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HYDRO-ELECTRIC

POWER PLANT

Hydro-electric Power Plant

Electric power is produced by falling water that rotates a

turbine.

The potential energy of water at high level is converted to

mechanical energy by the turbine and the mechanical energy

is converted to electrical energy by the generator.

The advantage of hydroelectric power plant is that it needs

no fuel

irrigation.

and the dam can

be used as flood control and

Most of the hydroelectric power plant are used to cope up

peak loads because they can be easily started and stopped.

Basic Parts of High-Head Hydroelectric Plant

Basic Parts of High-Head Hydroelectric Plant

Basic Parts of High-Head Hydroelectric Plant

Reservoir stores the water coming from the upper river or water falls.

Headwater the water in the reservoir.

Spillway a weir in the reservoir which discharges excess water so that the heads of the plant will be maintained.

Dam the concrete structure that encloses the reservoir. Silt Sluice a chamber which collects the mud and through which the mud is discharged

Basic Parts of High-Head Hydroelectric Plant

Trash Rack a screen which prevents the leaves, branches and other water contaminants to enter into the penstock.

Valve opens or closes the entrance of water into the penstock.

Surge Chamber a standpipe connected to the atmosphere and

attached to the penstock so that the water will be at atmospheric

pressure.

Penstock the channel that leads the water from the reservoir to the turbine.

Turbine converts energy of the water into mechanical energy.

Basic Parts of High-Head Hydroelectric Plant

Generator converts the mechanical energy of the turbine into electrical energy output.

Draft tube connects the turbine outlet to the tailwater so that the turbine can be set above the tailwater level.

Tailrace a channel which leads the water from the turbine to the tailwater.

Tailwater the water that is discharged from the turbine.

Run-of-the-River (Low Head) Hydroelectric

Power Plant

Run-of-the-River (Low Head) Hydroelectric Power Plant • Pondage – the water behind the dam of a

Pondage the water behind the dam of a run-of-the-river hydroelectric power plant.

Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Power Plant

Pumped storage plant

is a hydroelectric which involves the

off-peak energy to store water and to use the stored

water to generate extra

plant

of

use

energy to cope with the peak load. Pumped storage

hydroelectric plant is also

termed as Hydraulic

Accumulator.

of use energy to cope with the peak load. Pumped storage hydroelectric plant is also termed

Classification of Hydraulic Turbines

1. Impulse (Pelton) Turbine high head and low flow

Classification of Hydraulic Turbines 1. Impulse (Pelton) Turbine – high head and low flow

Classification of Hydraulic Turbines

2. Reaction Turbine

a. Francis Turbine low head and high efficiency

Classification of Hydraulic Turbines 2. Reaction Turbine a. Francis Turbine – low head and high efficiency

Classification of Hydraulic Turbines

b. Propeller (Kaplan) Turbine very low head and efficiency is lower that Francis.

of Hydraulic Turbines b. Propeller (Kaplan) Turbine – very low head and efficiency is lower that

Selection of Turbine Type based on head

Net Head

Up to 70 ft

Type of Turbine

Propeller Type

70 ft to 110 ft

Propeller type or Francis

110

ft to 800 ft

Francis Type

800

ft to 1300 ft

Francis or Impulse

1300 ft and above

Impulse

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Continuation…Friction Head Loss

Where:

f = coefficient of friction

L = total length of pipe, in meters

V = velocity, m/sec

g = 9.81 m/sec 2

D = inside diameter, meters

(Friction head loss is usually expressed as a percentage of the gross

head.)

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant
Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Performance of Hydroelectric Power Plant

HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT

PROBLEMS

Problem 1

A hydroelectric power plant having 50 sq. km reservoir area and 100

m head is used to generate power. The energy utilized by the

consumers whose load is connected to the power plant during a five-

hour period is 13.5x10 6 kW-hr. The overall generation efficiency is 75%. Find the fall in the height of water in the reservoir after 5-hour

period.

a. 2.13 m

b. 1.32 m

c. 3.21 m d. 0.53 m

Problem 2

45 kW of the shaft power is developed by a turbine working under an available head of 40 meters. Assuming hydraulic and mechanical efficiencies to be 87% and 95% respectively, what is the discharge through the turbine in m 3 /s?

a. 0.0345

c.

1.511

b. 0.139

d.

1.234

Problem 3

A vertical draft tube is installed on a Francis turbine with a head of 38 meters at the inlet while discharge is 2.1 m 3 /s. The hydraulic

efficiency is 0.87 and overall efficiency is 0.84. The velocities at the inlet and exit of the draft tube are 5 m/s and 1.5 m/s, respectively. The top of the draft is 1 m below the center line of the spiral casing

while the tailrace (water) level is 3 m from the top of the draft tube.

There is no velocity of whirl at either top or bottom of the draft tube and leakage losses are negligible. What is the power output of the turbine in kW?

a. 746.9

c.

901.3

b.

632.9

d.

832.6

Problem 4

A Pelton Wheel is to be designed to run at 300 rpm under an

effective head of 150 m. The ratio of the nozzle diameter to the

diameter of the pitch circle is 1/12. assuming efficiency of 84%, what is the size of the wheel in meters. Assume speed ratio of 0.45.

a. 1.05

c.

1.55

b. 2.00

d.

2.86

Problem 5

A hydro-electric generating station is supplied from a reservoir of capacity 6,000,000 m 3 at a head of 170 m. Assume hydraulic efficiency of 80% and electrical efficiency of 90%. The fall in the reservoir level after a load of 15 MW has been supplied for 3 hours, if the area of the reservoir is 2.5 sq. km is closest to:

a.

5.39 cm

c.

5.98 cm

b.

4.32 cm

d.

4.83 cm

Problem 6

A hydroelectric plant discharges water at the rate of 0.75 cubic meter

per second and enters the turbine at 0.35 mps with a pressure of

275kPa. Runner inside diameter is 550 mm, speed is 520 rpm and the turbine efficiency is 88%. Find the turbine speed factor.

a. 0.638

c.

0.368

b. 0.386

d.

0.836

Problem 7

The nozzle efficiency of a Pelton turbine is 90%. Find the velocity of

water at the nozzle exit if the head is 180 meters.

a.

53.48 m/s

c.

77.4 m/s

b.

65.4 m/s

d.

89.4 m/s

Problem 8

A hydro-electric plant in Loboc, Bohol discharges 205 ft 3 /sec and reduces the pressure from 50 psi to 30 psi. Determine the power

output in MW.

a.

0.80 MW

c.

1.80 MW

b.

1.20 MW

d.

2.40 MW

Problem 9

A hydraulic turbine receives water from a reservoir at an elevation of

100 meters above it. What is the minimum water flow in kg per

second to produce a steady turbine output of 50 MW?

a.

50,247

c.

50,672

b.

50,968

d.

50,465

Problem 10

The pressure drop across a turbine is 25 psi. The flow rate is 55

gallons per minute. Calculate the power output of the turbine.

a.

0.802 hp

c.

1.05 hp

b.

0.41 hp

d.

2.54 hp

Problem 11

A reaction turbine develops 500 bhp. Flow through the turbine is 50

cfs. Water enters at 20 fps with a 100 ft pressure head. The elevation

of the turbine above the tailwater level is 10 ft. Find the effective

head.

a. 130 ft

c.

110 ft

b. 120 ft

d.

116.2 ft

Problem 12

The hydraulic efficiency of hydro-electric turbine is 85%, find the

discharge in liters per second. Power developed is 10,500 kW and

operating under a head of 320 m.

a.

3,935 L/s

c.

9,533 L/s

b.

3,395 L/s

d.

5,933 L/s

Problem 13

A horizontal tube supplies 280 liters per second of water to a

hydraulic turbine. The net head is 46.50 m. Determine the power

supplied to the turbine.

a.

117.7 kW

c.

137.7 kW

b.

127.7 kW

d.

157.7 kW

Problem 14

What is the overall efficiency of the turbine if the power developed is

15,000 kW at a head of 170 meters and the nozzle discharge is 10

cubic meters per second?

a.

70.09 %

c.

79.98 %

b.

89.94 %

d.

90.96 %

Problem 15

If the available water power of a hydro-station is 3,500 MW and the

head of water is 280 meters, determine the water rate of flow.

a.

1,420 m 3 /sec

c.

875 m 3 /sec

b.

12,500 m 3 /sec

d. 1,274 m 3 /sec

Problem 16

What is the overall efficiency of the turbine if the power developed is

12 MW at a head of 150 meters and the nozzle discharge 10 cubic

meters each second.

a.

70.65%

c.

81.55%

b.

78.99%

d.

89.23%

Problem 17

A reaction turbine develops 500 bhp. Flow through the turbine is 50

cfs. Water enters at 20 fps with a 100 ft pressure head. The elevation

of the turbine above the tailwater level is 10 ft. What is the turbine efficiency?

a. 65.8%

c.

85.8%

b. 75.8%

d.

90.5%

Problem 18

A river 60

develops a pressure of 300 kPa gage just before the turbine, what

a hydro-plant

m wide and

2

m deep flows at

2 m/s.

If

power in MW can be developed?

a.

40

c.

56

b.

48

d.

72

Problem 19

The difference between the head race and the tail race of a hydro-

electric plant is 220 m. The friction loss through the penstock is equivalent to 10 m. Water flows at the rate of 3.0 m 3 /sec. Power loss due to friction in the turbine is 50 kW and the leakage loss is 0.103 m 3 /sec. Determine the electrical power generated in kW if the generator efficiency is 90%.

a. 3966

c.

4931

b. 4255

d.

5326

Problem 20

A hydro-electric power plant has the following data: catchment area,

100 sq. km; average annual rainfall, 150 cm; run off, 90%; available

head, 400 m; overall station efficiency, 80%. Calculate the power that it can develop in kw.

a. 11,789

c.

12,435

b. 10,567

d.

13,435

Problem 21

In a certain municipality, a proposed hydro-electric plant site has the

following data: the elevation of the head water is 500 m, tail water

elevation is 390m, average annual water flow is determined to be equal to that volume flowing through a regular channel 5m wide and 1.0m deep and average velocity of 6.0 m/sec. Assuming that the

plant will operate 345 days a year. Find the annual energy in kW-hr

that the power site can develop if the hydraulic turbine that will be used has an efficiency of 83% and generator efficiency of 93%. Assume a head loss of 5% of the available head.

a.

176,561,261 kW-hr

c.

146,561,261 kW-hr

b.

196,561,261 kW-hr

d.

116,561,261 kW-hr

Problem 22

The water surface on the dam of a certain hydroelectric power plant

in Mindanao is at an elevation of 165 m, while the water surface just

at an outlet of the gate is 160 m. The head gate has an opening of 1.25m x 1.25m leading to the penstock which is fully opened. Assume 70% as coefficient of discharge. Determine (1) the quantity

of water that enters the hydraulic turbine per second; and (2) the kW

output of the turbine, assuming 81.5% efficiency and the turbine is 110m below the entrance of the penstock.

a.

(1) 6.56 m 3 ; (2) 7890

c.

(1) 10.8 m 3 ; (2) 9,960

b.

(1) 7.45 m 3 ; (2) 8200

d.

(1) 15.6 m 3 ; (2) 12,200

Problem 23

A certain community in the mountains of Mindanao plans to put up a small hydro-electric plant to service 5 closely located barangays estimated to consume 61,320,000 kw-hr per annum. Expected flow of water is 1,700

m 3 /min. The most favourable location for plant fixes the tail water level at 400 m, the manufacturer of the turbine generator set have indicated the following performance data: Turbine efficiency is 85%, generator

efficiency is 91%, losses in head work will not exceed 5% of the available

head. Determine (1) the head water elevation (HWE); and (2) the synchronous speed of generator if the number of poles is 4, and the frequency is 60 Hz.

a.

(1) 434 m; (2) 1800rpm

c.

(1) 344 m; (2) 1200 rpm

b.

(1) 388 m; (2) 1500 rpm

d.

(1) 299 m; (2) 1000 rpm

Problem 24 (situational)

A proposed hydroelectric power plant in Bohol has the following data:

Elevation of normal head water…………………………… 200 m

80 m

Loss of head due to friction…………………………………. 10 m

Elevation of normal tail water……………………………

Turbine discharge at full gate opening…………………. 6.5 m 3 /sec

Turbine efficiency at rated capacity…………………

Turbine is directly connected to 60 cycle AC generator.

85 %

Problem 24 (situational)

A.

Determine the effective head of the hydro-electric power plant.

a.

80 m

c.

110 m

b.

99m

d.

160 m

B.

Find the brake power of the turbine in kW.

a.

4162 kw

c.

5562 kw

b.

4962 kw

d.

5962 kw

Problem 24 (situational)

C.

Find the number of poles of the generator if the rotative speed is

900 rpm.

a.

2 poles

c.

8 poles

b.

4 poles

d.

10 poles

D.

Find the kW output of the direct connected generator if the efficiency is 92%

a.

5485 kW

c.

5584 kW

b.

4585 kW

d.

4855 kW

Problem 25 (situational)

A certain hydro storage plant in Laguna has 18,000 kW rated

capacity, with a utilization factor of 70%. For a 2.0 hr peak,

determine the hydraulic impoundment of water required, with frictional loss of 4 ft. Dam elevation at 130 ft and hydroelectric

turbine elevation of 40 ft and a tail race at elevation 30 ft. Generator

efficiency is 90% and a turbine efficiency of 80% and evaporation

factor of 25%. Assume that the water is pumped from the low reservoir with friction factor of 10%, pump efficiency of 75% and motor efficiency of 84%.

a.

51.3 m 3 /sec

c.

71.3 m 3 /sec

b.

61.3 m 3 /sec

d.

81.3 m 3 /sec

Problem 25 (situational)

A.

How many kW-hr is required to pump the water needed to carry

the peak?

a.

64,911.80

c.

84,911.80

b.

74,911.80

d.

94,911.80

B.

What is the overall efficiency of the hydroelectric power plant?

a.

15%

c.

30%

b.

20%

d.

38%

Problem 26

If it is desired to use a type of hydraulic turbine whose specific speed

is 50 rpm to deliver 150 hp at 150 ft head, what will be the corrected

speed of the unit?

a.

1143 rpm

c.

1943 rpm

b.

1743 rpm

d.

2143 rpm

Problem 27

A hydroelectric power station is to be constructed has an average

annual rainfall of 1.5 m. The catchment area is 230 km 2 with an

available head of 40 m. Only 80% of the rainfall can be collected and

¾ of the impoundment water is available for power. The load factor

of the station is 82%. The penstock efficiency is 95%, turbine

efficiency is 80%, and generator efficiency is 90%. (1) Calculate the

average power that could be generated; and (2) the installed capacity of the power station.

a.

(1) 2,962 kw; (2) 1,549 kw

c.

(1) 1,962 kw; (2) 1,949 kw

b.

(1) 2,762 kw; (2) 2,549 kw

d.

(1) 1762 kw; (2) 2,149 kw

Problem 28 (situational)

An existing hydroelectric power plant has the following data and design:

Gross head ……………………………………………

Mean flow ……………………………………………… Length of penstock ………………………………

Penstock diameter ………………………………….

Assumptions:

Coefficient of friction …………………………… Turbine efficiency …………………………………

Generator efficiency ………………………………

49.5 ft

75 ft 3 /sec 80 ft

3.5 ft

0.020

88%

92%

Problem 28 (situational)

A.

Find the net head in ft used by the turbine.

a.

42

c.

49

b.

44

d.

59

B.

Find the Hp developed by the turbine.

a.

312

c.

367

b.

339

d.

667

Problem 28 (situational)

C.

Find the standard capacity of synchronous generator.

a.

338 hp

c.

388 hp

b.

358 hp

d.

489 hp

D.

Find the motor rpm assuming 6 poles.

a.

900 rpm

c.

1800 rpm

b.

1200 rpm

d.

2200 rpm

Problem 29

A mini-hydropower plant has an available head of 5m. The water

flow is 1.25 m 3 /sec, efficiency of the turbine is 90%, efficiency of the

generator is 92%. Determine the maximum output of the generator

in

kW.

a.

29.5

c.

50.7

b.

42.5

d.

69.5

Problem 30

It is desired to develop a 5MW impulse turbine under an effective

head of 320 m. The turbine efficiency is 85%. Velocity coefficient of

the nozzle is 99%. What should be the wheel diameter assuming it is 12 times the diameter of the jet?

a.

1.5 m

c.

2.1 m

b.

1.8 m

d.

2.8 m