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Ecology: is the study of environmental systems, or as it is sometimes called, the economy of nature.

"Environmental" usually means relating to the natural, versus human-made world; the "systems" means that ecology is, by its very nature, not interested in just the components of nature individually but especially in how the parts interact. physiological ecology, having to do with the response of single species to environmental conditions such as temperature or light; population ecology, usually focusing on the abundance and distribution of individual species and the factors that cause such distribution; community ecology, having to do with the number of species found at given location and their interactions; ecosystems ecology, having to do with the structure and function of the entire suite of microbes, plants, and animals, and their abiotic environment, and how the parts interact to generate the whole. This branch of ecology often focuses on the energy and nutrient flows of ecosystems, and when this approach is combined with computer analysis and simulation we often call it systems ecology. Evolutionary ecology, which may operate at any of these levels but most commonly at the physiological or population level, is a rich and dynamic area of ecology focusing on attempting to understand how natural selection developed the structure and function of the organisms and ecosystems at any of these levels. Properties of materials mechanical properties: describe how the material supports applied forces, including forces of tension, compression, impact, cyclic fatigue, or forces at high temperatures. Toughness: the property or certain materials to withstand, without deforming or breaking sudden efforts that apply to them. Flexibility: It consists in the ability of some materials to recover their shape and size of primitive when it ceases the effort that had given deformation. Hardness: The resistance a material opposes the penetration. Fragility: A material is brittle when broken easily by the action of a shock. Plasticity: Ability of some solid material to acquire permanent deformation under the action of an external force or pressure without rupture. Physical properties Describe features such as color, electrical or thermal conductivity, magnetic and optical behavior, usually not altered by force acting on the material. Intensive: properties that do not depend on the amount of the matter present. Malleability: the ability of a substance to be beaten into thin sheets. Ductility: the ability of a substance to be drawn into thin wires. Conductivity: The ability of a substance to allow the flow of energy or electricity. Melting/Freezing point: the temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of a substance are in equilibrium at atmospheric pressure. Boling point: The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the pressure on the liquid.

Chemical properties These describe the substances and their abiolity to change into a new substance with different properties. Flammability: Ability to burn. Reactivity: it is when two substances causes any reaction together, when a reaction happen you can see bubbling, fizzing, color change; but it can create sound, light, color or heat. Thermodynamics. Is a physical science that studies the effects on material bodies, and on radiation in regions of space, of transfer of heat and of work done on or by the bodies or radiation. Is the subject of the relation of heat to forces acting between contiguous parts of bodies, and the relion of heat to electrical agency. Zeroth Law: if two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third, they are in thermal equilibrium with each other. First law: A change in the internal energy of a closed thermodynamic system is equal to the difference between the heat supplied to the system and the amount of work done by the system on its surroundings. Energy can be neither created nor destroyed. It can only change forms. Second Law: Heat cannot spontaneously flow from a colder location to a hotter location. Third law: The entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute zero is exactly equal to zero. As temperature approaches absolute zero, the entropy of a system approaches a minimum. Manufacturing: Is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. Casting is a manufacturing process by which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify. Molding or moulding (see spelling differences) is the process of manufacturing by shaping pliable raw material using a rigid frame or model called a pattern. Forming, or metal forming, is the metalworking process of fashioning metal parts and objects through mechanical deformation; the workpiece is reshaped without adding or removing material, and its mass remains unchanged. Compressive forming involves those processes where the primary means of plastic deformation is unior multiaxial compressive loading.Rolling, where the material is passed through a pair of rollers

Extrusion, where the material is pushed through an orifice Die forming, where the material is stamped by a press around or onto a die Forging, where the material is shaped by localized compressive forces Indenting, where a tool is pressed into the workpiece

Tensile forming involves those processes where the primary means of plastic deformation is uni- or multiaxial tensile stress.

Stretching, where a tensile load is applied along the longitudinal axis of the workpiece Expanding, where the circumference of a hollow body is increased by tangential loading Recessing, where depressions and holes are formed through tensile loading

Combined tensile and compressive forming This category of forming processes involves those operations where the primary means of plastic deformation involves both tensile stresses and compressive loads. Bending This category of forming processes involves those operations where the primary means of plastic deformation is a bending load. Shearing This category of forming processes involves those operations where the primary means of plastic deformation is a shearing load. Machining is any of various processes in which a piece of raw material is cut into a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process. The many processes that have this common theme, controlled material removal, are today collectively known as subtractive manufacturing, in distinction from processes of controlled material addition, which are known as additive manufacturing.

Turning operations are operations that rotate the workpiece as the primary method of moving metal against the cutting tool. Lathes are the principal machine tool used in turning. Milling operations are operations in which the cutting tool rotates to bring cutting edges to bear against the workpiece. Milling machines are the principal machine tool used in milling. Drilling operations are operations in which holes are produced or refined by bringing a rotating cutter with cutting edges at the lower extremity into contact with the workpiece. Drilling operations are done primarily in drill presses but sometimes on lathes or mills. Miscellaneous operations are operations that strictly speaking may not be machining operations in that they may not be swarf producing operations but these operations are performed at a typical machine tool. Burnishing is an example of a miscellaneous operation. Burnishing produces no swarf but can be performed at a lathe, mill, or drill press.

Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. Brazing is a metal-joining process whereby a filler metal is heated above melting point and distributed between two or more close-fitting parts by capillary action. Cast iron "welding": The "welding" of cast iron is usually a brazing operation, with a filler rod made chiefly of nickel being used although true welding with cast iron rods is also available. A fastener is a hardware device that mechanically joins or affixes two or more objects together.Fasteners can also be used to close a container such as a bag, a box, or an envelope The variable that has to be controlled is: Controlled variable. The variable which can be changed to influence the controlled variable is: Manipulated variable. The influences that create the necessity of an closed-loop is: disturbance. The set point or desired value of the controlled variable is: Reference. The result of a comparison of reference variable and the controlled variable is: Deviation. This indicates how the controlled system reacts to changes to the input variables: Control responsed. This holds the controlled variable as near as possible to the reference variable. This compares the value of the controlled variable with the value of the reference variable: Controller. A mechanism that contains all the necessary elements for automatic closed-loop control: Closed-loop system.