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Definition of bioengineering

Bio-engineering g g is the use of living g vegetation, either alone or in j with the civil engineering g g conjunction structures and non living plant material, y and to reduce shallow-seated instability erosion on slopes

Cause of failure :

The condition Th diti of f that th t generates t or triggers or starts failure

Cause of instability

Cause of instability

Cause of instability

Mechanism of failure:

The manner in which loss of strength p occurs in the slope

Mechanisms of instability

Mechanisms of instability

Mechanism of instability

Land slide zones

Landslide zones
Cracking

Failure Transportation Deposition

Landslide without zone of transport

Functions of engineering g g structures


Catch Armour Armour Reinforce Anchor Support Support Drain

Plants in bio bio-engineering engineering

E i Engineering i f functions ti

Support

Catch

Armour Reinforce A h Anchor

The hydrological effects vegetation


R i Rain Intercept Evaporate Store

Infiltration

Pool

Leaf drip

Water uptake p

The hydrological effects vegetation


R i Rain Intercept Evaporate Store

Infiltration

Pool

Leaf drip

Water uptake p

Functions u ct o s of o engineering e g ee g structures


Catch Wattle fence Checkdam Jute/coir net wire netting

Functions of engineering structures


Armour Rendering Revetment wall Slope cover Dentition Stone pitching

Functions of engineering structures


Reinforce
--------------------------

Anchor
---------------------------

Functions of engineering structures t t


Drain French drain Unbound masonry ditch Bound masonry ditch U li d earth Unlined h di ditch h

Construction of gabion g wire bolster

Mechanical effects of plants


Mechanical mechanism Effect Stems and trunks trap materials that are moving down the slope.
Roots bind soil p particles to the

ground surface and reduce their susceptibility to erosion. erosion


Roots penetrating through the soil

cause it to resist deformation. deformation

Mechanical effects of plants l t


Mechanical mechanism Effect Woody roots may be open the rock joints due to the thickening as they grow. The Th root t cylinder li d of f the th trees t holds h ld up the slope above through buttressing and arching. arching Tap root or near vertical roots penetrate into the firmer stratum below and pin down the overlaying materials.

Mechanical effects of p plants


Mechanical mechanism Vegetation exposed to wind transmits dynamic forces into the slope. Effect

Hydrological effects of plants l t


Hydrological H d l i l mechanism h i Eff t Effect Leaves intercept raindrops before they hit the ground. ground Water evaporates from the leaf surface. W t is Water i stored t d in i the th canopy and d stems. Large or localised water droplets fall from the leaves.

Hydrological effects of plants


Hydrological mechanism Effect Surface run-off is checked by y stems and grass leaves. Stems and roots increase the roughness of the ground surface and the permeability of the soil. Roots extract moisture from the soil which is then released to the atmosphere t h through th h transpiration. t i ti

Life span of civil engineering structure


% Relative strength of structure

100 80 60 40 20 0

Cement masonry Gabion wall Dry stone wall Jute net


0 1 5 10 15 20 25 30

Years

Life span of vegetative structure


% Relative strength t th of vegetative structure

100 80 60 40 20 0

Tree Shrub Grass


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Years

Interaction between vegetative g and civil engineering structure


% Relative strength of structures

100 80 60 40 20 0

Jute net

Tree Dry stone ll wall Grass Shrub 0 1 5

Cement masonry G bi Gabion

10 15 20 25 30

Years

What do y you think, , is it bioengineering?

Bioengineering is the engineered combination of living plants.

function for example, tree plantation above p retaining wall

Shrub p plantation to catch debris

Grass p plantation to armour the slope

Bamboo plantation

Vegetative systems

Vegetative g systems y by y the use of: Seed Seedling Seedling Cutting C tti Others Oth

Seed

Broadcasting Direct sowing in holes


Suitable for sandy site for armouring and reinforcing

Seedling

Tree and shrub planting Slope p up p to 30 degree. Spacing p g 1m * 1m Engineering function


Support, anchor and reinforce

Tree/Shrub Planting g

Mulch Pit

Grass planting
1. Horizontal line of grass planting Spacing: p g
Line to line p angle g of the slope p = 100 cm if the slope is<300 = 50 cm if the slope angle of the slope i 300 45 is30 450 = 30 cm if the slope angle of the slope is>450 Plant to plant 10 cm main function : catch, armoring and

Horizontal line of grass plantation

Horizontal line of grass plantation

Grass planting p g continued


Vertical line of grass planting Spacing:

Line to line 50 cm Plant to plant 10 cm function : surface drainage, reduce infiltration and armour On slopes up to 65 degree, clay type soil. Limitation: likely to develop rills rills.

Down Slope Grass Plantation

Grass planting p g continued


Diagonal line of grass planting Spacing:

Line to line 50 cm Plant to plant 10 cm function : surface drainage, reduce infiltration and armour, armour catch On slopes up to 65 degree, damp sites.

Diagonal Line of Grass Pl t ti Plantation

Diagonal g Line of Grass Plantation

Grass planting p g continued


Chevron and herringbone pattern of grass p g planting g Widely used in new gully and ridge Spacing:

Line to line 50 cm Plant Pl t to t plant l t 10 cm


Function: drain and armour.

Herringbone pattern of grass plantation

Grass planting p g continued


Random grass planting Spacing : 10 cm * 10 cm

On slopes between 45 to 60 degree and 15 m slope length length. Function: armour and reinforce.

Vegetative g systems y using cuttings

Grass seeding

VEGETATIVE SYSTEMS

1-2m

Brush Layering

VEGETATIVE SYSTEMS

Palisade

Palisade

Brush layering

Brushlayer

Fascines

Fascines

VEGETATIVE SYSTEMS

Bundle of cutting g

Fascines

Fascines

Palisades

Live checkdam

Tree and shrub planting

Tree and shrub sowing