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TECHNEAU, August 2008

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems


A catalogue of todays hazards and possible future hazards

Version August 2008

TECHNEAU, August 2008

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems


A catalogue of todays hazards and possible future hazards

Version August 2008

2008 TECHNEAU TECHNEAU is an Integrated Project Funded by the European Commission under the Sixth Framework Programme, Sustainable Development, Global Change and Ecosystems Thematic Priority Area (contractnumber 018320). All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a database or retrieval system, or published, in any form or in any way, electronically, mechanically, by print, photoprint, microfilm or any other means without prior written permission from the publisher

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Title Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems - A catalogue of todays hazards and possible future hazards, updated version Authors Ralph Beuken (Editor), Mara Reinoso Kiwa Water Research Sebastian Sturm and Joachim Kiefer - TZW Mia Bondelind, Johan strm , Andreas Lindhe, Lars Losn and Thomas Pettersson Chalmers University of Technology Ingo Machenbach, Esa Melin, Thor Thorsen, Bjrnar Eikebrokk, Per Hokstad and Jon Rstum SINTEF Claudia Niewersch, Daniela Kirchner RWTH Aachen University Frantisek Kozisek and Daniel Weyessa Gari SZU. Chris Swartz WRC SA / SWUE Jos Menaia - LNEC Quality Assurance Thomas Pettersson Chalmers University of Technology Deliverable number D4.1.4
(This report is an updated version of Deliverable D4.1.1/2)

This report is: PU = Public

Contents
Contents 1
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

5 7
7 9 9 9 10

Introduction
Background Objectives Methodology Todays hazards Future hazards

2
2.1 2.2 2.3

Structure of TECHNEAU Hazard Database


Introduction Structure of the Hazard Database Review of TECHNEAU Hazard Database

11
11 11 15

3 4

Proposed methodology for hazard identification References

19 21 23
24 27 30 31 33 35 53 58 62 66 68 70

Appendix 1 to 12: TECHNEAU Hazard Database


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Surface water catchment Groundwater catchment Surface water intake and transport Surface water infiltration Groundwater and infiltration, water abstraction and transport Treatment Reservoirs and pumps Transport and distribution Internal piping Consumer and taps Organization Future hazards (including the whole drinking water system)

Appendix 13: Methodology for hazard identification by using the THDB

76

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1 Introduction
1.1 Background

The main objective of WA 4 (Risk assessment and risk management) is to integrate risk assessments of the separate parts of a water supply system into a comprehensive decision support framework for cost-efficient risk management in safe and sustainable drinking water supply. The steps in the risk management process are represented in Figure 1. For a further description of the risk management process see Generic Framework and Methods for Integrated Risk Management in Water Safety Plans, TECHNEAU, 2007 [5].

Risk Analysis Define Scope Identify Hazards Estimate Risks


Qualitative Quantitative

Get new information

Update

Analyse sensitivity Risk Evaluation Define tolerability criteria


Water quality Water quantity

Develop supporting programmes Document and assure quality

Analyse risk reduction options


Ranking Cost-efficiency Cost-benefit

Report and communicate Risk Reduction/ Control Make decisions Treat risks Monitor

Review, approve and audit

Figure 1: The risk management process and the position of hazard identification [5].

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Another objective OF WA4 is to develop tools that the water utilities can apply when carrying out the risk assessment and risk management work. A conceptual structure model of the framework, which also includes the guides and tools that will be produced in WA 4, is presented in Figure 2. One of the first steps to be addressed in risk management is the identification and description of potential hazards, and therefore the TECHNEAU Hazard Database has been developed and presented in this report.

Generic Framework for Integrated Risk Management in Water Safety Plans

Guide on Integrated Risk Management Guide on Integrated Risk Analysis Guide on Risk Evaluation Guide on Risk Reduction/Control

TECHNEAU TRRDB WA 4 THDB TECHNEAU TECHNEAU RA Case Methods for TECHNEAU Decision Studies Risk Integrated Hazard support Reduction Risk Database Good tool Option Management examples! Database

Training seminars on RA and RM

TECHNEAU Toolbox

Figure 2

Conceptual structure model of the TECHNEAU Generic framework, including guiding reports and toolbox with the applied risk management tools provided in WA 4

Two different approaches for hazard identification can be applied: a bottomup approach and a top-down approach. The bottom-up approach has its origin in the recorded experience of the staff directly involved in operation and maintenance. In general, the information gathered is suitable for the assets of the water supply system. It has the disadvantage that focus can be given to well known incidents or that the subjective information can be used. The top-down approach is based on a description of a generic water supply process. As the supply process consists of a wide variety of potential elements, a generic list is extensive. The approach presented in this report is a top-down approach and can be used as a complement to the bottom-up approach.

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1.2 Objectives

The objective of this database is to help end-users working in water supply systems with the identification of relevant hazards by providing a catalogue with potential hazards of technical, environmental or human origin for the entire system. This report aims to guide end-users through the hazard identification process, providing a hazard database that could be used as a tool to identify hazards in a water supply system. In this report, the hazard database is also mentioned as THDB (TECHNEAU Hazard Data Base).
1.3 Methodology

One crucial aspect in setting-up a hazard identification database is the required level of detail. The database has to be generic for ease of use and at the same time be complete for providing sufficient information. The level of detail has been chosen so it can be regarded as a generic tool that can be applied in many different water supply systems. As the process of water supply is very complex, the database can never be a complete list but be used as a complement to the hazard identification process carried out by the local system experts. The authors opinion is that the most important aspects of the water supply process have been covered. Though, we realize that some parts are still missing, (e.g. the softening process) as this database mainly is intended to be used as a complement. The purpose of this document is a thorough review of the main existing hazards that may cause risks in the drinking water supply system. Existing national checklists and databases have been taken into consideration during the preparation of the hazard database [7] - [12]. Hazards derived from possible futures, described in WA 1, are also included into this report (Appendix 12). The description of the existing and future hazards will be used in the subsequent work packages in WA 4.

1.4

Todays hazards

Traditionally, hazard identifications are performed for separate parts of the water supply system. Within the TECHNEAU project, the water supply system is regarded as a whole and the identification of hazards is done from the raw water source to the consumers tap. The consequences of hazards are related to all the stages of the water supply and the chain of cause and consequences is evaluated through the process. Applying this holistic view helps water companies in preventing sub-optimization of risk management when focusing on specific aspects of water supply. The hazards identified in this report are internal as well as external. Internal hazards are mostly related to failures or the absence of infrastructure. External hazards are for instance source water contamination, degradation of mains due to aggressive soils or terrorist actions.

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The hazards identified in this report are general hazards of technical, geographical or human origin, having direct effect on the infrastructure for water supply. Other types of hazards, for example of political or economical origin are not assessed specifically in this report. To limit the scope, the database focuses on the primary process of water supply, while supporting activities like buildings, constructions, electrical installations are not addressed.

1.5

Future hazards

To manage risks effectively it is important to identify todays hazards as well as future hazards. Based on a literature review, interviews, evaluation work carried out at Chalmers University of Technology, and contributions from WA 1 partners in the SEPTEDOR (Socio-cultural, Economical, Political, Technical, Ecological, Demographic, Organizatorial and Risk) analysis, major future trends have been identified. The implications of these trends for water supply have been studied and the following categories of hazards have been identified: Sabotage and terrorist attacks Conflicts New chemicals and changed chemical pathways Emerging pathogens Public concern Climate changes Aging distribution systems

The identified future hazards are presented in Appendix 12. For a more detailed description of the future hazards, see Report on trends regarding future risks, TECHNEAU, 2007 [4].

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2 Structure of TECHNEAU Hazard Database


2.1 Introduction

For a proper identification of hazards the boundaries and structure of the system have to be defined. Within this project the water supply system is defined as all physical and organizational structures for the supply of drinking water, stretching out from the catchment area to the customer (from source to tap). Hazards related to the handling of water by consumers at home are covered as well, as these types of hazards can be of importance for the quality of the consumed drinking water, especially for consumers that do not have in-house service connections. As defined in Chapter 1, the hazards identified are related to the primary process of water supply.
2.2 Structure of the Hazard Database

The water supply system is subdivided into 12 sub-systems, of which 10 are physical sub-systems representing the installations, one is a non-physical subsystem representing organizational aspects, and one is representing future hazards. A flow-diagram presenting these sub-systems is given in Figure 3. All hazards identified in these 12 sub-systems are listed in the hazard database presented in Appendices 1 - 12. The breakdown, as given in this flow-diagram, is related to the Generic system flow diagram as presented in the Water Safety Plans, which is described in the third edition of the Drinking Water Quality Guidelines of the WHO [2].

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12. Future hazards

Figure 3: Water supply system subdivided into 12 sub-systems. (SW = surface water, GW = ground water, IW = Infiltration water)

The hazard database is presenting the identified hazards in a table at a subsystem level, as in Figure 2, but is also further sub-divided into component and element levels. At the component level the most important elements are given and at the element level the most relevant hazards are given in combination with a description of the cause of the hazard, the hazard type and the consequences. The format of the hazard database is derived from the Water Safety Plan approach [2]. The different components are presented in Table 1. A preview of the TECHNEAU hazard database is given in Figure 4. In the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality [ 6] and Water Safety Plans [2] the following definitions are used: A hazard is a biological, chemical, physical or radiological agent that has the potential to cause harm. A hazardous event is an incident or situation that can lead to the presence of a hazard (what can happen and how). Within TECHNEAU a more broad definition of a hazard is given, as the project focuses on both water quality and water quantity. The hazard database makes use of the definitions given in Table 2.

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Table 1: Subdivision of sub-systems into components.


Sub-system 1. Surface water catchment 2. Groundwater catchment (including protection zones) 3. Surface water intake and transport 4. Surface water infiltration Components 1.1. Catchment area 1.2. Monitoring system 2.1. Catchment area 2.2. Monitoring system 3.1. Surface water intake 3.2. Surface water transport 3.3. Monitoring system 4.1. Infiltration borehole(s) or pounds and surroundings 4.2. Catchment area 4.3. Monitoring system 5.1. Water abstraction facility 5.2. Ground water transport 5.3. Monitoring system 6.1. Treatment, generic hazards 6.2. Chemicals used for treatment and disinfection 6.3. Solids removal / screens 6.4. Coagulation / flocculation 6.5. Rapid sand filtration 6.6. Disinfection A. Chlorination B. UV disinfection C. Ozone disinfection 6.7. Membrane filtration 6.8. Slow sand filtration 6.9. Activated carbon filtration 7.1. Clear water reservoir 7.2. Pumping station 7.3. Valves (both in reservoirs as in pumping stations) 8.1. Network 8.2. Water meter and non return valves 9.1. Drinking water installation 10.1. Water collection 10.2. Water storage and transportation 11.1. Organization 12.1. Source water 12.2. Treatment 12.3. Distribution 12.4. Consumers

5. Groundwater and infiltration, water abstraction and transport 6. Treatment

7. Reservoirs and pumps (either directly after treatment or in the distribution system) 8. Transport and distribution (from trunk main to the water meter) 9. Internal piping 10. Consumer and taps (including communal taps) 11. Organization 12. Future hazards (related to the entire drinking water system)

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Sub-system

Element Component

Sub-system

Figure 4: Preview of the TECHNEAU hazard database.

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Table 2: Definitions applied in the hazard database.


Element: Hazard: Lowest level of the system at which hazards are described. A source of potential harm or a situation with a potential of harm (e.g. a biological, chemical, physical or radiological agent or circumstances that has the potential to have a negative effect on the supply of safe and sufficient water). Reference number of the hazard. An event which can cause harm (e.g. an incident or situation that can lead to the presence of a hazard, what can happen and how). Indication of the origin of the hazardous event. D: design-related O: operation-related E: external-related OS: consequence of a hazard in other subsystem OS ref: reference of other sub-system Indication of the type of hazard. Biolog.: biological Chemic.: chemical Rad./ phys.: radiological or physical (including turbidity) Unavail.: insufficient availability of water supplied to customers Safety: safety to personnel External damage: external damage to third parties, including liability Description of potential consequences of the hazard to other sub-systems at firstly and the consumer secondly. Reference of the sub-system affected by the hazard. Column to be used by the end-user for marking the identified hazards.

Reference: Hazardous event:

Type of hazardous event:

Type of hazard:

Consequence description:

Consequence to sub-system: Rel. hazard

2.3

Review of TECHNEAU Hazard Database

The identification of possible hazards has been carried out by reviewing literature, interviewing experts, from previous experiences from the WA 4 partners and from the case study work in WA 4. For an overview of the used literature, see Chapter 4. The sub-systems have been set up by the TECHNEAU partners, for the contribution of each partner see Table 3.

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Table 3: Contribution of the TECHNEAU partners Sub-system 1. SW catchment 2. GW catchment 3. SW intake and transport 4. SW Infiltration 5. GW/IW abstraction and transport 6. Treatment 7. Reservoirs and pumps 8. Transport and distribution 9. Internal piping 10. Consumer and taps 11. Organization 12. Future hazards TECHNEAU partner Chalmers University of Technology TZW, SZU and Chalmers University of Technology Chalmers University of Technology TZW and SZU TZW and SZU SINTEF, RWTH and Chalmers University of Technology Kiwa Water Research Kiwa Water Research Kiwa Water Research WRC SA /SWUE SINTEF Chalmers University of Technology

In February 2007 the preliminary report version of this report has been made, see Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems [1]. This report has been updated with the information from six case studies carried out by the TECHNEAU partners in WA 4 and committed end-users. Through these case studies the database have been tested and improved (to this updated version). The contribution from each WA 4 partner for updating the database is given in Table 4. Testing of the database has also been done by the Riga Water Company.

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Table 4: Updates and improvements by case-studies Responsible Chalmers SZU TZW End-user Case study town Gteborg Sweden Beznice Czech Republic Freiburg-Ebnet Germany Riga Latvia Parts checked Total THDB Total THDB Total THDB Total THDB (except treatment) Subsystem 6 Total THDB

SINTEF/ RWTH Kiwa

Bergen Norway Amsterdam The Netherlands

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3 Proposed methodology for hazard identification


This methodology gives a guide to end-users on the process to identify relevant hazards in the system for water supply. Several experiences on hazard identification by using the THDB have been gathered from testing in different water supply systems. The lessons learned are collected in order to facilitate the hazard identification process for the end-users. In Appendix 13 a detailed description of the hazard identification process is presented. To help also inexperienced users to get started with risk identification, the information in this appendix is relatively detailed. The hazard identification process can be carried out by following the steps in Appendix 13, which are summarized in Figure 5. Apart from using the hazard database, following the proposed method in this document, it can also be regarded as a straightforward check-list.

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1. OBJECTIVES

2. SPLIT UP THE SYSTEM AND SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

3. ASSEMBLE A TEAM

4. INTERVIEWS WITH EXPERTS

5. CONTACT WITH PARTICIPANTS AND ORGANIZATION OF MEETINGS

6. PREPARATION OF MEETINGS

7. SESSIONS 7a. Introduction 7b. THDB 7c. Definition of results.

8. REPORTING AND FEED-BACK

Figure 5: Guidelines for the hazard identification process.

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4 References
[1] Beuken, R., et. al. (2007) Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems, TECHNEAU (D4.1.1/2). Davison A, G. Howard, M. Stevens, P. Callan, L. Fewtrell, D. Deere, and J. Bartram (2005) Water Safety Plans, Managing drinking-water quality from catchment to consumer. World Health Organization, WHO/SDE/WSH/05.06. IEC (1996) IEC60300-3-9, Risk Management - Part 3: guide to risk analysis of technological systems, International Electrotechnical Commission. Rosn, L., and A. Lindhe (2007) Trend report Report on trends regarding future risks, TECHNEAU. Rosn, L., P. Hokstad, A. Lindhe, S. Sklet, and J. Rstum (2007) Generic Framework and Methods for Integrated Risk Management in Water Safety Plans, TECHNEAU. WHO (2006), Guidelines for drinking-water quality, First addendum to third edition. World Health Organization, Geneva.

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[ 6]

Literature used as a reference for the TECHNEAU Hazard Database: [7] DVGW (2006) Richtlinien fr Trinkwasserschutzgebiete; I. Teil: Schutzgebiete fr Grundwasser. Technische Regel, Arbeitsblatt W 101, June 2006. Glucina, K., A. Alvarez, and J.M. Lan (2000) Assessment of an integrated membrane system for surface water treatment, Desalination 132, 73-82. Lipp, P. and G. Baldauf (2002) Application of out-in MF/UF-systems for drinking water treatment with air supported backwash three case studies, Desalination 147, 63-68. Lozier, J., M. Kitis, C. Colvin, J.H. Kim, B. Mi, and B. Marinas (2004) Microbial removal and integrity monitoring of high-pressure membranes, Awwa Research Foundation. Nadebaum, P., M. Chapman, R. Morden, and S. Rizak (2004) A Guide To Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment For Drinking Water Supplies, Cooperative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment, Research Report Number 11.

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

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[12]

Public Health Risk Management Plan Guides, Ministry of Health, New Zealand, available on the Ministry of Healths Web site: www.moh.govt.nz. Sturm, S. (2005) Schutz von Wassergewinnungsgebieten - Das neue DVGW-Arbeitsblatt W 101. Verffentlichungen aus dem Technologiezentrum Wasser, 28 (ISSN: 1434-5765), 7592, Karlsruhe. Technische Regeln der Deutschen Vereinigung des Gas- und Wasserfaches e.V.: W 213-3, W 213-1, W 213-4, 213-5, W 217, W 218, W 219, W 220, W 223-1, W 225, W 290, W 294, W 1000. Vrouwenvelder, J.S., J.W.N.M. Kappelhof, S.G.J. Heijmann, J.C. Schippers, and D. van der Kooij (2003) Tools for fouling diagnosis of NF and RO membranes and assessment of the fouling potential of feed water, Desalination 157, 361-365.

[13]

[14]

[15]

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Appendix 1 to 12: TECHNEAU Hazard Database


In the following appendices the hazard database for the sub-systems are presented. 1 Surface water catchment 2 Groundwater catchment 3 Surface water intake and transport 4 Surface water infiltration 5 Groundwater and infiltration water abstraction and transport 6 Treatment 7 Reservoirs and pumps 8 Transport and distribution 9 Internal piping 10 Consumer and taps 11 Organization 12 Future hazards

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1. Surface water catchment


Element Hazard Ref. Hazardous event Type of hazardous event D 1.1 Catchment area
Catchment zone Catchment zone Catchment zone Contamination of catchment zone Contamination of catchment zone Contamination of catchment zone 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 Industrial discharge of chemicals Industrial discharge of biological matter Emissions during accidents (fire or explosions) e.g. industrial accidents or forest fire Traffic accidents with ships, trains, vehicles and planes Toxic chemicals from air deposits or air pollution Nuclear power accident X X X X X X Contaminated water (chemicals) Contaminated water (pathogens) Contaminated water (chemicals) 3 and 4 3 and 4 3 and 4

Type of hazard Biolog. Che mic. Rad./ phys Unavail. Safety External damage

Potential consequences Description To sub system

OS

Ref. OS.

Rel. hazard

Catchment zone Catchment zone Catchment zone

Contamination of catchment zone Contamination of catchment zone Contamination of catchment zone (directly through the water, or indirectly through the air) Contamination of catchment zone Contamination of catchment zone Contamination of catchment zone

1.1.4 1.1.5 1.1.6

X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X

Contaminated water (chemicals) Contaminated water (chemicals) Contaminated water (radionucleids)

3 and 4 3 and 4 3 and 4

Catchment zone Catchment zone Catchment zone

1.1.7

Emissions and leakage, oil spills (MTBE) by shipping or traffic Harbour activities

Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens) X Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens) Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens). Nutrient load in water. Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens)

3 and 4

1.1.8

3 and 4

1.1.9

Latrines deposits from boats, etc.

3 and 4

Catchment zone

Contamination of catchment zone

1.1.10

Intensive fishery, fish farming, massive fish death

3 and 4

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Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O E


X

Type of hazard Biolog. Che mic.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Contaminated water (chemicals). Insufficient raw water. Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals). Insufficient raw water Contaminated water (sediment, chemicals, pathogens)

OS

Ref. OS.

Rad./ phys

Unavail.
X

Safety

To sub system
3 and 4

Rel. hazard

Catchment zone

Contamination of catchment zone

1.1.11

Disrupted inflow such as failure of dams and extreme runoff Sewer overflows due to rainfalls or failures

Catchment zone

Contamination of catchment zone

1.1.12

3 and 4

Catchment zone

Contamination of catchment zone

1.1.13

Erosion of sediments by dredging or shipping

3 and 4

Catchment zone Catchment zone

Contamination of catchment zone Contamination of catchment zone

1.1.14

Erosion into catchment with release of soil, sand or contaminants Earthquake, landslides

Contaminated water (chemicals) X Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals). Insufficient raw water. Contaminated water (salinity in elevated levels) X Insufficient raw water Warm raw water to the treatment. Contaminated water (pathogens, nutrient load, pharmaceuticals) Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals, nutrient load)

3 and 4

1.1.15

3 and 4

Catchment zone

Contamination by leakage of sea water into the fresh water Shortage of water Raw water temperature above 25 C Contamination of catchment zone

1.1.16

Salt intrusions from the sea

3 and 4

Catchment zone Catchment zone Catchment zone

1.1.17 1.1.18

Drought, blockage of water upstream or abstraction Climate or cooling water from power plants Disposal of manure

X X X

3 and 4 3 and 4

1.1.19

3 and 4

Catchment zone

Contamination of catchment zone

1.1.20

Runoff from agriculture and urban green areas containing fertilizers, sludge, herbicides, etc

3 and 4

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Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O E


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Contaminated water (chemicals) Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals, nutrient load) Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals, nutrient load)

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic.
X

Rad./ phys

Unavail.

Safety

To sub system
3 and 4

Rel. hazard

Catchment zone Catchment zone

Contamination of catchment zone Contamination of catchment zone

1.1.21

Continuous leakage from landfills, contaminated soils or waste dumps Discharges of treated wastewater X

1.1.22

3 and 4

Catchment zone

Contamination of catchment zone

1.1.23

Contaminated storm water

3 and 4

Catchment zone

Contamination of catchment zone

1.1.24

Deliberate contamination by sabotage or terrorist action

Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals, radionucleids). Insufficient raw water. Contaminated water (pathogens)

3 and 4

Impoundme nt reservoir Impoundme nt reservoir

Contamination of reservoir Contamination of reservoir

1.1.25

Birds droppings or animals allowed to cross a protection zone Algae blooms (mostly during summer month's)

3 and 4

1.1.26

Contaminated water (algae, chemicals, nutrient load)

3 and 4

1.2 Monitoring system


Monitoring system Failure of monitoring system 1.2.1 Accident, defect, power failure, operational failure, sabotage, damaged monitoring devices X X X X X X X Contaminated water. Insufficient raw water. 3 and 4

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2. Groundwater catchment
Element Hazard Ref. Hazardous event Type of hazardous event D 2.1 Catchment area
Catchment area Contamination of aquifers 2.1.1 Contamination by industrial operations (including continuous discharge as well as installations, construction work and other) Contamination by waste water (e.g. by WWTP, sewers, latrines, sewage collection pipes passed through catchment area, etc.) Leaching of contaminants by built constructions (e.g. landfills using waste or contaminated ground, dumpsites, traffic facilities, installations for handling, storage and deposition of waste materials or excavation residues, etc.) Traffic, incl. accidents (railway tracks, airfields, roads, parking areas, petrol filling stations, air accidents) loss of oil by cars or boats Construction activities with interference in subsoil (e.g. waterway construction, installations for handling or storage of hazardous substances, facilities for construction workers; etc.) (incl. accidents) X X X X Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals, radionucleids) Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals). Nutrient loan in water. Contaminated water (chemicals) 5

Type of hazard Biolog. Che mic. Rad/ phys Unavail. Safety External damage

Potential consequences Description To sub system

OS

Ref. OS.

Rel. hazard

Catchment area

Contamination of aquifers

2.1.2

Catchment area

Contamination of aquifers

2.1.3

Catchment area

Contamination of aquifers

2.1.4

Contaminated water (chemicals)

Catchment area

Contamination of aquifers

2.1.5

Contaminated water (chemicals). Insufficient raw water.

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Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O E


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Contaminated water (chemicals, radionucleids)

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic.
X

Rad/ phys
X

Unavail.

Safety

To sub system
5

Rel. hazard

Catchment area

Contamination of aquifers

2.1.6

Increase of vulnerability due to mining activities, gravel pits, excavations uncovering the GW, construction of facilities for geothermal power purposes and /or small water supply systems Agricultural runoff and leach-out containing fertilizers, sludge, herbicides, etc. Manure spread or cattle in the zone

Catchment area

Contamination of aquifers

2.1.7

Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals). Nutrient load in water. Contaminated water (pathogens). Nutrient load in water. Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals)

Catchment area

Contamination of aquifers

2.1.8

Catchment area

Contamination of aquifers

2.1.9

Geophysical incidents (e.g. extreme hydraulic events such as torrential rain, floods, erosion, landslides, karstic land surface with open dolines; etc.) Accidents or spreading out of hazardous materials during recreational activities (e.g. mass rallies, fish ponds, shooting galleries, sports facilities incl. motor sports, horse-race grounds, zoo / animal reserves, camps, campsites; etc.), or military field exercises and training areas. Contamination by forestry activities, wild life activities, natural fowls, dead animals, bird pest (flu)

Catchment area

Contamination of aquifers

2.1.10

Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals)

Catchment area

Contamination of aquifers

2.1.11

Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals)

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Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O E


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals). Nutrient load in water.

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic.
X

Rad/ phys

Unavail.

Safety

To sub system
5

Rel. hazard

Catchment area

Infiltration of GW by alien water (e.g.: salt water intrusion, leaching of contaminated surface water... ) Shortage of ground water resources Reduced biological activity in the treatment Contamination of aquifers Contamination of aquifers

2.1.12

Wetlands & flood plains not hydraulically separated from the aquifer

Catchment area Catchment area Catchment area Catchment area

2.1.13

Ground water aquifer is not sufficiently fed or water is abstracted by others Water temperature under 4C Radioactivity fall-out Terrorist and vandalism actions

Unavailability of raw water Reduced biological activity in the treatment Contaminated water

2.1.14

2.1.15 2.1.16

X X X X

X X X

5 5

Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals, radionucleids). Insufficient raw water. Contaminated water. Insufficient raw water

2.2 Monitoring system


Monitoring system Failure of monitoring system 2.2.1 Accident, defect, power failure, operational failure, sabotage, damaged groundwater observation wells X X X X X X 5

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 29 -

August, 2008

3. Surface water intake and transport


Element Hazard Ref. Hazardous event Type of hazardous event D O E OS Ref. OS. Biolog. Che mic. Type of hazard Rad/ phys Unavail. Safety External damage Potential consequences Description To subsystem
4 and 6

Rel. hazard

3.1 Surface water intake


Intake construction Intake construction Intake construction Intake basin Shortage / unavailability of water Shortage / unavailability of water Pipe burst 3.1.1 Physical obstacles for the intake of raw water, ice formation Failure of the raw water intake Bad condition or external causes (e.g. landslides, heavy traffic) Water shortage or contamination leading to (partly) closing of intake, insufficient alternative raw water source Failure in the pumping system X X X X X 1 X Insufficient raw water Insufficient raw water X X Insufficient raw water Contaminated water. Insufficient raw water.

3.1.2

4 and 6

3.1.3

4 and 6

Contamination and / or unavailability of water Shortage / unavailability of water Power failure Pipe burst

3.1.4

4 and 6

Pumping systems

3.1.5

Insufficient raw water

4 and 6

3.2 Surface water transport


Pumps Raw water mains Monitoring system 3.2.1 3.2.2 Power interruption and no backup power supply Failure in mains or transport tunnels Accident, defect, power failure, operational failure, sabotage, damaged monitoring devices X X X X X X X X X X Unavailability of raw water Insufficient raw water Contaminated water. Insufficient raw water. 4 and 6 4 and 6

3.3 Monitoring system


Failure of monitoring system 3.3.1 X X X X X X 4 and 6

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 30 -

August, 2008

4. Surface water infiltration


Element Hazard Ref. Hazardous event Type of hazardous event D 4.1. Infiltration borehole(s) or pounds and surroundings
Water source area Direct contamination of infiltration boreholes and surrounding ground (bank) by man made activities (landfills, industrial waste outlets etc.) or accidents (e.g. traffic accidents) Contamination of groundwater system by polluted surface water infiltration 4.1.1 Leaching out of contaminants from accidents with trains, vehicles and planes, from landfills or wastewater discharge X X X X Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals) 2

Type of hazard Biolog. Che mic. Rad./ Unaphys vail. Safety External damage

Potential consequences Description To sub system

OS

Ref. OS.

Rel. hazard

Water source area

4.1.2

Intensive agricultural activities (farming, application of fertilizers and pesticides, wood preservatives etc.)

Contaminated water (pathogens, heavy metals, badly degradable organic compounds, nitrogen, phosphorous) X Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals) Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals, salts). Mechanical damage of abstraction sites. Contaminated water (chemicals)

Water source area Water source area

Direct contamination of water source area Direct contamination of infiltration boreholes and surroundings (bank) Direct contamination of water source area

4.1.3

Sabotage acts, terrorism or vandalism. Discharges from wastewaters, landfills, runoff, accidents or natural disasters (e.g. earthquake, flooding, landslide, fire). Bloom of toxic blue algae

4.1.4

Catchment area

4.1.5

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 31 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O E OS Ref. OS. Biolog. Che mic.

Type of hazard Rad./ Unaphys vail.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description To sub system


2

Safety

Rel. hazard

4.2. Catchment area


Catchment area Shortage of infiltrated water to the soil/aquifer of abstraction area 4.2.1 Human activity by building different structures alongside the river bank, poor land use management, irrigation in agriculture, poor soil conservation etc., preventing passage of water from surface water, clogging of the infiltration ponds/riverbank see Section: 1. Surface water, catchment area, i.e. 1.1 up to 1.4. (Industrial discharges, accidents) X Water shortage in the soil and then poor discharge (water quantity)

Catchment area

Contamination of ground water system (infiltration) because of polluted source surface water Conflicts

4.2.2

Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals)

Catchment area Catchment area Catchment area

4.2.3

Conflicting interests between ecological aspects and drinking water aspects Settling of pollutants from air

Political actions leading to water shortage Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals) Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals)

Contamination of ground water system Flood water entering the ground water system Failure of monitoring system

4.2.4

4.2.5

Flooding

4.3 Monitoring system


Monitoring system 4.3.1 Accident, defect, power failure, management failure, human mistake, sabotage, damaged groundwater observation wells X X X X X X Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals). Environmental pollution. 2

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 32 -

August, 2008

5. Groundwater and infiltration, water abstraction and transport


Element Hazard Ref. Hazardous event Type of hazardous event D 5.1 Water abstraction facility
Generic situation Ingress of shallow water 5.1.1 Trees, roots, cracks in concrete (e.g. in chamber walls) or collection gallery. X X X X X Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals). Damages to infrastructure. X Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals) X Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals) 6

Type of hazard Biolog. Che mic. Rad./ phys Unavail. Safety External damage

Potential consequences Description To sub system

OS

Ref. OS.

Rel. hazard

Generic situation Openings in system

Contamination of ground water Contamination through openings ( e.g. well-head, ventilation pipe, grit chamber, stilling basin, overflow pipe, doors...) Security failure, causing contamination Soil setting and hydraulic bypass Soil setting, flooding, chamber buoyancy, corrosive soil materials Clogging of wells and pumps

5.1.2

Infiltration of run-off water

5.1.3

Contamination by flooding, sabotage, animals, etc.

Asset protection (fences, closure) Bentonite layers Well chamber

5.1.4

Improper locking of the system, sabotage, etc.

Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals) Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals) Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals)

5.1.5

Improper or missing bentonite layers. Improper maintenance concept, flood alarm and sump pump lacking

5.1.6

Well chamber

5.1.7

Chemical composition of the aquifer water

Unsuitable composition of raw water.

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 33 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens)

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic.
X

Rad./ phys

Unavail.

Safety

To sub system
6

Rel. hazard

Infiltration dams

Contamination of ground water

5.1.8

Failures in operation of infiltration dams

5.2 Groundwater transport


Pumps Raw water mains Power failure Pipe burst 5.2.1 5.2.2 Power interruption and no backup power supply Bad condition of mains or external causes (e.g. landslides, heavy traffic) Accident, power failure, operational failure, sabotage, damaged monitoring devices X X X X X X X X X X Insufficient raw water. Insufficient raw water. 6 6

5.3 Monitoring system


Monitoring system Failure of monitoring system 5.3.1 X X X X X X Contaminated water. Insufficient raw water. 6

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 34 -

August, 2008

6. Treatment
Element Hazard Ref. Hazardous event Type of hazardous event D 6.1 Treatment, generic hazards
General Damage/destruc tion of treatment modules 6.1.1 Natural disasters (e.g. earthquakes, storms); fires; poor construction conditions of the buildings; etc. X X X X X X X Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Damages to infrastructure. Contaminated water. Damages to infrastructure. 7

Type of hazard Biolog. Che mic. Rad/ phys Unavail.. Safety External damage

Potential consequences Description To sub system

OS

Ref. OS.

Rel. hazard

General

Nuclear contamination (directly through the water, or indirectly through the air) Insufficient quantity of raw water Insufficient quality of raw water Wrong sampling of the water

6.1.2

Nuclear accident

Raw water

6.1.3

Hazards in raw water abstraction or transport

02

Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Reduced knowledge about real water quality

Raw water

6.1.4

Hazards in raw water abstraction or transport

02

Raw water

6.1.5

Contamination at sampling points (especially with negative pressures); sampling points no easily accessible. E.g. ineffective removal of contaminants and control of DBP (Disinfected ByProducts), lack of specific knowledge due to outsourcing, etc..

Design

Inadequate design of the treatment process in relation to raw water quality (at all or due to peak pollution events) and to local conditions.

6.1.6

01

Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply.

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 35 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply.

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic.
X

Rad/ phys
X

Unavail..
X

Safety
X

To sub system
7

Rel. hazard

Operation

Non-optimal operation or maintenance of treatment process

6.1.7

E.g. not adequate coagulants or oxidants are used, improper pH value is maintained, no proper dose of coagulant or oxidants is used, lack of specific knowledge due to outsourcing, etc. Flow meter is not calibrated X

Flow control

Non-optimal flow

6.1.8

Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens)

Use of materials

Contamination or wear due to the use of materials not suitable for contact with drinking water Submerging of pumps, etc and/or interruption of process Power interruptions

6.1.9

E.g. coatings, ion-exchange resins, iron not protected against corrosion, etc.

Installations in basement

6.1.10

Main leak of pipe, burst of wall

Contaminated water. Damage to infrastructures. Safety and environmental impacts. Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply.

Electrical power

6.1.11

No or unstable electrical power; no or failing back-up; automatic operation control switched off during storms and lightning; etc. Inappropriate maintenance scheme

Maintenanc e of assets

Failure of the maintenance

6.1.12

Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply.

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 36 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O E OS Ref. OS. Biolog.


X

Type of hazard Che mic.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description To sub system


7

Rad/ phys
X

Unavail..

Safety
X

Rel. hazard

6.2 Chemicals used for treatment or disinfection


Quality of chemicals Bad quality of chemicals 6.2.1 Problems at manufacturing and/or transport of chemicals; used of expired chemicals. X X Insufficient treatment. Contaminated water (chemicals). Blocking filters. Etc. Insufficient treatment. Contaminated water (chemicals). Blocking filters. Rapid corrosion of metals. Health impact to the staff

Dosing of chemicals

Improper dosing of chemicals

6.2.2

(a) failure of dosing unit incl. power supply; (b) no sufficient supply available; (c) personal (operational) failure; (d) incorrect measurement Inadequate storage of chemicals

Use of chemicals

Staff getting into undesired contact with chemicals Blockages in screening sleeves

6.2.3

No

6.3 Solids removal / screens


Screens 6.3.1 Incorrect screen size or inadequate cleaning X X X Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens, turbidity) 7

Screens

Blockages in screening sleeves

6.3.2

Floods, algal bloom or vandalism

6.4 Coagulation / flocculation


Raking system Excessive buildup of solids increase carryover and effect filter performance High coagulant residual or reduced capacity 6.4.1 Clarifier rake systems (scrapers) are not regularly maintained X X X X 6.5 to 6.9 and 7

Dosing

6.4.2

Too low or too high coagulant dose

Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens, turbidity..)

6.5 to 6.9 and 7

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 37 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Contaminants (e.g. flocculants) in the water after sedimentation or filtration Contaminated water (monomers)

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic.
X

Rad/ phys
X

Unavail..

Safety

To sub system
6.5 to 6.9 and 7

Rel. hazard

Mixing flocculation, pH-control

Insufficient flocculation

6.4.3

Improper coagulant mixing and/or flocculation; inappropriate flocculant or flocculation agent; improper pH control. Using polymers as flocculants containing nonflocculating-monomers Inappropriate pH, temperature and/or dispersing time of the dosing solution of flocculation agents, disturbing ingredients in the water the chemicals are dispersed with; precipitation due to stagnant regions in the water tank for flocculation agents build-up; etc. Insufficient turbulence for the initiation of aggregation; insufficient mixing of dosing mixture and water; influence of Ca, Mg, PO4, SO4, pH, acid capacity, dissolved organic matter; earth alkali (if polyacrylamid as flocculation agent); too short time between dosage of flocculant and flocculation agent; ozone in the water; existence of complex-binding organic substances or acid raw water when using aluminium as flocculation agent; etc. Failure of the dosing pump; power failure in an automatized controlled system

Coagulation / flocculation agents Sedimentati on basin

Monomers in the water

6.4.4

6.5 to 6.9 and 7 6.5 to 6.9 and 7

Inappropriate conditions during dispersion of flocculants or flocculation agents in the sedimentation basin.

6.4.5

Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens, turbidity)

Sedimentati on basin

Adverse conditions after adding the water-flocculant/ flocculant agent mixture to the water

6.4.6

Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens, turbidity)

6.5 to 6.9 and 7

Coagulation / flocculation agents

Incorrect dosing of the flocculants or flocculant agents

6.4.7

Contaminated water

6.5 to 6.9 and 7

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 38 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage


X

E
X

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic.
X

Rad/ phys
X

Unavail..
X

Safety
X

Description
Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens,...) Contaminated water (pathogens)

To sub system
6.5 to 6.9 and 7 6.5 to 6.9 and 7 6.5 to 6.9 and 7 6.5 to 6.9 and 7

Rel. hazard

Coagulation / flocculation process Coagulation / flocculation agents Settling tank Settling tank

Failure of the automatized, programmable control system Biological contamination during the flocculation Inadequate floc settling Improper design of setting tank

6.4.8

Power failure, programmable errors

6.4.9

Microbiological activity when using flocculation agent contaminated by yeast Wind and/or low temperatures Retention time too short; mechanical failure of the stirrer; up flow velocity too high; weir overflow rate too high; insufficient sludge draw-off; retention time too short; reaction zone and/or clarification zone not sized correctly; wrong media specifications; poor bubble formation; etc. Air release nozzles not kept clean or blockages not cleared; floc carry-over takes place Insufficient sampling frequency at control point; inappropriate monitoring program; malfunction of measuring instruments due to construction, operation system or maintenance

6.4.10

Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens) Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens)

6.4.11

Flotation/se ttling tank

Improper operation or inadequate desludging programme Failure of the monitoring of: physical (e.g. turbidity, flow, pH, Al/Fe-load), biological parameters (e.g. E. coli), pressure, chemical parameters

6.4.12

Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens)

6.5 to 6.9 and 7

Monitoring system

6.4.13

Delayed or no detection of contaminants in the water

6.5 to 6.9 and 7

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 39 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O E OS Ref. OS. Biolog.


X

Type of hazard Che mic.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description To sub system


6.6 to 6.9 and 7

Rad/ phys
X

Unavail..
X

Safety

Rel. hazard

6.5 Rapid sand filtration


Filter bed Filter damage 6.5.1 Deterioration; erratic hydraulic stress; filter blockage; air underneath the filter bed; reduced cleaning performance; pressure in closed filter layers related to hydro mechanical security devises or pressuretransducers; changing of the filter layers; intermixing of several layers in filters which are simultaneously cleaned with air and water; etc. Inappropriate filtration speed, filter material, running time, layer thickness; insufficient elimination of flocs and/or flocculants; high hydraulic load or variations in flow through the filters during the filter cycle; high particle load in incoming water; wrong choice or inadequate depth of the media; wrong media specifications; etc. Undesired particles in the raw water; cleaning intervals too low or failure in the cleaning procedure; during installation insufficient flushing after the start up operation of the filter; insufficient pre-treatment; shift in the particle-size distribution; etc. X X X Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens, turbidity). Damage in the filter.

Filter bed

Reduced filtration performance

6.5.2

8,1 or 2

Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens, turbidity).

6.6 to 6.9 and 7

Filter bed

Filter blockage

6.5.3

Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens, turbidity). No/insufficient water supply. Damage in the filter bed.

6.6 to 6.9 and 7

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 40 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens, turbidity). No/insufficient water supply. Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens, turbidity). Damage in the filter. Inefficient operation and more breakthrough

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic.
X

Rad/ phys
X

Unavail..
X

Safety

To sub system
6.6 to 6.9 and 7

Rel. hazard

Filter bed

Filter blockage

6.5.4

Undesired particles in the filter due to failure of micro sieves or inadequate design

Filter bed

Filter damage

6.5.5

Cleaning air contaminated with e.g. flies, pollen

6.6 to 6.9 and 7

Filter bed

Shorter filter runtime Incorrect flow

6.5.6

Changes in quality due to high turbidity in raw water or high dosage of Fe Failure of the flue damper or the dosing pump

6.6 to 6.9 and 7 6.6 to 6.9 and 7

Pump and flue damper

6.5.7

Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens, turbidity). No/insufficient water supply. Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens, turbidity). No/insufficient water supply.

Cleaning system

Contamination of the filter

6.5.8

Backpressure of the cleaning water; erratic distribution of the cleaning media due to changes in the support layer or other destruction in the filter layers; contaminants of the manufacturing process in the filter; etc. Cleaning media contaminated; not discarding of the first filtrated water after the cleaning; microbiological activity due to insufficient cleaning; chemical contamination downstream of the filter.

6.6 to 6.9 and 7

Cleaning system

Contamination of the water downstream of the filter

6.5.9

Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens, turbidity).

6.6 to 6.9 and 7

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 41 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O


X

Type of hazard Biolog. Che mic. Rad/ phys Unavail..


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


No/insufficient water supply.

OS

Ref. OS.

Safety

To sub system
6.6 to 6.9 and 7

Rel. hazard

Cleaning system

Disruption of the filtration

6.5.10

Disruption during cleaning process or maintenance or repair in combination with only one existing filtrationline Poor construction or operation of backwashing concept; poor performance of air scourers; blocked nozzles; uneven distribution of water and air. Sand not replaced when required Poor filter performance after washing.

Cleaning system

Improper or infrequent backwashing or improper washing equipment Improper filter media Lower removal efficiency during the early stage of rapid filter operation (filter ripening) Refeeding cleaning water Contaminants in waste water Failure of the automatized, programmable control system Little local knowledge on operation and the condition of the installation

6.5.11

Contaminated water (pathogens, algal formations)

6.6 to 6.9 and 7

Cleaning system Cleaning system

6.5.12

Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens) Contaminated water (pathogens).

6.6 to 6.9 and 7 6.6 to 6.9 and 7

6.5.13

Cleaning system Cleaning system Cleaning system

6.5.14

Wrong management of the feeding water Inappropriate cleaning water treatment Power failure, programmable errors

Contaminated water (pathogens). X X Environmental pollution, bad image X X X Several possibilities depends on the kinds of failures Inefficient operation

6.6 to 6.9 and 7 12

6.5.15

6.5.16

6.6 to 6.9 and 7 6.6 to 6.9 and 7

Monitoring

6.5.17

Monitoring on distance

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 42 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Delayed or no detection of contaminants in the filtered water, inappropriate operation

E
X

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic.
X

Rad/ phys
X

Unavail..
X

Safety

To sub system
6.6 to 6.9 and 7

Rel. hazard

Monitoring

Failure of monitoring

6.5.18

Absent or insufficient monitoring of the pressure difference and operational pressure; inappropriate monitoring and sampling concepts; malfunctioning measuring instrument; no manholes existing; etc.

6.6 Disinfection 6.6.A Chlorination


Gas chlorination Chlorine gas leakages 6.6.1 Chlorination facilities do not comply with safety regulations X X X X Delayed or no detection of contaminants in the filtered water, inappropriate operation. Contaminated water (pathogens) X Contaminated water (pathogens) Contaminated water (pathogens) 7

Gas chlorination Dosing system General

Unavailability of chlorine gas Malfunctioning dosing systems Particles in the water during the disinfection process Pathogens are protected against the disinfection Too short reaction time of disinfection agents in the water

6.6.2

Levels of gas bottles not checked; new bottles not ordered timeously; etc. Errors in chlorine solution concentration; blockages. Inappropriate pre-treatment X

6.6.3

6.6.B UV disinfection
6.6.4 X X X X 7

General

6.6.5

Pathogens in aggregates with mucus Incorrect dosing location X X

Contaminated water (pathogens) Contaminated water (pathogens)

General

6.6.6

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 43 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Contaminated water (pathogens)

E
X

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic.

Rad/ phys

Unavail..

Safety

To sub system
7

Rel. hazard

UV lamps

Too low UV dose

6.6.7

Decrease of lamp performance due to ageing or colour sediments on quartz tube. Electrical disruptions Incorrect specifications of lamps Power failure, programmable errors X

UV lamps Control system

Improper installation Failure of the automatized, programmable control system Power fluctuations Particles in the water during the disinfection process. Formation of DBP (Disinfectant By Products) Excessive ozone concentration Insufficient disinfection due to inadequate design No or inadequate air compression No or inadequate oxygen No or inadequate ozone generation

6.6.8 6.6.9

X X X X X X X X X

Contaminated water (pathogens) Several possibilities depends on the kinds of failures Contaminated water (pathogens) Contaminated water (pathogens)

7 7

Power supply General

6.6.10

No back-up power supply

6.6.C Ozone disinfection


6.6.11 Inappropriate pre-treatment. X X X X X 7

General

6.6.12

Bromide content in the raw water

1,2

Contaminated water (chemicals)

General

6.6.13

Insufficient contact time; insufficient reaction; too high dosage; etc. Insufficient contact time

Ozone release causing poisoning Contaminated water (pathogens)

No

Ozone contactor

6.6.14

Air compressor Oxygen supply Ozone generator

6.6.15 6.6.16 6.6.17

Failing air compressor Failing oxygen supply Failing ozone generator

X X X

X X X

X X X

Contaminated water (pathogens) Contaminated water (pathogens) Contaminated water (pathogens)

7 7 7

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 44 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Contaminated water (pathogens). Damage in ozone generator. Contaminated water (pathogens). Damage in ozone generator. Contaminated water (pathogens). Damage in ozone generator.

E
X

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic.

Rad/ phys

Unavail..

Safety

To sub system
7

Rel. hazard

Ozone generator

No or inadequate cooling system in the ozone generator Ozone dose too low

6.6.18

Failure in ozone generator cooling system

Ozone gas meter

6.6.19

Failure or wrong calibration of the gas meter.

Dissolved ozone meter

Ozone dose too low

6.6.20

Failure or wrong calibration of the dissolved ozone meter.

Ozone transfer lines

Leakage of ozone gas

6.6.21

Damage in ozone infrastructure

Contaminated water. Ozone pollution in environment and staff. Contaminated water (pathogens) Contaminated water (pathogens)

Side stream pump Bubble diffuser

Inadequate ozone dosing Decrease or irregular ozone transfer efficiency Insufficient disinfection Insufficient disinfection Insufficient disinfection Disruption of water to the disinfection Power fluctuations

6.6.22 6.6.23

Pump failure Diffuser clogging or gasket leakage

X X

X X

7 7

Ozone contactor Ozone contactor Ozone contactor Pumping system Power supply

6.6.24 6.6.25 6.6.26

Unusually high content of organic matter in raw water Water usage exceeding design flow Bromide content in the raw water Pumps failure X X

X X X

1,2 5 1,2

X X X X

Contaminated water (pathogens) Contaminated water (pathogens) Contaminated water (bromate, pathogens) X No/insufficient water supply Contaminated water (pathogens)

7 7 7

6.6.27

6.6.28

No back-up power supply

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 45 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O E OS Ref. OS. Biolog.


X

Type of hazard Che mic.


X

Potential consequences External damage


X

Rad/ phys
X

Unavail..
X

Safety
X

Description

To sub system
7

Rel. hazard

6.7 Membrane filtration


General Reduced filtration performance Destruction of membrane modules 6.7.1 Operational fault with automatized process by unqualified staff Structural damages, e.g. due to pressure shocks, cross flows, chemical damages or broken fibres, raw water bypass (due to failure of oring or glue line), etc. Change in quality of raw water or incoming water; inadequate cleaning methods in combination with high concentration of contaminants Erratic hydraulic stress, deterioration, inappropriate membrane material, exceeding the maximum pressure; chemicals in the incoming water being harmful for the membranes (accidental or deliberate pollution), incorrect dosage of chemicals for cleaning Large particles due to inadequate pre-treatment; pressure of the back flush is too high (for capillaries) Manufacture deficiencies, e.g.: faulty barrier layer coating + polymerization, glue line discontinuities, inadequately sealing the edges of membrane leaves X X Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Damage to infrastructures. Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Reduced capacity Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens)

Membrane module/ plant

6.7.2

Membrane

Membrane fouling

6.7.3

Membrane

Membrane damage

6.7.4

Membrane

Membrane breakthrough, fibre breakage Membrane imperfections

6.7.5

Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens) Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens)

Membrane

6.7.6

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 46 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O


X

Type of hazard Biolog. Che mic.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens). Health damage of the staff. Contaminated water (pathogens)

OS

Ref. OS.

Rad/ phys

Unavail..

Safety
X

To sub system
7

Rel. hazard

Membrane

Contamination of the water downstream of the filter Bacteria to treated water

6.7.7

No discard of the first filtrated water after the cleaning; stored chemicals released into the water downstream of the filter Bacterial growth on permeate side or internal surfaces

Outlet of membrane, pipe system, internal surfaces Pipe system, pumps Cleaning

6.7.8

Burst of pipes, pump failure DBP (Disinfection By Products) Wear at membrane components Failure of the compressor/the pneumatic system, or of the automatized, programmable control system. Monitoring failure of the membrane Failure of the monitoring of: physical (e.g. turbidity, flow, TMP), biological parameters (e.g. parasites), pressure, chemical parameters

6.7.9

Plugging due to algal bloom, artefacts, accumulation; wear; wrong design Disinfection of the membrane

No/insufficient water supply. Contaminated water (chemicals)

6.7.10

Cleaning

6.7.11

Frequent backwashing

Contaminated water. X X Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Several possibilities depends on the kinds of failures. Delayed or no detection of membrane failure Delayed or no detection of contaminants in the filtered water

Pneumatic system/ electronic system

6.7.12

Power failure; programmable errors; leakage in the air supply system

Monitoring

6.7.13

No particle counter or bubble test, pressure decay test Inappropriate monitoring and/or sampling. Malfunction of measuring instruments. Power failure.

Monitoring

6.7.14

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 47 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O E OS Ref. OS. Biolog. Che mic.

Type of hazard Rad/ phys Unavail..


X

Potential consequences External damage Description To sub system


7

Safety

Rel. hazard

6.8 Slow sand filtration


Slow filter Disruption of the filtration 6.8.1 Disruption during cleaning process, maintenance or repair in combination with only one existing filtrationline Inappropriate quality of incoming water X X No/insufficient water supply

Slow filter

Filter blockage

6.8.2

Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals). No/insufficient water supply. Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals). No/insufficient water supply.

Slow filter

Reduced filtration performance

6.8.3

Inappropriate filtration speed, filter material, running time, cleaning, layer thickness, filter adjustment; insufficient removal of the top layer; inappropriate adjustments during start up phase; absent or insufficient monitoring of pressure differences and operational pressure; etc. Blocking of the overflow pipe; extreme rainfalls; too low freeboard; etc. Deterioration, erratic hydraulic stress; rumpling of the filtration layer by small animals or insects; disturbance of microbial fauna in the filter or out washing of filter organisms; etc. Negative pressure in the pipes between the filters and the reservoirs because any valve is closed.

Slow filter

Filter breakage, damage of the filter Filter breakage, damage of the filter

6.8.4

Damage caused by the overflowing water Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals)

No

Slow filter

6.8.5

Out coming pipes

External water going into the pipes

6.8.6

Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals..)

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 48 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals..) Delayed or no detection of contaminants in the filtered water

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic.
X

Rad/ phys
X

Unavail..

Safety

To sub system
7

Rel. hazard

Monitoring

Bad quality of the sand Failure of the monitoring of: physical (e.g. turbidity, flow), biological parameters (e.g. parasites), pressure, chemical parameters Insufficient removal of target contaminants due to intrinsically insufficient adsorption capacity Insufficient removal of target contaminants due to intrinsically insufficient adsorption capacity Insufficient removal of target contaminants due to intrinsically insufficient adsorption capacity

6.8.7

Wrong control of sand quality when renewing the material of the filter. Inappropriate monitoring and sampling concepts, malfunction of measuring instruments. Power failure. X

Monitoring

6.8.8

6.9 Activated Carbon Filtration


Activated carbon filter 6.9.1 Quality of virgin or reactivated GAC is unsuitable/inadequate (adsorptive capacity, pore size distribution, pore surface area, grain size distribution) X X X X Contaminated water (chemicals) 7

Activated carbon filter

6.9.2

Constant or periodically insufficient empty bed contact time (EBCT)

Contaminated water (chemicals)

Activated carbon filter

6.9.3

Loss of GAC during back wash (velocity of back wash too high)

Contaminated water (chemicals)

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 49 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O E


X

Type of hazard Biolog. Che mic.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Contaminated water (chemicals)

OS

Ref. OS.

Rad/ phys

Unavail..

Safety

To sub system
7

Rel. hazard

Activated carbon filter

Insufficient removal of target contaminants due to depletion and/or obstruction of adsorption capacity Insufficient removal and/or release of target contaminants due to depletion and/or obstruction of adsorption capacity Insufficient removal and/or release of target contaminants due to depletion and/or obstruction of adsorption capacity Insufficient production capacity due increased head loss and/or to need for increased back wash frequency

6.9.4

Elevated concentration of adsorbing (target contaminants, NOM) and/or pore blocking (particles, turbidity) materials in water due to events in raw water source or upstream process steps Overestimation of the filtration run time before reactivation is necessary X X

Activated carbon filter

6.9.5

Contaminated water (chemicals)

Activated carbon filter

6.9.6

Velocity of backwash too high, so carbon with high load of adsorbed contaminants settles in deeper layers of the filter, where the concentrations of contaminants are much lower than in the top of the filter Increased head loss build up rates due to elevated particles concentrations (raw water or carry over) X

Contaminated water (chemicals)

Activated carbon filter

6.9.7

No/insufficient water supply

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 50 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O


X

Type of hazard Biolog. Che mic. Rad/ phys Unavail..


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


No/insufficient water supply

OS

Ref. OS.

Safety

To sub system
7

Rel. hazard

Activated carbon filter

Insufficient production capacity due increased head loss and/or to need for increased back wash frequency Insufficient production capacity due increased head loss and/or to need for increased back wash frequency Stop the supply of water for the carbon filtration Escape of activated carbon to the treated water Carbon dust in the air of the plant Adverse and/or excessive biological activity in filter (causing oxygen depletion, biological contamination, etc.)

6.9.8

Increased head loss build up rates due to unsuitable (too small) GAC grain size

Activated carbon filter

6.9.9

Increased head loss build up rates due to ineffective back wash protocol

No/insufficient water supply

Activated carbon filter Activated carbon filter

6.9.10

Equipment failure (pumps, valves, nozzles, operating systems, etc) Failure / insufficient performance activated carbon retaining devices (sieves, supportive layer) Filling of activated carbon in dry state (not slurry) Too low filtration velocity or stagnant water in filters due to production halt. X

No water supply

6.9.11

Contaminated water (carbon particles) X Reduced safety for the staff Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens)

Activated carbon filter Activated carbon filter

6.9.12

No

6.9.13

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 51 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens)

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic.
X

Rad/ phys
X

Unavail..

Safety

To sub system
7

Rel. hazard

Activated carbon filter

Adverse and/or excessive biological activity in filter (causing oxygen depletion, biological contamination, etc.) Adverse and/or excessive biological activity in filter (causing oxygen depletion, biological contamination, etc.) Adverse and/or excessive biological activity in filter (causing oxygen depletion, biological contamination, etc.) Adverse and/or excessive biological activity in filter (causing oxygen depletion, biological contamination, etc.)

6.9.14

Decrease in pH

Activated carbon filter

6.9.15

High water temperature

Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens)

Activated carbon filter

6.9.16

Prolonged wet storage of activated carbon before use

Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens)

Activated carbon filter

6.9.17

Increased biological growth in filters due to ineffective back wash protocol

Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens)

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 52 -

August, 2008

7. Reservoirs and pumps


Element Hazard Ref. Hazardous event Type of hazardous event D 7.1 Clear Water reservoir
General No water supply / Contamination of water 7.1.1 "Damage or destruction of reservoir due to natural disasters (earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, landslides, volcanic eruptions)" Damage or destruction of reservoir due to humancaused accidents (car, truck or aircraft collision, landslides caused by reservoir leakage or nearby excavation) Intentional damage or destruction of reservoir (terrorism, sabotage, vandalism, arson) X X X X X X X X No/insufficient water supply to customers and fire fighting. Contamination of water No/insufficient water supply to customers and fire fighting. Contamination of water No/insufficient water supply to customers and fire fighting. Contamination of water No/insufficient water supply to customers and fire fighting. Contamination of water Improper pump control, inadequate pressure in network 8

Type of hazard Biolog. Che mic Rad/ phys Unavail. Safety External damage

Potential consequences Description To sub system

OS

Ref. OS.

Rel. hazard

General

No water supply / Contamination of water

7.1.2

General

No water supply / Contamination of water

7.1.3

General

No water supply / Contamination of water

7.1.4

Reservoir structure damage due to excessive internal pressure build-up

General

No/deficient water supply

7.1.5

Wrong water level metering or data processing system malfunctioning

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 53 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O E


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Contamination of water with pathogens, toxins, toxic chemicals, or radioactive materials. Restriction on water use. Consumers' panic and loss of confidence Water contaminated with chemicals and/or with taste and odour Water contaminated with pathogens and/or chemicals, and/or with taste and odour Water with pathogenic and/or chemical contaminants, dust and/or vermin

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic
X

Rad/ phys
X

Unavail.
X

Safety
X

To sub system
8

Rel. hazard

General

Contamination of water

7.1.6

Intentional contamination of the network water (terrorism, sabotage, vandalism, arson)

General

Contamination of water

7.1.7

Introduction of contaminants by improper use of material or operational errors Poor hygiene during reservoir construction, repair or cleaning

Reservoir

Contamination of water

7.1.8

Reservoir

Contamination of water

7.1.9

Intrusion of contaminants (e.g., bird and animal faeces), dust or vermin through improperly sealed access openings or hatches and faulty or fouled screening of vents and overflow pipes Intrusion of contaminants thought cracks in the reservoir roof

Reservoir

Contamination of water

7.1.10

Water with pathogenic and/or chemical contaminants, dust and/or vermin Water with micro organisms and/or chemical contaminants X Water with poor microbiological quality and with taste and odour

Reservoir

Contamination of water

7.1.11

Intrusion of contaminants thought cracks in the reservoir walls or floor Aging of water due to low turnover rates or uneven hydraulic mixing

Reservoir

Water quality deterioration

7.1.12

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 54 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Water with poor microbiological quality and with taste, odour and colour Water with poor microbiological quality and with taste and odour

OS
X

Ref. OS.
6

Che mic

Rad/ phys
X

Unavail.

Safety

To sub system
8

Rel. hazard

Reservoir

Water quality deterioration

7.1.13

Excessive accumulation of sediments on the reservoir floor

Reservoir

Water quality deterioration

7.1.14

Excessive biofilm accumulation on tank walls

7.2 Pumping station


General No/low pressure/flow in network water. Network water contamination No/low pressure/flow in network water. Network water contamination No/low pressure/flow in network water. Network water contamination No/low pressure/flow in network water. Network water contamination 7.2.1 "Destruction of pumping station due to natural disasters (earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, landslides, volcanic eruptions. Damage or destruction of pumping station due to human-caused accidents (car, truck or aircraft collision, landslides caused by leakage or nearby excavation) Intentional damage or destruction of pumping station (terrorism, sabotage, vandalism, arson) X X X X X X No/insufficient water supply to customers and fire fighting. Contamination of water No/insufficient water supply to customers and fire fighting. Contamination of water No/insufficient water supply to customers and fire fighting. Contamination of water No/deficient network-water pressure/flow. Contaminant intrusion into network water. 8 X

General

7.2.2

General

7.2.3

Pumps

7.2.4

Damage or destruction of network pipes due to water hammer, caused by absent or malfunctioning surge tanks

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 55 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


No/deficient network-water pressure/flow. Contaminant intrusion into network water. No/insufficient water supply to customers and fire fighting. Contamination of water Excessive pressure in the network. Increased pipe leakage/burst. No/insufficient water supply to customers and fire fighting. Contamination of water Network water contamination (chemicals, micro organisms)

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic
X

Rad/ phys
X

Unavail.
X

Safety

To sub system
8

Rel. hazard

Pumps

No/low pressure/flow in network water. Network water contamination No/low pressure/flow in network water. Network water contamination Excessive pressure in network water No/low pressure/flow in network water. Network water contamination Water contamination

7.2.5

Pump malfunctioning/failure

Pumps

7.2.6

Pump stoppage due to power failure/disruption and failing power back-up supply

Pumps

7.2.7

Excessively high pressure in the network due to wrong settings or deficient control of pumps operation Low pressure in the network due to wrong settings, deficient metering or deficient control of pumps operation Contaminants pulled in at the suction side of a pump

Pumps

7.2.8

Pumps

7.2.9

Pumps

Water contamination

7.2.10

Introduction of pollutants by improper use of material or operational errors Poor hygiene during pump installation, maintenance or repair

Water contaminated with chemicals and/or with taste and odour Water contaminated with pathogens and/or chemicals, and/or with taste and odour X Network sediments re-suspension

Pumps

Water contamination

7.2.11

Pumps

Water contamination

7.2.12

Pump operation leading to rapid changes in water flow rate or direction

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 56 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O E OS Ref. OS. Biolog.


X

Type of hazard Che mic


X

Potential consequences External damage Description To sub system


8

Rad/ phys

Unavail.
X

Safety

Rel. hazard

7.3 Valves (both in reservoirs as in pumping stations)


Isolation and control valves No/low pressure/flow in network water. Network water contamination No/low pressure/flow in network water. Network water contamination Contamination of water 7.3.1 Inadequate designed or operated valve, malfunctioning valve X X No/insufficient water supply to customers and fire fighting. Contamination of water No/insufficient water supply to customers and fire fighting. Contamination of water Water contaminated with chemicals and/or with taste and odour Water contaminated with pathogens and/or chemicals, and/or with taste and odour X Excessive pressure in the network. Increased pipe leakage/burst.

Control valves

7.3.2

Damage or destruction of network pipes due to water hammer

Control valves

7.3.3

Introduction of contaminants by improper use of material or operational errors Poor hygiene during installation, maintenance or repair of valves

Control valves

Contamination of water

7.3.4

Pressure reducing valves

Excessive pressure in network water

7.3.5

Inadequate settings or control, or malfunctioning/failure of pressure reducing valve

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 57 -

August, 2008

8. Transport and distribution


Element Hazard Ref. Hazardous event Type of hazardous event D 8.1 Network
Pipes No/insufficient water supply 8.1.1 Pipe burst due to extreme external-stresses (e.g. storms, earthquakes, landslides, freezing and thawing, traffic incidents, etc) Pipe burst due to increased external-stresses on pipe (e.g. traffic, soil movement, etc) in combination with a reduced pipe condition Pipe burst due to bad condition of pipe (e.g. internal /external corrosion) Pipe burst/leakage due to increased internal-stress (e.g. pressure, transients) Loss of pipes' hydraulic capacity due to scaling/tubercle formation Insufficient network capacity due to inadequate design X X X X X No/insufficient water supply to consumers and fire fighting No/insufficient water supply to consumers and fire fighting No/insufficient water supply to consumers and fire fighting No/insufficient water supply to consumers and fire fighting No/insufficient water supply to consumers and fire fighting No/insufficient water supply to consumers and fire fighting Contaminated water (turbidity, chemicals, pathogens) 9

Type of hazard Biolog. Che mic Rad./ phys Una vail. Safety External damage

Potential consequences Description To sub system

OS

Ref. OS.

Rel. hazard

Pipes

No/insufficient water supply

8.1.2

Pipes

No/insufficient water supply

8.1.3

Pipes

No/insufficient water supply

8.1.4

Pipes

No/insufficient water supply

8.1.5

Pipes

No/insufficient water supply

8.1.6

Pipes

Network water contamination

8.1.7

Poor hygiene during pipes installation/repair

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 58 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens)

E
X

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic
X

Rad./ phys

Una vail.

Safety

To sub system
9

Rel. hazard

Pipes

Network water contamination

8.1.8

Intrusion of contaminated water due to low (negative) pressure in the network, in combination with cracks or leaking joints Migrating substances from polymer material (e.g. vinyl chloride leaching from PVC pipes) Leaching of contaminants from cement made or lined pipes

Pipes

Network water contamination

8.1.9

Contaminated water (e.g. with vinyl chloride) Water contaminated with metals (e.g., aluminium, arsenic, barium, chromium, cadmium) X Water contaminated with PAHs and with taste and odour Water contaminated with chemicals (gasoline and diesel constituents, solvents, etc.) X Water contamination (pathogens, chemicals) due to backflow of nonpotable water or fluids into network Water of poor microbiological quality and with taste and odour Water of poor microbiological quality

Pipes

Network water contamination

8.1.10

Pipes

Network water contamination Network water contamination

8.1.11

Leaching of organic compounds from bituminous sealants and linings Permeation of organicpollutants in the soil through rubber joints or the (PE or PVC) pipe wall Backflow or back-siphonage of non-potable water (e.g., wastewater) or fluids (e.g., industrial)

Pipes

8.1.12

Pipes

Network water contamination

8.1.13

Pipes

Deterioration of water quality

8.1.14

Too long residence times of water in the network

Pipes

Deterioration of water quality

8.1.15

Deficit in disinfectant residual, excess in water AOC/BOC

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 59 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O


X

Type of hazard Biolog. Che mic


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Water with taste and odour, increased formation of disinfection byproducts

OS
X

Ref. OS.
6

Rad./ phys
X

Una vail.

Safety

To sub system
9

Rel. hazard

Pipes

Deterioration of water quality

8.1.16

Too high dosage of disinfectant residual (e.g., malfunctioning dosing pump(s)) "Re-suspension of sediments or sloughing of tubercle/biofilm due to rapid changes in water

Pipes

Deterioration of water quality

8.1.17

flow rate or direction"

Wate r disco lorati on and incre ased micro bial conte nts X X X X

Manholes, fire hydrants, meter boxes, connections, hatches (all access points to the water)

Network water contamination

8.1.18

Intentional contamination of the network water (terrorism, sabotage, vandalism, arson)

Contamination of water with pathogens, toxins, toxic chemicals, or radioactive materials. Restriction on water use. Consumers' panic and loss of confidence No/insufficient water supply to consumers and fire fighting. Disruption of the system operational control.

Valves and boosting pumps

No/insufficient water supply

8.1.19

Malfunctioning or failure of valves and/or (boosting) pumps

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 60 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens)

E
X

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic
X

Rad./ phys

Una vail.

Safety

To sub system
9

Rel. hazard

Valves

Network water contamination

8.1.20

Valve pit flood allowing contaminants intrusion thought defective valve sealing, in combination with low pressure in the network Inadequate settings or control, or malfunctioning/failure of pressure reducing valve Defective or clogged fire hydrant

Pressure reducing valves Fire hydrant

Excessive pressure in network water No/insufficient water for fire fighting

8.1.21

Excessive pressure in the network. Increased pipe leakage/burst. X Fire fighting is hindered

8.1.22

No

8.2 Water meters and non return valves


Water meters Water meters Over / under registration No/insufficient water supply to consumers No/insufficient water supply to consumers No/insufficient water supply to consumers Network water contamination 8.2.1 8.2.2 Wear of water meter mechanical-parts Freezing of water within meters and/or external pipes exposed to extremely low temperatures Fouling of water meter due to sediments or biofilm Fouling of non-return prevention devices due to sediments or biofilm Absent, inadequate or defective non-return prevention devices allow backflow or siphonage of contaminated water from costumer premises or fire hydrants Meter pit flood allowing contaminants intrusion thought defective sealing, in combination with low pressure in the network X X X X X Improper billing Water flow is obstructed 10 9-10

Water meters Non-return prevention devices Non-return prevention devices

8.2.3

Water flow is obstructed Water flow is obstructed Contaminants (microbial, chemical) enter into the network

9-10

8.2.4

9-10

8.2.5

Water meters

Network water contamination

8.2.6

Contaminated water (chemicals, pathogens)

9-10

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 61 -

August, 2008

9. Internal piping
Element Hazard Ref. Hazardous event Type of hazardous event D O E OS Ref. OS.
8

Type of hazard Biolog. Che mic. Rad/ phys Unavail.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description To sub system


10, 8

Safety

Rel. hazard

9.1 Drinking water installation


General No/Insufficient water supply 9.1.1 Bad design of the installation or low pressure in distribution network X X Water pressure/flow is low or null in all or in some of the higher floors, backflow to distribution network X Water pressure/flow is low or null in all or in some of the higher floors, backflow to distribution network No/insufficient water supply to consumers, damage due to leakage of water Costumer discomfort, internal piping leakage, appliance malfunctioning/fail ure Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals, taste and odour) Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals, taste and odour)

General

No/Insufficient water supply

9.1.2

Failure of booster pump in multi-storey buildings

10, 8

General

No/Insufficient water supply

9.1.3

Pipe burst due to poor pipe material, excessive pressure, water hammer, building activities (e.g. drilling) Excessive pressure in the distribution system

10

General

Excessive water pressure

9.1.4

10

General

Water contamination

9.1.5

Poor hygiene in plumbing systems installation/repair

10

General

Water contamination

9.1.6

Backflow or back-siphonage of contaminated water from other systems (e.g., waste, fire protection, garden watering and irrigation)

10

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 62 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O E OS Ref. OS. Biolog.


X

Type of hazard Che mic. Rad/ phys Unavail. Safety External damage

Potential consequences Description


Water with poor microbiological quality, possibly with pathogens

To sub system
10

Rel. hazard

General

Deterioration of water quality

9.1.7

Microbial regrowth enhancement by relatively high water-temperature or heating of water by warm objects at close distance Loss of pipes' hydraulic capacity due to incrustation build-up Corrosion of plumbing system materials, which is promoted by low pH, temperature, insufficient or excessive alkalinity in the water Migrating substances from polymer material (e.g. vinyl chloride leaching from PVC pipes) Plumbosolvency of lead pipes, which may be promoted by water low-pH and low alkalinity Sediment accumulation and microbial growth in water stagnated at dead-end branches Iron corrosion from iron/steel pipes

Internal pipes Internal pipes

No/Insufficient water supply Water contamination

9.1.8

Low pressure/flow in taps Contaminated water (e.g., lead, copper or iron)

10

9.1.9

10

Internal pipes

Water contamination

9.1.10

Contaminated water (e.g. with vinyl chloride) Contaminated water (lead)

10

Internal pipes

Water contamination

9.1.11

10

Internal pipes

Deterioration of water quality

9.1.12

Water contaminated with pathogens (e.g., Legionella) and with taste, odour and colour "Discoloured water (red-water) with metallic flavour causing reddishbrown stains on laundry" Nuisance to customers and neighbours

10

Internal pipes

Deterioration of water quality

9.1.13

10

Internal pipes

Annoying noise

9.1.14

Water hammer, high velocities and/or turbulence or cavitation

10

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 63 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Water contaminated with micro organisms, cyanotoxins, tank material leaching compounds and/or colour

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic.
X

Rad/ phys
X

Unavail.

Safety

To sub system
10

Rel. hazard

Household storage tanks

Deterioration of water quality

9.1.15

Microbial growth due too long residence time of water, warm temperatures, sediment accumulation or exposition of the water to light

9.2 Hot water plumbing system


General Water contamination 9.2.1 Microbial growth in hot water system (heaters, storage tanks, pipes, taps and shower heads) with water bellow 65 C Scaling build-up leads to reductions in heater/tank heating efficiency, storage capacity and lifetime X X X Contaminated water (Legionella, Mycobacterium avium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) X X X Increases in energy consumption and operating temperatures, hot water shortages, premature equipment failure People (mostly young children and elderly) severely injured by too hot water 10

Water heater

Reduced performance of the water heater

9.2.2

10

Hot water shower or bath taps

Burns

9.2.3

Water from shower or bath taps supplied above 55C.

10

9.3 Point-of-Entry and Point-of-Use treatment devices


General No/Insufficient water supply Contaminated water 9.3.1 "Fouling of treatment devices by suspended solids, iron, manganese or copper" Inadequacy of the treatment process for a targeted compound (e.g. (mis-)use of cation exchange to remove lead from hard water; (mis)use of activated carbon to remove arsenic) X X X Water pressure/flow is low or null Water contaminated with inorganic or organic substances against consumers' believe 10 X

General

9.3.2

10

Identification and description of hazards for water supply systems TECHNEAU - 64 -

August, 2008

Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Water contaminated with inorganic or organic bustances or pathogens against consumers' believe

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic.
X

Rad/ phys

Unavail.

Safety

To sub system
10

Rel. hazard

General

Contaminated water

9.3.3

Failure of the contaminant removal process (e.g., exhaustion of the resin or carbon adsorptive capacity; UV lamp bulb/housing opaqued by dirt) Enhanced corrosion of plumbing system and appliances materials (e.g., lead, copper) due to excessive water softening Backflow of liquid waste streams (e.g., reverse osmosis, ionic exchange resins) or backwash water (adsorptive media filters) to the treated water lines Growth/release of micro organisms from treatment devices (e.g. granular activated carbon filters) Unsafe handling or storage of strong caustics/acids used for adsorptive media regeneration X

General

Contaminated water

9.3.4

Water contaminated with chemicals (e.g., lead, copper)

10

General

Chemical contamination

9.3.5

Water heavily contaminated with chemicals

10

General

Deterioration of water quality

9.3.6

Water with poor microbial quality

10

General

Chemical injuries

9.3.7

Skin, eye or respiratory injuries upon exposition to strong acids/caustics

10

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10. Consumer and taps


Element Hazard Ref. Hazardous event Type of hazardous event D 10.1 Water collection
Communal standpipes Communal standpipes Communal standpipes Unavailability of water Unavailability of water Contamination of tap or surrounding parts Unavailability of water 10.1.1 10.1.2 10.1.3 Unavailability of water from distribution network Vandalism or improper use of standpipe or taps Unhygienic handling of tap e.g. by unwashed hands or presence of animals No access or poor access to the standpipe or ground tank due to obstructions or other reasons Exposure to airborne substances, such as dust, dirt, flies or other contaminants Dissipation of chlorine residuals Poor sanitation conditions by consumers X X X X X X X X 8 X X No/insufficient water supply No/insufficient water supply Contaminated water (pathogens) Not relev. Not relev. Not relev.

Type of hazard Biolog. Che mic. Rad/ phys Unav Saail. fety External damage

Potential consequences Description To sub system

OS

Ref. OS.

Rel. hazard

Communal standpipes or ground tanks Open-top containers (buckets) Open-top or closed-top containers Open-top or closed-top containers Ground tanks Ground tanks

10.1.4

No/insufficient water supply

Not relev.

10.2 Water storage and transportation


Water quality deteriorate during storage Water quality deteriorate during storage Water quality deteriorate during storage or consumption Contamination at collection area Poor water quality from the containers 10.2.1

Water storage before consumption


X X X X X Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals) Contaminated water (pathogens) Contaminated water (pathogens) Not relev.

10.2.2

Not relev. Not relev.

10.2.3

10.2.4

Soiled nappies or soiled children washed directly at the ground tank Poor condition and age of the containers, leaking containers X X

Contaminated water (pathogens) X X Contaminated water (chemicals). No/insufficient water supply.

Not relev. Not relev.

10.2.5

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Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Contaminated water (pathogens, chemicals...) Contaminated water (pathogens)

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic.
X

Rad/ phys
X

Unav Saail. fety

To sub system
Not relev. Not relev.

Rel. hazard

Ground tanks Ground tanks

Poor water quality from the containers Poor water quality from the containers

10.2.6

Top not fitted correctly over the tank allowing dirt and dust to enter the tank Biofilm formation from the inner walls of the ground tanks

10.2.7

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11. Organization
Element Hazard Ref. Hazardous event Type of hazardous event D 11.1 Organization
Organization Disturbance of the process in general 11.1.1 Use of out-of-date guidelines X X X X X X X Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Danger to the staff or environment Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Danger to the staff or environment Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Danger to the staff or environment Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Danger to the staff or environment Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Danger to the staff or environment Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Danger to the staff or environment Contaminated water. No/insufficient From 1 to 10

Type of hazard Biol og. Che mic. Rad/ phys Unav Saail. fety External damage

Potential consequences Description To sub system

OS

Ref. OS.

Rel. hazard

Organization

Disturbance of the process in general

11.1.2

Inappropriate financial or technical conditions

From 1 to 10

Organization

Disturbance of the process in general

11.1.3

Inappropriate personal organization (e.g. no assignment of responsibilities, no responsible person, inappropriate qualification) Insufficient on-call-duty

From 1 to 10

Organization

Disturbance of the process in general

11.1.4

From 1 to 10

Organization

Disturbance of the process in general

11.1.5

Insufficient and/or unqualified staff (e.g. certified, adequate labour)

From 1 to 10

Organization

Disturbance of the process in general

11.1.6

Insufficient internal coordination and scheduling

From 1 to 10

Organization

Disturbance of the process in

11.1.7

Operational fault in the automatized process due to

From 1 to 10

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Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O E OS Ref. OS. Biol og. Che mic.

Type of hazard Rad/ phys Unav Saail. fety External damage

Potential consequences Description


water supply. Danger to the staff or environment

To sub system

Rel. hazard

general

programming by unqualified staff 11.1.8 Operational fault in the automatized process due to inappropriate IT policy X X X X X X X

Organization

Disturbance of the process in general

Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Danger to the staff or environment Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Danger to the staff or environment Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Danger to the staff or environment Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Danger to the staff or environment

From 1 to 10

Organization

Disturbance of the process in general

11.1.9

Lack of feeling, unawareness of technical status of installations due to automatization Low quality of data input to information systems, incomplete, errors, etc

From 1 to 10

Organization

Disturbance of the process in general

11.1.10

From 1 to 10

Organization

Disturbance of the process in general

11.1.11

Use of out-of-date or inappropriate software, that cannot be used by others

From 1 to 10

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12. Future hazards (including the whole drinking water system)


Element Hazard Ref. Hazardous event Type of hazardous event D O 12.1 Source water
Source water Sabotage and terrorist attacks 12.1.1 Intentional chemical contamination X X Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Public concern, bad image. Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Public concern, bad image. X X X X If the personal operating the system does not have all necessary information, actions might be taken that introduce new risks to the system. Also people in general might, because of lack of information, act in a way that pose new risks to the system. Water shortage and health effects are possible. X Contaminated water. No/insufficient water. Technical damage. Political actions leading to water shortage Contaminated water. No/insufficient water. 1 to 5

Type of hazard Biolog. Che mic. Rad./ phys Una vail. Safety External damage

Potential consequences Description To sub system

OS

Ref. OS.

Rel. hazard

Source water

Sabotage and terrorist attacks

12.1.2

Intentional microbial contamination

1 to 5

Source water

Sabotage and terrorist attacks

12.1.3

Non accessible information. To prevent sabotage and terrorist attacks information regarding source water, treatment and distribution are classified. Due to this all necessary information might not be available to the personal and people in general.

1 to 5

Source water

Conflicts

12.1.4

Military conflicts

1 to 5

Source water

Conflicts

12.1.5

Political conflicts

1 to 5

Source water

Conflicts

12.1.6

Competing land use

1 to 5

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Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O E


X

Type of hazard Biolog. Che mic.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Remediation of supply system Because known chemicals are put into new pathways they may cause contaminated water, no/insufficient water supply, remediation of supply system Insufficient water quality. Increased number of waterborne infections. Remediation of supply system

OS

Ref. OS.

Rad./ phys

Una vail.

Safety

To sub system
1 to 5

Rel. hazard

Source water

New chemicals and changed chemical pathways New chemicals and changed chemical pathways

12.1.7

Discharge of new chemicals to source waters due to e.g. accidents or continuous leakage Discharge of chemicals due to new applications

Source water

12.1.8

1 to 5

Source water

Emerging pathogens

12.1.9

Presence of emerging pathogens able to overcome existing barriers

1 to 5

Source water Source water

Climate changes Climate changes

12.1.10 12.1.11

New precipitation and evaporation patterns The climate changes' effects on water quality (changed surface runoff and material transport effecting water quality) Physical damage (e.g. bombing attack) Intentional chemical contamination

X X X X X

No/insufficient water supply No/insufficient water supply. Contaminated water (including higher temperature of supplied water)

1 to 5 1, 2 and 4

12.2 Treatment
Treatment Treatment Sabotage and terrorist attacks Sabotage and terrorist attacks 12.2.1 12.2.2 X X X X X X Water shortage and technical damage Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Public concern, bad image. Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Public concern, bad image. 6 6

Treatment

Sabotage and terrorist attacks

12.2.3

Intentional microbial contamination

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Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O E


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. X If the personal operating the system does not have all necessary information, actions might be taken that introduce new risks to the system. Also people in general might, because of lack of information, act in a way that pose new risks to the system. Water shortage and health effects are possible. X Contaminated water. No/insufficient water. Technical damage. Political actions leading to water shortage Because known chemicals are put into new pathways they may cause contaminated water, no/insufficient water supply, remediation of supply system

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic.
X

Rad./ phys
X

Una vail.
X

Safety

To sub system
6

Rel. hazard

Treatment

Sabotage and terrorist attacks Sabotage and terrorist attacks Sabotage and terrorist attacks

12.2.4

People entering into the plant, sabotaging the process Cyber attack (e.g. manipulation of operational steps) Non accessible information. To prevent sabotage and terrorist attacks information regarding source water, treatment and distribution are classified. Due to this all necessary information might not be available to the personal and people in general. X

Treatment

12.2.5

Treatment

12.2.6

Treatment

Conflicts

12.2.7

Military conflicts

Treatment

Conflicts

12.2.8

Political conflicts

Treatment

New chemicals and changed chemical pathways

12.2.9

Discharge of chemicals due to new applications

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Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O E


X

Type of hazard Biolog.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Insufficient water quality. Increased number of waterborne infections. Remediation of supply system

OS

Ref. OS.

Che mic.

Rad./ phys

Una vail.

Safety

To sub system
6

Rel. hazard

Treatment

Emerging pathogens

12.2.10

Presence of emerging pathogens able to overcome existing barriers

12.3 Distribution
Distribution Distribution Sabotage and terrorist attacks Sabotage and terrorist attacks 12.3.1 12.3.2 Physical damage (e.g. bombing attack) Intentional chemical contamination X X X X X X Water shortage and technical damage Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Public concern, bad image. Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. Public concern, bad image. X X X Contaminated water. No/insufficient water supply. X If the personal operating the system does not have all necessary information, actions might be taken that introduce new risks to the system. Also people in general might, because of lack of information, act in a way that pose new risks to the system. Water shortage and health effects are possible. X Contaminated water. No/insufficient water. Technical damage. 7 to 9 7 to 9

Distribution

Sabotage and terrorist attacks

12.3.3

Intentional microbial contamination

7 to 9

Distribution

Sabotage and terrorist attacks Sabotage and terrorist attacks

12.3.4

Cyber attack (e.g. manipulation of operational steps) Non accessible information. To prevent sabotage and terrorist attacks information regarding source water, treatment and distribution are classified. Due to this all necessary information might not be available to the personal and people in general. X

7 to 9

Distribution

12.3.5

7 to 9

Distribution

Conflicts

12.3.6

Military conflicts

7 to 9

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Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O E


X

Type of hazard Biolog. Che mic. Rad./ phys Una vail.


X

Potential consequences External damage Description


Political actions leading to water shortage Because known chemicals are put into new pathways they may cause contaminated water, no/insufficient water supply, remediation of supply system Insufficient water quality. Increased number of waterborne infections. Remediation of supply system

OS

Ref. OS.

Safety

To sub system
7 to 9

Rel. hazard

Distribution

Conflicts

12.3.7

Political conflicts

Distribution

New chemicals and changed chemical pathways

12.3.8

Discharge of chemicals due to new applications

7 to 9

Distribution

Emerging pathogens

12.3.9

Presence of emerging pathogens able to overcome existing barriers

7 to 9

Distribution

Aging distribution systems Aging distribution systems Sabotage and terrorist attacks

12.3.10

Damaged distribution system and possible intrusion of contaminants Increased retention times due to oversized systems

No/insufficient water. Contaminated water. Technical damage. Contaminated water (pathogens)

7 to 9

Distribution

12.3.11

7 to 9

12.4 Consumers
Consumers 12.4.1 Changed human behaviour after terrorist attacks leading to avoidance of tap water X X X X Indirect damage. Because of lack of trust in tap water people use water from other sources and if this water is of poor quality it might cause negative health effects Increased number of waterborne infections 10

Consumers

Emerging pathogens

12.4.2

Changed infection patterns (increased exposure to pathogens due to e.g. migration of citizens)

10

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Element

Hazard

Ref.

Hazardous event

Type of hazardous event D O E


X

Type of hazard Biolog. Che mic. Rad./ phys Una vail. Safety External damage
X

Potential consequences Description


Anxiety and decreased trust in water supply

OS

Ref. OS.

To sub system
10

Rel. hazard

Consumers

Public concern

12.4.3

Reports on detection of chemicals or pathogens of very low tolerability

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Appendix 13: Methodology for hazard identification by using the THDB


The hazard identification process can be carried out by following the steps below as guidelines. On purpose this methodology is detailed in order to help end-users in all steps of development to carry out the hazard identification process. In this methodology two approaches are mentioned. For a further explanation, see Chapter 1. STEP 1: Objectives Describe the overall objective of the risk management project and more specifically the objectives of the identification of risks in this specific activity. Define the scope: hazard identification of all the stages of the water supply chain or of separate parts of the system. Define the available costs, time frame, organization, who will this be reported to, the responsible person(s) and his/her role and responsibility.

STEP 2: Split up the system and make a system description Make a system description and, if necessary contact other stakeholders. Decide on the number of meetings needed and plan for these. The number of meetings needed depends on the complexity of the system, the parts of the systems that will be included and discussed and the available resources. Select the parts of the THDB that are useful for the specific location (some sub-systems or components may not be relevant for the system to be studied).

STEP 3: Assemble a team Select the participants for each meeting session: - Number of persons: responsible(s) + 2 to 4 experts - English speakers (THDB in English) - Different knowledge background: o Specialists: technical experts with deep knowledge of the most relevant processes and parts of the system o Generalists: people with overall knowledge and overall view of the system o Also invite non-technicians for other info (financial, consumers, laws) - Personality: cooperative, involved, open minded, not biased, etc.

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STEP 4: Interviews with the experts (bottom-up method) Interview all the experts for their opinion on the most relevant hazards (bottom-up approach). Make a list of identified hazards structured according to the subsystems and components of the THDB.

STEP 5: Contact with participants and organization of meetings Set the dates, places and duration for the meetings. As these meetings are rather intensive it is advised to plan maximum half a day per meeting. Send the participants the THDB, the system description and an introduction based on the items mentioned in step 1 and 2. For a more efficient meeting it is advised to ask the participants prepare themselves by going through the relevant parts of the THDB and by consulting others if needed.

STEP 6: Preparation of the meetings Prepare a short presentation (for content see Step 7a). Prepare the material for the sessions, such as: - Overhead projector, screen and computer (so the THDB can be shown on the screen and direct input is visible for everyone) - Round-table setting - Flip-over and colour markers - Flow diagram of the system - Definitions of hazard, hazardous event, criteria for hazard identification should be put up on a blackboard during the sessions to help structuring further discussions

STEP 7: Hazard identification session 7a: Introduction The sessions with the participants could follow the following structure: Presentation of the participants. Objective of the hazard identification and aim of the meeting. Presentation of the definitions like: hazard, hazardous event, risk, risk management, etc. Presentation: THDB, system description, time-frame. Description of how to work: how to use the THDB, what to look for, how will the session be structured, set criteria for the hazard identification. Show the structure of the THDB, including different sub-systems.

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7b: Hazard identification (top-down) For each component in the sub-systems: go through each row of the THDB asking participants if this hazard is expected to be relevant, if so indicate the result as a tick. A proposal for indicating relevant hazards is given in tip and ticks hereunder. Per component, make a list of the identified hazards and compare them with the bottom-up identified hazards.

7c: Definition of identified hazards Sum-up the list of identified hazards in each sub-system, ask the participants if they agree with the results or if changes are to me made. Evaluate the hazard identification activity.

STEP 8: Finalizing Make a draft report of the results. Following items are advised to be mentioned in the report: objective of the process, system description, short description of the THDB, identified hazards and an evaluation of the process. Ask for feed-back from the participants. Make changes to the draft document. Make a second draft report and discuss this with the management officers.

TIPS AND TRICKS FOR HAZARD IDENTIFICATION WITH THE THDB 1. The THDB contains a column called Relevant hazard? for marking identified hazards. Marks could be made in different ways, for example: a. By adding a tick when the hazard is considered relevant for the company. b. By ranking each relevant hazard, for instance: - X: hazard not relevant or not recognized as a problem for the company. - 0: recognized hazard for the company, but control measures have been taken. - 1: a minor risk that needs attention.1 - 2: a major risk for the company as a whole. During the meetings, some definitions could be shown on the blackboard: hazard, hazardous event, criteria for the evaluation.

2.

It is not intended to start evaluating risks at this stage, however to indicate the magnitude of the risk.

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3. 4.

A flow chart of the system should be kept on a blackboard. It is advised to start with an explanation of the overall system, the parts that will be discussed during the session and then go through each sub-system. It is better to start with future hazards (sub-system #12), in order to avoid them being mentioned in other sub-systems. When going through the sub-systems of the THDB, it is advised to first show briefly all the component and elements of the sub-system to be discussed, so the participants would have an overview that can help them to identify the hazards. After going through each sub-system, the participants could be asked if they want to add something else that is not mentioned in the THDB. Since the most important information for the hazard identification is in the columns hazard and hazardous event, it could be useful to show only the first five columns of the THDB during the discussions and hide the last ones (hide type of hazardous event, type of hazard and potential consequences). It is useful to use different colours in the cells of the Relevant hazard? column. This can be done by using the conditional format option of MS Excel. (Path: Format/ Conditional formatting). For example, hazards ranked as 1 could be collared with orange, and hazards ranked as 2 could be collared with red.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10. As the distribution sub-system consists of a large number of pipes in different circumstances, it could be helpful to define different typical situations for specific areas. Those situations would correspond to different pipe materials, diameters, regions, age and other characteristics.

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