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Kermit or Kermette Part I: 1. Does atrazine appear to alter male frog development at any concentration?

Yes, at 1 microgram per liter. 2. If atrazine does aect male frog development, what is the lowest concentration and dose that appears to have the eect? From the data, the lowest concentration would be 0.1. The lowest dose is 0.01. 3. The chemical DDT was banned for use in the U.S. in the 1960s. For years afterwards, however, American manufacturers of DDT continued to export it to third world countries that had not yet banned its use. How does this observation relate to the use of atrazine in the U.S. today? This is also the case for Switzerland who banned atrazine yet still continue to sell it. The use of atrazine is still in the U.S and will continue to be until we outlaw it.

Part II: 1. A Syngenta press release quotes James Carr, head of the Texas Tech team, as saying, We have been unable to reproduce the low-concentration eects of atrazine on amphibians reported elsewhere in the scientic literature. "This statement refers to Hayes results (Hayes, 2002, 2003). Comment on the accuracy of this statement, and explain your reasoning. The statement is not very accurate due to experiment being in de-chlorinated laboratory water. There are many factors that were different that affected both experiment.

2. "The Hayes study (Hayes, 2003) was conducted using water samples collected from ponds and streams in agricultural and non-agricultural regions of the Midwest." The study conducted by Carrs group added varying amounts of atrazine to de-chlorinated laboratory water. Which set of experimental conditions, if either, would be more likely to lead to valid experimental results? Explain your reasoning. It would be more valid to take the de-chlorinated water since it does not have previous traces of atrazine. Since atrazine can stay in a particular place for a large amount of time, there could have been atrazine in the ponds and stream that contributed to the results of the experiment. 3. Comment on the signicance of the Carr data, shown above, that reports the percent of male frogs having gonadal abnormalities at a nominal atrazine concentration of zero micrograms per liter and a nominal dose of zero micrograms per liter. The number of abnormalities are the same as 0.1 dosage. This may be due to the traces of atrazine in the water previous to the tadpoles.

Part III: 1. What do the Hayes results indicate about the eect of atrazine on the testosterone concentration in the blood of exposed male frogs? They indicate that atrazine has an effect of testosterone levels of frogs. 2. What do the MSU results indicate about the eect of atrazine on the testosterone concentration in the blood of exposed male frogs? The results tell that testosterone concentration is less .5 will not have an affect.

3. Consider the EPAs observation about the presence of atrazine in the controls used in the MSU study. Could this observation explain how Hayes and Hecker could both have accurately reported their experimental observations? This could have contributed to the results. However Hayes could be more flawed since he stated there were not any atrazine prior. 4. In 2003, the EPA recommended that Syngentas license to continue the use of atrazine in the United States be approved. If one assumes that the data presented here are valid, what factor or combination of factors might have led to this recommendation? There would not be a factor(s) unless it would be money given to the government. 5. Search for two web sites that support the continued use of atrazine and two web sites opposed to its continued use. Prepare an assessment of the validity of these web sites and be prepared to share your observations in class. Useful guidelines for the evaluation of the credibility of web postings may be found at the following URL: http://www.virtualchase.com/quality/checklist_print.html.

For: 1.2% increase in corn crops (http://www.atrazinelovers.com/m1.html ) It does not affect birds or bees from the crop use (http://extoxnet.orst.edu/pips/atrazine.htm) Against: Atrazine linked with cancer and ill effects on wildlife surrounding crops used with atrazine (http://www.savethefrogs.com/threats/pesticides/atrazine/index.html)

Slightly to moderately toxic to humans and animals (http://extoxnet.orst.edu/pips/atrazine.htm)