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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. Speaking Language is a means of communication. For building a good communication, people must have a good speaking skill. To know about the notion of speaking itself, the following are the definition of speaking stated by some expert. According to Widdowson (1996: 58-59) speaking is active or productive. It means that speaking is commonly performed in face interaction and occurs as part of a dialogue or other form of verbal exchange. Speaking as an instance of use therefore, is part of a reciprocal exchange in which both reception and production play apart. In this sense, the skill of speaking involves both receptive and productive participation. According to Hornby (1974: 826-827) speaking is making use of words in an ordinary voice, uttering words, knowing and being able to use a language, expressing one-self in words, and making speech. Therefore, the writer infers that speaking uses the words and produces the sound to express ourselves either idea, feeling, thought and needs orally in an ordinary voice. Furthermore, success in communication is often dependent as much on the listener as on the speaker. There are there components to make fluent in producing speech, namely vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar. Nunan (1998: 26) states that speaking is a process consisting of short, often fragmentary utterance in range of pronunciation. Correct pronunciation

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delivers the correct message for the listeners. The pronunciation should be supported by the proper stress and intonation. In other hand, Mead and Rubin (1985) say that speaking is an interactive process in which an individual alternately takes the roles of speaker and listener, and which includes both verbal and nonverbal component. Another definition of speaking is a process that covers many things in addition to the pronunciation of individual sound also the stress and intonation (Lewis and Hill, 1993: 5). It means that stressing indicates the class of the words whether it is verb or etc. Correct intonation will help the listener in understanding the mean of the utterance whether it is question or statement and so on. Furthermore, Thornbury (2005: 4) states that speaking is an interactive and requires the ability to cooperate in the management of speaking turns. It implies that speaking is an interactive activity where the speakers have to be able to manage the speaking turns, when to speak and when to stop, for instance. Those technical aspects are necessary as speaking means the speaker is being paid attention by the listeners. According to Bygate (1987: vii) speaking is a skill which deserve attention every bit as much as literary skill in both first and second language. Every word which utter is meaningful for the listener so that proper stressing, good communication and correct intonation help the speaker to deliver their speech among the listener.

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Based on the definitions above, it can be concluded that speaking is a creative process which deserves attention in what the speakers saying in range of pronunciation including stress and intonation. 1. The Definition of Speaking skill Speaking skill should be taught and practiced in the language classroom. Because the language course truly enables the students to communicate in English, so speaking skill need the special treatment. In fact, at the daily most of people speak more than write; yet many English teachers still spend the majority of class time on reading and writing practice almost ignoring speaking and listening skill. Based on the statement above, there should be a good balance to practice them in classroom. There are some experts who propose the skill in speaking. Indeed fluency is one of the factors in bringing a good speaking. Byrne (1997: 8) states that speaking fluency is the ability to express oneself intelligibly, reasonably, accurately and without too much hesitation. According to Widdowson (1996: 59) that the skill of speaking involves both receptive and productive participation. Receptive tends to receive the utterance which has been saying. This skill requires a listening activity. It is necessary in speaking activity as it is the initial step in which the listener comprehend what has been saying before then say the responses. Productive is more active the receptive. The

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speaker procedures word by word actively into utterance to show his idea. It is considered as the core of speaking activity. Those definitions show that actually speaking is the form of abstract systems involving both phonological and grammatical system of the language which is produced in a reciprocal exchange in which both receptive and productive play apart. It can be said that speaking has a productive part when one participant in an interaction assumes the active role of speaker. Speaking is use words in an ordinary voice, uttering words, knowing to use language, expressing oneself in words and making speech. While skill is the ability to do something well. Therefore, it can be concluded that speaking is the ability to make use of words or a language to express oneself in an ordinary voice. In short, the speaking skill is the ability to perform the linguistics knowledge in actual communication. The ability functions to express our ideas, feeling, thoughts, and need orally (Hornby, 1995: 826). Speaking is also one of the language aspect that is most frequently used by people all over the world. It requires the simultaneous use of the number of abilities which often develop at different rates. According to Syakur there are at least five components of speaking skill concerned with comprehension, grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and fluency (Syakur, 1987: 3):

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a. Comprehension For oral communication certainly requires a subject to respond to speech as well as to initiate it. b. Grammar It is needed for students to arrange a correct sentence in conversation. It is in line with explanation suggested by Heaton (1978: 5) that students ability to manipulate structure and to distinguish appropriate grammatical form in appropriate ones. The utility of grammar is also to learn the correct way to gain expertise in a language in oral and written form. c. Vocabulary One cannot communicative effectively or express their ideas both oral and written form if they do not have sufficient vocabulary. Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. (Willid, 1990). Therefore, vocabulary means the appropriate diction which is used in communication. d. Pronunciation Pronunciation is the way for students to produce clearer language when they speak. It deals with the phonological process that refers to the component of a grammar made up of the elements and principles that determine how sounds

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vary and pattern in a language. There are two features of pronunciation; phonemes and suprasegmental features. A speaker who constantly mispronounces a range of phonemes can be extremely difficult for a speaker from another language community to understand (Gerard, 2000:11). e. Fluency Fluency can be defined as the ability to speak fluently and accurately. Fluency in speaking is the aim of many language learners. Signs of fluency include a reasonably fast speed of speaking and only a small number of pauses and ums or ers. These signs indicate that the speaker does not have spend a lot of time searching for the language items needed to express the message (Brown. 1997: 4). 2. Developing Speaking Skill Every language has two kinds of skills. The first one is the receptive skill which involves two aspects: understanding and reading; and the second one are the productive skill, which involves writing and speaking (Yorkey, 1990). Bygate (1997) stated that "speaking is a skill which deserves attention as much as the literary skills in both native and foreign languages". When students speak in a confident and comfortable way, they can interact better in real daily situations. Related theory above, the purpose of this research was to encourage the development of skill in spoken English.

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To develop speaking skill, it was not necessary to concentrate on particular aspects such as the differences between key sounds with basic stress forms and intonation patterns or to master grammatical items. The main idea was to focus on those general oral items to communicate in a foreign language. Therefore, the idea was to invite our students to retell short story after view movie. Being in a classroom learning a language is essentially a social experience and should be memorable. In improving students speaking skill, our aim was to make learners less conscious of their vulnerability in the target language by challenging them to become interested in participating. Byrne (1984: 9) stated that "The main goal in teaching the productive skill of speaking will be oral fluency: the ability to express oneself intelligibly, reasonably, accurately and without undue hesitation (otherwise communication may break down because the listener loses interest or gets impatient). To attain this goal, the students had to move from the stage where they merely imitate a model or respond to cues to the point where they could use the language to express their own ideas". Taking into Byrne's concept, in this research the researcher used retelling technique in order to motivate and help students move from the imitation stage to the production stage.

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B. Review of Teaching Speaking 1. The definition of teaching speaking Teaching speaking is considered still as the difficult one. A good speaking skill will be achieved through a good speaking activity created in the teaching of speaking. Teachers should not only ask the students to understand what they talk but also how they talk. To achieve a good speaking activity in the teaching of speaking, teacher should know the problems in speaking activity and the problems solution in speaking activity. It is quite unnatural for the students to speak a language which is not their mother tongue. Ur (1996: 121) declares some problems faced by the students dealing with the speaking activity they are: a. Inhibition Speaking require a partner or audience in as the one whom listen to the speaker and try to get necessary information from the speaker. This situation somehow creates a worried about making mistake. Furthermore students often feel shy to speak in another language which is not their own. They are fearful for making mistake. b. The lack of theme to be spoken Some learners get the difficulties in thinking of anything to say, they have no motivation to express themselves beyond the guilty feeling that they should be speaking.

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c. The low participation Only one participant can talk at a time if he to be heard. In a large group, this means that each one will have only very little time to talk. This problem is compounded by the tendency of some learners to dominate, while others speak very little or not all. d. The use of mother tongue In a number of classes, the learners share the same mother tongue. They may tend to use it because of some reason. Firstly, it is easier; secondly it feels unnatural to speak with another in a foreign language. The last, they feel less exposed if they are speaking their mother tongue. If they are talking in small groups, it can be quite difficult to keep the target language. The problems above are the common problems which often disturb the language learning process especially in speaking. Teacher should pay attention for every problem so that he could find the best way to solve the problem. Here are some solutions offered by Ur (1996: 121-122): a. Use group work Group work often succeeds in leading many activities as it consists of a few students.

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b. Base the activity on easy language In general, that is the level of the language needed for a discussion should be lower than used in intensive language learning activities in the same class. It should be easily recalled and produced by the participants, so that they can speak fluently with the minimum of hesitation. It is good idea to teach or review essential vocabulary before the activity started. c. Make a careful On the whole, the clearer the purpose of the discussion the more motivated participants will be. A good topic is one which students can relate using ideas from their own experiences and knowledge. d. Give some instruction or If the task is based on group discussion then include instruction about participation when introducing it. For example, tell

students to make sure that everyone the group contributes to the discussion appoints a chairperson each group who will regulate participation. e. Keep students speaking the target language Teacher might appoint one of the groups as monitor, whose job is to remind participants to use the target language and perhaps report later to teacher how well the group managed to keep it.

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In speaking activity all the students should have a time to speak. If the students do not speak so the teacher cannot see the improvement. The motivation should also be noticed. Motivation shows the students interest in the activity. With high participation, the teacher could notice the motivation arousing in the students. In conclusion, the teacher could apply those solutions in teaching learning process to make that speaking activity successful. There are some indications which are introduced by Ur (1996: 122) whether the solution applied is successful or not. First, the students talk a lot. If the students talk more than usual, using English of course the activity succeeds as the purpose of the activity is that the students talk actively. Second, when the participation is in short story telling, all the students get a chance to talk. If the students do not speak/talk then the teacher cant see their improvement. 2. The types of classroom teaching speaking Brown, (1994: 271-274) states that there are four types of classroom teaching speaking performances, namely: imitative,

intensive, responsive, transactional and interpersonal. a. Imitative In imitative types, learners spend their time to imitative speech for example; they are practicing an intonation contour, trying to pinpoint and certain vowel sound, etc. Intonation of this kind is carried out not for purpose of meaningful interaction, but for

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focusing on some particular element of language form. A type which can be included in this type and can be classified in the communicative language classroom is drilling. Drills offer students an opportunity to listen and to repeat certain string of language that may pose some linguistic difficulty either phonological or grammatical. b. Intensive Intensive type speaking is designed to practice some phonological or grammatical aspect of language. Intensive speaking can be selfinitiated or it can even form part of some pair work activity, where learners are "going over" certain forms of language. c. Responsive A good deal of student speech in the classroom is responsive: short replies to teacher or student initiated questions or comments. These replies are usually sufficient and do not extend into dialogues. d. Transactional (dialogue) Transactional is extended form of responsive language.

Transactional dialogue is not just limited to give the short respond but it can convey or exchange specific information. e. Interpersonal (dialogue) Interpersonal dialogue is designed for the purpose of maintaining social relationship than for the transmission of fact or information.

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This conversation involves some or all the following factors: a casual register, colloquial language, emotional charge language, slang and sarcasm. f. Extensive (Monologue) Students at intermediate levels are called on to give extended monologues in the form of oral reports, summaries, or perhaps short speeches. Here the register is more formal and deliberative. These monologues can be planned or impromptu. 3. Teacher roles in teaching speaking According to Bryne (1997: 2) the teacher also need to know their roles in teaching speaking. They have specific roles at different stages as follows: a. The presenting stage; when the teachers introduce something new to be learned, the teachers play a role as informants. b. The practice stage; when the teachers allow the learners to work under their direction, the teacher have a role as conductors and monitors. c. The production stage; when the teachers give the learners opportunity to work on their own. Besides three stages above there is another key role that cuts across them namely the teacher as motivator. The teacher must be able to motivate their students in order to arouse their interest and involve them in to motivate students.

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4.

The criteria of a successful teaching speaking According to Ur (1996: 120), there are characteristics of a successful teaching speaking: a. Learners talk a lot As much as possible of the period of time allotted to the activity is in fact occupied by learners talk. This may seem obvious but often most time is taken up with teacher talk or pauses. b. Participation is even Classroom discussion is not dominated by a minority of talkative participants. All get a chance to speak and contributions are fairly evenly distributed. c. Motivation is high Learners are eager to speak because they are interested in the topic and have something new to say about it or because they want to contribute to achieve a task objective. d. Language is of an acceptable level Learners express themselves in utterances that are relevant, easily comprehensible to each other and of an acceptable level of language accuracy.

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Table 1 The levels in speaking skill of oral test (Ur, 1996: 135)

Accuracy - Little or no language produces. - All mistake in pronunciation as it cannot be understood.

Point 1

Fluency - Hesitated all the time - Too much saying ummmm nothing communication - Even not sure to speak and stops to speak because of limited language use.

- Poor vocabulary which makes it quite difficulties to understand the sentence, misused of words. - Mistakes in basic grammar many mistake in pronunciation often asked to repeat. - Adequate but not rich vocabulary. - Occasionally grammar slips. - Some mistakes in pronunciation - The vocabulary is more adequate - Grammar is accepted - Pronunciation clear unless little bit unnatural - Good range of vocabulary - Good grammar - Good pronunciation

- Language use sometimes difficult to understand.

- Get ideas across but hesitantly and seems to finish the speech immediately and brief.

- Almost effective communication and quite natural.

- Effective natural.

communication

and

The table above explains the assessments in speaking skill of language accuracy are tested on fluency and accuracy. The levels may get maximum score 5 on each ability. When the students speaking are clearly articulated, grammatically and phonologically correct then it

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could be said that their accuracy is achieved. In the other hand, fluency is a further testing of speaking. Teacher has a job to build a good atmosphere in the learning process. They should make the students feel connected to each other so that the students speaking skill improved. They could remove their nervousness in front of their friends as they have been connected. 5. Speaking Skill Learning Strategies According to the flow of communicative and pragmatic, conversational skills and listening skills are strongly related. Verbal interaction is characterized by routine information. Another feature is the necessity to associate the meaning of a speaker, manages the interaction; who should say what, to whom, when and about what. Conversational skills and requires a minimal understanding of the speaker in forming a sentence. A sentence, however small, has a basic structure of inter-related so as to present a meaning. In the context of communication, speech acts as the sender (sender), while the receiver (receiver) was the recipient of news (message) (Sunendar, 2008). Warta formed by the information conveyed sender, and message is the object of communication. Feedback received came after the news, and a reaction from the recipient. Therefore, the process of learning to speak would be easier if the students are involved actively communicated.

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Speaking skills evaluation performed differently on each hierarchically. For example, at the elementary school level, the ability to tell, speeches, etc can be used as a form of evaluation. A person considered to have the ability to speak as long as he is able to communicate with his interlocutor (Sunendar, 2008). 6. Teaching Speaking Through Retelling Teaching speaking perhaps becomes the most challenging activity as the students should directly perform their own ability in speaking. In this case, teacher should first decide the technique that will be applied to the teaching speaking activity. He should be careful in deciding the technique by considering the problem that often distracts the students in speaking learning process. Brown (1994: 275) gives some principles for designing the technique in teaching speaking. Those are: a. Use technique that cover spectrum of learner needs, from language-based focus on accuracy to message-based on

interaction, meaning and fluency. Speaking means as sharing oneself ideas. The focus is on the message of what are being uttered. b. Provide intrinsically motivation technique. Try at all times to appeal to students ultimate goals and interest, to their needs for knowledge and for being all that they can be. c. Encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful contexts.

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d. Provide appropriate feedback and correction. Feedback could measure the understanding of the students through the activity. Any misunderstanding should be corrected so that the learning process achieved the goal. e. Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening, skill in producing language is often initiated through comprehension on listening. Retelling Story or retelling technique using movie may be is the good choice to teach speaking as this activity covered the principles above. In using retelling for teaching speaking, there are three phases should be considered such: a. Plan called pre- retelling activity b. Do called while retelling technique c. Review called post-retelling activities 7. Retelling Technique Kalmback (1986) in Stoicovy (2004) states that retelling is a process of re-memorizing what we listened to and read. Further, Stoicovy states that in relation to language teaching, retelling technique can be used as a way to promote students comprehension and understanding of discourse. Stoicovy (2004) also points out that based on several studies, retelling technique has positive influence in language learning as it promotes students ability in rearranging information from the text that they have read. In addition, Brown &

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Cambourne (1987) mention that during the retelling process students apply and develop their language knowledge through the

internalization of the texts features. Narrative is an account of a sequence of events, usually in chronological order. Relating to kinds of text, which student has to complete studying in high school, narrative is a text which retells the story or previous experiences. The social function of narrative text is to amuse or entertain the readers with actual or imaginary experiences indifference ways. Narratives always deal with some problems which lead to the climax and then turn into the solution to the problem. As we known the form of narrative text are; fairy tale, legend, fable, science fiction and etc. Generally the generic structure of narrative is starts from orientation, complication, resolution. Retelling helps teachers to identify the level of students comprehension of what they listen to or read. In addition retelling is a common way many people use as part of their communication. To overcome the difficulty in using the target language, retelling is one of the recommended techniques which can help language learners in improving his knowledge of vocabulary, grammatical structures, and pronunciation. Moreover stories provide various topics for learners to begin a conversation with others (Deacon and Murphey, 2001). Retelling technique has many advantages for teaching and learning process. Stoicovy (2004) also points out that based on several

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studies, retelling has positive influence in language learning as it promotes students ability in rearranging information from the text that they have read. So here the students will use their own word in retell what they read, and they also re-memorizing the word that they have to read.
(http://repository.unri.ac.id/bitstream/123456789/2170/1/JURNAL%20FAD HYLLAH%20ULFA.pdf accessed on 21/10/2013 at 22:15)

Retelling is useful to practice the students speaking skill. Through retelling, students can practice their speaking skill by reading it first. Retelling has simple words which makes the student easy to understand the meaning of every word. By retelling each student has an opportunity to speak in the target language for an extended period of time and students naturally more speech than they would otherwise and in this activity the students must make what they are saying comprehensible to others. As a result, such a technique can improve students speaking skill. 8. Helping Students Develop Retelling Skills Too many techniques to developing students skill here the researcher implement developing students speaking skill through retelling technique it can do by helping student mind concept about the theory bellow: a. Explain that the purpose of retelling is to recreate, as close as possible to the original, something that has been read (or heard,

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or viewed). Remind students how they engage in retelling when they talk about a favorite book, movie, or event. b. Model a retelling with a short selection. If the selection is familiar to the students, they will be able to make comparisons between the original and retold version. c. After the retelling, discuss what they heard. Talk about and list the elements of a retelling. Record these on chalkboard, chart, or overhead. d. Guide students in a retelling by providing them with a short selection to read. After reading, have them prepare for their retelling by referring to the recorded information. Students can be paired for practice. The listener cues in to the recorded elements that were listed. The listener then provides the reteller with feedback. Students then switch roles.
(http://www.thinkport.org/254c6533-d4c9-45e1-aaca-7df9cd74c6ea.asset accessed on 21/10/2013 at 22:21)

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Variations of Retelling Although most retellings are verbal reproductions of what has been read, the chart below shows all the possibilities of retelling implementation.

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Table. 2.2. Variation of retelling

Mode

The Student listens to a selection and retells it

Oral to Oral orally listens to a selection and retells it Oral to Written in writing reads a selection and retells it Reading to Oral orally reads a selection and retells it in Reading to written writing Viewing to Oral views a film and retells it orally views a film and retells it in Viewing to Written writing Other instructional variations include: Using a video camera or tape recorder Comparing students retellings of the same selection

Group retellings where each student retells a portion of the selection

C. Media Media in a process of teaching is not a new thing for the teacher. Most of the teachers use media to help them giving particular information to the students. Media itself according to Azhar (2011:4) is a tool that to convey or deliver the message of learning. He also said that media is a component of

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learning resource or physical vehicle that contain instructional material on students environment that can stimulate student to learn 1. Overview of Media Teaching is a process of communication. It has to be created through the way of teaching and exchanging the message or information by every teacher and student. The message can be knowledge, skills, ideas, experiences, and many others. Through the process of communication, the people can receive the message or information. To avoid misunderstanding in the process of

communication, media are needed in the process of teaching. Media player an important role in a teaching and learning process. Media are needed to reach the objectives of teaching-learning process. As a teacher, we should use various media or teaching aids in giving the material to the students as stated by Harmer (2001: 134) that as a language teacher, we use a variety of teaching aids to explain language meaning and construction, engage students in a topic or as the basis of a whole activity. According to Gerlach and Elly (1980: 241), A medium is any person, material, or event that establishes conditions which enable learners or students to acquire knowledge, skills, and attitudes. In addition, Brown (1977: 2-3), defines media as the tools or the physical things used by a teacher to facilitate the instruction.

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From the definitions above, the researcher makes a conclusion that media are the tools, materials, or events that establish conditions used by a teacher to facilitate the instruction to acquire knowledge, skill and attitudes, and engage the learners in a topic or as the basis of a whole activity. The teachers creativity in using media will increase the probability that student will learn more and the knowledge will retain better in their mind. There are many media that can be used in a teaching-learning process. Gerlach and Elly (1980: 297) classify media in six general categories: a. Picture Picture consists of photographs of any object or event, which may be larger or smaller than the object or event it represents. b. Audio Recording Recording is made on magnetic tape, discs, motion picture, and soundtrack. These are reproductions of actual event or sound track. c. Motion Picture A motion picture is a moving image in color or black and white produced from live action or from graphic

representation.

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d. Television This category includes all types of Audio Video electronic distribution systems; which eventually appear on television monitor. e. Real things, simulation and model This category includes people, events, objects and imitation of real things. Imitation of real things can be used as a substitution for the actual objects or event. They are, in fact, life itself, often in its natural settings. Simulation is the replication of real situation, which has been designed to be as near the actual event or process as possible. Many media, including the computers, tape recordings, and motion pictures can be used for simulation. A model is replication or representation of reality. It is often in scale and may be miniature, exact size or an enlargement. f. Program and computer-assisted instruction. Programs are sequences of information (verbal, visual, or audio) which are designed to elicit predetermined responses. The most common examples are programmed textbooks or instructional programs prepared for computers. From the categories above, not all of them can be applied in the classroom. According to Gerlach and Elly (1980: 254), to select the appropriate media, the teacher must consider the characteristics of the

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students which directly relate to the learning process, such as verbal abilities, visual and audio perception skills, experience, intelligence, motivation, personality and social skills. Furthermore, according to Brown et. all (1977), there are six principles of media selection: a. Content Do the media (i.e. English movie) have significant relation with the lesson? The choice of certain media must be conformed to the lesson (message) that will be given to the students. b. Purposes The use of the visual aids should contribute to the teaching and learning process significantly. It means that the media can facilitate the teaching-learning process. c. Price Before buying certain visual aids, a teacher should consider whether the cost or money spent is accordance with the educational result derived from its use. d. Circumstance of use In choosing a visual aid, a teacher should take into account the environment (school) where he/she teaches. He/she should think whether the aid would function effectively in that environment.

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e. Learners verification A teacher should think whether the aid has been tested to certain students. He/she should consider if the tested are similar to the students whom he/she teaches. f. Validation A teacher must think whether there are data providing that the students learnt accurately through the use of aid. (Brown et all, 1977: 76) From the explanation above, it should be better if the teacher follows all the principles, so that the teaching and learning process can run normally and the goal of the teaching-learning process can be reached. 2. Roles of Media in a Teaching-Learning Process The use of media in a teaching-learning process is very important. Locatis and Atkinson (1984) give a brief explanation on the roles of media or instructional media as follows: a. To entertain Media can be used as recreation and enjoyment. It includes fictional stories and poem published in books and magazines; records; tapes and radio broadcast of music, music typically shown in motion pictures theaters; and comedies, dramas, and sporting events in television.

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b. To inform The use of media can increase awareness or present facts. It includes newspapers, documentaries on radio and television, and advertisements in all media. c. To instruct Media are used to take the viewer and listener from state of not knowing to one of knowing. From a state of poor performance to a state of competence. It includes motion pictures, slides, film strips records and audiotapes. (Locatis and Atkinson, 1984:13) 3. Definition of Movie Movie is one of the visual aids that can be used in a class, it makes lessons more fun. But movies or film can also teach people about history, science, human behavior and any other subjects. Some films combine entertainment with instruction, makes the learning process more enjoyable. In all its forms, cinema is an art as well as a business, and those who make motion pictures take great pride in their creation ( Mery: 2011). An opinion movie given by Summer (1992: 476), film is: a. A roll of material which is sensitive to light and which is used in camera for taking photographs or moving pictures for the cinema.

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b. A story, play, etc. recorded on film to be shown in the cinema, on television, etc. Meanwhile, Azhar (2011: 49) define movie as picture in a frame where frame by frame is projected through the projector lens mechanically so that the pictures in the screen looks alive. Jesse (2007) states that, movie is a photographic record of an artistic performance, but not an art form in its own right. Based on the definition of movie researcher can conclude that movie is a photographic record of history, science, and human behavior that projected through the projector lens and shown in the cinema or television 4. Using Movie in Teaching We should encourage the students to see as many films as possible outside the classroom or parts of films in the classroom. Watching films is very important as it increases their visual and critical awareness. Watching films in the classroom can be realized through recording them. We have tried to make the activity of filmwatching an active rather than a passive one. This can be done in a variety ways as setting questions about the film, promoting discussions in small groups, asking the students to comment on various things, inviting criticism, etc. We may also stop the film from time to time and ask the students what has happened so far or guess

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what might happen next. Another way might be turning the sound down and asking the students to imagine or make up dialogues. Anyway it is difficult to use films in the classroom. Sometimes they are difficult to understand but Western Films for example are easy to understand because there is a lot of action in them. Some other films are easy to understand because there is a clear conventional story line, as love stories, epics and science-fiction drama which have simple plots. Of great importance are the subtitles and dubbing which might be in English. They help a lot the aim of helping learning English through films, depending on the procedure the teachers decide to follow. Sometimes the teachers recommend students to see a film dubbed into or subtitled in Albanian, if possible, before seeing it in English. It would be great to find English films with English subtitles. They make understanding the language easier as listening to authentic language is more difficult than seeing the expressions written, thus matching the words with pictures and voice. Jane Sherman says, The eye is more powerful than the ear. (Jane Sherman, 2003). In this case the students are offered both reading and listening. Judging from our experience usually students prefer more reading than listening, with few exceptions. While using a film in the classroom to help our English we have paid attention to the accent, voice, body language, choosing of the words, training ear and the eye, lifestyle, plot idea, summary, whats

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going on, why and how, and many other things depending on the aim we have put to ourselves. The overall aim has always been to maximize comprehension and learn more English. But we all know that watching a full feature film needs more time than teaching hours. So, we need to be able to fit films into a classroom schedule organizing different activities that help this aim. In order to save time, we might tell the story of the film ourselves, illustrating it by showing three or four key scenes without telling the end. Another way is the use of video-cassette. The students may watch the film themselves in the video-classroom or at home and come the next day and present what they watched and what happened in the film. Another way of using the films to teach English is that of comparing the film with the book if the same story appears in both ways. This kind of activity can be done before or after watching the film, it can be used to adopt or compare characters, to compare differences and similarities, using the Venn diagram, between the book and the film, the examples might be numerous. The book may be used to supplement and clarify the film, but at the same time the film may be used to illuminate the book. All these could be done through several activities. We may also give assignments to our students, write about your favorite film, your favorite characters, your favorite actors, what makes them your favorites, the differences you see if a book has

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been made into a film, etc. When a preliminary work is done before watching the film the above activities may produce interesting writing activities. These kinds of activities also contribute to the promotion of critical thinking especially in evaluating films and improving language skills. Other ways of using films in the classroom are: Segmenting the film, pre-watching, while-watching and post-watching activities, which are very useful as cloze exercises, quizzes, related readings, web sites, film presentations, discussions, research work, etc. Of course, there are not ready made recipes to be followed. Teachers should be creative and decide themselves for the procedures that they feel that have worked well.

D. Application of movie as Stimuli to Retelling technique Retelling or retelling story is not as easy as people imagine. The students will meet some difficulties in giving information if they do not have any ability in conveying an idea or a topic. Retelling story in their language is easier than retelling story in English. Retelling story in English is really difficult for them. They have some difficulties, i.e. they might have limited vocabulary items and they might have poor ability in pronunciation. As the person who manages the classroom activity, teacher using the movie as the media to meet a specific instructional need. Through movie as a medium, the teacher can motivate the students to learn story retelling in more enjoyable

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and interesting ways. The students can enrich their new vocabulary and will know more about retelling. They will get new atmosphere in learning English. Consequently, in daily activities the students have to practice their oral speaking in class, in group or individually. Furthermore, the researcher concludes that teaching English using retelling technique using movie can follow this steps: before the teacher gives a certain movie to students, it is better for him/her to give brief explanation by telling the title. Then the teacher showed the movie to each student to watch and ask them to attend it two or three times. After that, they retell the same story in different ways. When they have finished retelling it to their partners, the teacher will ask them to come forward one by one to retell it. While the students retelling in front of the class the teacher/researcher will record the students voice, and then the students score based on their accuracy and fluency.

E. Action Hypothesis The use of retelling technique can improve the students speaking skill. Zaro and Salaberi (1995: 5) stated that retelling story is a relaxed and entertaining activity and so it can become enjoyable for everyone who in turn creates a better attitude in the learner toward learning and using the language. Relaxed and entertaining activity will release the students nervousness and arouse their motivation in learning speaking skill. In another

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word, retelling will help the students of eighth grade SMP N 2 Grogol to improve their speaking skill. Indeed, according to Penny Ur (1984: 120) one of the characteristics of successful speaking is high motivation. Motivation makes the learners eager to learn more and more as they push themselves consciously to do so. Meanwhile, retelling can provoke a confidence, motivation, also enjoyable situation (Brewster, Ellies and Girrard, 2001: 187). In this case, the researcher believes that using retelling technique by movie can improve the students speaking skill.