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1 Emilie Hurst Dr.

Steven Baur MUSC 1035 8 April Introduction Sarah Fullers The European Musical Heritage presents us ith an !vervie !" estern musi# ran$in$ "r!m m!n!ph!ni# #hant in the 800s t! the #l!se !" the %ar!&ue era in 1'50. (ver a hun)re) pie#es an) #!mp!sers are represente)* )etailin$ ma+!r tren)s in #!mp!siti!nal te#hni&ues* an) $ivin$ the rea)er a $limpse int! their hist!ri#al #!nte,t. Despite the t!mes %rea)th* a startlin$ !missi!n remains- n!t a sin$le !ne !" the pie#es #h!sen as penne) %. a !man. F!r !n#e* the auth!rs se, #ann!t %e %lame)/ n!r #an the anth!l!$. %e e,#use) %. its a$e* as the revise) e)iti!n as "irst printe) as re#entl. as 0001. Surel.* !ut !" the man. !men #!mp!sers t! sur"a#e !ver the .ears* at least !ne has ritten a pie#e that p!ssesses %!th the 2in)ivi)ual artisti# merit3 an) 2representative &ualities3 1 that Fuller #ites as her sele#ti!n #riteria. 4his paper ill ar$ue "!r the in#lusi!n !" !men* startin$ ith the %r!a)er t!pi# !" the imp!rtan#e !" representati!n in anth!l!$ies* %e"!re narr! in$ its s#!pe t! the spe#i"i# e,ample !" Fran#es#a Ca##ini* an) her !pera0 La Liberazione di Ruggiero dall'isola d'Alcina. The Case for Women: Exclusion as Oppression 5hile n!t !vert in its !ppressi!n* Fullers anth!l!$. helps perpetuate the e,#lusi!n !" !men in the !rl) !" musi#. Be"!re )elvin$ an. "urther* it is !" use t! %rie"l. e,pl!re t! hat e,tent !men have %een le"t !ut !" the stan)ar) musi#al #an!n. C!nsi)er this situati!n- stan)in$
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Sarah Fuller* 67re"a#e.6 8n The European Musical Heritage* e). Sarah Fuller 9:e ;!r<- M#=ra Hill E)u#ati!n* 000>?* i,. 0 Stri#tl. spea<in$* the !r< is n!t an !pera* %ut rather a %allet!* as seen !n the title pa$e. 4his is %e#ause !" the t ! lar$e )an#e s#enes that ere part !" the !ri$inal per"!rman#e. H! ever* it %!rr! s s! mu#h "r!m the !rl) !" !pera* in#lu)in$ re#itative* arias an) a #h!rus* that is $enerall. a##epte) %. m!st musi#!l!$ists as !ne.

0 at a street #!rner* .!u as< ran)!m passers@%. t! &ui#<l. name a 2#lassi#al3 pie#e. (ne #!ul) easil. ima$ine this me)le. !" 2#lassi#al $reatest hits3* in#lu)in$ pie#es su#h as Fr Elise* Moonlight Sonata* 7a#hel%els Canon !r perhaps a sele#ti!n "r!m The utcrac!er. H! ever* the li<elih!!) !" an. !ne !" them t! have %een ritten %. a !man is "airl. slim. A similar surve. am!n$ amateur musi#ians mi$ht .iel) %etter results* %ut the names ill surel. num%er un)er "!ur !r "ive. Anth!l!$ies are a li<el. #ulprit- )ue t! vari!us "a#t!rs* su#h as the s#ar#it. !" s#!res3* an) the )i""i#ult. !" #lassi".in$ !mens musi# a##!r)in$ t! usual #!nventi!ns1* man. anth!l!$ies "eature !nl. a limite) sele#ti!n !" !mens !r<. 4he %uil)in$ !" these #!lle#ti!ns inv!lves a lar$e am!unt !" #h!i#e- ultimatel.* the auth!r must #h!!se t! "!#us its s#!pe. 5hatever the "inal result* the auth!ritative nature !" i)esprea) print pu%li#ati!n A as !pp!se) t! ele#tr!ni#* hi#h #an a#hieve lar$e #ir#ulati!n ith!ut "irst passin$ thr!u$h an e,ten)e) e)it!rial pr!#ess A leaves the rea)er ith the impressi!n that the !r<s n!t !nl. 2em%!). hi$h &ualit.3 %ut 2e,empli". the imp!rtant st.listi# hist!ri#al p!ints35. 5hat then happens t! th!se that are le"t !utB 5hile the e,#lusi!n !" !ne Beeth!ven S!nata !ver an!ther mi$ht a""e#t little harm* the e,#lusi!n !" lar$er $r!ups implies n!t !nl. that the. p!ssess lesser hist!ri#al value in the lar$er pi#ture* %ut that the. are s!me hat in"eri!r in &ualit. hen it #!mes t! their representative value. D!es Fullers anth!l!$. then have s!me s!rt !" !%li$ati!n t! represent !men in its pa$esB 4! ans er this &uesti!n* the "un#ti!n !" su#h a #!lle#ti!n sh!ul) "irst %e investi$ate). Alth!u$h never e,pli#itl. state)* its m!st i)esprea) use is as a universit. #lassr!!m te,t%!!<. Su#h anth!l!$ies are ver. use"ul t! pr!"ess!rs !" these #lasses as the. pr!vi)e a $eneral !vervie !" estern musi#* an) )! n!t )eal in the m!re !%s#ure tren)s !" musi# hist!r.. Mu#h
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Mar#ia C. Citr!n* "ender and the Musical Canon. 9Cam%ri)$e- Cam%ri)$e Universit. 7ress* 1DD3?* 001. 8%i).* 011 5 8%i).* 1D5

3 time is save) %. %asin$ a #!urse !n a rea).@ma)e #!lle#ti!n* instea) !" han)@pi#<in$ "r!m a variet. !" s!ur#es>. Assumin$ then that stu)ents are the main %ene"i#iaries* e #an start t! see the #!nse&uen#es. As it is "airl. sa"e t! assume that m!st have %ut little previ!us <n! le)$e !" !men as #!mp!sers* )an$er lies n!t !nl. in the a"!rementi!ne) assumpti!n !" in"eri!rit. %ut als! in the impli#ati!ns !" i$n!ran#e- man. stu)ents mi$ht assume that !men simpl. )i) n!t #!mp!se* an) th!se h! )i) ere in#apa%le !" pu%lishin$* an) thus preservin$* their !r<. 8n a))iti!n* ith!ut this #ru#ial startin$ p!int* it mi$ht never #r!ss the %u))in$ musi#ians min) t! investi$ate !n their ! n. 4his "urther inhi%its the pr!li"erati!n !" !mens !r< an)* ar$ua%l.* perpetuates their !ppressi!n. H! ever* !ne #!ul) ar$ue that in the en) it is the tea#hers +!% t! pr!vi)e an a)e&uate #r!ss se#ti!n !" !r<s. 5hile this is true* the "a#t that anth!l!$. users must %rin$ in a))iti!nal pie#es t! represent !men implies the. are part !" s!me 2!ther3 #ate$!r.* a s!rt !" spi#e t! the usual mainstream stu). !" musi#* instea) !" an inte$ral part !" it'. 8n summati!n* Fuller has m!re than en!u$h reas!n t! in#lu)e a pie#e #!mp!se) %. a !men in her anth!l!$.. Francesca Caccini: in the midst of historical curiosities The European Musical Heritage )!es n!t see< t! hi)e the "a#t that its surve. is m!stl. limite) t! mainstream hist!ri#al st.les* ith !nl. !##asi!nal )eviati!ns8. 8t there"!re seems %est t! su$$est a #!mp!ser that* hile %rin$in$ s!methin$ ne t! the anth!l!$.* #!ul) %e inte$rate) seamlessl. int! its pa$es. 4his %rin$s us t! Fran#es#a Ca##ini* h!se !r< )em!nstrates the ne l. )evel!pe) st.le !" the seconda prattica %ut maintains a uni&uel. "eminine perspe#tive. B!rn in Fl!ren#e !n Septem%er 18th* 158' Ca##ini as the el)est )au$hter !" t ! sin$ers* =uili!
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8%i).* 05. 8t is imp!rtant t! a#<n! le)$e the p!ssi%ilit. that mu#h !" !mens musi#al !r<s is n!t suite) t! %e #ate$!riEe) an) anal.Ee) in the same terms that th!se !" male are 98%i).* 01D@008?. F!r n! * h! ever* this essa. #h!!ses t! en)!rse inte$rati!n* i" !nl.* "!r %revit.. 8 Fuller* The European Music Heritage* i,.

1 an) Fu#ia Ca##ini. 8n #!nse&uen#e !" her "ather %ein$ !ne "!r the m!st in"luential musi#ians !" the time* Fran#es#a musi#al e)u#ati!n as ver. ri$!r!us* in#lu)in$ instru#ti!n in sin$in$* #!mp!sin$* an) pla.in$ the lute an) harpsi#h!r). B. 1>00* she ha) ma)e her musi#al )e%ut in Ca#!p! 7eris Euridice. 4his as !nl. the %e$innin$ !" a l!n$ #areer* hi#h as t! in#lu)e appearan#es as a sin$er an) instrumentalist* tea#hin$ an) m!st imp!rtantl.* #!mp!sin$. 8n 1>0'* she entere) the servi#e !" the Me)i#i #!urt* eventuall. %e#!min$ its hi$hest pai) musi#ian. 8t is here that her !pera La liberazione di Ruggiero dall'isola d'Alcina as t! %e ritten an) per"!rme). Ca##inis )!#umente) !utput num%ers in the hun)re)s* %ut un"!rtunatel. !nl. a han)"ul has survive). Unli<e man. !" her "emale #!ntemp!raries* her !r<s en+!.e) a #!nsi)era%le su##ess* an) even travelle) !utsi)e !" 8tal.. Her )eparture "r!m the Me)i#i #!urt in 1>0' )i) n!t mar< the en) !" her #areer A Ca##ini retire) as a per"!rmer* %ut #!ntinue) tea#hin$ an) #!mp!sin$ until late in her li"e. She seems t! have )ie) ar!un) 1>15* hen $uar)ianship !" her s!n trans"erre) t! his un#le* %ut a spe#i"i# )ate elu)es usD. Ca##inis a##!mplishments are "rame) %. several interestin$ hist!ri#al phen!men!n. First* 8tal. as t! see a s!rt !" renaissan#e !" !men #!mp!ser "r!m 15>> t! 1'00 A the num%er !" pu%li#ati!ns an) per"!rman#es ere t! !utnum%er an. previ!us peri!) in estern hist!r.10. Geas!ns "!r this in#lu)e the )evel!pment !" the printin$ press* the appearan#e !" private musi#al instituti!ns an) the $r! th !" p!l.ph!ni# musi# in #!nvents. 8t is* h! ever* the su))en )evel!pment !" #areer !pp!rtunities "!r !men sin$ers that m!st %ene"ite) Ca##ini. Be$innin$ ith the immensel. p!pular Fa)ies !" Ferrara* "emale sin$ers ha) rapi)l. %e#!me ver. hi$h in )eman). Alth!u$h the ensem%le as "airl. sh!rt@live)* its e""e#ts ere lastin$. Su))enl.*
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F!r an e,pan)e) %i!$raphi#al l!!<* see her entr. in the =r!ve Musi# (nline. Canes B! ers* 64he Emer$en#e !" 5!men C!mp!sers in 8tal..6 8n #o$en Ma!ing Music% The &estern art tradition' (()*+(,)** e). Canes B! ers an) Cu)ith 4i#< 9Chi#a$! an) Ur%ana- Universit. !" 8llin!is 7ress* 1D8>?* 11>.
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5 se#urin$ a p!siti!n as a pr!"essi!nal musi#ian as a via%le !pti!n "!r !men* as as a musi#al e)u#ati!n "!r $irls11. Ca##inis app!intment at the Me)i#i #!urt as alm!st #ertainl. p!ssi%le %e#ause !" this tren) A a #ru#ial "a#t!r that all! e) her t! )evel!p her talents in #!mp!siti!n ith time an) res!ur#es that !ul) have %een unavaila%le !ther ise10. Featurin$ her !r< in Fullers anth!l!$. !ul) help )em!nstrate the Fa)ies !" Ferraras i)e sprea) in"luen#e. 5hile this e,plaine) h! she $!t her p!siti!n* hat <ept her there* an) eventuall. elevate) her t! pr!minen#e* is n!t her status as a )iva sin$er* %ut the master. !" her #ra"t. 5hen praise)* she as n!te) as 2the m!st learne) an) master"ul e,p!nent !" her art* a !man h! )aEEle) n!t %. %eaut. !r her a%ilit. t! eli#it pr!"!un) em!ti!nal resp!nse %ut %. an intelli$en#e in turnin$ p!etr. that she ha) )ramatiEe) as e""!rtless313. 4his intelli$en#e* all! e) her t! use her v!i#e as an instrument !" p! er* li<e n! !ther sin$er ha) %e"!re11. 4he se#!n) hist!ri#al #ir#umstan#e that len)s imp!rtan#e t! Ca##inis !r< 9an) as instrumental in its )evel!pment an) pr!li"erati!n? is a #uri!us #ir#umstan#e that le"t the Me)i#i #!urt essentiall. rule) %. !men "!r !ver 00 .ears. A"ter his "athers )eath in 1>0D* C!sim! 88 )e Me)i#i %e#ame =ran) Du<e !" 4us#an.. 4he ruler* h! ever* as si#<l.* an) it as n! se#ret that m!st a""airs !" the state here presi)e) !ver %. his m!ther Christina !" F!rraine. 5hen he passe) a a. !n 08 Fe%ruar. 1>01* the trans"er !" p! er %e#ame !""i#ial/ His s!n Fer)inan)! 88 n!t %ein$ .et %ein$ !" a$e* Christina an) his i)! Maria Ma$)alena ere )e#lare) +!int re$ents. H! ever* n!t ever.!ne as #!m"!rta%le ith the 2 !mens #!urt3 an) #!nsi)era%le time* e""!rt an) m!ne. as put t! ar)s n!rmaliEin$ the i)ea !" !men in p! er. As e shall see* Ca##ini an) her musi# pla.e) a si$ni"i#ant r!le in this #ultural #ampai$n.
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8%i).* 101. 8%i). 101. 13 SuEanne =. Cusi#<* Francesca Caccini at the Medici Court% Music and the circulation o- .o&er' 9Chi#a$!- 4he Universit. !" Chi#a$! 7ress* 000D?* '5. 11 8%i).* >3.

> La Liberazione di Ruggiero dall'isola d'Alcina: A Dispatch from the World of Women 7atr!na$e !" the arts at as n!thin$ ne at the Me)i#i #!urts A n!r as the i)ea that !r<s ere #apa%le !" #arr.in$ 2spe#i"i#* !"ten p!liti#all. #har$e) messa$es315 A %ut never %e"!re ha) the #!urt seen s! mu#h !" the m!ne. $iven #!me "r!m the han)s !" !men. La Liberazione di Ruggiero pr!vi)es an interestin$ #!ntrast t! Ca#!p! 7eris Euridice 9alrea). present in Fullers anth!l!$.? hi#h as meant t! $l!ri". its patr!n* =ran) Du<e Fer)inan)! 81>. Ca##inis !pera is n! less p!liti#al* %ut )i""ers in !ther respe#ts* hi#h #an ar$ua%l. %e attri%ute) t! the $en)er !" %!th her an) her patr!n. La Liberazione di Ruggiero as ritten in h!n!ur !" the state visit !" 7rin#e 5la).sla

!" 7!lan)* an) per"!rme) !n Fe%ruar. 3* 1>05 at the Hilla )i 7!$$i! 8mperiale in Fl!ren#e. 4he !pera as ver. ell re#eive)* an) later per"!rme) a$ain in 5arsa in 1>08 1'. 8t use) the li%rett! !" Fer)inan)! Sara#inelli* %ase) !n Fu)!vi#! Ari!st!Is /rlando Furios. 4his mar<s a stri<in$ )eparture "r!m the #lassi#al =ree< m.ths previ!usl. use) as s!ur#e material "!r !peras. 8n "a#t* the li%rett! is a #uri!usl. "eminist !ne A the lea) male r!le* Gu$$ier! 18 has little t! )! en"!l)in$ !" the pl!t* %ut rather* is #au$ht %et een t ! ver. p! er"ul ith the

!men. A"ter a pr!l!$ue

praisin$ the $uest !" h!n!ur* the s#ene !pens t! reveal the s!r#eress Melissa ri)in$ !n the %a#< !" a )!lphin. She e,plains that she is hea)in$ t! an islan) t! "ree Gu$$ier! "r!m the spell !" Al#ina. 5hen she arrives* Melissa trans"!rms int! Gu$$ier!s "!rmer ment!r* Atlante* an) entreats him t! leave the islan) an) return h!me t! marr. the arri!r prin#ess Bra)amante an)

%e#!me "!un)er !" the Este ).nast.. Gu$$ier! eventuall. a$rees* %ut %e"!re the. #an leave*
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Jelle. Harness* Echoes o- #o$en% Music' Art' and Fe$ale .atronage in Earl0 Modern Florence' 9Chi#a$!- 4he Universit. !" Chi#a$! 7ress* 000>?* 0. 1> 8%i).* 0D@3>. 1' 4his per"!rman#e is !"ten #itin$ as %ein$ the "irst time an !pera is per"!rme) !utsi)e !" 8tal.. 8t has sin#e #!me t! li$ht that this is n!t the #ase. 18 8nterestin$ "!r the time* the !pera )!es n!t #!ntain a sin$le #astrat!. Fran#es#a mi$ht have #h!sen t! )! this in !r)er t! emphasiEe the p! er"ul s!pran! v!i#es !" her "emale #hara#ters.

' Al#ina returns an) plea)s "!r him t! sta.. 5hen her laments "ail* the sta$e %ursts int! "lames* an) she ri)es !"" !n the %a#< !" a )ra$!n. 4he plants* "!rmer #aptives !" Al#ina* #!me %a#< t! li"e* an) mu#h )an#in$ is t! %e ha) t! #ele%rate her )eparture an) the rest!rin$ !" !r)er. C!nsi)erin$ Ar#h)u#hess Maria Ma$)alena plans t! arran$e a marria$e %et een her )au$hter an) 5la).sla * it is n!t surprisin$ that marital allian#e t! ensure the #!ntinuit. !" a ).nast. as !ne !" the !peras #entral themes 1D. Furtherm!re* #l!ser inspe#ti!n reveals s!me

themes in line ith the #ampai$n t! n!rmaliEe the !mens #!urt. First* alth!u$h La Liberazione di Ruggiero initiall. presents t! its male au)ien#e a !rl) a<in t! their !rst "ears A !ne here

!men rule an) men are +ust pa ns A %. the #!n#lusi!n* all is returne) t! heter!n!rmativit.. :! l!n$er un)er the spell !" Al#ina* Gu$$ier! is "ree t! return t! his marr. his prin#ess an) #!n&uer the !rl)00. 4his seems t! impl. t! its au)ien#e that the rulin$ !men !" the Me)i#i "amil. ere n!t li<el. t! upset the usual $en)er !r)er* %ut ere essential t! sustainin$ it* there"!re &uellin$

the un#ertainties !" its male resi)ents. Als!* the $!!) s!r#eress Melissa* #hara#teriEe) as %ein$ rather an)r!$.n!us* is re&uire) t! assume a male $uise t! persua)e Gu$$ier! t! leave the islan). 4his )ra s parallels t! the Ar#h)u#hess h! #!mmissi!ne) the !r<* as she as <n! n "!r her

!)) )ispla.s !" $en)er. Unli<e m!st !men* Maria Ma$)elena en+!.e) spen)in$ her time ri)in$* huntin$* an) pursuin$ !ther a#tivities n!rmall. reserve) "!r men. 4he !pera )eals %. assertin$ that 2p! er"ul ith this issue

!men K...L empl!. "!r the purp!se !" rest!rin$ se,ual* $en)er* an)

s!#ial !r)er301. 8n summati!n* La Liberazione di Ruggiero there"!re "alls neatl. int! the tra)iti!n !" usin$ !pera as a p!liti#al )ispla.* %ut #!mes "r!m a uni&uel. "eminine perspe#tive* ma<in$ it an i)eal pie#e t! in#lu)e in an. pe)a$!$i#al res!ur#e.

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8%i).* 153. Cusi#<* Fran#es#a Ca##ini at the Me)i#i #!urt* 00'. 01 8%i).* 008.

8 5hile the li%rett! an) its p!liti#al #!nte,t ren)er the (pera interestin$ en!u$h* Fran#es#a Ca##inis settin$ !" the te,t pr!vi)es even "urther !pp!rtunities "!r e,pl!rati!n. Fi<e mu#h !" the musi# !" the )a.* Ca##ini #!mp!ses mainl. usin$ the prin#iples !" the seconda prattica. Her !pera #!ntain several passa$es in re#itative* %ut als! "eatures s!me !" the #anE!nettas ma)e p!pular %. the Fa)ies !" Ferrara. 8n a))iti!n* La Liberazione de Ruggiero sta.s true t! the Fl!rentine i)ea !" mat#hin$ musi#al an) p!eti# stru#ture. A "eature that sets it apart "r!m !ther #!mpara%le !r<s is the use !" t!nal stru#ture t! )en!te $en)er #!ntra#ts. Al#ina an) her "emale hile C ma+!r is

atten)ants ten) t! sin$ usin$ "lat <e.s* Gu$$ier! an) !ther men use sharp <e.s*

reserves "!r the an)r!$.n!us Melissa. 4his seems t! emphasiEe the )i""eren#e %et een male an) "emale perspe#tives00. 5hatIs m!re* Ca##inis )evel!pment !" #hara#ter usin$ musi# is %rilliant. Gu$$ier! is p!rtra.e) as "i#<le an) "ull !" un#ertaint. %. his #!nstant m!vement thr!u$h <e. si$natures03. Melissa remains #!ntr!lle) thr!u$h!ut* never e,pl!rin$ musi#al e,tremes. 4his #!ntr!l an) master. !" lan$ua$e all! s her t! prevail in the en) 01. 7erhaps Melissa as supp!se) t! em%!). Fran#es#a hersel"* h!* as e have n!te) %e"!re* as <n! n n!t "!r her a%ilit. t! h!se e,#essive use !"

)aEEle %ut "!r her master. !" musi#. Finall.*

e have Al#ina

#hr!mati#ism )em!nstrates her imm!)erati!n. (ne !" the m!st "as#inatin$ s#enes in the !pera !##urs )urin$ her len$th. lament in resp!nse t! Gu$$ier!s li%erati!n. As her spee#h %e#!mes m!re an) m!re )esperate* musi#al an) p!eti# "!rm sl! l. "alls apart A she is 2una%le t! $ather the #!ntr!l nee)e) t! imp!se !r)er !n her !r)s %. means !" #a)ential #l!sure3 05. 5ith her e are le"t ith the 2hauntin$ ima$e !" an

"inale retreat t! the 2"urthest rea#hes !" the "lat <e.s3*

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Bar%ara G. Hannin$* et al. 6Ca##ini.6 8n The e& "ro1e 2ictionar0 o- /pera* e) Stanle. Sa)ie. "ro1e Music /nline. /3-ord Music /nline* 9a##esse) April 8* 0010?. http-MM .!,"!r)musi#!nline.#!mMsu%s#ri%erMarti#leM$r!veMmusi#M(001'1Dp$0 03 Harness* Echoes o- #o$en4s 5oices* 15> 01 8%i).* 158. 05 8%i).

D a%an)!ne) !man30>. 4his stran$el. s.mpatheti# l!!< at !men $!es a$ainst the usual

treatment !" the this !pera* as

!mans lament in #!ntemp!rar. !pera. 8n #!n#lusi!n* the hist!ri#al #!nte,t !"

ell !" Ca##inis musi#al settin$* $ives us an !pera that )eserves t! %e stu)ie) "!r

its e,#ellen#e an) !ri$inalit.. Conclusion As e m!ve int! the t ent.@"irst #entur.* there are si$ns that !men are startin$ t! ta<e their ri$ht"ul pla#e al!n$si)e men in the musi#al #an!n* %ut there is still mu#h !r< t! %e )!ne. 4his paper strives t! ar$ue "!r the in#lusi!n !" !men in Sarah Fullers The European Musical Heritage* "irst %. stressin$ its imp!rtan#e in the m!st $eneral !" terms* then %rin$in$ "!rth Fran#es#a Ca##ini an) her !pera La Liberazione di Ruggiero as a star #an)i)ate. H!pe"ull.* "uture e)iti!ns ill re#!$niEe this issue* an) Ca##ini* a##!mpanie) %. man. !ther !men* ill "in) a h!me in its pa$es.

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Bar%ara G. Hannin$* et al. 6Ca##ini.6 8n The e& "ro1e 2ictionar0 o- /pera.

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5!r<s Cite) Bar%ara G. Hannin$* et al. 6Ca##ini.6 8n The e& "ro1e 2ictionar0 o- /pera* e)ite) %. Stanle. Sa)ie. "ro1e Music /nline. /3-ord Music /nline* http-MM .!,"!r)musi#!nline.#!mM su%s#ri%erMarti#leM$r!veMmusi#M(001'1Dp$0 9a##esse) April 8* 0010?. B! ers* Canes. 64he Emer$en#e !" 5!men C!mp!sers in 8tal..6 8n #o$en Ma!ing Music% The &estern art tradition' (()*+(,)** %. e). Canes B! ers an) Cu)ith 4i#<* 11>@1>1. Chi#a$! an) Ur%ana- Universit. !" 8llin!is 7ress* 1D8>. Citr!n* Mar#ia C. "ender and the Musical Canon. Cam%ri)$e- Cam%ri)$e Universit. 7ress* 1DD3. Cusi#<* SuEanne C. 6A S!prana Su%+e#tivit.- H!#alit.* 7! er* an) the C!mp!siti!nal H!i#e !" Fran#es#a Ca##ini.6 8n Crossing 6oundaries% Attending to Earl0 Modern #o$en* %. e). Cane D!na erth an) A)ele See"* 80@D8. :e ar<- Universit. !" Dela are 7ress* 0000. Cusi#<* SuEanne =. Francesca Caccini at the Medici Court% Music and the circulation o- .o&er. Chi#a$!- 4he Universit. !" Chi#a$! 7ress* 000D. Fuller* Sara.67re"a#e.6 8n The European Musical Heritage* %. e). Sarah Fuller* i,@,. :e ;!r<M#=ra Hill E)u#ati!n* 000>. Harness* Jelle.. Echoes o- #o$en% Music' Art' and Fe$ale .atronage in Earl0 Modern Florence. Chi#a$!- 4he Universit. !" Chi#a$! 7ress* 000>. 4im Carter* et al. 6Ca##ini.6 8n "ro1e Music /nline. /3-ord Music /nline* http-MM .!,"!r)musi#!nline.#!mMsu%s#ri%erMarti#leM$r!veMmusi#M1011>p$0 9a##esse) April 8* 0010?.