recommendation s.[96] A study demonstrated that men who drink a large amount of milk and consume dairy products were at a slightly increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease; t he effect for women was smaller.[97] The reason behind this is not fully underst ood, and it also remains unclear why there is less of a risk for women.[97][98] Several sources suggest a correlation between high calcium intake (2000 mg per d ay, or twice the US recommended daily allowance, equivalent to six or more glass es of milk per day) and prostate cancer.[99] A large study specifically implicat es dairy, i.e. low-fat milk and other dairy to which vitamin A palmitate has bee n added.[100][101] A review published by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research states that at least eleven human population studies have li nked excessive dairy product consumption and prostate cancer.[102][103]

Medical studies also have shown a possible link between milk consumption and the exacerbation of diseases such as Crohn's disease,[104] Hirschsprung's disease mim icking symptoms in babies with existing cow's milk allergies,[105] and the aggra vation of Behet's disease.[106] Flavored milk in US schools Milk must be offered at every meal if a United States school district wishes to get reimbursement from the federal government.[citation needed] A quarter of the largest school districts in the US offer rice or soy milk and almost 17% of all US school districts offer lactose-free milk. Seventy-one percent of the milk se rved in US school cafeterias is flavored, causing some school districts to propo se a ban because flavored milk has added sugars. (Though some flavored milk prod ucts use artificial sweeteners instead.) The Boulder, Colorado school district b anned flavored milk in 2009 and instead installed a dispenser that keeps the mil k colder.[107] Bovine growth hormone supplementation Since November 1993, with FDA approval,[108] Monsanto has been selling recombina nt bovine somatotropin (rbST), also called rBGH, to dairy farmers. Cows produce bovine growth hormone naturally, but some producers administer an additional rec ombinant version of BGH which is produced through a genetically engineered E. co li because it increases milk production. Bovine growth hormone also stimulates l iver production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Monsanto has stated that both of these compounds are harmless given the levels found in milk and the eff ects of pasteurization.[109] On June 9, 2006, the largest milk processor in the world and the two largest sup Dean Foods, Wal-Mart, and Kroger announced that t ermarkets in the United States hey are "on a nationwide search for rBGH-free milk."[110] Milk from cows given r BST may be sold in the United States, and the FDA stated that no significant dif ference has been shown between milk derived from rBST-treated and that from nonrBST-treated cows.[111] Milk that advertises that it comes from cows not treated with rBST, is required to state this finding on its label. Cows receiving rBGH supplements may more frequently contract an udder infection known as mastitis.[112] Problems with mastitis have led to Canada, Australia, Ne w Zealand, and Japan banning milk from rBST treated cows. Mastitis, among other diseases, may be responsible for the fact that levels of white blood cells in mi lk vary naturally.[113][114] rBGH is also banned in the European Union.[115] Criticism Vegans and some other vegetarians do not consume milk for reasons mostly related to animal rights and environmental concerns. They may object to features of dai ry farming including the necessity of keeping dairy cows pregnant, the killing o f almost all the male offspring of dairy cows (either by disposal soon after bir th, for veal production, or for beef), the routine separation of mother and calf soon after birth, other perceived inhumane treatment of dairy cattle, and culli ng of cows after their productive lives.[116] Some have criticized the American government's promotion of milk consumption. Th e United States government administers the popular Got Milk? and milk mustache a dvertising campaigns, which cost roughly $180 million per year and make the milk industry millions of dollars.[citation needed] The main concern is the financia l interest that the American government has taken in the dairy industry, promoti ng milk as the best source of calcium. All United States schools that are a part of the federally funded National School Lunch Act are required by the federal g overnment to provide milk for all students. The Office of Dietary Supplements re commends that healthy adults between ages 19 and 50 get about 1,000 mg of calciu

m per day,[117] but studies show that the human body can only retain about 550 m g of calcium per day. Milk also contains more excess calories, sugar, and fat th an many other sources of calcium. There is also some skepticism of the idea that large doses of calcium provide fo r healthier bones and teeth. This is a commonly held belief, but there have been some studies that show there is "no connection between the intake of calcium (i n any form) and the reduced risk of bone fractures in women aged 34-71 years".[1 18] Another study suggests that calcium supplements do not contribute to bone ga in when you surpass a daily intake of 800 mg. Varieties and brands Main article: Dairy product Glass milk bottle used for home delivery service in the UK. Milk products are sold in a number of varieties based on types/degrees of additives (e.g. vitamins), age (e.g. cheddar), coagulation (e.g. cottage cheese), farming method (e.g. organic, grass-fed). fat content (e.g. half and half), fermentation (e.g. buttermilk), flavoring (e.g. chocolate), homogenization (e.g. cream top), reduction or elimination of lactose, mammal (e.g. cow, goat, sheep), packaging (e.g. bottle), pasteurization (e.g. raw milk), water content (e.g. dry milk) Milk preserved by the UHT process does not need to be refrigerated before openin g and has a longer shelf life than milk in ordinary packaging. It is typically s old unrefrigerated in the UK, US, Europe, Latin America, and Australia. Reduction or elimination of lactose Lactose-free milk can be produced by passing milk over lactase enzyme bound to a n inert carrier. Once the molecule is cleaved, there are no lactose ill effects. Forms are available with reduced amounts of lactose (typically 30% of normal), and alternatively with nearly 0%. The only noticeable difference from regular mi lk is a slightly sweeter taste due to the generation of glucose by lactose cleav age. It does not, however, contain more glucose, and is nutritionally identical to regular milk. Finland, where approximately 17% of the Finnish-speaking population has hypolact asia,[119] has had "HYLA" (acronym for hydrolysed lactose) products available fo r many years. Lactose of low-lactose level cow's milk products, ranging from ice cream to cheese, is enzymatically hydrolysed into glucose and galactose. The ul tra-pasteurization process, combined with aseptic packaging, ensures a long shel f life. In 2001, Valio launched a lactose-free milk drink that is not sweet like HYLA milk but has the fresh taste of ordinary milk. Valio patented the chromato graphic separation method to remove lactose. Valio also markets these products i n Sweden, Estonia, Belgium,[120] and the United States, where the company says u ltrafiltration is used.[121] In the UK, where an estimated 15% of the population are affected by lactose into lerance,[citation needed] Lactofree produces milk, cheese, and yogurt products t hat contain only 0.03% lactose. To aid digestion in those with lactose intolerance, milk with added bacterial cu ltures such as Lactobacillus acidophilus ("acidophilus milk") and bifidobacteria

("a/B milk") is available in some areas.[122] Another milk with Lactococcus lac tis bacteria cultures ("cultured buttermilk") often is used in cooking to replac e the traditional use of naturally soured milk, which has become rare due to the ubiquity of pasteurization, which also kills the naturally occurring Lactococcu s bacteria.[123] Additives and flavoring In areas where the cattle (and often the people) live indoors, commercially sold milk commonly has vitamin D added to it to make up for lack of exposure to UVB radiation. Reduced-fat milks often have added vitamin A palmitate to compensate for the los s of the vitamin during fat removal; in the United States this results in reduce d fat milks having a higher vitamin A content than whole milk.[124] Milk often has flavoring added to it for better taste or as a means of improving sales. Chocolate milk has been sold for many years and has been followed more r ecently by strawberry milk and others. Some nutritionists have criticized flavor ed milk for adding sugar, usually in the form of high-fructose corn syrup, to th e diets of children who are already commonly obese in the US.[125] Distribution Returning reusable glass milk bottles, used for home delivery service in the UK A glass bottle of non-homogenized, organic, local milk from a farm in California , in the United States. American milk bottles are generally rectangular in shape A rectangular milk jug design used by Costco and Sam's Club stores in the United States which allows for stacking and display of filled containers rather than b eing shipped to the store in milk crates and manual loading into a freezer displ ay rack. Due to the short shelf life of normal milk, it used to be delivered to household s daily in many countries; however, improved refrigeration at home, changing foo d shopping patterns because of supermarkets, and the higher cost of home deliver y mean that daily deliveries by a milkman are no longer available in most countr ies. Australia and New Zealand In Australia and New Zealand, prior to "metrification", milk was generally distr ibuted in 1 pint (568ml) glass bottles. In Australia and in Ireland there was a government funded "free milk for school children" program, and milk was distribu ted at morning recess in 1/3 pint bottles. With the conversion to metric measure s, the milk industry were concerned that the replacement of the pint bottles wit h 500ml bottles would result in a 13.6% drop in milk consumption; hence, all pin t bottles were recalled and replaced by 600 mL bottles. With time, due to the st eadily increasing cost of collecting, transporting, storing and cleaning glass b ottles, they were replaced by cardboard cartons. A number of designs were used, including a tetrahedron which could be close-packed without waste space, and cou ld not be knocked over accidentally. (slogan: No more crying over spilt milk.) H owever, the industry eventually settled on a design similar to that used in the United States.[126] Milk is now available in a variety of sizes in cardboard car tons (250 mL, 375 mL, 600 mL, 1 liter and 1.5 liters) and plastic bottles (1, 2 and 3 liters). A significant addition to the marketplace has been "long-life" mi lk (UHT), generally available in 1 and 2 liter rectangular cardboard cartons. In urban and suburban areas where there is sufficient demand, home delivery is sti ll available, though in suburban areas this is often 3 times per week rather tha n daily. Another significant and popular addition to the marketplace has been fl avored milks for example, as mentioned above, Farmers Union Iced Coffee outsells Coca-Cola in South Australia. India In rural India, milk is home delivered, daily, by local milkmen carrying bulk qu

antities in a metal container, usually on a bicycle. In other parts of metropoli tan India, milk is usually bought or delivered in plastic bags or cartons via sh ops or supermarkets. Pakistan In Pakistan, milk is supplied in jugs. Milk has been a staple food, especially a mong the pastoral tribes in this country. United Kingdom Since the late 1990s, milk-buying patterns have changed drastically in the UK. T he classic milkman, who travels his local milk round (route) using a milk float (often battery powered) during the early hours and delivers milk in 1 pint glass bottles with aluminium foil tops directly to households, has almost disappeared . The main reasons for the decline of UK home deliveries by milkmen are househol d refrigerators (which lessen the need for daily milk deliveries) and private ca r usage (which has increased supermarket shopping). In 1996, more than 2.5 billi on liters of milk were still being delivered by milkmen, but by 2006 only 637 mi llion liters (13% of milk consumed) was delivered by some 9,500 milkmen.[127] By 2010, the estimated number of milkmen had dropped to 6,000.[128] Assuming that delivery per milkman is the same as it was in 2006, this means milkmen deliverie s now only account for 6 7% of all milk consumed by UK households (6.7 billion lit ers in 2008/2009).[129] Almost 95% of all milk in the UK is thus sold in shops today, most of it in plas tic bottles of various sizes, but some also in milk cartons. Milk is hardly ever sold in glass bottles in UK shops. United States In the United States, glass milk bottles have been replaced mostly with milk car tons and plastic jugs. Gallons of milk are almost always sold in jugs, while hal f gallons and quarts may be found in both paper cartons and plastic jugs, and sm aller sizes are almost always in cartons. The "half pint" .5 US pints (0.24 l; 0.42 imp pt) milk carton is the traditional unit as a component of school lunches, though some companies have replaced that unit size with a plastic bottle, which is also available at retail in 6- and 12 -pack size. Packaging Glass milk bottles are now rare. Most people purchase milk in bags, plastic bott les, or plastic-coated paper cartons. Ultraviolet (UV) light from fluorescent li ghting can alter the flavor of milk, so many companies that once distributed mil k in transparent or highly translucent containers are now using thicker material s that block the UV light. Milk comes in a variety of containers with local vari ants: Australia and New Zealand Distributed in a variety of sizes, most commonly in aseptic cartons for up t o 1.5 liters, and plastic screw-top bottles beyond that with the following volum es; 1.1 L, 2 L, and 3 L. 1 liter milk bags are starting to appear in supermarket s, but have not yet proved popular. Most UHT-milk is packed in 1 or 2 liter pape r containers with a sealed plastic spout.[126] Brazil Used to be sold in cooled 1 liter bags, just like in South Africa. Today the most common form is 1 liter aseptic cartons containing UHT skimmed, semi-skimme d or whole milk, although the plastic bags are still in use for pasteurized milk . Higher grades of pasteurized milk can be found in cartons or plastic bottles.

Sizes other than 1 liter are rare. Canada 1.33 liter plastic bags (sold as 4 liters in 3 bags) are widely available in some areas (especially the Maritimes, Ontario and Quebec), although the 4 liter plastic jug has supplanted them in western Canada. Other common packaging sizes are 2 liter, 1 liter, 500 mL, and 250 mL cartons, as well as 4 liter, 1 liter, 250 mL aseptic cartons and 500 mL plastic jugs. Chile Distributed most commonly in aseptic cartons for up to 1 liter, but smaller, snack-sized cartons are also popular. The most common flavors, besides the natu ral presentation, are chocolate, strawberry and vanilla. China Sweetened milk is a drink popular with students of all ages and is often sol d in small plastic bags complete with straw. Adults not wishing to drink at a ba nquet often drink milk served from cartons or milk tea. Colombia sells milk in 1 liter plastic bags. Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro UHT milk (trajno mlijeko/trajno mleko/?????? ?????) is sold in 500 mL and 1 L (sometimes also 200 ml) aseptic cartons. Non-UHT pasteurized milk (svje e mlijek o/sve e mleko/????? ?????) is most commonly sold in 1 L and 1.5 L PET bottles, tho ugh in Serbia one can still find milk in plastic bags. Parts of Europe Sizes of 500 mL, 1 liter (the most common), 1.5 liters, 2 liters and 3 liter s are commonplace. Finland Commonly sold in 1 L or 1.5 L cartons, in some places also in 2 dl and 5 dl cartons. Hong Kong Milk is sold in glass bottles (220 mL), cartons (236 mL and 1 L), plastic ju gs (2 liters) and aseptic cartons (250 mL). India Commonly sold in 500 mL plastic bags and in bottles in some parts like in we st. It is still customary to serve the milk boiled, despite pasteurization. Milk is often buffalo milk. Flavored milk is sold in most convenience stores in waxe d cardboard containers. Convenience stores also sell many varieties of milk (suc h as flavored and ultra-pasteurized) in different sizes, usually in aseptic cart ons. Indonesia Usually sold in 1 liter cartons, but smaller, snack-sized cartons are availa ble. Israel

Non-UHT milk is most commonly sold in 1 liter waxed cardboard boxes and 1 li ter plastic bags. It may also be found in 0.5 L and 2 L waxed cardboard boxes, 2 L plastic jugs and 1 L plastic bottles. UHT milk is available in 1 liter (and l ess commonly also in 0.25 L) carton "bricks". Japan Commonly sold in 1 liter waxed paperboard cartons. In most city centers ther e is also home delivery of milk in glass jugs. As seen in China, sweetened and f lavored milk drinks are commonly seen in vending machines. South Korea Sold in cartons (180 mL, 200 mL, 500 mL 900 mL, 1 L, 1.8 L, 2.3 L), plastic jugs (1 L and 1.8 L), aseptic cartons (180 mL and 200 mL) and plastic bags (1 L) . Pakistan Milk is supplied in 500 mL Plastic bags and carried in Jugs from rural to ci ties and sell Philippines Milk is supplied in 1000 mL Plastic bottles and delivered from factories to cities and sell PCC Dairy Choco Milk, pasteurized, non-homogenized, made from fresh water buffal o milk Philippine Carabao Center. Poland UHT milk is mostly sold in aseptic cartons (500 mL, 1 L, 2 L), and non-UHT i n 1 L plastic bags or plastic bottles. Milk, UHT is commonly boiled, despite bei ng pasteurized. South Africa Commonly sold in 1 liter bags. The bag is then placed in a plastic jug and t he corner cut off before the milk is poured. Sweden Commonly sold in 0.3 L, 1 L or 1.5 L cartons and sometimes as plastic or gla ss milk bottles. Turkey Commonly sold in 500 mL or 1L cartons or special plastic bottles. UHT milk i s more popular. Milkmen also serve in smaller towns and villages. United Kingdom Most stores stock imperial sizes: 1 pint (568 mL, 2 pints (1.136 L), 4 pints (2.273 L), 6 pints (3.408 L) or a combination including both metric and imperia l sizes. Glass milk bottles delivered to the doorstep by the milkman are typical ly pint-sized and are returned empty by the householder for repeated reuse. Milk is sold at supermarkets in either aseptic cartons or HDPE bottles. Supermarkets have also now begun to introduce milk in bags, to be poured from a proprietary

jug and nozzle. United States Commonly sold in gallon (3.78 L), half-gallon (1.89 L) and quart (0.94 L) co ntainers of natural-colored HDPE resin, or, for sizes less than one gallon, cart ons of waxed paperboard. Bottles made of opaque PET are also becoming commonplac e for smaller, particularly metric, sizes such as one liter. The US single-servi ng size is usually the half-pint (about 240 mL). Less frequently, dairies delive r milk directly to consumers, from coolers filled with glass bottles which are t ypically half-gallon sized and returned for reuse. Some convenience store chains in the United States (such as Kwik Trip in the Midwest) sell milk in half-gallo n bags, while another rectangular cube gallon container design used for easy sta cking in shipping and displaying is used by warehouse clubs such as Costco and S am's Club, along with some Wal-Mart stores.[130] Uruguay Commonly sold in 1 liter bags. The bag is then placed in a plastic jug and t he corner cut off before the milk is poured. Practically everywhere, condensed milk and evaporated milk are distributed in me tal cans, 250 and 125 mL paper containers and 100 and 200 mL squeeze tubes, and powdered milk (skim and whole) is distributed in boxes or bags. Spoilage and fermented milk products See also: Fermented milk products Brazilian Yakult is a probiotic milk-like product made by fermenting a mixture o f skimmed milk with a special strain of the bacterium Lactobacillus casei Shirot a. When raw milk is left standing for a while, it turns "sour". This is the result of fermentation, where lactic acid bacteria ferment the lactose in the milk into lactic acid. Prolonged fermentation may render the milk unpleasant to consume. This fermentation process is exploited by the introduction of bacterial cultures (e.g. Lactobacilli sp., Streptococcus sp., Leuconostoc sp., etc.) to produce a variety of fermented milk products. The reduced pH from lactic acid accumulation denatures proteins and causes the milk to undergo a variety of different transf ormations in appearance and texture, ranging from an aggregate to smooth consist ency. Some of these products include sour cream, yogurt, cheese, buttermilk, vii li, kefir, and kumis. See Dairy product for more information. Pasteurization of cow's milk initially destroys any potential pathogens and incr eases the shelf life,[citation needed] but eventually results in spoilage that m akes it unsuitable for consumption. This causes it to assume an unpleasant odor, and the milk is deemed non-consumable due to unpleasant taste and an increased risk of food poisoning. In raw milk, the presence of lactic acid-producing bacte ria, under suitable conditions, ferments the lactose present to lactic acid. The increasing acidity in turn prevents the growth of other organisms, or slows the ir growth significantly. During pasteurization, however, these lactic acid bacte ria are mostly destroyed. In order to prevent spoilage, milk can be kept refrigerated and stored between 1 and 4 degrees Celsius in bulk tanks. Most milk is pasteurized by heating briefl y and then refrigerated to allow transport from factory farms to local markets. The spoilage of milk can be forestalled by using ultra-high temperature (UHT) tr eatment. Milk so treated can be stored unrefrigerated for several months until o pened but has a characteristic "cooked" taste. Condensed milk, made by removing most of the water, can be stored in cans for many years, unrefrigerated, as can evaporated milk. The most durable form of milk is powdered milk, which is produc ed from milk by removing almost all water. The moisture content is usually less

than 5% in both drum- and spray-dried powdered milk. Refrigerated milk Incolac powdered milk A can of condensed milk An opened can of condensed milk Condensed milk in a tube Language and culture Hindu Abhisheka ritual in Agara, Bangalore Rural District, Karnataka. The importance of milk in human culture is attested to by the numerous expressio ns embedded in our languages, for example, "the milk of human kindness". In anci ent Greek mythology, the goddess Hera spilled her breast milk after refusing to feed Heracles, resulting in the Milky Way. In African and Asian developing nations, butter is traditionally made from ferme nted milk rather than cream. It can take several hours of churning to produce wo rkable butter grains from fermented milk.[131] Holy books have also mentioned milk. The Bible contains references to the 'Land of Milk and Honey'. In the Qur'an, there is a request to wonder on milk as follo ws: 'And surely in the livestock there is a lesson for you, We give you to drink of that which is in their bellies from the midst of digested food and blood, pu re milk palatable for the drinkers.'(16-The Honeybee, 66). The Ramadan fast is t raditionally broken with a glass of milk and dates. Abhisheka is conducted by Hindu and Jain priests, by pouring libations on the im age of a deity being worshipped, amidst the chanting of mantras. Usually offerin gs such as milk, yogurt, ghee, honey may be poured among other offerings dependi ng on the type of abhishekam being performed. To milk someone, in the vernacular of many English-speaking countries, is to tak e advantage of the person. The word "milk" has had many slang meanings over time. In the 19th century, milk was used to describe a cheap alcoholic drink made from methylated spirits mixed with water. The word was also used to mean defraud, to be idle, to intercept te legrams addressed to someone else, and a weakling or 'milksop'. In the mid-1930s , the word was used in Australia meaning to siphon gas from a car.[132] Other uses Besides serving as a beverage or source of food, milk has been described as used by farmers and gardeners as an organic fungicide and foliage fertilizer.[133][u nreliable source?] Diluted milk solutions have been demonstrated to provide an e ffective method of preventing powdery mildew on grape vines, while showing it is unlikely to harm the plant.[134] See also Portal icon Food portal Portal icon Drink portal Milk substitute A2 milk Babcock test (determines the butterfat content of milk) Casein paint Got Milk?

Health mark List of dairy products

Male lactation Milk line Milk paint Nipple Operation Flood United States raw milk debate