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Ta bl e of cont ent

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION……………………………....1
 OBJECTIVES………………………………….2
CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW………………………...3

CHAPTER 3
THEORETICAL FRAME WORK…………………5
 HYPOTHESIS
CHAPTER 4
METHODOLOGY………………………………..6
 RESEARCH DESIGN
 POPULATION
 SAMPLE PROCEDURE
 RESEARCH METHOD
 DATA ANALYSIS
 TABLE & GRAPH………………………….7
 EVALUATING & FINDING………………….8
CHAPTER 5
OPERATIONALIZATION………………………….9
 INTERACTION
 AVAILABILITY
 MEETINGS
 CLASS PARTICIPATION
 PERFORMANCE & GRADES
 ATTENDANCE
CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION…………………………………..10

CHAPTER 7
RECOMMENDATION……………………………..11

APPENDIX A…………………………………………………………….12
QUESTIONNAIRE

APPENDIX B ……………………………………………………………..13
BIBLIOGRAPHY
This article is a result of a small-scale study with the purpose of investigating
teacher-student verbal interactions. The study report explains the relationship
between students-teachers and its impact on the performance of students. It
uses information from both teachers and students to explore how the
perceptions of each other’s investment in the relationship affect the productivity
of the relationship. The whole of the report tries to draw conclusions about to
what extent both of the variable are correlated and in which direction these two
variables are linked. Survey research method is being selected for this study
along with self administered questionnaire to collect relevant and needed
information. Researcher has remained successful in gathering valid and reliable
data and then to critically evaluating the data. At the end, Researcher has
found the two variables linked closely together i.e. the interaction between
teachers and students and its impact on the performance of student. In more
simple words, one may conclude about the study that, more the interaction
between teachers-students will raise the performance level of students.
This proposal is elaborating on a step-by- step procedures of a research work,
which aims at analyzing and evaluating that how student teacher relationship
effect the performance of students. The present study of instructor-student
interaction, therefore, has the potential to create a clearer picture of the
classroom contexts and patterns of instructor-student interactions that are
needed not only at the university but at institute level for students to attain
good academic performance and positive attitudes. Such a study provides
information that instructors can use to modify their instructor-student
interactions in order to cater more adequately for the needs of students. The
present study also examined the nature and impact of two factors of learning
productivity – interpersonal instructor behavior and student aptitude – on the
affective and cognitive outcomes of students in universities. This research
provided valuable information to the departments in which the data were
gathered specifically for the teachers for improving classroom practices. The
results of the study also provide guidance to other departments of the
university regarding achieving better student outcomes in education.
Objectives

• To find out the performance of the students and their mutual interactions
with the teachers

• Highlighting the performance deficiencies resulted from the poor mutual


interactions between the students and teachers

Teacher-student interaction refers to interactions that occur between a teacher


and a student. Teacher-student interactions have been, perhaps, the most
researched and emphasized social interactions throughout the history of formal
education. Interacting with faculty—whether in the classroom, the laboratory,
office hours, or other venues—is one of the key college experiences associated
with student academic development.
 Teachers influence appears more profound at institutions where
association between faculty and students is normal and frequent, and
students find teachers receptive to unhurried conversations out of
class. (Jacob, 1957)
 Some researchers attempt to correlate the relationship between
student-teacher informal interaction and grade point average.
However, difficult variables skew results. Faculty perceptions of
students' characteristics (Gamson, 1967), students' entering
academic aptitude (Wallace, 1966), amount (Astin & Panos, 1969)
and quality (Terenzini & Pascarella, 1980, 1980) of student-faculty
interaction.
 Student involvement and when student-teacher formal and informal
interactions are frequent and friendly, and when the interactions occur
in diverse settings and roles, the students' sense of competence and
purpose is fostered (Chickering, 1969). Though research on
university outcomes has increased, there are few empirical studies on
student-faculty interaction.
 Daniel (1985) listed active involvement in goal setting, class
attendance, communication with professors, and participation in
student activities as factors that contributed to students' achievement
of excellence in higher education.
 College impact research has continually demonstrated a positive
relationship between student-teacher interaction and a broad range of
student educational outcomes, including academic achievement,
educational aspirations, intellectual growth, and academic satisfaction
(Astin, 1977, 1993; Endo & Harpel, 1982; Kuh & Hu, 2001;
1991).
 Positive and close interactions between students and their professors
precipitate students’ favorable educational experiences as well as their
greater academic and personal development (Lau, 2003; Pascarella
& Terenzini, 1991).
 In the classroom, professors have considerable opportunities to affect
students through the instructional practices they choose. According to
Fassinger (1995), classroom participation is a function of numerous
factors over which faculty have jurisdiction, including the extent of
student-student interaction and rewards (i.e., improved grades) for
contributing to class discussions.
 Astin (1993) completed a longitudinal study over a 25-year period,
which included a national sample of approximately 500,000 students
and 1300 institutions of all types. He found that student-teacher
interaction was significantly correlated with every academic
achievement outcome examined, namely: Grades, degree attainment,
graduating with honors, and enrollment and attendance in graduate or
professional school. Student teacher interaction beyond the class room
is also positively correlated with student personal growth in the areas
leadership, social activism, intellectual self esteem (Astin 1993).
 Flannelly (1990) concluded from his study that students' scores on
academic quality of effort scales vary directly with the degree of
teacher contact. He found that high levels of student-teacher contact
coincide with high student scores on quality of effort measures. The
students who reported higher levels of faculty contact also reported
exerting more effort in their studies and greater use of educational
resources. It was concluded that success or failure was, in large part,
based on the interactions between faculty and students (Peglow and
Walleri, 1990).

The literature reviewed showed that teachers can aid in student academic
achievement such as higher grades, students intellectual development, a
student’s willingness to attend the courses. Student teacher interaction is
important because it encourages students to devote extra efforts on their
educational purposes. Such as their efforts of accomplishing higher grades,
both the nature and frequency of contacts matters.
The dimensions used to measure the student performance are student’s grades
and their class attendance and in which variance is attempted to be explain by
the independent variable i.e. student teacher interaction and dimensions to
measure the mentioned interaction are availability of teachers, meetings of
students with the teacher and student’s class participation.
Higher the availability of the teachers higher the meetings with the students,
higher the meetings with the students higher will be the class participation,
higher the class participation higher the attendance would be, higher the
attendance would be higher the grades would be, higher the grades higher
would be the overall students performance.

Hypothesis

On the basis of theoretical framework formulated the hypothesis drawn was:

“Student Teacher interaction leads to higher student performance”

The above is a testable statement of the relationship among two variables. In


above hypothesis, the independent variable is interaction and the dependent
variable is student performance. We can statistically examine the relationship
between these two variables to see if there is a significant correlation between
the two or not.
Quantitative research is typically taken to be exemplified by the social survey
and by experimental investigations.
The objective of this research is to explore the student teacher relationship.
Method used for conducting study is “survey method”, that provides
quantitative results. Self administered questionnaire were used to collect
relevant data.

Research design
Population
The population for this research study is bachelor level. The reason for
selecting such population was because bachelor well aware of the modern
education system. One more reason for selecting such population was the easy
availability of sample units to the researcher and it was comparatively easy to
get the response from these bachelors because they can be easily available.
Sampling procedure
After selecting the population;
 Samples are selected using convenience sampling technique in non-
probability sampling. That means sample unite that are easily available
were selected to conduct survey.
 Sample size is12 students who are currently at bachelor level
Research method
Method used for conducting study is “survey method”, that provides
quantitative results. Self administered questionnaire were used to collect
relevant data.
Data Analysis
Once the data have been collected, statistical technique was used to measure
the association between the two variables with a purpose of testing the
hypothesis. For that one table have been made showing the student teacher
interaction level, student’s performance level and finally a table to analyze
relationship between both the variables.
TABLE & GRAPH

S.no X Y X² Y² XY
1 17 9 289 81 153
2 16 10 256 100 160
3 16 7 256 49 112
4 28 7 784 49 196
5 12 9 144 81 108
6 17 8 289 64 136
7 13 9 169 81 117
8 14 6 196 36 84
9 13 7 169 49 91
10 11 9 121 81 99
11 14 8 196 64 112
12 18 7 324 49 126
Σ189 Σ 96 Σ 3193 Σ 784 Σ 1494

r = 0.3

GRAPH
interaction vs student performance

12

10

0
17 16 16 28 12 17 13 14 13 11 14 18

Evaluation of Findings
Table shows the relationship between two variables. Here comes analysis as
both variables have two categories. From this researchers concluded that the
students who interacted more with their teacher were able to improve their
performance in the course.

the have high level of performance in their course by interacting more with their
research methods and technique teacher and have proved that student teacher
interaction and students performance are positively correlated that is

“Student teacher interaction leads to higher students’ performance”

Hypothesis has been empirically tested and become substantiated.

Operationalization:
In the research, Operationalization of the independent variable interaction and
dependent variable performance have been done for finding a measurable,
quantifiable, and valid index for variables (independent and dependent
variables), and also to find way to manipulate that variable in such a way as to
have two or more levels.
Interaction:
Interaction could be measured by the availability of the teacher for the students
to help them and the number of meetings with the students and the class
participation by the students.
Availability:
In our research, we are talking about the availability of teachers that refers to
the time teachers have, to listen to their students’ academic problems, queries
in the class room and besides the class timings.
Meetings:
Meetings of teachers with the students refer to the conversation teachers have
with their students in their offices, interacting with their students on telephone
or via internet.
Class participation:
Class participation indicates the active engagement of students in curriculum
activities within the class timings. It includes the answer from the students
asked by the teachers, students reply on a specific topic probed by the teacher
and students questions to teachers with a purpose of clearing their ambiguities
on a certain topic.
Performance:
We can measure the performance of students by the grades of the students and
the student’s response to the teachers and the percentage of class attendance
and the students class room talk with the teachers.
Grades:
Grades of the students specify the performance of a student. For the purpose of
our study, student grades includes grades in exam conducted twice per
semester, grades in general quizzes, grades in assignments given by the
teachers and presentations to evaluate the learning of students.
Class attendance:
Class attendance refers to the number of classes students attend in a semester.
The findings of this study indicate that student teacher interaction level has
statistically significant impact on the level of student’s performance and the
importance of student teacher interaction has become evident. Because they
find their teacher to be extremely willing to entertain their queries and receptive
to their ideas. The students with high interaction level with their teacher
believes that through participation in class discussion they just not get
benefited by the clarity of concepts of their course but also helps them gaining
confidence, interacting with their teacher builds a comfort level between the
student and teacher that makes the student to attend the particular course
keenly. Despite of the students who choose not to interact with faculty because
they see no reason to do so; they are simply not aware of the potential benefits
of engaging faculty this research has found that students who frequently
interact with their teachers do have a positive impact on their grades and
attendance and hence their overall academic performance and has proved that
student teacher interaction leads to higher student performance.
The study has verified the significance of students and teacher interaction, it is
recommended that
 Teacher must take care that the students reach their
academic achievements and for that purpose have to
decide how to divide his/her time and attention amongst
their students so that the interaction between them can be
assured. The teachers must give continuous and active
encouragement in order to make students feel comfortable
to approach the teacher. Teachers must seek to actively
encourage intellectual curiosity and a love of learning and
discovery for their student’s higher grades and attendance.

 Teachers must holds course related discussion in the class


and make sure that every student take part in the
discussion.

 Teachers can also have informal social interactions with


students because such contact appears to provide an
important foundation for student effort and from which
students can begin to pursue more academically oriented
interactions.

 Students and teachers must be present in the same


location for substantive engagement to occur, institutions
need to keep this obvious fact in mind as they design
physical spaces and programs in order to create spaces
that are attractive to both students and faculty, and to
bring together respective activities on campus and smaller
class sizes

 Institutions can also arrange workshops to notify that how


imperative it is for both teachers and students to interact
with them and how it can have a positive effect on their
grades and attendance and therefore overall academic
performance.
Appendix B

 Astin, A., & Panos, R. (1969). The educational and vocational


development of college students. Washington, DC: American Council on
Education.

 Churukian, G. A. (1982). Perceived learning in the classroom and teacher-


student interpersonal relationships. Paper presented at Teacher
Education 80-90 International Seminar, Groningen, Netherlands, and
April, 1982. (ERIC Reproduction Service No. ED 218 273.)

 Pascarella, E. T. (1980). Student-faculty informal contact and college


outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 50(4), 545-595.

 Flannelly, S.J. (1990). Student/faculty contact and academic quality of


effort: Excerpted results from CSEQ Surveys. North Carolina
University.

 Kuh, G. D., & Hu, S. (2001). The effects of student-faculty interaction in


the 1990s. The Review of Higher Education, 24(3), 309-332.

 Zollman, A., Oldham, B., & Wyrick, J. (1989). Effects of computer-


assisted instruction on reading and mathematics achievement of Chapter
1 students. Resources in Education. Columbus,
o Report to the President on the Use of Technology to Strengthen K-
12 Education in the United States. (March, 1997). Retrieved Nov.
30, 2004 from http://edtech.ced.appstate.edu/class/5630/k-
12ed.html

 Dickinson, D & Keefe, D. (introduction), How technology enhances


howard gardner's eightintelligences. America Tomorrow [online] 1998.
Retrieved October 30, 2004 www.america-
tomorrow.com/ati/nhl80402.htm

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interaction

 http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/1/0/8
/3/5/p108351_index.html

 http://orcmid.com/blog/2005/06/power-of-student-teacher-
interaction.asp