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Contrastive / Counterpoint: each part of the poem presents a conflicting idea or different conception of the same reality.

The poem normally follows a symmetrical division.

Explanatory: the poem analyses a certain proposition, normally in stages.

The division of the poem is asymmetrical: the first part, shorter, presents the thesis or argument, which is developed and elaborated in the rest of the poem. The poem may follow an anticlimatic structure, where the important information appears at the beginning. The opening lines provide a commentary of the final lines. The last lines contain the relevant message or conclusion.

Conclusive: the poem has a summari ing tendency or purpose.

Circular structure: the poem begins and ends in the same way.

!ome lines from the beginning of the poem may be repeated at the end to reinforce the structure. The content expressed does not change and the poem reverts to the initial statement.

"inear structure: different details, features or information are added in the various stan as.

#eleting any of the stan a would not alter the overall meaning of the poem.


The attitude adopted by the poetic addresser $persona% in relation to the facts told. The poet creates a fictional identity that becomes the spea&er of the text. This fictional spea&er may be a direct participant or character in the poem, or simply an invisible voice producing the tone, state of mind, feeling, attitude, etc.


't stresses the spea&er(s function in the text by focusing on his/her personal opinions, feelings, thoughts. 't is associated with the expressive function of language. 't indicates sub)ectivity and intimacy. 'ts effect is that of a close relation or complicity with the reader.


't adopts the position of the receiver or addressee. 't focuses on the conative function of the language. !ometimes the *you+ merges or identifies with the reader, as a direct address. !ome of the themes associated with it might be: absence, love, appealing.


The spea&er does not participate from the events in the poem. The poem refers to external events or facts. 't stresses the content of the poem so that it fall under the referential function of language. 't produces a sense of distance and detachment. !ometimes associated with an ob)ective view and an impersonal approach to the poem(s sub)ect,matter.


-epetitive: a single state of mind is repeated from stan a to stan a. .arrative: the poem tells a story in an ordered way/ from beginning to end. "ogical: the spea&er argues a case and comes to a conclusion.

Philip Larkin, Days (E plana!"ry#

0hat are days for1 #ays are where we live. They come, they wa&e us Time and time over. They are to be happy in: 0here can we live but days1 2h, solving that 3uestion 4rings the priest and the doctor 'n their long coats -unning over the fields.

$"hn %il!"n, On His &lin'n(ss ()"n)l*si+(#

0hen ' consider how my light is spent Ere half my days, in this dar& world and wide, 2nd that one talent which is death to hide "odged with me useless, though my soul more bent To serve therewith my 5a&er, and present 5y true account, lest he returning chide,, #oth god exact day,labour, light denied1 ' fondly as&: , 4ut 6atience, to prevent That murmur, soon replies/ 7od doth not need Either man(s wor&, or his own gifts: who best 4ear his mild yo&e, they serve him best: 8is state 's &ingly/ thousands at his bidding speed 2nd post o(er land and ocean without rest:, They also serve who only stand and wait.

Eli,a-(!h $(nnin.s I /((l ()"n!ras!i+(#

' feel ' could be turned to ice 'f this goes on, if this goes on. ' feel ' could be buried twice 2nd still the death not yet be done ' feel ' could be turned to fire 'f there can be no end to this. ' &now within me such desire .o &iss could satisfy, no &iss. ' feel ' could be turned to stone, 2 solid bloc& not carved at all, 4ecause ' feel so much alone. ' could be grave,stone or a wall. 4ut better to be turned to earth 0here other things at least can grow. ' could be then a part of birth, 6assive, not &nowing how to &now.

%"rph"syn!a)!i) l(+(l

The parallel structure

The linguistic elements follow the same order 't accelerates the rhythm of the composition 't provides rhythm and musicality 't has the effect of remembrance #ynamic sense by ascribing meaning to the

elements that are repeated. 4inary parallelism: same syntactic structure is repeated twice 5ultiple parallelism: same structure is repeated more than two times

C"rr(la!i+( s!r*)!*r(

The repetition is at the level of words having the same or similar meaning, or belonging to the same category The repeated items appear in the same order -epetition slows down the progression of the poem 't focuses on stressing the same contents

Ph"n"l".i)al l(+(l


.umber of stresses per line $9,:% ;oot: combination of stressed and unstressed

syllables in the line 'ambic pentameter: : stresses, : iambic feet $combination of 9 unstressed syllable followed by a stressed one%

!ound: repetition of sounds, either at the end of the line or within the line

S"*n' pa!!(rns

Rhyme: masculine $one,syllable rhyme%/ feminine $two, syllable rhyme% Assonance: last vocalic sounds $line / rhyme% 2lliteration: initial stressed consonant cluster within the same line $<nce was every woman the witch% Consonance: last consonant sound between lines $road / would/ that / thought% -everse -hyme: initial consonant and vowel sounds in the last stressed unit of the line $pig / pit/ tight / time% 6ararhyme: initial and final consonants in the last stressed unit of the line $seeds / sides/ tall / tale% 4lan& verse: no rhyme or sound pattern at the end of the line