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NATIVE AMERICAN TEXTS

The Iroquois Creation Story A Tale of the Foundation of the Great Island, now North America. The two Infants born, and the Creation of the Universe.
Among the ancients there were two worlds in existence. The lower world was in a great darkness; the possession of the great monster; but the upper world was inhabited by mankind; and there was a woman conceived and would have the twin born. When her travail drew near, and her situation seemed to produce a great distress on her mind, and she was induced by some of her relatives to lay herself on a mattress which was prepared, so as to gain refreshments to her wearied body; but while she was asleep the very place sunk down towards the dark world. The monsters of the great water were alarmed at her appearance of descending to the lower world; in consequence, all the species of the creatures were immediately collected into where it was expected she would fall. When the monsters were assembled and they made consultation, one of them was appointed in haste to search the great deep, in order to procure some earth, if it could be obtained accordingly the monster descends, which succeeds, and returns to the place. Another requisition was presented, who would be capable to secure the woman from the terrors of the great water, but none was able to comply except a large turtle came forward and made proposal to them to endure her lasting weight. which was accepted. The woman was yet descending from a great distance. The turtle executes upon the spot and a small quantity of earth was varnished on the back part of the turtle. The woman alights on the seat prepared, and she receives a satisfaction. While holding her, the turtle increased every moment, and become a considerable island of earth, and apparently covered with small bushes. The woman remained in a state of unlimited darkness, and she was overtaken by her travail to which she was sub!ect. While she was in the limits of distress one of the infants was moved by an evil opinion, and he was determined to pass out under the side of the parent"s arm, and the other infant in vain endeavored to prevent his design. The woman was in a painful condition during the time of their disputes, and the infants entered the dark world by compulsion. and their parent expired in a few moments. They had the power of sustenance without a nurse, and remained in the dark regions. After a time the turtle increased to a great #sland. and the infants were grown up, and one of them possessed with a gentle disposition and named $nigorio. i. e, the good mind The other youth possessed an insolence of character, and was named

$nigonhahetgea, i. e. the bad mind. The good mind was not contented to remain in a dark situation, and he was anxious to create a great light in the dark world; but the bad mind was desirous that the world should remain in a natural state. The good mind determined to prosecute his designs, and therefore commences the work of creation. At first he took the parent"s head %the deceased& of which he created an orb, and established it in the center of the firmament, and because of very superior nature to bestow light to the new world, %now the sun& and again he took the remnant of the body and formed another orb, which was inferior to the light, %now the moon.& #n the orb a cloud of legs appeared to prove it was the body of the good mind, %parent.& The former was to give light to the day, and the latter to the night; and he also created numerous spots of light, %now stars;& these were to regulate the days, nights, seasons, years. etc. Whenever the light extended to the dark world the monsters were displeased and immediately concealed themselves in the deep places, lest they should be discovered by some human beings. The good mind continued the work of creation, and he formed numerous creeks and rivers on the 'reat #sland. and then created numerous species of animals of the smallest and greatest, to inhabit the forests, and fish of all kinds to inhabit the waters. When he had made the universe he was in doubt respecting some being to possess the 'reat #sland; and he found two images of the dust of the ground in his own likeness, male and female, and by his breathing into their nostrils he gave them the living souls. and named them $a(gwe( howe, i e. a real people; and he gave the 'reat #sland, all the animals of game for their maintenance and he appointed thunder to water the earth by frequent rains; agreeable to the nature of the system; after this the #sland became fruitful, and vegetation afforded the animals subsistence. The bad mind. while his brother was making the universe. went throughout the #sland and made numerous high mountains and falls of water, and great steeps, and also creates various reptiles which would be in!urious to mankind; but the good mind restored the #sland to its former condition. The bad mind proceeded further in his motives, and he made two images of clay in the form of mankind; but while he was giving them existence they became apes; and when he had not the power to create mankind he was envious against his brother; and again he made two of clay. The good mind discovered his brother"s contrivances, and aided in giving them living souls, ) * %#t is said these had the most knowledge of good and evil.& The good mind now accomplishes the works of creation,
)

#t appears by the fictitious accounts that the said beings become civili+ed people, and made their residence in the southern parts of the #sland; but afterwards they were destroyed by the barbarous nations, and their fortifications were ruined unto this day.

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notwithstanding the imaginations of the bad mind were continually evil; and he attempted to enclose all the animals of game in the earth, so as to deprive them from mankind; but the good mind released them from confinement, %the animals were dispersed, and traces of them were made on the rocks near the cave where it was closed.& The good mind"s experiences that his brother was at variance with the works of creation, and feels not disposed to favor any of his proceedings, but gives admonitions of his future state. Afterwards the good mind requested his brother to accompany him, as he was proposed to inspect the game, etc., but when a short distance from their nominal residence, the bad mind became so unmanly that he could not conduct his brother any more. The bad mind offered a challenge to his brother and resolved that who gains the victory should govern the universe; and appointed a day to meet the contest. The good mind was willing to submit to the offer, and he enters the reconciliation with his brother; which he falsely mentions that by whipping with flags would destroy his temporal life; and he earnestly solicits his brother also to notice the instrument of death, which he manifestly relates by the use of deer horns, beating his body he would expire. ,n the day appointed the engagement commenced, which lasted for two days, after pulling up the trees and mountains as the track of a terrible whirlwind, at last the good mind gains the victory by using the horns, as mentioned the instrument of death, which he succeeded in deceiving his brother, and he crushed him in the earth and the last words uttered from the bad mind were, that he would have equal power over the souls of mankind after death; and he sinks down to eternal doom, and becomes the $vil -pirit. After this tumult the good mind repaired to the battle ground, and then visited the people and retires from the earth. (The text was written down by David Cusick in 1827) the palm of his hand and held out. #t tipped over three times, but the fourth, time it staid straight in the middle of the air and there it remains now as the world. The first bush he created was the greasewood bush. And he made ants, little tiny ants, to live on that bush, on its gum which comes out of its stem. 1ut these little ants did not do any good, so be created white ants, and these worked and enlarged the earth; and they kept on increasing it, larger and larger, until at last it was big enough for himself to rest on. Then he created a .erson. 0e made him out of his eye, out of the shadow of his eyes, to assist him, to be like him, and to help him in creating trees and human beings and everything that was to be on the earth. The name of this being was !oo-ee %the 1u++ard&. 2ooee was given all power, but he did not do the work he was created for. 0e did not care to help 3uhwertamahkai, but let him go by himself. And so the /octor of the $arth himself created the mountains and everything that has seed and is good to eat. 4or if he had created human beings first they would have had nothing to live on. 1ut after making 2ooee and before making the mountains and seed for food, 3uhwertamahkai made the sun. #n order to make the sun he first made water, and this he placed in a hollow vessel, like an earthen dish %hwas-hah-ah& to harden into something like ice. And this hardened ball he placed in the sky. 4irst he placed it in the 2orth, but it did not work; then he placed it in the West, but it did not work; then he placed it in the -outh, but it did not work; then he placed it in the $ast and there it worked as he wanted it to. And the moon he made in the same way and tried in the same places, with the same results. 1ut when he made the stars he took the water in his mouth and spurted it up into the sky. 1ut the first night his stars did not give light enough. -o he took the /octor(stone %diamond&, the tone-du -haw-teh, and smashed it up, and took the pieces and threw them into the sky to mix with the water in the stars, and then there was light enough.5 3uhwertamahkai"s -ong of 6reation 3uhwertamahkai made the world 7 6ome and see it and make it useful8 0e made it round 7 6ome and see it and make it useful8
5

Pima Stories of the Beginning of the Worl The story of Creation


#n the beginning there was no earth, no water(( nothing. There was only a .erson, Juh-wert-a-Mahkai %The /octor of the $arth&. 0e !ust floated, for there was no place for him to stand upon. There was no sun, no light, and he !ust floated about in the darkness, which was /arkness itself. 0e wandered around in the nowhere till he thought he had wandered enough. Then he rubbed on his breast and rubbed out oah-haht-tack, that is perspiration, or greasy earth. This he rubbed out on

9any doubt that the #ndians of 2orth America knew anything about the diamond, but my interpreter insisted that the /octor(stone was the diamond, therefore # have taken his word for it. .erhaps it was crystal.

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And now 3uhwertamahkai, rubbed again on his breast, and from the substance he obtained there made two little dolls, and these he laid on the earth. And they were human beings, man and woman. And now for a time the people increased till they filled the earth. 4or the first parents were perfect, and there was no sickness and no death. 1ut when the earth was full, then there was nothing to eat, so they killed and ate each other. 1ut 3uhwertamahkai did not like the way his people acted, to kill and eat each other, and so he let the sky fail to kill them. 1ut when the sky dropped he, himself, took a staff and broke a hole thru, thru which he and 2ooee emerged and escaped, leaving behind them all the people dead. And 3uhwertamahkai, being now on the top of this fallen sky, again made a man and a woman, in the same way as before. 1ut this man and woman became grey when old, and their children became grey still younger, and their children became grey younger still, and so on till the babies were gray in their cradles. And 3uhwertamahkai, who had made a new earth and sky, !ust as there had been before, did not like his people becoming grey in their cradles, so he let the sky fall on them again, and again made a hole and escaped, with 2ooee, as before. And 3uhwertamahkai, on top of this second sky, again made a new heaven and a new earth, !ust as he had done before, and new people. 1ut these new people made a vice of smoking. 1efore human beings had never smoked till they were old, but now they smoked younger, and each generation still younger, till the infants wanted to smoke in their cradles. And 3uhwertamahkai did not like this, and let the sky fall again, and created everything new again in the same way, and this time he created the earth as it is now. 1ut at first the whole slope of the world was westward, and tho there were peaks rising from this slope there were no true valleys, and all the water that fell ran away and there was no water for the people to drink. -o 3uhwertamahkai sent 2ooee to fly around among the mountains, and over the earth, to cut valleys with his wings, so that the water could be caught and distributed and there might be enough for the people to drink. 2ow the sun was male and the moon was female and they met once a month. And the moon became a mother and went to a mountain called Tahs- y-ettahn Toe-ahk %sun striking mountain& and there was born her baby. 1ut she had duties to attend to, to turn around and give light, so she made a place for the child by tramping down the weedy bushes and there left it. And the child, having no milk, was nourished on the earth. And this child was the coyote, and as he grew he went out to walk and in his walk came to the house of 3uhwertamahkai and 2ooee, where they lived. And when he came there 3uhwertamahkai knew him and called him Toe-hahvs, because he was laid on the weedy bushes of that name. 1ut now out of the 2orth came another powerful personage, who has two names, "ee-ur-huh and #eee-toy. 2ow -eeurhuh means older brother, and when this personage came to 3uhwertamahkai, 2ooee and Toehahvs he called them his younger brothers. 1ut they claimed to have been here first, and to be older than he, and there was a dispute between them. 1ut finally, because he insisted so strongly, and !ust to please him, they let him be called older brother. (The text was written down by J$ %$ &'oyd in 1(11)

From The Winne!ago Tri"#ster Cy"le


$% As :Trickster; continued his aimless wandering unexpectedly, much to his surprise, he met a little fox. <Well, my younger brother, here you are8 =ou are travelling, aren"t you>? <=es, yes, here # am8? answered the little fox. <The world is going to be a difficult place to live in and # am trying to find some clean place in which to dwell. That is what # am looking for.? <,h, oh, my younger brother, what you have said is very true. #, too, was thinking of the very same thing. # have always wanted to have a companion, so let us live together.? Trickster consented, and so they went on to look for a place in which to dwell. As they ran along they encountered a !ay. <Well, well, my younger brother, what are you doing>? asked Trickster. <,lder brother, # am looking for a place to live in because the world is soon going to be a difficult place in which to dwell.? <We are looking for the very same thing. When # heard my younger brother speaking of this # envied him very much. -o let us live together, for we also are hunting for such a place.? Thus spoke Trickster. Then they went on together and soon they cane across a hetc)eni)a %nit&. <Well, well, my younger brother, what are you doing>? they asked. <,lder brothers, # am looking for a pleasant place to live in,? the bird answered. <=ounger brother, we are travelling about looking for the same thing. When # heard these others saying that they wanted to live together as companions # liked it. @et us, therefore, live together,? said Trickster. They were all agreed and soon they came to a place where the river forked and where there was a lovely piece of land with red oaks growing upon it. #t

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was indeed a beautiful place. This, they agreed, was a delightful place to live in, and so they stopped there and built themselves a lodge. #n the fall, when everything was ripe, they had, of course, all they wanted to eat. 0owever, winter soon approached and not long after it began, a deep snow fell. The situation of the four now became indeed very difficult. They had nothing to eat and they were getting quite hungry. Then Trickster spoke, <=ounger brothers, it is going to be very difficult. 0owever, if we do the thing # am about to suggest, it will be good. -o, at least, # think.? <All right, if it is indeed something good that our older brother means we certainly will do it, for otherwise some of us will starve to death. What is it that we should do that is good and by which we can get something to eat>? <@isten. There is a village yonder, where they are en!oying great blessings. The chief has a son who is killing many animals. 0e is not married yet but is thinking of it. @et us go over there. # will disguise myself as a woman and marry him. Thus we can live in peace until spring comes.? <'ood8? they e!aculated. All were willing and delighted to participate. &' Trickster now took an elk"s liver and made a vulva from it. Then he took some elk"s kidneys and made breasts from then. 4inally he put on a woman"s dress. #n this dress his friends enclosed him very firmly. The dresses he was using were those that the women who had taken him for a raccoon had given him.A 0e now stood there transformed into a very pretty woman indeed. Then he let the fox have intercourse with him and make him pregnant, B then the !aybird and, finally, the nit. After that he proceeded toward the village. 2ow, at the end of the village, lived an old woman C and she immediately addressed him, saying, <9y granddaughter, what is your purpose in travelling around like this> 6ertainly it is with some ob!ect in view that you are travelling8? Then the old woman went outside and shouted, <0o8 0o8 There is someone here who has come to court the chief"s son.? D This, at least, is what the old woman seemed to be saying. Then the chief said to his daughters, <0o8 This clearly is what this woman wants and is the reason for her coming; so, my
A B

daughters, go and bring your sister(in(law here.? Then they went after her. -he certainly was a very handsome woman. The chief"s son liked her very much. #mmediately they prepared dried corn for her and they boiled slit bear(ribs.E That was why Trickster was getting married, of course. When this food was ready they put it in a dish, cooled it, and placed it in front of Trickster. 0e devoured it at once. F There she %Trickster& remained. 2ot long after Trickster became pregnant. G The chief"s son was very happy about the fact that he was to become a father. 2ot long after that Trickster gave birth to a boy. Then again he became pregnant and gave birth to another boy. 4inally for the third time he became pregnant and gave birth to a third boy. &$ The last child cried as soon as it was born and nothing could stop it.)H The crying became very serious and so it was decided to send for an old woman who had the reputation for being able to pacify children. -he came, but she, likewise, could not pacify him. 4inally the little child cried out and sang <#f # only could play with a little piece of white cloud8? They went in search of a shaman, for it was the chief"s son who was asking for this and, consequently, no matter what the cost, it had to he obtained. 0e had asked for a piece of white cloud, and a piece of white cloud, accordingly, they tried to obtain. 1ut how could they obtain a piece of white cloud> All tried very hard and, finally, they made it snow. Then, when the snow was quite deep, they gave him a piece of snow to play with and he stopped crying. After a while he again cried out and sang I#f # could only play with a piece of blue sky8? Then they tried to obtain a piece of blue sky for him. Jery hard they tried, but were not able to obtain any. #n the spring of the year, however, they gave him a piece of blue grass and he stopped crying. After a while he began to cry again. This time he asked for some blue %green& leaves. Then the fourth time he asked for some roasting ears. They gave
E F

#n an earlier story of the cycle. #t is no problem at all for the male trickster to become pregnant and later to give birth. C This is a parody of the conventional type of Winnebago folktale which always has an old woman living at the end of the village. D This paragraph describes things being done in an inappropriate manner, e.g., the son should be doing the courting not the other way around, nor would a chief permit to marry a stranger.

This is the proper food for a <bridal? meal. #t is completely against Winnebago etiquette to eat in this fashion. G Kemember that trickster was already pregnant by fox, !ay, and nit. )H #t is not unusual for Winnebago children to cry. 6ontinuous crying implied something serious and had to be interpreted.

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him green leaves and roasting ears of corn and he stopped crying. ,ne day later, as they were steaming corn, the chief"s wife teased her sister(in(law.)) -he chased her around the pit where they were steaming corn. 4inally, the chief"s son"s wife %Trickster& !umped over the pit and she dropped something very rotten. The people shouted at her, <#t is Trickster8? The men were all ashamed, especially the chief"s son. The animals who had been with Trickster, the fox, the !aybird and the nit, all of them now ran away. )5 && Trickster also ran away. -uddenly he said to himself, <Well, why am # doing all this> #t is about time that # went back to the woman to whom # am really married. Lunu must be a pretty big boy by this time.? Thus spoke Trickster. T hen he went across the lake to the woman to whom he was really married. When he got there he found, much to his surprise, that the boy that had been born to him was indeed quite grown up. The chief was very happy when Trickster came home. <9y son(in(law has come home,? he e!aculated. 0e was very happy indeed. Trickster hunted game for his child and killed very many animals. There he stayed a long time until his child had become a grown(up man. Then, when he saw that his child was able to take care of himself, he said, <Well, it is about time for me to start travelling again for my boy is quite grown up now.)A # will go around the earth and visit people for # am tired of staying here. # used to wander around the world in peace. 0ere # am !ust giving myself a lot of trouble.? &( As he went wandering around aimlessly he suddenly heard someone speaking. 0e listened very carefully and it seemed to say, <0e who chews me will defecate; he will defecate8? )B That was what it was
))

1y our reckoning she would be her daughter(in(law, but <sister(in(law? is used because if trickster had married into the chief"s family without changing sex, he would have been the chief"s wife"s son(in(law and !oking between son(in(law and mother(in(law is simply unthinkable, a very powerful taboo. 3oking and teasing between sister(in( law, however, is a common practice. )5 The three friends run away because the taboos that trickster"s disguise has caused to be broken 7 in general, making mockery of the chief"s family; in particular, causing the chief"s son to have engaged in homosexual acts 7 are very serious. $ven trickster himself, in the next segment of the cycle, runs away, soberly questioning his actions rather than merely laughing. )A Again the reverse of what is appropriate it is the young man who should venture into the world. )B The tale of the talking <laxative bulb? is widespread throughout 2ative American cultures. Apart from its entertainment value as gross, scatological humor, it teaches a number of lessons, such as do not be gullible

saving. <Well, why is this person talking in this manner>? said Trickster. -o he walked in the direction from which he had heard the speaking and again he heard, quite near him, someone saving <0e who chews me, he will defecate; he will defecate8? This is what was said. <Well, why does this person talk in such fashion>? said Trickster. Then he walked to the other side. -o he continued walking along. Then right at his very side, a voice seemed to say, <0e who chews me, he will defecate; he will defecate8? <Well, # wonder who it is who is speaking. # know very well that if # chew it, # will not defecate.? 1ut he kept looking around for the speaker and finally discovered, much to his astonishment, that it was a bulb on a bush. The bulb it was that was speaking. -o he sei+ed it, put it in his mouth, chewed it, and then swallowed it. 0e did !ust this and then went on. <Well, where is the bulb gone that talked so much> Why, indeed, should # defecate> When # feel like defecating, then # shall defecate, no sooner. 0ow could such an ob!ect make me defecate8? Thus spoke Trickster. $ven as he spoke, however, he began to break wind. <Well this, # suppose, is what it meant. =et the bulb said # would defecate, and # am merely expelling gas. #n any case # am a great man even if # do expel a little gas8? Thus he spoke. As he was talking he again broke wind. This time it was really quite strong. <Well, what a foolish one # am. This is why # am called 4oolish ,ne, Trickster.? 2ow he began to break wind again and again. <-o this is why the bulb spoke as it did, # suppose.? ,nce more he broke wind. This time it was very loud and his rectum began to smart. <Well, it surely is a great thing8? Then he broke wind again, this time with so much force, that he was propelled forward. <Well, well, it may even make me give another push, but it won"t make me defecate,? so he exclaimed defiantly. The next time he broke wind, the hind part of his body was raised up by the force of the explosion and he landed on his knees and hands. <Well, go ahead and do it again8 'o ahead and do it again8? Then, again, he broke wind. This time the force of the expulsion sent him far up in the air and he landed on the ground, on his stomach. The next time he broke wind, he had to hang on to a log, so high was he thrown. 0owever, he raised himself up and, after a while, landed on the ground, the log on top of him. 0e was almost killed by the fall. The next time he broke wind, he had to hold on to a tree that stood near by. #t was a poplar and he held on with all his might yet, nevertheless, even then, his feet flopped up in the air. Again, and for the second time, he held on to it when he broke wind and yet he pulled the tree up by the roots. To protect himself, the next time, he went on until he came to a large tree, a large oak
and do not think yourself superior to natural forces.

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tree. Around this he put both his arms. =et, when he broke wind, he was swung up and his toes struck against the tree. 0owever, he held on. After that he ran to a place where people were living. When he got there, he shouted, <-ay, hurry up and take your lodge down, for a big warparty is upon you and you will surely be killed8 6ome let us get away8? 0e scared them all so much that they quickly took down their lodge, piled it on Trickster, and then got on him themselves. )C They likewise placed all the little dogs they had on top of Trickster. 3ust then he began to break wind again and the force of the expulsion scattered the things on top of him in all directions. They fell far apart from one another. -eparated, the people were standing about and shouting to one another; and the dogs, scattered here and there, howled at one another. There stood Trickster laughing at them till he ached. 2ow he proceeded onward. 0e seemed to have gotten over his troubles. <Well, this bulb did a lot of talking,? he said to himself, <yet it could not make me defecate.? 1ut even as he spoke he began to have the desire to defecate, !ust a very little. <Well, # suppose this is what it meant. #t certainly bragged a good deal, however.? As he spoke he defecated again. <Well, what a braggart it was8 # suppose this is why it said this.? As he spoke these last words, he began to defecate a good deal. After a while, as he was sitting clown, his body would touch the excrement. Thereupon he got on top of a log and sat down there but, even then, he touched the excrement. 4inally, he climbed up a log that was leaning against a tree. 0owever, his body still touched the excrement, so he went up higher. $ven then, however, he touched it so he climbed still higher up. 0igher and higher he had to go. 2or was he able to stop defecating. 2ow he was on top of the tree. #t was small and quite uncomfortable. 9oreover, the excrement began to come up to him. &) $ven on the limb on which he was sitting he began to defecate. -o he tried a different position. -ince the limb, however, was very slippery he fell right down into the excrement. /own he fell, down into the dung. #n fact he disappeared in it, and it was only with very great difficulty that he was able to get out of it. 0is raccoon(skin blanket was covered with filth, and he came out dragging it after him. The pack he was carrying on his back was covered with dung, as was also the box containing his penis.)D The box he emptied and then placed it on his back again. &* Then, still blinded by the filth, he started to run. 0e could not see anything. As he ran he knocked against a tree. The old man )E cried out in pain. 0e reached out and felt the tree and sang <Tree, what kind of a tree are you> Tell me something about yourself8? And the tree answered, <What kind of a tree do you think # am> # am an oak tree. # am the forked oak tree that used to stand in the middle of the valley. # am that one,? it said. <,h, my, is it possible that there might be some water around here>? Trickster asked. The tree answered, <'o straight on.? This is what it told him. As he went along he bumped up against another tree. 0e was knocked backwards by the collision. Again he sang <Tree, what kind of a tree are you> Tell me something about yourself8? <What kind of a tree do you think # am> The red oak tree that used to stand at the edge of the valley, # am that one.? <,h, my, is it possible that there is water around here>? asked Trickster. Then the tree answered and said, <Leep straight on,? and so he went again. -oon he knocked against another tree. 0e spoke to the tree and sang <Tree, what kind of a tree are you> Tell me something about yourself8? <What kind of a tree do you think # am> The slippery elm tree that used to stand in the midst of the others, # am that one.? Then Trickster asked, <,h, my, is it possible that there would be some water near here>? And the tree answered and said, <Leep right on.? ,n he went and soon he bumped into another tree and he touched it and sang <Tree, what kind of a tree are you> Tell me something about yourself8? <What kind of a tree do you think # am> # am the basswood tree that used to stand on the edge of the water. That is the one # am.? <,h, my, it is good,? said Trickster. -o there in the water he !umped and lay. 0e washed himself thoroughly. #t is said that the old man almost died that time, for it was only with the greatest difficulty that he found the water. #f the trees had not spoken to him he certainly would have died. 4inally, after a long time and only after great exertions, did he clean himself, for the dung had been on him a long time and had dried. After he had cleansed himself he washed his raccoon(skin blanket and his box.
)D )C

These things are contrary to what is appropriate one does not destroy a lodge that would serve as protection, nor is one expected to run from the enemy.

The trickster carries his penis in a box was established in earlier stories. #t is this box that he washes at the end of the next section of the story. )E The term <old man? instead of 4irst(born, is occasionally applied to Trickster.

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(The stories co''ected and edited by *au' +adin, -irst .ub'ished in 1(/0$) state over us.NThis decision induces us to appeal to the immediate representatives of the American people. We love, we dearly love our country, and it is due to your honorable bodies, as well as to us, to make known why we think the country is ours, and why we wish to remain in peace where we are. The land on which we stand, we have received as an inheritance from our fathers, who possessed it from time immemorial, as a gift from our common father in heaven. We have already said, that when the white man came to the shores of America, our ancestors were found in peaceable possession of this very land. They bequeathed it to us as their children, and we have sacredly kept it as containing the remains of our beloved men. This right of inheritance we have never ceded, nor ever -or-eited$ .ermit us to ask, what better right can a people have to a country, than the right of inheritance and i e oria' .eaceab'e .ossession1 We know it is said of late by the state of 'eorgia, and by the executive of the Mnited -tates, that we have forfeited this rightNbut we think this is said gratuitously. At what time have we made the forfeit> What crime have we committed, whereby we must forever be divested of our country and rights> Was it when we were hostile to the Mnited -tates, and took part with the king of 'reat 1ritain, during the struggle for independence> #f so, why was not this forfeiture declared in the first treaty of peace between the Mnited -tates and our beloved men>... #n addition to that first of all rights, the right of inheritance and peaceable possession, we have the faith and pledge of the M. -tates, repeated over and over again, in treaties made at various times. 1y these treaties our rights as a separate people are distinctly acknowledged, and guarantees given that they shall be secured and protected. -o we have always understood the treaties. The conduct of the government towards us, from this organi+ation until very lately, the talks given to our beloved men by the presidents of the Mnited -tates, and the speeches of the agents and commissioners, all concur to show that we are not mistake in our interpretation.N-ome of our beloved men who signed the treaties are still leaving : sic, living;, and their testimony tends to the same conclusion. We have always supposed that this understanding of the treaties was in accordance with the views of the government; nor have we ever imagined that any body would interpret them otherwise. #n what light shall we view the conduct of the Mnited -tates and 'eorgia, in their intercourse with us, in urging us to enter into treaties, and cede lands> #f we were but tenants at will, why was it necessary that our consent must be obtained before these governments could take lawful possession of our lands> The answer is obvious. These governments perfectly understood our rightsNour right to the country, and our right to self government.

Memorial of the Chero#ee Citi+ens, -e"em!er $., $.&%


To the honorable the senate and house of representatives of the Mnited -tates of America, in congress assembled The undersigned memorialists, humbly make known to your honorable bodies, that they are free citi+ens of the 6herokee nation. 6ircumstances of late occurrence have troubled our hearts, and induced us at this time to appeal to you, knowing that you are generous and !ust... 1y the will of our 4ather in heaven, the governor of the whole world, the red man of America has become small, and the white man great and renowned. When the ancestors of the people of these Mnited -tates first came to the shores of America, they found the red man strongNthough he was ignorant and savage, yet he received them kindly, and gave them dry land to rest their weary feet. They met in peace, and shook hands in token of friendship. Whatever the white man wanted and asked of the #ndian, the latter willingly gave. At that time the #ndian was the lord, and the white man the suppliant. 1ut now the scene has changed. The strength of the red man has become weakness. As his neighbors increased in numbers, his power became less, and now, of the many and powerful tribes who once covered these Mnited -tates, only a few are to be seenNa few whom a sweeping pestilence has left. The northern tribes, who were once so numerous and powerful, are now nearly extinct. Thus it has happened to the red man of America. -hall we, who are remnants, share the same fate> 1rothersNwe address you according to usage adopted by our forefathers, and the great and good men who have successfully directed the councils of the nation you representNwe now make known to you our grievances. We are troubled by some of your own people. ,ur neighbor, the state of 'eorgia, is pressing hard upon us, and urging us to relinquish our possessions for her benefit. We are told, if we do not leave the country, which we dearly love, and betake ourselves to the western wilds, the laws of the state will be extended over us, and the time, )st of 3une, )FAH, is appointed for the execution of the edict. When we first heard of this we were grieved and appealed to our father, the president, and begged that protection might be extended over us. 1ut we were doubly grieved when we understood, from a letter of the secretary of war to our delegation, dated 9arch of the present year :)F5G;, that our father the president had refused us protection, and that he had decided in favor of the extension of the laws of the

NATIVE AMERICAN TEXTS


,ur understanding of the treaties is further supported by the intercourse law of the Mnited -tates, which prohibits all encroachments upon our territory. The undersigned memoirists humbly represent, that if their interpretation of the treaties has been different from that of the government, then they have ever been deceived as to how the government regarded them, and what she asked and promised. 9oreover, they have uniformly misunderstood their own acts. #n view of the strong ground upon which their rights are founded, your memorialists solemnly protest against being considered as tenants at will, or as mere occupants of the soil, without possessing the sovereignty. We have already stated to your honorable bodies, that our forefathers were found in possession of this soil in full sovereignty, by the first $uropean settlers; and as we have never ceded nor forfeited the occupancy of the soil and the sovereignty over it, we do solemnly protest against being forced to leave it, either :by; direct or by indirect measures. To the land of which we are now in possession we are attachedNit is our father"s gift Nit contains their ashesNit is the land of our nativity, and the land of our intellectual birth. We cannot consent to abandon it, for another -ar in-erior, and which holds out to us no inducements. We do moreover protest against the arbitrary measures of our neighbor, the state of 'eorgia, in her attempt to extend her laws over us, in surveying our lands without our consent and in direct opposition to treaties and the intercourse law of the Mnited -tates, and interfering with our municipal regulations in such a manner as to derange the regular operations of our own laws. To deliver and protect them from all these and every encroachment upon their rights, the undersigned memorialists do most earnestly pray your honorable bodies. Their existence and future happiness are at stakeNdivest them of their liberty and country, and you sink them in degradation, and put a check, if not a final stop, to their present porgress in the arts of civili+ed life, and in the knowledge of the 6hristian religion. =our memorialists humbly conceive, that such an act would be in the highest degree oppressive. 4rom the people of these Mnited -tates, who perhaps, of all men under heaven, are the most religious and free, it cannot be expected.N=our memorialists, therefore, cannot anticipate such a result. =ou represent a virtuous, intelligent and 6hristian nation. To you they willingly submit their cause for your righteous decision. Cherokee nation, Dec$ )F5G.

0unting -ongs
untin! "on! #Nava$o% 6omes the deer to my singing, 6omes the deer to my song, 6omes the deer to my singing. 0e, the blackbird, he am #, 1ird beloved of the wild deer. 6omes the deer to my singing. 4rom the 9ountain 1lack, 4rom the summit, /own the trail, coming, coming now, 6omes the deer to my singing. Through the blossoms, Through the flowers, coming, coming now, 6omes the deer to my singing. Through the flower dew(drops, 6oming, coming now, 6omes the deer to my singing. Through the pollen, flower pollen, 6oming, coming now, 6omes the deer to my singing. -tarting with his left fore(foot, -tamping, turns the frightened deer, 6omes the deer to my singing. Ouarry mine, blessed am # #n the luck of the chase. 6omes the deer to my singing. 6omes the deer to my singing, 6omes the deer to my song, 6omes the deer to my singing. (-ro 2eor)e %$ Cronyn, The *ath on the +ainbow, 1(18) The &isin! of the 'uffalo (en #from the )sa!e &ite of *i!il% # rise, # rise, #, whose tread makes the earth to rumble. # rise, # rise, #, in whose thighs there is strength. # rise, # rise, #, who whips his back with his tail when in rage.

Nati/e Ameri"an Poetry

# rise, # rise, #, in whose humped shoulder there is power.

NATIVE AMERICAN TEXTS


# rise, # rise, #, who shakes his mane when angered. # rise, # rise, #, whose horns are sharp and curved. (-ro 3rancis &a 3'esche, 4The 5sa)e Tribe6 The +ite o- 7i)i',8 Thirty-ninth 9nnua' +e.ort o- the :ureau o- 9 erican #thno'o)y 1(17-1(18, 7o'$ ;( 1(2/) #n beauty it is finished. (-ro %ashin)ton Matthews, !avaho Myths, *rayers, and "on)s, 1(=0)

Kain and .lanting -ongs


"on! in the Garden of the ouse of God #from the Nava$o corn,-lantin! ritual% Truly in the east The white bean And the great corn plant Are tied with the white lightning. @isten8 rain approaches8 The voice of the bluebird is heard. Truly in the east The white bean And the great squash Are tied with the rainbow. @isten8 rain approaches8 The voice of the bluebird is heard. 4rom the top of the great corn(plant the water gurgles, # hear it; Around the roots the water foams, # hear it; Around the roots of the plants it foams, # hear it; 4rom their tops the water foams, # hear it. The corn grows up. The waters of the dark clouds drop, drop. The rain descends. The waters from the corn leaves drop, drop. The rain descends. The waters from the plants drop, drop. The corn grows up. The waters of the dark mists drop, drop. -hall # cull this fruit of the great corn(plant> -hall you break it> -hall # break it> -hall # break it> -hall you break it> -hall #> -hall you> -hall # cull this fruit of the great squash vine> -hall you pick it up> shall # pick it up> -hall # pick it up> -hall you pick it up> -hall #> -hall you> (-ro 2eor)e %$ Cronyn, The *ath on the +ainbow, 1(18)

0ealing -ongs
+rayer #from the Nava$o healin! ceremony called Ni!ht Chant% Ts<)ihi, 0ouse made of dawn. 0ouse made of evening light. 0ouse made of the dark cloud. 0ouse made of male rain. 0ouse made of dark mist. 0ouse made of female rain. 0ouse made of pollen. 0ouse made of grasshoppers. /ark cloud is at the door. The trail out of it is dark cloud. The +ig+ag lightning stands high upon it. 9ale deity8 =our offering # make. # have prepared a smoke for you. Kestore my feet for me. Kestore my legs for me. Kestore my body for me. Kestore my mind for me. This very day take out your spell for me. =our spell remove for me. =ou have taken it away for me. 4ar off it has gone. 0appily # recover. 0appily my interior becomes cool. 0appily # go forth. 9y interior feeling cool, may # walk. 2o longer sore, may # walk. #mpervious to pain, may # walk. With lively feeling may # walk. As it used to be long ago, may # walk. 0appily may # walk. 0appily, with abundant dark clouds, may # walk. 0appily, with abundant showers, may # walk. 0appily, with abundant plants, may # walk. 0appily, on a trail of pollen, may # walk. 0appily may # walk. 1eing as it used to be long ago, may # walk. 9ay it be beautiful before me 9ay it be beautiful behind me. 9ay it be beautiful below me. 9ay it be beautiful above me. With it be beautiful all around me.

.orosta .at/ina "on! #from the o-i corn,-lantin! dance, with .achinas wearin! rainbow mas0s% =ellow butterflies,

NATIVE AMERICAN TEXTS


,ver the blossoming virgin corn, With pollen(painted faces 6hase one another in brilliant throng. 1lue butterflies, ,ver the blossoming virgin beans, With pollen(painted faces 6hase one another in brilliant streams. ,ver the blossoming corn, ,ver the virgin corn, Wild bees hum; ,ver the blossoming beans, ,ver the virgin beans, Wild bees hum. ,ver your field of growing corn All day shall hang the thunder(cloud; ,ver your field of growing corn All day shall come the rushing rain. (-ro 2eor)e %$ Cronyn, The *ath on the +ainbow, 1(18) 4rom the south they come, The birds, the warlike birds, With sounding wings. # wish to change myself To the body of that swift bird. # throw my body in the strife. (-ro Ja es "$ :risbin, >The *oetry o- ?ndians,8 @ar.erAs !ew Month'y Ma)aBine /7, 1878) Arrow "on! #Chi--ewa% -carlet #s its head. "on! of 3ar #Chi--ewa% The -ioux women pass to and fro wailing. As they gather up their wounded men the voice of their weeping comes back to me.

@ove -ongs
1ou ave No orses #Teton "iou2%

9iscellaneous -ongs
"on! of the Thunders #Chi--ewa dream,vision% -ometimes #, # go about pitying 9yself While # am carried by the wind Across the sky. "on! to the +leiades #from the +awnee Ceremony% @ook as they rise, rise ,ver the line where sky meets the earth; .leiades8 @o8 They ascending, come to guide us, @eading us safely, keeping us one; .leiades, Teach us to be, like you, united. (-ro 2eor)e %$ Cronyn, The *ath on the +ainbow, 1(18) a0o

Well, when # was courting I0orses you have none? To me was said. Therefore, over the land # roam. (-ro 3rances Dens ore, Teton "ioux Music, 1(18) I 3ill 3al0 #Chi--ewa% # will walk into somebody"s dwelling, #nto somebody"s dwelling will # walk. To thy dwelling, my dearly beloved, -ome night will # walk, will # walk. -ome night in the winter, my beloved, To thy dwelling will # walk, will # walk. This very night, my beloved, To thy dwelling will # walk, will # walk. (-ro Danie' 2$ :rinton, 9bori)ina' 9 erican 9uthors, 188;)

War -ongs
From the "outh #Chi--ewa%

)H