Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 39

MLR

Institute of Technology
Laxman Reddy Avenue, Dundigal Police Station Road,
Gandimysamma XRoad, Quthbullapur (M), R.R. Dist - 500 043.
Ph: 08418 204066, 204088
www.mlrinstitutions.ac.in Email: principal@mlrinstitutions.ac.in











LAB MANUAL
Subject : Flight Vehicle Design
Academic Year : 2013-2014
Branch & Year : AERO-A I I I Year II SEM



Name of the Faculty : B.SRI KANTH & S.RAVI KANTH
Department : Aeronautical Engineering





LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
INTRODUCTION
PART I
AIRCRAFT DESIGN AND WEIGHT ESTIMATION NOMENCLATURE
Experiment1: Aircraft conceptual sketch and its gross weight estimation algorithm
Experiment2: Preliminary weight estimation (Rubber sizing)
Experiment3: Trade off study on initial (Rubber sizing)
Experiment4: Fixed sizing
Experiment5: Load or Induced Drag Estimation
Experiment6: Estimate the Critical Mach number for an Airfoil


PART II
AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE
Experiment: 7 Static Performance: Thrust required curve
Experiment: 8 Static Performance: Power required curve



















INTRODUCTION
CLASSIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT BASED ON TYPE, ROLE
AND MISSION

Aim:
To study the classification and designation of aircraft based on type, role and mission and
corresponding mission profile.

Procedure:
Three Views of a Commercial & Military Aircraft

Military Aircraft



Commercial Aircraft
Classification based on type:
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in
general, the atmosphere of a planet. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift
or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet
engines.
The human activity that surrounds aircraft is called aviation. Crewed aircraft are
flown by an onboard pilot, but unmanned aerial vehicles may be remotely controlled or self-
controlled by onboard computers. Aircraft may be classified by different criteria, such as lift
type, propulsion, usage, and others.

1. Lighter than air - Airships, Aerostats
Aerostats use buoyancy to float in the air in much the same way that ships float on the
water. They are characterized by one or more large gasbags or canopies, filled with a
relatively low-density gas such as helium, hydrogen, or hot air, which is less dense than the
surrounding air. When the weight of this is added to the weight of the aircraft structure, it
adds up to the same weight as the air that the craft displaces.



2. Heavier than air aerodynes
Heavier-than-air aircraft must find some way to push air or gas downwards, so that a
reaction occurs (by Newton's laws of motion) to push the aircraft upwards. This dynamic
movement through the air is the origin of the term aerodyne. There are two ways to produce
dynamic up thrust aerodynamic lift, and powered lift in the form of engine thrust.
a. Power driven
I. Airplane
i. Land Plane
ii. Sea Plane
iii. Amphibian
II. Rotorcraft
i. Helicopter
ii. Gyrocopter
iii. Autogyro
III. Ornithopter

b. Non Power driven
I. Gliders
II. Sail Plane
Unpowered aircraft
Gliders are heavier-than-air aircraft that do not employ propulsion once airborne.
Take-off may be by launching forward and downward from a high location, or by pulling into
the air on a tow-line, either by a ground-based winch or vehicle, or by a powered "tug"
aircraft. For a glider to maintain its forward air speed and lift, it must descend in relation to
the air (but not necessarily in relation to the ground). Many gliders can 'soar' gain height
from updrafts such as thermal currents. The first practical, controllable example was designed
and built by the British scientist and pioneer George Cayley, whom many recognise as the
first aeronautical engineer.
Powered Aircraft
Propeller aircraft use one or more propellers (airscrews) to create thrust in a forward
direction. The propeller is usually mounted in front of the power source in tractor
configuration but can be mounted behind in pusher configuration. Variations of propeller
layout include contra-rotating propellers and ducted fans.


Many kinds of power plant have been used to drive propellers. Early airships used
man power or steam engines. The more practical internal combustion piston engine was used
for virtually all fixed-wing aircraft until World War II and is still used in many smaller
aircraft. Some types use turbine engines to drive a propeller in the form of a turboprop or
propfan. Human-powered flight has been achieved, but has not become a practical means of
transport. Unmanned aircraft and models have also used power sources such as electric
motors and rubber bands.
Classification Based on Role:
I. Civil
a. Commercial
i) Passenger
ii) Cargo
b. General Aviation
1) Aerial Burial
2) Aerial Photography
3) Aerobatics
4) Air Ambulance
5) Air Charter
6) Air Shows
7) Rush flying
8) Non commercial air cargo flight
9) Crop dusting
10) Emergency management
11) Flight Trainer
12) Forest fire fighting
13) Gliding
14) Parachuting
15) Personal Transportation
16) Air Police and Patrol
17) Resource exploration
18) Tourism
II. UAV
1) Micro UAV
2) Close Range UAV [CR-UAV]


3) Medium Range UAV [M-UAV]
4) Combat UAV [C-UAV]


III. MILITARY AIRCRAFT
1 Combat aircraft
i. Fighter
ii. Bomber
iii. Attack aircraft
iv. Electronic warfare aircraft
v. Maritime patrol aircraft
vi. Multirole combat aircraft
2 Non-combat aircraft
i. Military transport aircraft
ii. Airborne early warning and control
iii. Reconnaissance and surveillance aircraft
iv. Experimental Aircraft

Military Aircraft the designation system
The Russian aircraft designation system is based on the company name which
manufactured it
Eg: Mikoyan-Gurevich [MiG]
Sukhoi [Su]
Tupolev [Tu]
Yakovlev [yak]
Ilyushin [II]
Antonov [An]
A U.S. military aerospace vehicle designation is also known as an "MDS
Designation". MDS stands for "Mission-Design-Series", naming the three most important
components of the designation
- A Attack
- B - Bomber
- C - Cargo/Transport


- D - Drone Director
- E - Special Electronics Installation
- F Fighter
- G - Glider
- H - Search and Rescue (SAR)
- I - Interceptor
- J - Special Test (temporary)
- K - Tanker
- L - Polar
- M Multipurpose
- N - Special test (permanent)
- O Observation
- P- Patrol
- Q - Drone
- R - Reconnaissance
- S - Anti-submarine
- T - Trainer
- U - Utility
- V - Staff/VIP
- W - Weather
- X- Experimental
- Y- Prototype
- Z- lighter than air
Combat Aircraft
Combat aircraft, or "Warplanes", are divide broadly into multi-role, fighters, bombers
and attackers, with several variations between them, including fighter-bombers, such as the
MiG-23, ground-attack aircraft, such as the Soviet Ilyushin Il-2 Shturmovik Also included
among combat aircraft are long-range maritime patrol aircraft, such as the Hawker Siddeley
Nimrod and the S-3 Viking that are often equipped to attack with anti-ship missiles and anti-
submarine weapons.



Fighter
The main role of fighters is destroying enemy aircraft in air-to-air combat, offensive
or defensive. Many are fast and highly maneuverable. Escorting bombers or other aircraft is
also a common task. They are capable of carrying a variety of weapons, including machine
guns, cannons, rockets and guided missiles. Many modern fighters can attack enemy fighters
from a great distance, before the enemy even sees them. Examples of air superiority fighters
include the F-22 Raptor and the MiG-29. WWII fighters include the Spitfire, the P-51
Mustang and Bf 109. An example of an interceptor (a fighter designed to take-off and quickly
intercept and shoot down enemy planes) would be the MiG-25. An example of a heavy
fighter is the Messerschmitt Bf 110. The term "fighter" is also sometimes applied to aircraft
that have virtually no air-air capability for example the A-10 ground-attack aircraft is
operated by USAF "Fighter" squadrons.
Bomber
Bombers are normally larger, heavier, and less maneuverable than fighter aircraft.
They are capable of carrying large payloads of bombs. Bombers are used almost exclusively
for ground attacks and not fast or agile enough to take on enemy fighters head-to-head. A few
have a single engine and require one pilot to operate and others have two or more engines and
require crews of two or more. A limited number of bombers, such as the B-2 Spirit, have
stealth capabilities that keep them from being detected by enemy radar. An example of a
conventional modern bomber would be the B-52 Stratofortress. An example of a WWII
bomber would be a B-17 Flying Fortress. Bombers include light bombers, medium bombers,
heavy bombers, dive bombers, and torpedo bombers. The U.S. Navy and Marines have
traditionally referred to their light and medium bombers as "attack aircraft".
Attack aircraft
Attack aircraft can be used to provide support for friendly ground troops. Some are
able to carry conventional or nuclear weapons far behind enemy lines to strike priority
ground targets. Attack helicopters attack enemy armor and provide close air support for
ground troops. An example historical ground-attack aircraft is the Soviet Ilyushin Il-2
Shturmovik. Several types of transport airplanes have been armed with sideways firing
weapons as gunships for ground attack. These include the AC-47 and AC-130 aircraft.
Electronic warfare aircraft
An electronic warfare aircraft is a military aircraft equipped for electronic warfare
(EW) - i.e. degrading the effectiveness of enemy radar and radio systems.



Maritime patrol aircraft
A maritime patrol aircraft fixed-wing military aircraft designed to operate for long
durations over water in maritime patrol rolesin particular anti-submarine, anti-ship and
search and rescue.
Multirole combat aircraft
Many combat aircraft today have a multirole ability. Normally only applying to fixed-
wing aircraft, this term signifies that the plane in question can be a fighter or a bomber,
depending on what the mission calls for. An example of a multirole design is the F/A-18
Hornet. A WWII example would be the P-38 Lightning.
Some fighter aircraft, such as the F-4, are mostly used as 'bomb trucks', despite being
designed for aerial combat
Non-combat aircraft
Non-combat roles of military aircraft include search and rescue, reconnaissance,
observation/surveillance, Airborne Early Warning and Control, transport, training, and aerial
refueling.
Many civil aircraft, both fixed wing and rotary wing, have been produced in separate
models for military use, such as the civilian Douglas DC-3 airliner, which became the
military C-47 Skytrain, and British "Dakota" transport planes, and decades later, the USAF's
AC-47 aerial gunships. Even the fabric-covered two-seat Piper J3 Cub had a military version.
Gliders and balloons have also been used as military aircraft; for example, balloons were
used for observation during the American Civil War and during World War I, and military
gliders were used during World War II to deliver ground troops in airborne assaults.
Military transport aircraft
Military transport (logistics) aircraft are primarily used to transport troops and war
supplies. Cargo can be attached to pallets, which are easily loaded, secured for flight, and
quickly unloaded for delivery. Cargo also may be discharged from flying aircraft on
parachutes, eliminating the need for landing. Also included in this category are aerial tankers;
these planes can refuel other aircraft while in flight. An example of a transport aircraft is the
C-17 Globemaster III. A WWII example would be the C-47. An example of a tanker craft
would be the KC-135 Stratotanker. Helicopters and gliders can transport troops and supplies
to areas where other aircraft would be unable to land.
Calling a military aircraft a "cargo plane" is incorrect, because military transport
planes also carry paratroopers and other soldiers.



Airborne early warning and control
An airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) system is an airborne radar system
designed to detect aircraft, ships and vehicles at long ranges and control and command the
battle space in an air engagement by directing fighter and attack aircraft strikes. AEW&C
units are also used to carry out surveillance, including over ground targets and frequently
perform C2BM (command and control, battle management) functions similar to an Airport
Traffic Controller given military command over other forces. Used at a high altitude, the
radars on the aircraft allow the operators to distinguish between friendly and hostile aircraft
hundreds of miles away.
Reconnaissance and surveillance aircraft:
Reconnaissance aircraft are primarily used to gather intelligence. They are equipped
with cameras and other sensors. These aircraft may be specially designed or may be modified
from a basic fighter or bomber type. This role is increasingly being filled by satellites and
unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).
Surveillance and observation aircraft use radar and other sensors for battlefield
surveillance, airspace surveillance, maritime patrol and artillery spotting. They include
modified civil aircraft designs, moored balloons and UAVs.
Experimental Aircraft
Experimental aircraft are designed in order to test advanced aerodynamic, structural,
avionic, or propulsion concepts. These are usually well instrumented, with performance data
telemetered on radio-frequency data links to ground stations located at the test ranges where
they are flown. An example of an experimental aircraft is the XB-70 Valkyrie.

Result:
All study and classification and designation of aircraft based on type role and mission is
completed.




PART - I
AIRCRAFT DESIGN AND WEIGHT ESTIMATION
NOMENCLATURE

Weight components of airplane explained as follows:
1) Crew weight (
c
W ):
The crew comprises the people necessary to operate the airplane in flight.
e.g., Pilot, Co-pilot, Airhostess etc.
2) Payload weight (
p
W ):
The payload is what the airplane is mentioned to transport passengers, baggage,
freight etc. (Military use the payload includes bombs, rockets and other disposable ordnance).
3) Fuel weight (
f
W ):
This is the weight of the fuel in the fuel tanks. Since fuel is consumed during the
course of flight.
f
W is a variable, decreasing with time during the flight.
4) Empty weight (
e
W ):
This is weight of everything else-the structure engines (with all accessory equipment),
electronic equipment landing gear, fixed equipment and anything else that is not crew,
payload or fuel.
5) Gross weight (
0
W ):
The sum of these weights is the total weight of the airplane
0
W . Gross weight or total
weight
0
W varies through the flight because fuel is being consumed. The design take off
gross weight
0
W is the weight of the airplane at the instant it begins its mission. It includes
the weight of the fuel.

e f p c
W W W W W + + + =
0

W
W
W
W
W
W
W W W
e
f
p c
0
0
0
0
+ + + =

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
0 0
0
1
) (
W
W
W
W
W W
W
e
f
p c
---------------------------------- (1)



Estimation of empty weight fraction (
0
W W
e
):
The empty weight fraction (
0
W W
e
) can be estimated from data based on
a) Historical data and tables
b) Refined sizing data and tables

Estimation of fuel fraction (
0
W W
f
):
The aircrafts fuel supply is available for performing the mission. The other fuel
includes reserve fuel, trapped fuel (which is the fuel which cannot be pumped out of the
tanks).
Fuel fraction (
0
W W
f
) is approximately independently of aircraft weight. Fuel
fraction will be estimated based on the mission to be flown.

Mission profiles:
Typical mission profiles for various types of aircraft are shown in Fig1. The simple
cruise mission is used for many transport and general aviation designs, including home built.
Following are the briefly explained the terms that are used in mission profiles:







Warm Up and Take-Off:
Warm Up is the engine start up for the airplane kept idling for some time to warm up.
Take Off is the point where aircraft is made lift off from ground. It is the motion after
warm up i.e., moving of airplane after starting and till it lifts off from the ground.
Climb:
It is between take-off (TO) and cruise (stead level flight with constant speed) Increase
in height until airplane achieves steady level flight.
Cruise:
It is the steady level flight to cover the mission distance. The mission distance is
called Range.
Loiter:
Represent the airplane spending in air for some fixed number of minutes near airport
before getting the clearance from airport signal or simple spending some time to
collect data of some mission (Terrain data).
Dash:
It is the mission that must be flown at just a few hundred numbers of feet of the
ground for low level strike.
Landing:
It is the aircraft landing on the runway till stopping of engine.

Estimation of mission segment weight fractions:
The various mission segments (legs) are numbered starting from zero denoting, the
start of the mission. Mission leg one is usually engine warm up and take-off. The remaining
legs are sequentially numbered. For example in the simple cruise mission the legs could be
numbered as (0) warm-up and take-off, (1) climb (2) cruise (3) loiter and (4) landing.
Similarly, the aircraft weight at end of each mission is denoted by
i
W . Denoting i-th
segment as mission segment weight

0
W =Beginning airplane weight (Take off gross weight)

1
W =Weight of the airplane at end of warm-up and take-off

2
W =Weight of the airplane at end of climb.

3
W =Weight of the airplane at end of cruise

4
W =Weight of the airplane at end of loiter.



5
W =Weight of the airplane at end of landing.

4
5
3
4
2
3
1
2
0
1
0
5
0
...
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W W
x
= =
So in general it can be written as
1 3
4
2
3
1
2
0
1
0
0
...

= =
i
i i
x
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W W
Warm-up/take-off, climb and landing weight fractions:
The warm-up, take-off and landing weight fractions can be estimated historically from
Table2.

Specific fuel consumption (C):
It is the rate of fuel consumption divided by the resulting thrust. Typical values are
depicted in Table3 and Table4 for jet and propeller aircrafts respectively. If the aircraft is
propeller, then C should be replaced by ) 550 (
p bhp
V C C q =


Cruise segment weight fraction:
Weight fraction for cruise segment is found using Breguet range formula.

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

i
i
W
W
D
L
C
V
R
1
ln R = range, C = specific fuel consumption



( )
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

D
L
V
RC
W
W
i
i
exp
1
V = velocity, L/D = lift to drag ratio
Loiter segment weight fraction:
Weight fraction for loiter segment is found using Endurance formula.

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

i
i
W
W
C
D L
E
1
ln E = endurance or loiter time, C = specific fuel consumption

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

D L
EC
W
W
i
i
exp
1
V = velocity, L/D = lift to drag ratio
The most efficient cruise is velocity for propeller aircraft occurs at velocity yielding max
L/D, where as for the most efficient cruise for a jet aircraft occurs at slightly at a higher
velocity yielding an L/D of 86.6% of the maximum L/D
Type of aircraft Cruise Loiter
jet 0.866 (L/D)max L/D max
propeller L/D max 0.866 (L/D) max
For any mission segment i the mission segment weight fraction is expressed as
1 i i
W W .
x
W (Assuming x segments are present for total mission profile) is the aircraft
weight at end of the mission.
0
W W
x
ratio can be used to calculate fuel fraction.
) ( 1
0 0
W W W W
x f
=
At the end of the mission, the fuel tanks are not completed empty, typically a 6% allowance
is made for reserve and trapped fuel
| | ) / ( 1 06 . 1
0 0
W W W W
x f
=
Estimate of gross weight at take-off (
0
W ):

0
W W
e
is function of
0
W ,
0
W W
f
is also a function of
0
W .
0
W is calculated from
equation(1) through process of iteration.
0
W is taken a guess value and, then RHS value of
equation(1) is calculated which should match the value of assumed, if it doesnt, increment
the assume by some value and iterate it. This process is continued till the absolute difference
of RHS value and assumed value is the least and that iteration step will be your nearest
solution.




EXPERIMENT 1
AIRCRAFT CONCEPTUAL SKETCH AND ITS GROSS
WEIGHT ESTIMATION ALGORITHM
AIM:
Write the request for proposal for the particular aircraft, draw the conceptual sketch of
the aircraft for given type of aircraft, draw the mission profile and write generic algorithm for
gross take-off weight estimation
THEORY:
CONCEPTUAL DESIGN:
Conceptual design begins with a specific set of design requirements established from
customer or a company-generated guess what future customers may need.
Design requirements include:
a) Aircraft range
b) Payload
c) Take-off distance
d) Landing distance
e) Maneuverability and speed requirements
Design begins with innovative idea rather than as a response to a given requirement.
Before design a decision is made to what technologies to incorporate, it must use only
currently available technologies as well as existing engines and avionics. If designed to build
in more distant future, then an estimate technological state of the art must be made to
determine which emerging technologies will be ready for use at that time.
Design begins drawing with a conceptual sketch like shown in Fig1. Good conceptual
sketches start with approximate sketch of following:



1) Wing
2) Tail geometries
3) The fuselage shape
4) The internal locations of the major components such as the:
a) Engine
b) Cockpit
c) Payload/passenger compartment
d) Landing gear
e) Fuel tanks.
SIZING:
The conceptual sketch is used to estimate aerodynamics and weight fractions by comparisons
to previous designs. These estimates are used to make a first estimate of the required total
weight and fuel weight to perform the design mission.
First order sizing provides the information to needed to develop an initial design layout in
three view format. This three view drawing is completed with the internal arrangement in
detail. The initial layout is analyzed to determine if it will perform the mission as indicated
by the first-order sizing.
ALGORITHM FOR GROSS TAKE-OFF WEIGHT ESTIMATION:
Following steps are involved in gross take-off weight estimation:
1) Study the design objectives.
2) Sizing mission starts here.
3) Aspect ratio selection is done here.
4) Sketch the layout in three views.
5) Select L/D ratio and engine specific fuel consumption.


6) Estimate fuel weight fraction.
7) Select empty weight fraction (Historical trends).
8) Guess initial gross weight.
9) Calculate gross weight from equation.
10) Iterate for gross weight by going to step8, until guess and calculated are matched.
The following flow chart explains the same algorithm as explained previous


PROCEDURE:
1. Write the request for proposal for the given aircraft. It should be in the form of
parameters and requirements for the aircraft.
2. Draw the conceptual sketch of the aircraft as explained in theory.
3. Draw the mission profile for the aircraft.
4. What do you understand by flight vehicle design? Explain it with various examples.
5. What do you understand by weight estimation and write the algorithm for gross take-
off weight estimation.
RESULT:
The take-off weight can be estimated by doing the iterations, until we get,
W
0
guess = W
0
Calculated






EXPERIMENT 2
PRELIMINARY WEIGHT ESTIMATION (RUBBER SIZING)

AIM
To estimate take-off gross weight for the given aircraft and its mission profile using weight
estimation algorithm.
THEORY
Study the theory Part1: Aircraft design and weight estimation nomenclature on
page1 for basics that is needed for the experiment.
Given empty weight fractions from historical trends (preliminary design): The empty weight
fraction can be estimated from Table1 based on the aircraft type and wing sweep.

Given warm-up/take-off, climb and landing weight fractions from historical trends: The
warm-up, take-off and landing weight fractions can be estimated historically from Table2.




Requirements:
Aircraft type, engine type, wing sweep type, mission profile, crew weight, payload
weight, specific fuel consumption, L/D ratio.

Procedure:
Estimation of gross weight, calculated using following steps:
1. Calculate the mission weight fraction of individual segment:
1) Take-off (
0 1
W W ): This is taken from Table2.
2) Climb (
1 2
W W ): This is taken from Table2.
3) Landing (
4 5
W W ): This is taken from Table2.
4) Cruise:
Weight fraction for cruise segment is found using Breguet range formula.

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

i
i
W
W
D
L
C
V
R
1
ln

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

D
L
V
RC
W
W
i
i
exp
1

Where R = range,
C = specific fuel consumption
V = velocity,
L/D = lift to drag ratio
5) Loiter
Weight fraction for loiter segment is found using Endurance formula.

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

i
i
W
W
C
D L
E
1
ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

D L
EC
W
W
i
i
exp
1

Where E = endurance or loiter time,
C = specific fuel consumption,
V = velocity,
L/D = lift to drag ratio
6) Empty Weight fraction: The empty weight fraction can be estimated from Table1
based on the aircraft type and wing sweep.


2. Calculate gross weight of the aircraft from following equation which is function of
0
W .

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
0 0
0
1
) (
W
W
W
W
W W
W
e
f
p c
(1)
0
W W
e
is function of
0
W ,
0
W W
f
is also a function of
0
W .
0
W is calculated from
equation(1) through process of iteration.
0
W has to be assumed, then RHS value of
equation(1) is calculated which should match the value of assumed, if it doesnt, increment
the assume by some value and iterate it. This process is continued till the absolute difference
of RHS value and assumed value is the least and that iteration step will be your nearest
solution. This is done using following iteration table.


Iteration.

Guess
weight

Empty
weight
Fuel
weight
Calculated
weight
Difference =
guess-calculated



3) Plot graph for calculated weight, guess weight versus iteration number from above table
results and compare them in a single graph.
RESULT:
The iterations should be done until the difference is zero.



EXPERIMENT 3
TRADE OFF STUDY ON INITIAL SIZING (RUBBER SIZING)
AIM:
To study trade off on initial sizing (weight estimation) by taking following
parameters.
a) Range trade off,
b) Payload trade off.
THEORY:
Study the theory Part1: Aircraft design and weight estimation on page1 for basics,
needed for the experiment.
Given Empty weight fractions from historical trends (preliminary design): The empty
weight fraction can be estimated from Table1 based on the aircraft type and wing sweep type.

Given warm-up/take-off, climb and landing weight fractions from historical trends:
The warm-up, take-off and landing weight fractions can be estimated historically from
Table2.



REQUIREMENTS:
Aircraft type, engine type, wing sweep type, mission profile, crew weight, specific
fuel consumption, L/D ratio, different range values, different payload weight values.
PROCEDURE:
I) Estimation of gross weight for selected range value through calculations using following
steps:
1. Calculate the mission weight fraction of individual segment:
1) Take-off (
0 1
W W ): This is taken from Table2.
2) Climb (
1 2
W W ): This is taken from Table2.
3) Landing (
4 5
W W ): This is taken from Table2.
4) Cruise:
Weight fraction for cruise segment is found using Breguet range formula.

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

i
i
W
W
D
L
C
V
R
1
ln

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

D
L
V
RC
W
W
i
i
exp
1
Where R = range, C = specific fuel consumption
V = velocity, L/D = lift to drag ratio
5) Loiter
Weight fraction for loiter segment is found using Endurance formula.

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

i
i
W
W
C
D L
E
1
ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

D L
EC
W
W
i
i
exp
1
Where E = endurance or loiter time, C = specific fuel
consumption, V = velocity, L/D = lift to drag ratio
6) Empty Weight fraction: The empty weight fraction can be estimated from Table1
based on the aircraft type and wing sweep.
2. Calculate gross weight of the aircraft from following equation which is function of
0
W

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
0 0
0
1
) (
W
W
W
W
W W
W
e
f
p c
(1)


0
W W
e
is function of
0
W ,
0
W W
f
is also a function of
0
W .
0
W is calculated from
equation(1) through process of iteration.
0
W has to be assumed, then RHS value of
equation(1) is calculated which should match the value of assumed, if it doesnt, increment
the assume by some value and iterate it. This process is continued till the absolute difference
of RHS value and assumed value is the least and that iteration step will be your nearest
solution. This is done using following iteration table.


Iteration. No

Guess
weight

Empty
weight
fraction
Fuel weight
fraction
Calculated
weight
Difference=
guess-cal




3) Plot graph between guess gross weight, calculated gross weight versus iteration number.
4) Steps 1 to 3 is repeated for second range, third range
5) Plot a graph between calculated gross weight versus range selected.
II) Calculate gross weight for different selected payload weight values using step1 to 3 and
plot a graph between calculated gross weight and payload weight values.

RESULT:
The iterations should be done until the difference between the guess and calculated
weights is equal to zero.




EXPERIMENT 4
FIXED ENGINE SIZING
AIM
To estimate take-off gross weight for the given aircraft and its mission profile using weight
estimation algorithm and calculate the effect of fixed sizing on range.

THEORY
Study the theory Part1: Aircraft design and weight estimation nomenclature on
page1 for basics, needed for the experiment.
Given empty weight fractions from historical trends (preliminary design): The empty weight
fraction can be estimated from Table1 based on the aircraft type and wing sweep.

Given warm-up/take-off, climb and landing weight fractions from historical trends: The
warm-up, take-off and landing weight fractions can be estimated historically from Table2.




REQUIREMENTS:
Aircraft type, engine type, wing sweep type, mission profile, crew weight, payload
weight, specific fuel consumption, L/D ratio.

PROCEDURE:
Estimation of gross weight, calculated using following steps:
1. Calculate the mission weight fraction of individual segment:
1) Take-off (
0 1
W W ): This is taken from Table2.
2) Climb (
1 2
W W ): This is taken from Table2.
3) Landing (
4 5
W W ): This is taken from Table2.
4) Cruise:
Weight fraction for cruise segment is found using Breguet range formula.

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

i
i
W
W
D
L
C
V
R
1
ln

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

D
L
V
RC
W
W
i
i
exp
1
Where R = range, C = specific fuel consumption
V = velocity, L/D = lift to drag ratio
5) Loiter
Weight fraction for loiter segment is found using Endurance formula.

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

i
i
W
W
C
D L
E
1
ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

D L
EC
W
W
i
i
exp
1
Where E = endurance or loiter time, C = specific fuel
consumption, V = velocity, L/D = lift to drag ratio

EMPTY WEIGHT FRACTION:
The empty weight fraction can be estimated from Table1 based on the aircraft
type and wing sweep.
2. Calculate gross weight of the aircraft from below equation which is function of
0
W

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
0 0
0
1
) (
W
W
W
W
W W
W
e
f
p c
(1)


0
W W
e
is function of
0
W ,
0
W W
f
is also a function of
0
W .
0
W is calculated from
equation(1) through process of iteration.
0
W has to be assumed, then RHS value of
equation(1) is calculated which should match the value of assumed, if it doesnt, increment
the assume by some value and iterate it. This process is continued till the absolute difference
of RHS value and assumed value is the least and that iteration step will be your nearest
solution. This is done using following iteration table.


Iteration. No

Guess
weight

Empty
weight
fraction
Fuel weight
fraction
Calculated
weight
Difference=
guess-cal




3) Once the gross weight is obtained, fixed sizing is done by keeping guess gross weight,
empty weight fraction as constant values, and vary(increment or decrement) fuel weight
fraction.

Iteration.
No

Guess
weight
(constant)
Empty
weight
fraction
(constant)
Fuel weight
fraction(vary
this)
Calculated
weight
Difference=
guess-cal




RESULT:
The iterations should be done until the difference between the guess and calculated
weights is equal to zero.



EXPERIMENT 5
LOAD OR INDUCED DRAG ESTIMATION

AIM
To find drag due to lift or Induced drag for the following aircrafts using Oswalds
span efficiency method and Leading edge suction method.
1) Straight wing aircraft,
2) Swept wing aircraft,
3) Supersonic aircraft.
REQUIREMENTS
Aspect ratio
Coefficient of lift
Sweep of leading edge
Speed of aircraft.
THEORY
The induced drag coefficient of moderate angle of attack is proportional to square of
the lift coefficient with a proportionality factor called the drag-due-to-lift-factor or K

2
L D
KC C = (1)
Following are the two methods to estimate drag-due-to-lift-factor or K :
1) Oswalds span efficiency method
2) Leading edge suction method
1) Oswalds span efficiency method:
According to classical wing theory, the induced drag coefficient of 3D-Wing with an
elliptical lift distribution equals the square of lift coefficient divided by A (A = Aspect
Ratio or Effective Aspect Ratio)
K =
Ae t
1
(2)
A = Aspect Ratio
effective
A = Effective Aspect Ratio
e = Oswalds span efficiency (The value of e varies from 0.7 to 0.85)
Effective Aspect Ratio for
End-plates: ) / 9 . 1 1 ( b h A A
effective
+ = (3)


h = height of Endplate
Winglets: A A
effective
2 . 1 ~ (4)

Straight wing aircraft:
64 . 0 ) 045 . 0 1 ( 78 . 1
68 . 0
= A e (5)
Swept wing aircraft:
1 . 3 ) )(cos 045 . 0 1 ( 61 . 4
15 . 0 68 . 0
A =
LE
A e (6)
Supersonic aircraft:
LE
M A
M A
e A

= cos
2 ) 1 ( 4
] 1 [
2
2
(7)
LE
A = Sweep angle of leading edge
Disadvantages of Oswald span efficiency method:
1) Ignores the variation of K with lift coefficient.
2) This doesnt include the effects of the change in viscous separation as lift
coefficient is changed.

Wing Details






2) Leading Edge Suction Method:
This is a semi-empirical for estimation of K allows for the variation of K with lift
coefficient and Mach number. Due to the rapid curvature at the leading edge, there creates a
pressure drop on the upper part of the leading edge. The reduced pressure exerts a suction
force on the leading edge in a forward direction. This leading edge suction force S is in the
direction perpendicular to the normal force N.

100 0
) 1 ( K S SK K + = (8)
Where, K = drag-due-to-lift-factor
A
K
t
1
100
=

o l
C
K
1
0
=

o l
C
= slope of the lift curve, angle taken in radians
S = Leading edge suction factor




PROCEDURE
1. Select a value of aspect ratio and calculate the Ostwald efficiency factor e using any
one of the equations (5), (6) or (7) based on aircraft type.
2. Calculate drag-due-to-lift-factor or K using equation(2).
3. Calculate coefficient of drag
D
C (induced drag) using equation (1).
4. Select a value of coefficient of lift
L
C for corresponding aspect ratio.
5. Iterate step(1) through (3) for varying/incrementing aspect ratio and coefficient of lift
L
C .
6. Plot graph between
L
C
verses
D
C
and
L
C
versus K.

RESULT:
Hence, the drag due to lift or Induced drag for the following aircrafts using Oswalds
span efficiency method and Leading edge suction method was found.



EXPERIMENT 6
ESTIMATE THE CRITICAL MACH NUMBER FOR AN
AIRFOIL

AIM
1. Estimate the Critical Mach number for given airfoil at the specified angle of attack.
Two approaches to estimate critical Mach number
a) Graphical method
b) Analytic method
2. Compare the results obtained in each method.

THEORY:
Critical Mach number: Free stream Mach number at which sonic flow is first obtained
somewhere on the surface of the airfoil is called the Critical Mach number of the airfoil.

+
+
=

1
1
) 1 ( 2 2
) 1 (
2
2 ,

M
M
C
cr p
(1)

2
0 ,
1

=
M
C
C
p
p
(2)

+
+
=


1
1
) 1 ( 2 2
1
) 1 (
2
2
2
0 ,

cr
cr
cr
p
M
M
M
C
(3)
PROCEDURE
a) Graphical Method:
1) The Graphical method involves following steps:
2) Obtain a plot of Cp versus M from equation (1). This is illustrated by curve A
in Fig1. The curve is a fixed universal curve that is used for all.




Fig1. Determination of Critical Mach number.
3) For low-speed, incompressible flow, obtain the value of the minimum pressure
coefficient corresponds to the point of maximum velocity on the airfoil
surface. This minimum value of
0 , p
C must be given to you (from experimental
measurement or theory). This
0 , p
C is shown as point B in Fig1
4) From the equation (2), plot the variation of this coefficient versus M . This is
illustrated by curve C in Fig1.
5) Where curve C intersects curve A, the minimum pressure coefficient on the
surface of the airfoil is equal to the critical pressure coefficient. This
intersection point is denoted by point D in Fig1. For the conditions associated
with this point, the maximum velocity on the airfoil surface is exactly sonic.
The value of M at point D is then by definition, the Critical Mach number.

b) Analytic Method:
Equation (2) gives the variation of
p
C at a given point on the airfoil surface as a
function of

M . At some location on the airfoil surface
0 , p
C will be a minimum value,
corresponding to the point of maximum velocity on the surface. The value of the minimum
pressure coefficient will increase in absolute magnitude as

M is increased owing to the


compressibility effect.


Hence equation(2) with
0 , p
C being minimum value on the surface of the airfoil at
essentially incompressible flow conditions (

M < 0.3) gives the value of minimum pressure
coefficient at a higher Mach number

M at some value of

M the flow velocity will become


sonic at the point of minimum pressure coefficient. The value of the pressure coefficient at
sonic conditions is the critical pressure coefficient, given by equation (1). When the flow
becomes sonic at the point of minimum pressure, the pressure coefficient given by equation
(2) is the value given by equation (1). Equating these two relations we have equation (3).
The value of

M that satisfies equation (3) is the value when the flow becomes sonic
at the point of maximum velocity (minimum pressure). That is the value of

M obtained
from equation (3) is the critical Mach number for the airfoil.
Equation (3) must be solved implicitly for

M by trial and error, guessing at a value


of

M and then trying again. This must be continued until left handed side (LHS) value of
equation(3) and right handed side (RHS) value of equation(3) should yield same result.

RESULT
The values from Graphical method and Analytic method should be equal in two
decimal places.



PART - II
AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE
EXPERIMENT 7
STATIC PERFORMANCE: THRUST REQUIRED CURVE

AIM
To conduct static performance analysis using thrust required curve. Hence calculate
the following:
1) Minimum thrust required (
r
T min),
2) Thrust available (
a
T ),
3) Maximum velocity (
max
V ).
REQUIREMENTS
Wing area
Aspect ratio
Drag polar
Span efficiency factor.
THEORY
The performance of an airplane for an uncelebrated flight conditions is called static
performance.
Thrust required (
r
T ) is given by

D L
W
C C
W
T
D L
r
= =
Thrust required curve is a plot of the variation of
r
T with respect to velocity

V
PROCEDURE
To calculate a point on the thrust require curve
1) Choose a value of

V
2) For this

V , calculate the lift coefficient
L
C from equation.
3) Calculate
D
C from the known drag polar for the airplane.


Ae
C
C C
L
d D
t
2
0
+ =
4) Calculate the ratio
d L
C C .
5) Calculate thrust required from equation (1)
6) The value of
r
T obtained from step five is that thrust required to fly at the specific velocity
taken in step1. Fig1 is the locus of all such points taken for all velocities in the flight range of
the airplane.
7) The thrust required will be minimum when zero lift drag due to lift.

di
L
d
C
Ae
C
C = =
t
2
0


Maximum Thrust available: It is the maximum thrust provided by an engine-propeller/jet

Maximum Velocity: The velocity of airplane obtained when thrust available is maximum




EXPERIMENT 8
STATIC PERFORMANCE: POWER REQUIRED CURVE
AIM
To conduct static performance analysis using power required curve. Hence calculate the
following:
1) Power available (
r
P ),
2) Maximum velocity (
max
V ).
REQUIREMENTS
Wing area
Aspect ratio
Drag polar
Span efficiency factor.
THEORY
The performance of an airplane for a uncelebrated flight conditions is called static
performance.
Thrust required (
r
T ) is given by

D L
W
C C
W
T
D L
r
= =
Power required is given by

= V T P
r r

Power required curve is a plot of the variation of
r
P with respect to velocity

V



POWER AVAILABLE:
a) PROPELLER:
Shaft Break Power (P): The power delivered to the propeller by the crank shaft is
defined as the shaft break power. Not all P is available to the drive the airplane, some of it
dissipated by inefficiencies of the propeller itself. The power available to propel the aircraft
Pa is given by
P P
a
q =
b) Jet:
The power available from the jet engine is obtained from

= V T P
a a

Maximum Velocity: The velocity of airplane obtained when power available is maximum

PROCEDURE
To calculate a point on the thrust require curve
1. Choose a value of

V

2. For this

V , calculate the lift coefficient
L
C from equation.
3. Calculate
D
C from the known drag polar for the airplane.
Ae
C
C C
L
d D
t
2
0
+ =

4. Calculate the ratio
d L
C C .
5. Calculate thrust required from equation(1)
6. The value of
r
T obtained from step five is that thrust required to fly at the specific
velocity taken in step1.
7. Calculate the power required using the equation

= V T P
r r

8. The power required curve is defined as a plot of
r
P versus

V as shown in Fig1