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International Workshop on Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Education and Capacity Development

14-15 November 2013 VCDNP, Vienna, Austria

Summary report
The International Workshop on Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Education and Capacity Development was held in Vienna on 14-15 November 2013 at the Vienna Center for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation (VCDNP). The event was co-organized by the VCDNP and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), with the support of and in partnership with the Foreign and Commonwealth Office of the United Kingdom, the Federal Ministry for European and International Affairs of Austria, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), the Permanent Mission of Norway to the International Organizations in Vienna, and the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Education and training are fundamental to continuing global progress on disarmament and nonproliferation, as pointed out in the United Nations Study on Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Education (A/57/124). According to this study, [t]he overall objective of disarmament and nonproliferation education and training is to impart knowledge and skills to individuals to empower them to make their contribution, as national and world citizens, to the achievement of concrete disarmament and non-proliferation measures and the ultimate goal of general and complete disarmament under effective international control. The workshop brought together practitioners in the field of disarmament and non-proliferation education, particularly from international organizations, as well as experts from selected leading academic centers and professional networks. The workshop provided an opportunity for this broad range of professionals to share experiences and best practicesparticularly with regard to specific tools and methodsand to explore potential collaboration and synergies between international organizations and other key stakeholders in the areas of disarmament and nonproliferation education and training, awareness-raising, and outreach.

Proceedings of the Workshop In a keynote speech, Dr. Lassina Zerbo, Executive Secretary of the CTBTO, emphasized the universal importance of disarmament and non-proliferation, arguing that all members of the global community must be engaged in such initiatives. Dr. Zerbo asserted that disarmament and non-proliferation education issues should not be taught as though they are independent of the global framework, and that international organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and academia must work together through integrated and synergistic training and capacity building. Mr. Attila Zimonyi, Director of Strategy and Policy at the OPCW, noted that the achievements of the OPCW, honored by its selection for the 2013 Nobel Peace Prize, would not have been possible without success in the global disarmament movement. Mr. Zimonyi called upon state parties to raise awareness among scientists and engineers of the potential dual-use nature of their work by reaching them early in their training. He pointed to the OPCW Temporary Working 1

Group on Education and Outreach as an example of a forum that allows an exchange of information and best practices, and suggested that the use of common tools, techniques, and methods could assist in education and training initiatives. Mr. Cornel Feruta, Chief Coordinator in the International Atomic Energy Agency Director Generals Office for Coordination, thanked the VCDNP for playing an important role in disarmament and non-proliferation education, and underlined the important role that civil society plays in such education, including by stimulating governments to keep education on the disarmament and non-proliferation agenda. He referred to the practical work and important contribution of the IAEA, highlighting activities in the non-proliferation and nuclear security areas. Following these remarks, participating organizations and experts provided brief overviews of the relevant work being done by their respective organizations. The workshop also featured several panels, during which presenters gave more in-depth information about the work of their organizations and provided detailed information on specific tools, methods and practices. Each panel was followed by an active discussion during which participants exchanged information on not only what their programs do, but also how the programs are implemented and why such methods or tools were chosen.

Challenges and Opportunities Throughout the discussion, participants often noted many challenges to improving disarmament and non-proliferation education and training, discussing also many related opportunities and offering relevant recommendations. The several themes outlined below provide a brief description of the main points discussed: Audience Participants underlined that disarmament and non-proliferation education and training efforts need to be tailored to the audience and noted that specific accommodation needs to be made for different types of audiences (of different age, profession, educational background, as well as country- and region-specific audiences), different levels of technical expertise, different generations and learning preferences, and even different technical capabilities (e.g. download capacities). The audiences of the educational programs presented at the workshop varied widely, including: primary and high school students and teachers, university undergraduate and graduate students and faculty, professionals, trainers, scientists, journalists, lawmakers, and diplomats. Participants noted that special effort should be paid to engaging and communicating with national and local government officials, including parliamentarians, for both raising their awareness as well as soliciting their support for educational initiatives. The workshop provided an opportunity for exchange between educational organizations targeting students and organizations that train professionals. It was recognized that matching educational programs with real world needs is of the utmost importance. Several participants underlined that to ensure that disarmament and non-proliferation is truly global, disarmament and non-proliferation education must take additional steps to include the developing world, particularly younger generations and females. The need to have local language materials available was also mentioned as an important but resource intensive requirement.

Framing and Scope Framing the issues of disarmament and non-proliferation to maximize interest and acceptance was discussed, with some suggestions including framing the issues as either a component of human or environmental security, or of responsible conduct of science. By framing the issue as one of responsible conduct of science, education and training could reach broader audiences of scientists, as well as be included earlier in a students curriculum. Many participants asserted that education on responsible conduct of science should be taught in every university science course, to ensure that scientists understand the potential dual-use nature of their work. The issue of framing was mentioned as being particularly challenging when attempting to add disarmament and non-proliferation education into an existing curriculum, especially in grade schools and high schools whose curriculum is often controlled by state authorities. Some participants offered examples of how disarmament and non-proliferation education could augment existing science and history curricula, as early as primary school. Throughout the workshop, many participants spoke of the need to strike a balance between educational breadth and depth, to include the need to teach not only disarmament and nonproliferation, but also peace, critical thinking, and ethics. While some participants argued that these subjects must be taught in the context of wider peace education, others found that there is also a place for specialized and specific training, but that even in such specialized training the students should be made aware of the overall context of the materials within global disarmament and non-proliferation. Funding Many participants, especially those from NGOs and academia, spoke of the challenges of managing programs within funding limitations, with education and outreach often being one of the first programs to be cut from budgets. International organizations also discussed experiencing funding limitations, especially when funds allocated to education and outreach do not come from regular budgets, but instead rely on voluntary contributions. States could be encouraged to incorporate education and training into regular budgets as part of their obligation to fully implement UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1540 (2004), and other relevant international treaty requirements. Program Management and Leadership Participants pointed to the difficulties of measuring program effectiveness and success, especially because of the lack of sufficient resources to devote to these efforts. It was made clear that measuring the impact and the effectiveness of education and training should be a long-term endeavor. Participants spoke of the need to properly identify training requirements and to tailor efforts accordingly, so that the limited resources can have the maximum possible impact in terms of both reach and longevity. The availability of qualified human resources for teaching and educating also presents an additional challenge. Participants also spoke of the need for leaders and champions, which can often come from international organizations. This need seems to be felt especially in the field of biological weapons disarmament and non-proliferation education, which lacks an overarching organization with the capacity to focus on education and training.

Promotion Many participants spoke about the challenges presented by trying to develop interest and incentivize students to undertake training in disarmament and non-proliferation. Participants mentioned that many students want to know what they can get out of a trainingthey are often only interested in education and training that is required or for which they receive some form of credit, whether it is academic credit or recognized certification. Participants spoke of the need to more fully utilize other methods to incentivize students and trainees, such as demonstrating relevance of the subject to real world problems, and creating opportunities for working in international organizations. Other participants discussed the lack of resources available to work with the press in order to increase awareness of educational and training programs, and suggested partnering with international organizations as another means to promote their work. Synergies and Collaboration Several workshop participants underlined that many artificial barriers exist between disarmament and non-proliferation education within the main weapons of mass destruction (WMD) regimes: chemical, biological, and nuclear. The existing efforts to bring chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) education and training issues under the UNSCR 1540 umbrella are important but not sufficient to bring these different communities together and find common synergies between them. Currently there are few educational resources developed or available for educators and trainers to cover holistically WMD disarmament and non-proliferation. Participants specifically spoke of the challenge to overcome the invisible silos that exist, separating chemical-, biological-, and nuclear-focused organizations, including international organizations. It was mentioned that identifying a set of core competencies or functional competencies common to these three areas could be a first step. Participants noted the important role of partnerships between national and international scientific organizations, national academies of sciences, and international organizations, particularly in chemical and biological weapons disarmament and non-proliferation education. Examples of such partnerships include the OPCW's partnership with the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), and the relationship of the BWC and the Biosecurity Working Group of The Global Network of Science Academies (IAP). Sustainability Program and message sustainability were mentioned by several participants as challenges. Many of the attendees expressed concern that educational initiatives, to be truly successful, must not be one time occurrences and must have a long-term impact. Both the need to continue engaging with former course participants, and the need to institutionalize programs were discussed, with some possible solutions proposed such as having previous students become future teachers, and creating networks of students and faculty/trainers. Participants pointed to the success in creating sustained education through Model United Nations as an example that could be followed. Tools and Methods Educational tools and methods were discussed by participants as both a challenge and a solution, with the challenge being learning how to use the new tools and methods and employ 4

them. Some tools and methods discussed included online delivery of content and courses, active learning techniques, immersive training, and simulations. Many participants were eager to learn more about the tools and methods already employed by other disarmament and nonproliferation education programs, with the hope that increased sharing in such tools would keep each organization from having to reinvent the wheel.

Next Steps In response to the many challenges and solutions discussed, participants made numerous recommendations for next steps to improve disarmament and non-proliferation education and training: To improve and increase contacts and communication among relevant organizations, including international organizations, non-governmental organizations, and academia: 1- Workshop participants should create a virtual network and platform that can be used by workshop participants and other relevant organizations for communication and coordination of future efforts as well as sharing effective practices and lessons learned. 2- International organizations and other stakeholders should work with the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA) to improve upon its existing disarmament and non-proliferation education web resourceespecially to incorporate additional materials concerning biological and chemical weapons issues, including linking to other existing resources. 3- Organizations represented at the workshop and individual experts should make a concerted effort to link the existing networks within their specific organizations and communities to similar networks and associations working on CBRN, peace, disarmament, and related issues. 4- Organizations represented at the workshop should hold regular follow-up meetings, including meetings focused on practical steps, and perhaps on specialized topics, such as the use of technology tools and education methods, best practices and lessons learned in the train-the-trainer approach, and others. To increase project cooperation to maximize efficiencies, decrease duplication of efforts, and avoid gaps: 1- International organizations should explore the possibility of the development of common modules for educational and training programs on such topics as history of WMD regimes, verification tools and methods, dual-use issues, ethics and security culture, and other topics. 2- Workshop participants should expand partnerships between academic and nongovernmental organizations from developed and developing countries. 3- All participants should increase horizontal cooperation and joint project development across CBRN disarmament and non-proliferation education and training efforts. 4- Workshop participants should conduct additional workshops to address specific practical issues that concern most of the participating organizations, including the use of on-line tools and platforms for e-learning and their compatibility, scalability and sustainability of programs, media and other audience outreach, and others.

To raise the profile of disarmament and non-proliferation education: 1- Workshop participants should identify forthcoming high-profile events during which the findings of the workshop could be presented and achievements and challenges in the implementation of the UN study A/57/124 could be highlighted, for example the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit and Nuclear Knowledge Summit, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) Preparatory Committees and Review Conferences, Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) Review Conferences and Conferences of the States Parties, Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) Meetings of Experts and Meetings of States Parties, and similar events. 2- Workshop participants should identify other existing initiatives that can be linked to disarmament and non-proliferation education; including United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations (UNESCOs) thematic international years and World Science Day for Peace and Development (10 November annually), the International Council for Sciences Future Earth initiative, and similar. 3- Workshop participants agreed that reporting of progress in the Biennial Report of the Secretary-General on Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Education should be more broadly utilized, including for the promotion of disarmament and non-proliferation education. Civil society can take the lead by contributing reports regarding their own relevant programs and by working with their national governments to encourage them to provide timely and comprehensive reports. In addition to these next steps, participants pointed to the thirty-four recommendations to promote education and training in disarmament and non-proliferation at all levels of formal and informal education contained in the 2002 United Nations study (A/57/124). Despite the progress that has been made in the implementation of the study, participants agreed that several recommendations have not been implemented at all, while many recommendations have considerable room for continued progress. All recommendations of the study continue to remain relevant.

Participating organizations: 1540 Committee Group of Experts Academic Council of the United Nations System (ACUNS) Bradford Disarmament Research Centre Center for International Trade and Security, University of Georgia (CITS) Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies (CNS) Centre for Science and Security Studies, Kings College London Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) EU CBRN Centres of Excellence EU Non-Proliferation Consortium Federal Ministry for European and International Affairs of Austria Georgia Institute of Technology Institute for Security Studies, South Africa (ISS) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) International Nuclear Security Education Network (INSEN) International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Landau Network - Centro Volta 6

Leiden University National Academy of Sciences (NAS), United States of America Nonproliferation for Global Security Foundation (NPSGlobal) Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) South Asian Strategic Stability Institute (SASSI) Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM); United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR) United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA) Vienna Center for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation (VCDNP) World Institute for Nuclear Security (WINS)

Observing organizations: Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom to the United Nations in Vienna Permanent Mission of Norway to the United Nations in Vienna