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Unlocked!

Pre-Intermediate (A2) student course book

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Read & respond

Read interesting, up-to-date articles, and then answer the questions and check your understanding.

Word linking

Learn about combining words to form expressions, phrases and sentences.

Listen & respond

Listen to recordings of native-English speakers, then answer the questions to see how much youve really understood.

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Perfect your English pronunciation so people can understand what youre saying!

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Practise everything youve learned! Talk to a nativeEnglish speaking teacher on Skype or by telephone. See below for details.

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CONTENTS
Unit Page

City Delight! Objectives Word Building: In the city

Language structures: To be, have got, There is / There are

Language structures: The Present Simple

How are you? Objectives Word Building: Describing people

15

Partners! Objectives Word Building: Relationships & partnerships Language structures: The Present Continuous What was it like? Objectives Word Building: Adjectives & the weather
Language structures: The past of to be

22

29

Language structures: The Past Simple

Shopping Fun Objectives Word Building: Clothes & clothing Work Time Objectives Word Building: Work

36

Language structures: The Present Simple & Continuous

43

Problems! Objectives Word Building: Problems


Language structures: Modal verbs

50

Free-Time Fun Objectives Word Building: Free-time activities


Language structures: The future with will; articles: the / a / an Self-Assessment TERM 1 Progress Test

57 64 65

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PRE-INTERMEDIATE INDEX
Unit Page

Travel Time Objectives Word Building: Travel


Language structures: The Present Perfect

67

10

Social Splash Objectives Word Building: Socialising


Language structures: Features of conversational English

74

11

Festival Fun Objectives Word Building: Festivals

Language structures: The future with be + going to; prepositions of time

81

12

Away Days! Objectives Word Building: Team-building

Language structures: The Present Continuous for future plans; prepositions of place

88

13

Story Time Objectives Word Building: Anecdotes


Language structures: The Past Continuous

95

14

Property Plan Objectives Word Building: The home


Language structures: Comparatives & superlatives; possessive adjectives / pronouns

102

15

Food Fun Objectives Word Building: Food


Language structures: Quantiers

109

16

How it Works! Objectives Word Building: How things work


Language structures: The Present Simple Passive Self-Assessment TERM 1 Progress Test

116 123 124

Resource Section
Evaluation Answers Audio scripts Phonetic Table
125 126 132 137

Irregular Verbs Punctuation Past Tense verbs Pronunciation

138 140 142 143

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UNIT
1

Getting started
a. A quarter to seven / wsix forty-five b. Five to eleven / ten fifty-five c. Twenty past nine / nine-twenty d. A quarter past six / six-fifteen e. Half past three / three-thirty f. Seven oclock / seven pm

Welcome to the Hot English English Unlocked! (Pre-Intermediate level).


Complete the table with the correct information.

Dont worry about making mistakes. Even native speakers get things wrong when speaking. It happens when youre talking fast.

Greeting!

Hi, Im Jessica Marlow. Im 29 years old. Im Canadian and I live in Toronto. Im a financial adviser.
Surname Age Nationality City of residence

Hello! Im Harry Bates. Im English and I live in London. Im 32 years old.


Jessica Harry

Hi, Im Molly Smith. Im 26 years old. Im from Australia, but Im living in Hong Kong right now.
Molly

Add letters to complete the typical classroom questions / statements. 1. How would you transl_ _ _ this word? 2. What does this mea_? 3. How do you say this wo_ _ in English? 4. Whats the pronuncia_ _ _ _ of this word? 5. What pa_ _ is it on? 6. Could I go to the toil_ _, please? 7. Sorry Im late. The traff_ _ was terrible. 8. Im sorry but I didnt underst_ _ _ . 9. Could you repe_ _ that, please? 10. Could you speak a bit more slow_ _, please? Write or say the next five numbers. 1. Four, five, six 2. Thirteen, fourteen, fifteen... 3. First, second, third... 4. One hundred and twenty nine... 5. Two thousand and ninety eight... Answer the questions. 1. Whats your name? 2. Where are you from? 3. What do you do? 4. Where do you work? 5. Have you got any brothers or sisters? 6. Where do you live? 7. Whats your phone number? Match the questions (1 to 6) to the answers (a-f). 1. Can you repeat that, please? 2. Can you spell it, please? 3. What does this expression mean, please? 4. How do you pronounce this word, please? 5. What page is it on, please? 6. How do you translate this expression into (German)? a. Page sixty-five. b. The German equivalent would be Ich habe zwei. c. Its the same as the pronunciation of the colour red read. d. It means, Its your choice. / Its your decision. e. Yes, its A B S E N T. f. Yes, of course. My name is Helen.
7 6 5

Classroom language

Numbers

Complete the text with information about yourself. My name is... Im... (age) Im from... (country) I live in... (city / town) I work in / for... (company) I study at... (university / college) Match the clocks (1 to 6) to the times (a-f).
3

Bio completion

Useful questions

Clock times

Classroom language

4
6

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Match the words (1 to 10) to the pictures (a-j). 1. Single bed / double bed 2. Mattress 3. Chest of drawers 4. Wardrobe (closet in US English) 5. Bedside table with a bedside light / lamp 6. Curtains 7. Duvet 8. Pillow 9. Blanket 10. Dirty clothes basket / laundry basket / washing basket

Matching

Complete the blog with the correct form of to be or have got.

10

Blog completion

Cool People.com

Profiles Phoebe 29 years old. She (2) Phoebe (1) two sisters and one brother. Her mum (3) Scottish and her dad is American. She (4) (not) at a motorbike and two cars. She (5) a holiday. work today because it (6)

Write a short paragraph about someone you know. Read the conversation. Then, complete the table with the information about the missing bag. Police: Caitlin: Police: Caitlin: Police: Caitlin: Police: Caitlin: Police: Caitlin: Police: Caitlin: Police: Caitlin: Police: Caitlin: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
11

Your turn!

Practical English

At the police station

d c

e f h i j g

Good afternoon. How may I help you? Hi, I lost my bag last night. OK. Whats your name and surname, please? Caitlin Harper. And your address? 14 Marple Street. When and where did you lose the bag? Last night on the train, I think. What does the bag look like? Its small and green. What was in the bag? My purse with some money in it, my passport and some books. OK. Have you got a mobile phone number? Yes, its 698 342 786. OK. Well contact you if we find anything. Thanks. Crime report sheet

Complete the vocabulary lists with two more words for each group. 1. Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday... 2. Spring, summer... 3. January, February, March, April... 4. T-shirt, trousers, socks... 5. Cinema, supermarket, park, restaurant... 6. Ship, train, bicycle... 7. Mum, dad, brother... 8. Rainy, sunny, snowy... 9. Journalist, salesperson, vet, shop assistant... 10. Back, leg, arm, eye...

Vocabulary

Name and surname Address Missing object Time lost Place where lost Description of item Items inside bag Contact number

Write a short dialogue that takes place in a police station.

Your turn!

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UNIT Objectives
1

City Delight

In this unit, youll learn how to describe a city or place, write about a city, talk about a city, ask about a city, identify places in a city, use There is / There are, have got and to be

With just 20 minutes a day, you can really improve your English. Read for 10 minutes (an online article, a graded reader, etc.), and listen for 10 minutes (a YouTube video, the news, your favourite TV series, etc.). Youll soon notice the difference!

Write the name of a city next to the descriptions (1 to 10). 1. Its the capital of Canada. 2. Its a city in England. 3. Its the capital of Argentina. 4. Its a Spanish city. 5. Its the capital of South Africa. 6. Its a city in the USA. 7. Its the capital of Austria. 8. Its a city in Australia. 9. Its a Chinese city. 10. Its the capital of Denmark.

Top cities

Cape Town

Copenhagen

Buenos Aires

Santander

Shanghai

Vienna

Melbourne

Ottawa

Bristol

Seattle

Think about it! Have you visited any of these cities? What did you think of them? Which city from this page would you most like to visit? Why? Which city would you like to live in? Why?

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UNIT
1

City Delight
B

WORD BUILDING
sightseeing, tennis, some food, a drink in a bar, some people-watching, in a restaurant, a boat trip, swimming, for a swim, the park, the cinema, the theatre, in the park, shopping, souvenirs, a museum, the sights For example: You can have a drink in a bar. You can eat in a restaurant. Read the conversation. Then, tick the items that are mentioned. Mark: Amy: So, whats it like living here? Oh, its great. Theres a sports centre just close by with tennis courts and a swimming pool. Thats good. What about shops? There are lots of little shops very close by. Theres also a corner shop that sells just about everything, and then in the high street theres a butchers where I buy the meat and a fishmongers where I get some fish on a Friday. The greengrocers is also great for fresh fruit. The only thing is that there isnt a library or a big supermarket. If you want to go to the library or the supermarket you have to drive into Tapping, which is about 4 minutes away by car. What about going out? Well, there are a couple of pubs, but if you want to go to see a film, you have to travel into Marling, which is about ten minutes away by bus. Its got two cinemas. Theres also a nice park just across the street which is great for walking. Sounds good!
4

Vocabulary: In the city


Match the words (1 to 8) to the pictures (a-g). Are any of these places near your house? How do you get there? 1. Museum 2. Sports centre 3. Restaurant 4. Cinema 5. Swimming pool 6. Hospital 7. Park 8. Library

Matching

City description

Mark: Amy:

d
Mark: Amy:

f
Mark:

g
2

What can you buy at the shops below? Write three sentences. What shops are there near your house? bookshop, greengrocers, butchers, supermarket, chemists, newsagents, bakery, florists, fishmongers, pub, corner shop, stationers, sweet shop, ironmongers (hardware store in US English), tailors, department store, retail park (a large area with many shops) For example: You can buy fruit and vegetables at the greengrocers. Match five of the verbs from A to any of the words in B. Then, make three sentences about the things you can do in a town/city.
3

Descriptions

Sports centre Swimming pool Corner shop Butchers Fishmongers Greengrocers

Library Supermarket Pub Cinema Park

Collocations

Write a short paragraph about your town/city and the shops there.
Think about it! Whats the best thing about your town/city? What could be done to improve your town/city? What are some of the biggest cities in your country? What are some of the most attractive cities/towns/villages in your country? Why do you like/dislike about living in the city? What are some of the advantages/disadvantages of living in a city?

Your turn!

play, walk, visit, go, take, buy, go to, eat, do, have, see, go on

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UNIT

City Delight

READ & RESPOND

Youre going to read an article about a city (Tirana). What do you think the writer is going to tell you about the city? Think of three things.
2

Pre-reading

Is this Europes most secret city? F


or most of the twentieth century, Albania was closed to foreigners. But over the last ten years, things have changed, and Tirana is now a city that welcomes tourists from all over the world. So, what is there to see? Skanderbeg Square (Sheshi Sknderbej) is the main square. Its named after the 15th century Albanian hero George Kastrioti Skanderbeg, who led Albanian resistance to the Ottoman Empire. Theres a statue of him in the middle of the square. Near to the square is Tirana Castle, also known as The Fortress of Justinian. It dates back to the 14th century. Also close to Skanderbeg Square is the Tirana Clock Tower, once the tallest building in the city. Its 35 metres high and its got 90 steps. Entry is free and the view from the top is great. Next to the clock tower is the Ethem Bey Mosque, the citys main mosque. Originally built in late 18th and early 19th centuries, the mosque was closed during the years of communist rule when Albania was officially an atheist state. On 18th January 1991, 10,000 protesters entered the mosque waving flags. This demonstration was the start of the fall of communist rule. Everywhere you go in the city, youll see Edi Rama houses. Edi Rama was mayor of Tirana but he was also an artist. He thought the city was too grey, so he painted many of the buildings in bright colours. There are more than 120 painted buildings. For a great view of the city, go to Mount Dajti. Theres a cable car to take you to the top. The mountain is part of Dajti National Park, a 36 square km mountain wilderness. There are wild boar and brown bears in the park, as well as wolves and wild cats. There are also the ruins of a Roman fortress from the 6th century. Archaeologists are excavating it at the moment. Albanians like enjoying themselves and the city has a lively nightlife. Albanian cuisine is a fascinating mixture of Balkan, Middle Eastern, and Italian food. For example, an Albanian mezze has prosciutto ham, salami and feta cheese, and its accompanied by roasted peppers, green olives and hummus. Theres local wine and beer to enjoy with your meal. Or try boza, a malt drink made from fermented wheat and corn. Its slightly acidic and sweet tasting, but delicious. So, if youre looking for somewhere different, why not try Tirana?

Read the article once to check your ideas from the Pre-reading task.
3

Reading I

Read the article again. Then, answer the questions. 1. Who is Skanderbeg Square named after? 2. What is near the square? 3. What is it also known as? 4. How many steps has the Tirana Clock Tower got? 5. Whats the citys main mosque called? 6. How many painted buildings are there? 7. Which park is Mount Dajti part of?

Reading II

10

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UNIT
Affirmative

City Delight
Negative Interrogative
4. 5. 6.
3

WORD LINKING
three statues in the main square. (not) a shopping centre near here. (not) any public toilets in the park.

Language Structures: The Present Simple


Im happy. Im not happy. Am I happy? Youre happy. You arent happy. Are you happy? Hes happy. He isnt happy. Is he happy? Shes happy. She isnt happy. Is she happy? Its happy. It isnt happy. Is it happy? Were happy. We arent happy. Are we happy? We often use contractions with the Present Simple: Theyre happy. They arentnot. happy. Are they happy? dont = do not; doesnt = does
We often use contractions with the verb to be. For example: Im = I am; youre = you are; hes = he is; shes = she is; its = it is; were = we are; theyre = they are. The negative forms are: isnt = is not; arent = are not.

Look at the photo. What can you see? Make four sentences using There is / There are. For example: Theres a man with a bag.

Picture description

To be

We can use the verb to be to talk about our age and where we are from. We can also use it to describe people. For example, Im Italian. / Shes French. Hes 26. We can use question words (what, when, where, why, who, etc.) with the verb to be. We place these before the verb. For example, Wheres the car? Put the words in the correct order. 1. is / work / Phoebe / at 2. in / Jasmine and Brandon / the garden / are 3. 29 / old / hes / years 4. Australia / Im / from 5. the cinema / at / is / Rachel 6. home / arent / we / at
1

Affirmative
Ive got a car.

Negative
I havent got a car.

Interrogative
Have I got a car?

Youve got a car. You havent got Have you got a a car. car? Hes got a car. Shes got a car. Its got a car. He hasnt got a car. She hasnt got a car. It hasnt got a car. Has he got a car? Has she got a car? Has it got a car? Has it got a car? Have they got a car?

Sentence order

Weve got a car. We havent got a car. Weve got a car. They havent got a car.

There is / There are


Affirmative
Theres a pen. There are two pens.

We often use contractions with this structure. For example: Theres = There is.

Negative

Interrogative

There isnt a pen. Is there a pen? There arent Are there two two pens. pens?

We often use contractions with have got. For example: Ive got = I have got; youve got = you have got; hes got = he has got; shes got = she has got; its got = it has got; weve got = we have got; theyve got = they have got. The contracted negative forms are: havent = have not; hasnt = has not. We can use have/has got to talk about possession. For example, Ive got a new car. We can use question words (what, when, where, why, who, etc.) with have got. We place these before the verb. For example, What have you got in that bag? Complete the sentences with the correct form of have got. a lot of restaurants. 1. The city (not) a map with them. 2. They long hair. 3. She (not) brown eyes. 4. He a really old castle. 5. The town
11
4

The negative forms are: There isnt = There is not; There arent = There are not. We use There is / There are to talk about the existence/ presence of something. For example, Theres a present for you on the bed. Complete the sentences with Theres / There isnt or There are / There arent. two museums in the city. 1. some great restaurants near here. 2. a castle just outside the town. 3.
2

Word choice

Sentence completion

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UNIT
6. It centre. 7. I
5

City Delight
a lot of museums in the (not) a lot of work to do.

WORD LINKING
three museums and there (6) a castle you can visit just outside the town. It (7) a lot of great restaurants, and (not) expensive at all. they (8) a beautiful fountain There (9) in the middle of the square. Ill take a photo of it and send it to you. Tell me what youre doing. Speak soon,

Answer the questions. Use short answers: Yes, I have. / No, I havent. / Yes, there is/are. / No, there isnt / arent. 1. Have you got a house by the beach? 2. Are there many museums in your city? 3. Have you got a pet cat or dog? 4. Is there a swimming pool near your house? 5. Have you got three bedrooms in your house? 6. Are there any parks near your house? 7. Are there any statues of famous people near where you work? 8. Is there a post office near your house? Read the telephone conversation. Then, answer the questions Yes or No. Mason: Hello, Mason Bramwell speaking. Faith: Oh, hi, is Paul Barker there, please? Mason: No, Im sorry, he isnt in the office at the moment. Hes at a conference in Dubai. Hell be back on Saturday. Faith: OK. Could you tell him to call me when he gets back, please? Mason: Yes, sure. Has he got your number? Faith: I dont think so as Ive got a new mobile phone. Its 01937 268 492. Mason: Thats 01937 268 492. Faith: Yes, thats right. Mason: OK, Ill leave the message on his desk. Faith: Thanks very much. Bye. Mason: Bye. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
7 6

Fluency practice

Rebecca.

Write an e-mail to a friend. Describe a place you are visiting.


8

Your turn!

Telephone conversation

Read the conversation. Then, complete the table. Amber is in a tourist office.

Conversation analysis

At the tourist office

Is Paul in the office? Is he at home? Has Paul got Faiths number? Has Faith got a new mobile phone? Is Faiths number 01937 268 549? Is Faith going to phone Paul?

Complete the e-mail with the correct form of a verb. Use to be or have got.

E-mail completion

Official: Good afternoon. Amber: Good afternoon. Could you tell me where the main square is, please? Official: Yes, its just at the end of this road. Amber: Are there any clothes shops near the square? Official: Well, there are lots of bars and restaurants in the main square, but for clothes, you need to go to the high street, which is just off the square. Amber: Great. And could you tell me where the zoo is, please? Official: Yes, its about ten minutes from the city. You can get there on the number 64 bus. It leaves from the high street every ten minutes. The bus conductor will tell you where to get off. Amber: Thats great. And one last question. Im interested in visiting a few museums. Which ones would you recommend? Official: Well, theres an art museum near the main square, and a natural history museum in the park. The modern art museum is at the end of the high street. Its got a beautiful garden with lots of sculptures in it. Amber: Thats great. Thanks a lot. Official: Here, take this map. It should help. Amber: Great, thanks a lot. Location of... City information

To:

Ryan@yahoo.com

Subject: my trip to France

1. ...the main square 2. ...the shops 3. ...the zoo 4. ...the art museum natural history 5. ...the museum modern art 6. ...the museum

Hi Ryan, I hope everythings well with you. Im in a small town in the south of France. It (1) really beautiful. At the moment, I (2) in a caf in the town square. Im doing a bit of people-watching and Im writing this e-mail from my computer. It (3) an incredible little town. It (4) (not) very big, but there (5)

12

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TRACK 1a

TRACK 1b

LISTEN & RESPOND


Three Great Holiday Destinations!
Look at the list of ideas for holiday destinations (a-d). Which one would you choose? Why?
1

PRONUNCIATION PERFECTION
Weak sounds: a, are
A

Pre-listening

a) a // Theres a bird in the sky. b) are // There are four bags on the floor.

When we speak naturally, many grammar words (articles, prepositions, auxiliary verbs, etc.) are pronounced as weak sounds. Listen to the pronunciation of the weak forms a and are. Both words have the same sound //:

This weak, unstressed sound is called the schwa sound. Its represented by this symbol //. Listen and repeat these sentences with weak sounds.

a Spa hotel

b Beach resort

a) b) c) d)

Theres a banana on the table. Theres a chair in the living room. There are three of them. Theres are two more in the fridge.

Notice how the word sounds join together:

Theres a There are

a) Theres a Theres a b) There are There a re


C

Listen and repeat:

Now listen and repeat these sentences.

c Cruise ship
2

d Chalet in the mountains

Youre going to listen to three people talking about their holidays. Listen once. Which holiday destination from the Pre-listening task isnt mentioned? Listen again. Then, write the name of a place from the Pre-listening activity next to each statement. 1. You can go for walks in a forest. 2. Theres a restaurant next to a theatre. 3. Theres a village about one kilometre away. 4. There are comedy shows in the theatre.
3

Listening I

a) b) c) d)

Theres a hotel around the corner. Theres a chair in here. There are three restaurants in this town. There are some boxes in here.

Listening II

1. 2. 3. 4.

Now listen and write the sentences you hear.

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13

TRACK 1c

UNIT

City Delight

LANGUAGE-TO-GO

Learn these Useful Sentences. Suggestions: 1. Listen to the sentences and repeat them until you can say them fluently. 2. Study them for a couple of minutes, then cover them up and try to re-write them in the right-hand column. 3. Write translations of the sentences. Later, read over the translations and try to write them in English (without referring to the original versions). 4. Listen to a sentence, then try to write it out on a piece of paper. 5. Cut out the table to carry with you and learn while youre on the bus, train

USEFUL SENTENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. There are two restaurants near here. Its a great place to have a drink. The restaurant serves fantastic food. London is the capital of England. We went there for a holiday last year. The main square has a lot of great bars. The castle is just outside the city. Whats it like living here? Theres a sports centre just close by. Its about four minutes away. There are a couple of pubs near here. Theres a park just across the street. You can get some medicine in the chemists. Im sorry but he isnt in the office at the moment. Could you tell him to call me back, please? Ive got a new mobile phone. I dont think hes got my number. Ill leave the message on his desk. Could you tell me where the main square is, please?

REVISION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

20. You need to get the number 64 bus.

Put ticks in the boxes: I can do it well! I can do it quite well! I need to work on it!
every English words Try to learn 10 k, youll have learnt 70, a year day. In one wee out 300, and in in a month ab e average British person out over 3,000! Th cabulary of ab you ke has an active vo ta t on So, it w 5,000 words. l the most important long to learn al h. terms in Englis

Congratulations! Youve completed a unit. Now you can Describe a city Write about a city

Practise everything youve learned! Talk to a native-English speaking teacher on Skype or by telephone. Get your speaking English classes from here: www.learnhotenglish.com/speaking-gym

Speaking Gym!

Talk about a city

Talk about a city

Use there is / there are

Use have got / to be

14

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UNIT Objectives
1

How are you?

In this unit, youll learn how to describe someone, write a description of someone, use the Present Simple, write a short recommendation, use time expressions with the Present Simple

Listening is the key to language learning. So, listen to English as much as you can! Just ten minutes a day is enough to really help you improve your listen Key K ey Man text ing abilit y. .....

Complete the speech bubbles with the words from below.

Sentence completion

studying department type work name do


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Whats your ? ? Where do you ? So, what do you ? Where are you Do you know Abbie in the accounting ? of company is it? 6. What
Think about it! How do you greet people in your country? What do you say? How is it different to the way people in English-speaking countries greet one another? What do you do or say when you meet someone for the first time?

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15

UNIT
1

How are you?


3

WORD BUILDING
Complete three of the sentences with the names of friends, relatives or people from your company or country, etc. For example: Larry Page is the CEO of Google. is in charge of . is responsible for . is the prime minister of . is the president of . is the head of . is the ruler of . is the owner of . is the CEO (chief executive officer) of is the founder of is the boss at . .

Vocabulary: describing people


Match the descriptions (1 to 4) to the pictures (a-d). 1. Shes tall with long, dark hair. 2. Hes got short blonde hair and blue eyes. 3. Theyre both dressed casually. 4. Shes got short, brown hair.

Descriptions

People matching

c
2

Use the words below to write a description of yourself. Then, write a description of someone else.

Personal descriptions

Make three sentences with any of the verbal expressions. Have... lunch, breakfast, dinner, a shower... Go... to work, out at night, out with friends, to bed... Get... up, to work, to school... Do... exercise, the housework, homework... For example: I have lunch at work. / I get up at about 7 in the morning.
Think about it! What do you do? / Whats your job? How would you describe your personality? What do you do in your free time? What do you look like? What kind of films do you like? What do you like to do at the weekends?

Useful verbs

Character / personality

shy, quiet, lively, active, easy-going, outgoing, nice, friendly, funny, happy, sad, determined, angry, aggressive

Physical

tall, short, slim, thin, overweight, young, old, handsome, beautiful, attractive, nice-looking, pretty, sun-tanned, pale, (brown) eyes, a beard, a moustache, (blonde) hair, short/long hair, curly hair For example: Im quite an easy-going person. Im quite tall and Ive got long brown hair.
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UNIT

How are you?

READ & RESPOND

WHAT DO YOU THINK OF THE LONDON UNDERGROUND?

THE LONDON UNDERGROUND


The London Underground (often shortened to the Underground, and also known as the Tube) was first opened in 1863. With 270 stations and 402 kilometres of track, its the fourth largest metro system in the world in terms of route kilometres (after the Seoul Metropolitan Subway, the Shanghai Metro and the Beijing Subway), and its got the largest number of stations. Its also the third busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow and Paris. There are plans to introduce air conditioning and Wifi coverage very soon.

he London Underground has just celebrated its 150th anniversary. We asked a few people what they thought of it. The Underground is great for doing a bit of peoplewatching. In the morning, you get all the city types with their suits on. Then, during the day, you get lots of tourists, and at the weekend there are families going to the museums, and people going shopping. At night, the tube is full of interesting people going out to the theatre, the cinema or bars and clubs. Sophie, 26

doze off, but I normally use the time to read a book. The line I take is normally quite quiet, especially as I travel rst thing in the morning when most people are still getting up. If you dont fancy reading, you can listen to music or watch a lm on your iPad. Jack, 29 Getting the underground in the morning or after work is a nightmare. Its just full of people pushing and shoving in the unbearable heat. These days, I either walk into work or get the bus. As far as Im concerned, the bus is great, especially if you get a seat at the front and top of a double-decker. Its so much better than being stuck in a dark tunnel with a load of grumpy people. Bob, 34 The Underground is denitely the best way to get around the city. Its fast and reliable so you can time your journey perfectly. If I went to work by bus or car, itd take an hour, but on the underground it takes about a third of the time. Apart from that, I really like all the unexpected things down there: the buskers, the poems on posters, the mice running along the tracks... its fascinating. Sam, 35

GLOSSARY
people-watching n if you do some people-watching, you sit in a bar (for example) and watch people city types n the type of people who work in the City (the nancial district of London): stockbrokers, bankers, etc. a suit n clothing that consists of a jacket and trousers/ skirt of the same material and colour the tube n an informal name for the underground train system in London crowded adj if a place is crowded there are many people there rush hour n the time in the morning or evening when people travel to or from work to faint vb if someone faints, they lose consciousness to doze off phr vb if you doze off, you fall asleep a line n a train route with stations to fancy vb if you fancy doing something, you want to do that thing a nightmare n a terrible/bad situation to shove vb if you shove someone, you push them unbearable adj something unbearable for you is very bad and you dont want to accept it a double-decker (bus) n a bus with two oors: one at the top and one at the bottom grumpy adj if someone is grumpy, theyre a bit angry reliable adj if something / someone is reliable, they always do what they say theyll do to time vb if you time a journey, you calculate how long itll take a busker n a musician who plays in the street. People give him/her money a track n the tracks are the two metal lines that the trains travel on

Answers on page 44

What are the pros and cons of travelling by underground?


2

Pre-reading Reading I

Read the article once to compare your ideas from the Pre-reading activity. Did anyone mention the things you thought of?
3

Read the article again. Then, write a name next to each statement. 1. He likes reading on the Underground. 2. She likes watching people on the Underground. 3. He likes it because its fast and reliable. 4. She thinks its too hot in the summer. 5. He prefers to walk or get the bus.

Reading II

Im not a big fan of the Underground. OK, its really convenient, but its just so crowded in rush hour. Sometimes, you really have to push to get in. And it gets so hot, especially in the summer. Theres no air conditioning and sometimes its like being in a sauna. Last July, someone fainted in a carriage that I was in! Amelia, 33 I love travelling by tube. I sit there with my eReader and my 45-minute journey goes by in no time. Some days, when Im tired, I might

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17

UNIT
Affirmative
I go. You go. He goes. She goes. It goes. We go. They go.

How are you?


Negative
I dont go. You dont go. He doesnt go. She doesnt go. It doesnt go. We dont go. They dont go.

WORD LINKING
We usually place the adverb directly before the verb (even in negative sentences). For example, I often leave early on a Friday. We can use question words (who, what, when, where, why, etc.) with the Present Simple. For example, What do you usually do at the weekend? Rewrite the sentences with the adverbs in the correct position. 1. She gets up late. (often) 2. They tidy up after theyve finished eating. (always) 3. He doesnt go to the gym. (usually) 4. She goes to the cinema. (hardly ever) Put the words in the correct order to complete the sentences. 1. tennis / she / at the weekend / plays 2. like / he / the film / doesnt 3. on / work / Saturday mornings / usually / they 4. often / she / at Easter / goes / skiing 5. usually / he / has / in a restaurant / lunch 6. go / they / to the gym / often / on Friday afternoon / dont Complete the sentences with your own ideas. Add adverbs of frequency (always, sometimes, often, usually, normally, never). I wake up at... I usually wake up at 7 in the morning. I get up at... I have breakfast at... I leave home at... I go to work by... I go to work with... I have lunch at... I have dinner at... I go to bed at...
3 2 1

Language Structures: The Present Simple


Interrogative
Do I go? Do you go? Does he go? Does she go? Does it go? Do we go? Do they go?

Re-writing

We often use contractions with the Present Simple: dont = do not; doesnt = does not.

Ordering

Time expressions

every Friday / on Mondays / once a week / twice a month/ three times a day / in the morning / in the afternoon / in the evening / at the weekend / early / late/ on time We can use the Present Simple to describe regular habits and customs. For example, I go to the gym every afternoon. We also use the Present Simple to describe facts, give opinions or talk about things that are true. For example, She doesnt like my new car. Remember the third person s: She likes. He plays. Etc. We can use adverbs of frequency with the Present Simple: always, often, usually, normally, sometimes, occasionally, hardly ever, never.

Ideas completion

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UNIT
4

How are you?


No.

WORD LINKING
Do you ever have to travel as part of your job? Do you live close to work / school? How do you get into work?

Complete the sentences/questions with the correct forms of the verbs in brackets. (like) to swim. 1. She (not go) to photography class. 2. I (play) tennis at the weekend. 3. We (read) a lot of books. 4. He (not play) a lot of chess. 5. She (not like) cooking. 6. They you (live) near here? 7. she (go) to the cinema 8. very often? Create as many sentences as you can in the Present Simple in just two minutes. Use the verbs below or any others. Use both affirmative and negative forms. go, work, live, like, drink, eat, travel, fly, get, give, keep, sell, show, see, watch, do, make, run, call, lend, learn, think, understand, try Choose the correct options to complete the online text.
6 5

Sentence completion

Yes its about a ten-minute walk. I usually take the bus, but if the weather is nice, I walk.
What do you do at the weekends?

Sentence creation

I usually meet up with my friends and go to a restaurant or a bar. I dont stay out late though because I play tennis on Saturday and Sunday mornings. I sometimes go to the cinema on Sunday evening.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
8

Word choice

Her name is Madison Brown. She works in a hospital. Shes been there for about six years. She works as a financial adviser. She doesnt have to travel as part of her job. She doesnt live close to the office. She usually goes to work by bus. She often stays out late at the weekend.

Recommendation

Id really recommend Shelby for any accountancy work. Shes great to work with and highly professional. She (1) get/gets on really well with clients and always (2) finish/finishes work in time. Shes got a lot of experience and she (3) doesnt let/ dont let things get on top of her. For larger projects, she (4)works/work with her business partner Steve. Together, they (5) works/work hard to get the job done and (6) produces/ produce material to an extremely high standard. They also (7)manage/manages very well under pressure, and are willing to work late or at weekends to get things in on time.

Complete the conversation with the correct forms of the verbs in brackets. (you / work)? Molly: So, where (1) Ethan: In an office in the centre of town. (it / take) you Molly: And how long (2) to get to work? Ethan: Well, if there isnt much traffic, about 40 minutes. Molly: Do you go by car? (take) the bus and then Ethan: No, I (3) I walk for about 10 minutes. (you / have) Molly: What time (4) lunch? Ethan: At about 2 pm. Molly: And how long is your lunch break? Ethan: Officially, its just one hour, but we can take longer if we want. (you / usually / Molly: And where (5) go) for lunch? (go) to a restaurant Ethan: I usually (6) near the office. (you / finish) Molly: And what time (7) work? Ethan: About 6pm. Molly: Do you always go straight home? (stop) off at Ethan: No, I sometimes (8) the gym on the way home. What time do you get up? What time do you usually have breakfast? Who do you go to work with? What do you usually have for lunch? What time do you leave work? How often do you go to the cinema? How long does it take you to get to work? How often do you do exercise?
9

Conversation completion

Write a short recommendation for a friend or colleague.


7

Your turn!

Read the online questionnaire. Then, write T (true) or F (false) next to each statement.

True / false

Work.com

Answer our questions and you could win a free tablet computer! Whats your name?

Madison Smith.

Where do you work?

I work in a bank in the city centre. For about six years.


How long have you worked there?

Fluency practice

What do you do there?

I work as a financial adviser.

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19

TRACK 2a

TRACK 2b

LISTEN & RESPOND


Strangers on a Train!
1

PRONUNCIATION PERFECTION
Present simple third-person verb endings
There are three ways to pronounce Present Simple third-person verb endings. The /s/ sound (after unvoiced consonant sounds*): a) laughs: She laughs a lot. b) works: He works here. c) stops: The train stops here. The /z/ sound (after voiced consonant sounds):
B A

Where could you meet a stranger? Think of as many places as you can in just two minutes: at an airport, in a hotel

Pre-listening

Youre going to listen to two people on a train who start a conversation. Listen once. Does Mike know Petras husband? a) no b) yes c) it isnt clear Listen again. Then, answer the questions yes or no. 1. Is Petra Mikes wifes doctor? 2. Does she own a computer shop? 3. Is she a member of a tennis club? 4. Does she ever go to The grapes wine bar? 5. Is she married to Tim Smith?
3

Listening I

Listening II

a) b) c) d)
C

rolls: He rolls the dice. rains: It rains a lot. roars: The lion roars. lives: She lives here.

The /z/ sound:

a) washes: He washes it once a week. b) watches: He watches it every day. c) raises: It raises the temperature.
D

Now listen and repeat these sentences.

a) /s/ He speaks French. b) /z/ It rains here a lot. c) /z/ It closes early on Fridays.
E

1. 2. 3. 4.

Now listen and write the sentences you hear.

*Unvoiced consonant sounds An unvoiced consonant sound doesnt create a vibration in your throat. For example, if you touch your throat and say kiss, you wont feel a vibration from the /k/ sound. A voiced consonant sound creates a vibration in your throat. For example, if you touch your throat and say very, youll feel a vibration from the /v/ sound.

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TRACK 2c

UNIT

How are you?

LANGUAGE-TO-GO

Learn these Useful Sentences. Suggestions: 1. Listen to the sentences and repeat them until you can say them fluently. 2. Study them for a couple of minutes, then cover them up and try to re-write them in the right-hand column. 3. Write translations of the sentences. Later, read over the translations and try to write them in English (without referring to the original versions). 4. Listen to a sentence, then try to write it out on a piece of paper. 5. Cut out the table to carry with you and learn while youre on the bus, train

USEFUL SENTENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Where do you work? What do you do? Do you know Brian in the accounts department? Shes the head of marketing. I usually get up at about 7am. I dont usually have much for breakfast. I go to the gym about three times a week. I often get up late at the weekend. I usually have something light for dinner. She gets on really well with her colleagues. Shes good at working under pressure. Do you live near here? How often do you go to the cinema? I dont usually stay out late. I sometimes go to the cinema on Sunday evening. How long does it take you to get to work? It takes me about 40 minutes. Do you watch much TV? I usually stop off at the pub on the way home.

REVISION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

20. What do you usually have for lunch?

Put ticks in the boxes: I can do it well! I can do it quite well! I need to work on it!
for basic formula Theres a very uage. Its: input ng la tice learning a tening) + prac ng! Its ni (reading and lis ar le = g) in rit w (speaking and that simple!

Congratulations! Youve completed a unit. Now you can Describe someone Write a description of someone

Practise everything youve learned! Talk to a native-English speaking teacher on Skype or by telephone. Get your speaking English classes from here: www.learnhotenglish.com/speaking-gym

Speaking Gym!

Use the Present Simple to talk about daily reoutines Use time expressions with the Present Simple

Write a recommendation for someone

Pronounce third person endings with the Present Simple


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UNIT Objectives
1

Partners!

In this unit, youll learn how to describe an action in progress, write an e-mail describing what youre doing, give an update on progress at work, pronounce the word the

Listening to English regularly will help you develop an ear for the language. Eventually, youll be able to distinguish words and sounds, and then youll start learning really quickly.

Complete the information (1 to 8) with the names from below.

Famous partners

Laurel & Hardy Sam, Jack, Albert, and Harry Warner Wilbur and Orville Wright Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield Larry Page and Sergey Brin Lennon and McCartney Bonnie and Clyde Richard and Maurice McDonald
1. They set up the internet search engine Google.

2. They built the worlds first successful aeroplane.

3. They set up a film studio called Warner Bros. Studios.

4. They were a comic duo who were famous mostly during the 1930s and 1940s.

5. These famous criminals robbed banks in the US during the 1930s.

6. They were a music writing duo who were in a band together.

7. They set up a fast food restaurant business.

8. They founded an ice cream company.

Think about it! What else do you know about these famous partners? Are they famous in your country? Can you think of any more famous partners? Are there any famous partners in your country? Who?

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UNIT
1

Partners!
3

WORD BUILDING
Read the article. Then, write T (true) or F (false). Skype Partners set up a free service... and make a lot of money. Skype lets you communicate by voice, video and instant messaging over the internet... for FREE. The company was set up by entrepreneurs Niklas Zennstrm (from Sweden) and Janus Friis (from Denmark). They met in Denmark when they were working for the European telecommunications company Tele2. They founded Skype in 2003. The first Skype software was released in August of the same year. And very soon, Skype became the global leader in internet voice communications with more than 309 million registered users by 2008. Skype allows computers to share files. So, when two computers are both running the Skype software, they can communicate with each other. In fact, the name Skype comes from Sky peer-to-peer.

Vocabulary: Relationships & partnerships


Match the descriptions of the expressions (1 to 3) to the photos (a-c). 1. Get on well (with someone) To have a good relationship with someone (usually in reference to a friend): Pete and Jennifer get on really well with one another. 2. Have an argument If two people have an argument, they are angry and shout at one another: They had an argument. 3. Get in touch with someone If you get in touch with someone, you make contact with them, by phone / e-mail, etc.: I got in touch with an old school friend.

True or false

Photo matching

In October 2005, the company was acquired by eBay for 2.1 billion ($2.6 billion). In 2011, Skype was sold again. This time it was purchased by Microsoft for $8.5 billion. Its believed that Zennstrm and Friis received approximately $1bn between them from the sale. So, how does Skype make money? Simple! By selling great add-on features that people want to pay for, as they explain on their website. These include customised ringtones and voice-mail subscriptions.

c
Use the expressions below to write three sentences. Have lunch with someone Go for a drink with someone Meet up with someone Arrange to meet someone Work with someone Go on a business trip with someone Go out to dinner with someone Set up a business with someone Go into business with someone For example: I often meet up with my friends after work./ I work with Simon from accounts.
2

Useful expressions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

You can talk to someone on Skype for free. The company was set up by Niklas Zennstrm. The company was founded in 2004. By 2008, they had more than 309 million users. Microsoft bought the company in 2011. Skype makes its money by selling add-on features.

Think about it! Do you keep in touch with your friends from school or university? How? Do you spend any time socially with work colleagues? What qualities are important in a friend? Whats the definition of a good friend?

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23

UNIT

Partners!

READ & RESPOND

Match the car names (1 to 6) to the photos (a-f). 1. Rolls-Royce Phantom 2. Bentley Mulsanne 3. Aston Martin Rapide 4. BMW Alpina B7 5. Mercedes CL 65 6. Jaguar XJ

Pre-reading

How two men created the worlds most famous car!

olls-Royce started thanks to a partnership between Henry Royce and Charles Rolls. But who were they?

e
2

Think of three questions to ask about Rolls-Royce cars. Then, read the article once. Did you find the answers to your questions?
3

Reading I

Both men were very different. Henry Royce (1863-1933) was from a poor background. He only went to school for one year before he had to get a job to help look after his brothers and sisters. He worked on the Great Northern Railway, where he discovered his love of engineering. However, he lost his job and had to move to the Electric Light and Power Company in Liverpool. In 1884, he borrowed 20 to start his own company, making electric light fittings. Not long after, Royce started designing cars. He bought two cars and worked out how to improve them by taking them to pieces. Royce designed his first car, the Royce 10, in 1904 at his factory in Manchester. Charles Rolls (1877-1910) was from a completely different background. He was an aristocrat (the third son of the 1st Baron Llangattock and Lady Llangattock) and was educated at Eton College (the most aristocratic school in Britain). At the age of 18, he bought his first car, a Peugeot Phaeton. He took it to Cambridge, where he went to study engineering. However, Rolls was more interested in selling cars than designing them, so in 1903, he opened a car dealership (one of the first in Britain) with French and Belgian cars. Charles Rolls and Henry Royce met on 4th May 1904 during a meeting

at the Midland Hotel, Manchester. Royce, the imaginative inventor, and Rolls, the slick salesman, liked each other immediately. And the two soon realised that together they could be extremely successful. Rolls liked Royces car, the Royce 10, and offered to sell as many as Royce could make. The cars were called Rolls-Royce, and they soon became popular in Europe and the United States because they were so reliable. However, after a couple of years, Rolls became more interested in flying, and he became the first person to fly across the English Channel and back again. Tragically, Rolls was killed in a plane crash in 1910, becoming the first Briton to die in an aircraft accident. Royce continued to run the company, and he did so very successfully. Soon after Rolls death, Royce started designing aeroplane engines, too. Incredibly, the company is still producing Rolls-Royce engines today. In fact, the company is the worlds secondlargest maker of aircraft engines (behind General Electric). And, of course, theyre still making RollsRoyce cars. The latest model, The Rolls-Royce Phantom, is available in 44,000 colours. Rolls-Royce owners include Queen Elizabeth II and John Lennon, whose psychedelic Rolls Phantom V is a cultural icon. And, of course, a Rolls-Royce remains one of the most powerful symbols of success and wealth.

Read the article again. Then, complete the sentences with the correct words, etc. . 1. Henry Royce was born in to start his own 2. He borrowed company. . 3. He made his first car in . 4. Charles Rolls died in 5. He bought his first car at the age of . . 6. Charles and Henry met in . 7. Royces first car was the Royce 8. The Rolls-Royce Phantom is available in colours.

Reading II

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UNIT
Affirmative

Partners!
Negative
Im not playing. You arent playing. He isnt playing. She isnt playing. It isnt playing. We arent playing. They arent playing.

WORD LINKING
Interrogative
Am I playing? Are you playing? Is he playing? Is she playing? Is it playing? Are we playing? Are they playing?
4

Language Structures: The Present Continuous


Im playing. Youre playing. Hes playing. Shes playing. Its playing. Were playing. Theyre playing

work, walk, talk, speak, eat, prepare, fix, take, catch, dream, drink, fly, live, drive, get, give, go, keep, sell, show, watch, listen, run, call, learn, think

Look at the photos. What can you see? Make eight sentences using the Present Continuous. For example: The woman in picture one is reading.

Picture description

We often use contractions with the Present Continuous. For example: Im = I am; youre = you are; hes = he is; shes = she is; its = it is; were = we are; theyre = they are. The negative forms are: isnt = is not; arent = are not. We use the Present Continuous to describe an activity that is in progress at the moment of speaking. We often use the Present Continuous with these time expressions: at the moment, now, right now, etc. For example, Paige is looking at it right now. We can use question words (what, where, why, when, who, etc.) with the Present Continuous. For example, Who is he looking at? Write the full forms of these sentences. 1. Im writing the e-mails. 2. Hes playing tennis. 3. She isnt doing a lot of work. 4. They arent waiting for you. 5. Were working from home today. 6. They arent walking in the park. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs below. Use the Present Continuous (remember to conjugate the verb to be).
2 1

Contractions

Sentence completion

cook play read work respond ride listen


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Evie Aaron Bradley and Emily Eddie Freya and Amelia game. 6. Maria 7. Sam moment. 8. Shelly
3

watch 5 6

a book. to some music. some food. television. a computer a horse. (not) in the office at the (not) to her calls.

Create as many sentences as you can in the Present Continuous in just two minutes. Use the Present Continuous forms of the verbs below. Use both affirmative and negative forms.

Sentence creation

8
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UNIT
5

Partners!

WORD LINKING
Josh: I will. Hey, are you still in touch with Bob? Chloe: I was, but I havent heard from him for a while, a friend told me that Bob and Jennifer are working in Canada now. Bob is working for a computer company and Jennifer is working in the marketing department of a large company. Josh: Thats amazing. Chloe: Petra said that theyre having a great time, travelling around the country and doing lots of sight-seeing. Josh: Lucky them! Chloe: Well, Id better go. Diana is crying. I think shes hungry. Josh: Oh, right, yes, feeding time. Anyway, speak soon. Chloe: Yes, bye. Josh: Bye. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Is Chloe working from home? Does she have a lot of her own clients? Is she still in touch with Bob? Are Bob and Jennifer working in Mexico? Is Jennifer working in the sales department of a large company? 6. Is Chloes baby sleeping at the end of the conversation?

Choose the correct options to complete the e-mail.

E-mail choice

To: Subject:

Jessica@yahoo.com my mobile phone

Dear Jeff, I hope that everything is going well. I was just writing to ask about last weeks meeting. I(1)am working / working on the report, and I (2) write/ am writing up the notes from the meeting. However, we (3) having / are having a few problems. Icant remember what price we finally agreed on. Canyou remember? Please let me know. Also, we (4) try / are trying to find last years sales figures. I thought I had them. Do you have a copy? Ifso, could you send them to me, please? Sandra (5) gets / is getting the printing prices so well add those into the report, too. By the way, we (6) arent having / arent have much luck with the new website. We cant seem to log onto the Members Area. I dont think it (7) working / is working properly. Do you know what the problem could be? We (8) have / are having lunch at 1pm if you would like to come along. Were going to that new place in the high street. Its an Indian restaurant. Monica (9) is booking / books it as I speak. Anyway, let me know about those things I was asking about. Speak soon,

Chloe Your turn!

Write an e-mail explaining what youre doing or what progress youre making.
6

Read over the conversation. Then, tick () Yes or No. Chloe: Josh: Chloe: Josh:

Telephone conversation analysis

Hello, Chloe speaking. Hi Chloe, its Josh. Hows it going? Oh, hi Josh. Good to hear from you. Yeah, good to speak to you to. So, what are you up to these days? And hows your baby? Chloe: Dianas fine, thanks. Im working from home at the moment. Im in the process of setting up my own company. Josh: Thats great. Chloe: I havent got many clients yet. So if you know anyone who needs any accounting work, please let me know.
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TRACK 3a

TRACK 3b

LISTEN & RESPOND


Checking up on things by phone!
1

PRONUNCIATION PERFECTION
The pronunciation of the
A

How do you greet a caller on the telephone? How do you end a telephone conversation? How many phone-related expressions can you think of in just three minutes? For example: How may I help you? / Whos calling, please? Can I speak to Josh, please?

Pre-listening

We can pronounce the in two different ways:

a) the // the first one b) the /i:/ the end

Youre going to listen to two telephone conversations. Which calls do you hear? A call made to someone who is... ...in an office ...at the beach ...at home. Complete the sentences (1 to 4) with the words from below. Then, listen again to check your answers.
3

Listening I

We use the // (a weak sound) before words with a consonant sound: the bed, the police, the dog... And we use the /i:/ before words with a vowel sound: the apple, the alarm, the egg...
Listen and repeat these sentences:

Listening II

a) Ive got the blue one. // b) I havent got the answer. /i:/
Write A for//, and B for /i:/ next to each sentence according to the pronunciation of the Then, listen to check your answers.
B

drink today exam meeting


Call I on Friday. 1. Im studying. Ive got an 2. I was wondering whether you wanted to go out for a . Call I I 3. Im just getting ready for a 4. Can I get back to you later . ?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Were listening to the music. Theyre writing the letter. Were cooking the eggs. The apple was red. She was the only person there. They reported the incident.

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TRACK 3c

UNIT

Partners!

LANGUAGE-TO-GO

Learn these Useful Sentences. Suggestions: 1. Listen to the sentences and repeat them until you can say them fluently. 2. Study them for a couple of minutes, then cover them up and try to re-write them in the right-hand column. 3. Write translations of the sentences. Later, read over the translations and try to write them in English (without referring to the original versions). 4. Listen to a sentence, then try to write it out on a piece of paper. 5. Cut out the table to carry with you and learn while youre on the bus, train

USEFUL SENTENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. They get on really well. They had an argument. I got in touch with her. We had lunch in the Italian restaurant. We met up at my favourite bar. Hes thinking about it. Theyre preparing the food. She isnt working at the moment. Hes listening to some music. Is he doing the work? Theyre watching the film. Im writing the e-mail. Shes getting better at it. Theyre listening to the song. Shes delivering the packages. Im getting ready to go out. Are you having a good time? Are they enjoying themselves? Were looking for a cheaper one.

REVISION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

20. Im studying for my exams.

Put ticks in the boxes: I can do it well! I can do it quite well! I need to work on it!
s after and expression Repeat words . This will develop your you hear themuce language. Itll also ability to prod orise any words or help you mem expressions.

Congratulations! Youve completed a unit. Now you can Describe an action in progress Pronounce the word the

Practise everything youve learned! Talk to a native-English speaking teacher on Skype or by telephone. Get your speaking English classes from here: www.learnhotenglish.com/speaking-gym

Speaking Gym!

Write an e-mail describing what Im doing Give an update on progress at work

Understand a text about Rolls-Royce

Understand two phone calls

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UNIT Objectives
1

What hat was it like?

In this unit, youll learn how to describe the weather, talk about the past, talk about people from the past, pronounce strong and weak forms of was and were

When listening, dont worry about understanding every single word. Focus on the general meaning and try to guess what the speakers are saying. This is what you do in your own language.

Match the questions to the answers. 1. What was the weather like? 2. What was the film like? 3. What was the trip like? 4. What was the party like? a. It wasnt too bad, but I get a headache from those 3D films. b. Awful. The plane was delayed for six hours. c. It was great. Lots of my friends from university were there. d. Terrible! It rained every day.

Dialogue matching

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UNIT
1

What was it like?

WORD BUILDING
6. There were a few light showers in the afternoon. A light shower is a short period of rain (often light rain). 7. The sky was grey and overcast. If the sky is overcast, it is completely covered by clouds. 8. It was pouring down with rain. If it is pouring down, it is raining very heavily.

Vocabulary: Adjectives & the weather


Put the adjectives into the correct columns in the table. See if you can think of three more. great, terrible, fantastic, awful, boring, amazing, exciting, nasty, horrible, brilliant, incredible, disgusting, wonderful, marvellous, out-of-this world, late, tired, disappointing

Classifying

Positive
great

Negative

Use some of these expressions to describe the weather today / yesterday / last week, etc.
4

Your turn!

Read over the conversation. Then, complete the table. Dylan is looking at some photos of previous employees where he works. Dylan: So, who was this? Charlotte: Zara Jones. She was in charge of marketing. She was here for about six years. Dylan: And this? Charlotte: Frank Smithers. He was the owner of the company Dylan: And this woman on the right? Charlotte: Paige Brown. She was the president of the company. Dylan: OK. And who was this? Charlotte: Oh, thats Harry Marks. He was in the finance department. He was really funny. Dylan: And this woman? Charlotte: Samantha Franks. She was the founder of the company. Theres a painting of her in the main reception area. Dylan: Oh, right. I thought I recognised her. Person 1. Zara Jones 2. Frank Smithers 3. Paige Brown 4. Harry Marks 5. Samantha Franks Position in the company

Conversation analysis

Use the adjectives from the previous activity to answer the following questions. Invent where necessary. 1. What was the party like? 2. What was the film like? 3. What was the concert like? 4. What was the trip like? 5. What was the meeting like? 6. What was the conference like? What do the words in bold mean? Think. Then, read the explanation to check. 1. There was ice on the road and it was really slippery. If the ground is slippery, its smooth and icy or wet, difficult to walk on, and yhou may fall. 2. After the heavy rains, the town was flooded. If the road is flooded, it becomes covered in water. 3. There was a thunderstorm with lots of thunder and lightning. A thunderstorm (or storm) is very violent weather with thunder (loud noises) and lightning (bright flashes) in the sky. 4. The fog was so thick I couldnt see my hand in front of me. When theres fog, there are little drops of water in the air which form a cloud. This makes it difficult to see. 5. There was a gentle breeze on the beach. If theres a gentle breeze, there is a very light wind.
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3

Descriptions

What was the weather like?

Write three sentences about the people who worked in your company.
Think about it! What was the weather like yesterday? What about last week? Were there any storms last month? Was it foggy last week? Was it hotter yesterday than the day before? Was it cold this morning? What about yesterday morning?

Your turn!

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UNIT

What was it like?

READ & RESPOND

HOW THE WWF IS HELPING THE WORLD!


1

Match the wildlife animals (1 to 6) to the pictures (a-f). 1. Hippo (hippopotamus) 2. Rhino (rhinoceros) 3. Polar bear 4. Tiger 5. Jaguar 6. Panda bear

Pre-reading

he World Wide Fund for Nature (the WWF) was THE WORLD WIDE set up more than 50 years ago. Its aim was to FUND FOR NATURE save the worlds wildlife. Since then, its made The World Wide Fund for some remarkable progress. Nature (www.wwf.org) was established in 1961. Its For example, in 1895, there were fewer than 20 mission is to build a future in which humans can live in southern white rhinos. Now there are more than 17,000. In 1993, there were approximately 2,500 black harmony with nature, and to halt the destruction of the rhinos. Today, there are more than 4,000. environment by concentrating And in the 1960s, there were an estimated 5,000 on three biomes: forests, polar bears. These days, there are more than 25,000. freshwater ecosystems, and oceans and coasts. The WWF was created in 1961 in the Swiss town of Morges. A group of conservationists, including Sir Peter Scott and Sir Julian Huxley, decided to act against the GLOSSARY to set up phr vb needless destruction of the worlds wildlife. The to establish; to start organisation was originally called the World Wildlife an aim n Fund, but was renamed the World Wide Fund for Nature an objective; something you want / have to do in 1986. Here are a few things about the organisation. to save vb The WWFs logo was inspired by Chi Chi, a giant panda from London Zoo. Actor Leonardo DiCaprio once donated 650,000 to save the tiger. One of the WWFs schemes to help jaguars involves protecting one billion trees in the Amazon rainforest. Nearly $10bn has been spent in more than 150 countries since 1961. The Duke of Edinburgh (Queen Elizabeth IIs husband) is the President Emeritus of the WWF. The WWF helped to set up the Charles Darwin Foundation Research Station in the Galapagos Islands in 1962. In 1969, together with the Spanish government, the WWF established the Coto Doana National Park, one of the worlds rst wetland reserves. In 1981, there were about one million regular supporters worldwide. Today, there are more than ve million. The organisation helped to create a ban on commercial whaling in 1986. China has promised to protect three million hectares of panda forest an area the size of Belgium. In 1990, the WWF helped establish an international ban on ivory trade. The WWFs priorities for the next 50 years include tackling climate change and promoting sustainability.

d
2

Read the article once. Which animals are mentioned in the article? Why are they mentioned?
3

Reading I

Read the article again. Then, write a word next to each description. 1. This animal appears on the WWFs logo. 2. There were approximately 2,500 in 1993. 3. The animal the WWF are trying to protect in the Amazon. 4. There are more than 25,000 now. 5. The town where the WWF was founded.

Reading II

Will you support them?

if you save something, you stop it from dying wildlife n animals that live in the mountains / forests, etc. remarkable adj extraordinary; impressive a conservationist n someone who wants to protect animals / nature, etc. needless adj that isnt necessary destruction n the act or process of destroying / killing / breaking things emeritus n a President emeritus is a president who is no longer president, but who keeps the title as an honour a wetland n an area of land that has a lot of water a reserve n an area of land where animals and birds, etc. are protected a ban n a prohibition; something that cant be done whaling n nding and killing whales (large mammals that live in the sea) ivory trade n the sale or export of elephant tusks or other things made of ivory (a type of bone that is white and valuable) a priority n something important that you must do urgently to tackle vb if you are tackling a problem, you are trying to nd a solution to it climate change n the idea that temperatures are increasing because of pollution, etc. sustainability n using natural resources in a way that doesnt harm the land / air / sea, etc.

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UNIT
Affirmative

What was it like?


Negative
I wasnt happy. You werent happy. He wasnt happy. She wasnt happy. It wasnt happy. We werent happy. They werent happy.

WORD LINKING
(not) there on time. 6. We (not) in the car with them. 7. I 8. They __________________ (not) in the office when I called. Create as many sentences as you can with was / were in just two minutes. Use the words from the box below. Use both affirmative and negative forms. at the cinema, in the park, at work, in a restaurant, in the gym, with a friend, at a party, in the airport, on a flight to..., in the swimming pool, at the theatre, on a sailing boat, by the beach, at a friends house, in a bar For example: I was at the cinema last night at 6pm.
4

Language Structures: The past of to be (was/were)


Interrogative
Was I happy? Were you happy? Was he happy? Was she happy? Was it happy? Were we happy? Were they happy? I was happy. You were happy. He was happy. She was happy. It was happy. We were happy. They were happy.

Sentence creation

last night, last week, last year, last month, yesterday, two months ago, at 7 pm, at midnight, on Monday, three years ago, in 1997, in 2008 We often use the contracted negative forms: wasnt = was not; werent = were not. The past of the verb to be is was/were. For example, They were at the party last night. We form questions by placing Was/Were at the start of the question. We can place question words (what, when, where, who, why, etc.) before was/were. For example, Who were they with? Match the sentence beginnings (1 to 5) to the endings (a-e). 1. Why were you late? 2. Why are you so tired? 3. Who was that with you? 4. Where were you last night at 8pm? 5. How old were you when you passed your driving test? a. b. c. d. e.
2 1

Time expressions

There was / There were


Affirmative Negative Interrogative
Was there a pen? Were there two pens? There was a pen. There wasnt a pen. There were two There werent pens. two pens.
5

Look at the photo for two minutes. Then, cover the photo and see if you can answer the questions. Give full answers.

Photo analysis

Matching

I was at home. About 18. Because there was a lot of traffic. That was my sister. Because Ive been at the gym.

Put the words in the correct order to complete the sentences. 1. with / she / her friend / was 2. at / work / werent / they 3. at / was / my uncles house / I 4. the park / in / she wasnt 5. really angry / I / with them / was Complete the sentences with was / were / wasnt / werent. at the cinema. 1. We (not) angry with us. 2. She in the park with the dog. 3. They happy with the results. 4. I (not) with Abigail. 5. He
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3

Word order

Sentence completion

1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Was there a hat on the table? Were there any pens on the table? Was there a pair of glasses on the table? Were there any mobile phones on the table? Was there a glass of orange juice on the table? Were there any cups of coffee on the table?

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UNIT
6

What was it like?


7

WORD LINKING
Complete the e-mail. Use the Past Simple of the verb to be.

Read over the conversation. Then, answer the questions with full answers. Morgan: So, who was the person here before me? Sophie: Petra Martinelli. Morgan: Oh, right. I think Ive heard about her. She was Italian, wasnt she? Sophie: Yes, I think so, although she spoke perfect English. Morgan: So, what was she like? Sophie: Oh, she was really nice. Morgan: Was she here for long? Sophie: About six years. Morgan: So, what was her official job title? Sophie: She was head of marketing. Morgan: So, where is she now? Sophie: Im not really sure, but I heard that shed moved to Australia. Morgan: Interesting. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What was Petras surname? Where was she from? What was she like? How long was she there for? What was her official job title? Where is she now?

Conversation analysis

E-mail completion

To: Subject:

poppy@yahoo.com the business trip

Hi Poppy, Hows it going? Im here in New York City on that business trip. Yesterday, we (1) in meetings all day, but we had the afternoon free. We really went for a walk, but it (2) in the centre cold outside. We (3) just like in the of New York. It (4) in Times Square films. We (5) (not) and Central Park, but we (6) there for long it was too cold. Later, in the evening, we went to a restaurant, (not) hungry Id but I (7) eaten too many of those snacks and cakes in the conference breaks! Later that night, there (8) a party. That was great fun. lots of people from the There (9) office. Anyway, speak soon,

Your turn!
Write a paragraph describing some former employees from the place where you work. Invent where necessary.

Sam

Answer the questions. Where were you last night? Who were you with yesterday afternoon? What was the most interesting thing you did last month? Was there a lot of traffic on the roads this morning? Were any of your colleagues late for work today? Where were you last summer? How long were you there for?

Fluency practice

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TRACK 4a

TRACK 4b

LISTEN & RESPOND


Talking about the weekend!
1 2

PRONUNCIATION PERFECTION
The pronunciation of was and were
A

Think of six typical things that people do at the weekend.

Pre-listening Listening I

There are two ways of pronouncing was and were.

Youre going to listen to a conversation with two people talking about their weekends. One person went to a theme park. What do you think he/she is going to say? Think of two things. For example, We had a great time! Then, listen once to compare your ideas. Listen again. Then, choose the correct answers. 1. Which theme park did Bob go to? a) Park Asterix b) Disney World 2. Which city is it near? a) Paris b) Lyon 3. What was the weather like? a) good b) terrible
3

Was We often use the strong form was /woz/ for emphasis in speech: a) I was at home. b) She was in the living room. And we use the weak form was /wz/ in casual speech: a) I was at home. b) She was in the living room. Were We often use the strong form were /w/ for emphasis in speech: a) They were at home. b) We were in the office. And we use the weak form were /w/ in casual speech: a) They were at home. b) We were in the office.
B

Listening II

Now listen and repeat these sentences with weak forms

a) b) c) d)
C

He was in the office. She was at the factory. They were in the cinema. We were in the garden.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Now listen and write the sentences you hear. Theyve all got weak forms.

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TRACK 4c

UNIT 4 What was it like?

LANGUAGE-TO-GO

Learn these Useful Sentences. Suggestions: 1. Listen to the sentences and repeat them until you can say them fluently. 2. Study them for a couple of minutes, then cover them up and try to re-write them in the right-hand column. 3. Write translations of the sentences. Later, read over the translations and try to write them in English (without referring to the original versions). 4. Listen to a sentence, then try to write it out on a piece of paper. 5. Cut out the table to carry with you and learn while youre on the bus, train

USEFUL SENTENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. What was the weather like? What was the party like? The weather was fantastic. It was a bit windy. There was a thunderstorm. It was really foggy. Who was she? He was really funny! She was in charge of marketing. There were more than 5,000 people there. Why were you so late? Who was with you? Where were you last night? I was at home. She was late because of the traffic. They werent at home when I called. She wasnt very pleased with the results. They were at a friends house. Were you at the cinema last night?

REVISION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

20. There werent many people there.

Put ticks in the boxes: I can do it well! I can do it quite well! I need to work on it!
a general listen for gist Remember to of what people are to hear understanding emely difficult saying. Its extrevery single word not or understand eakers do that. even native sp

Congratulations! Youve completed a unit. Now you can Describe the weather Pronounce strong and weak forms of was / were Understand a text about the WWF

Practise everything youve learned! Talk to a native-English speaking teacher on Skype or by telephone. Get your speaking English classes from here: www.learnhotenglish.com/speaking-gym

Speaking Gym!

Use was / were to talk about the past

Use was / were to talk about people from the past

Understand two people talking about the weekend


35

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