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The Muscular System

CP chapter 8 Honors Chapters 10, 11

I. Muscle tissue
A. - 40 -50% of body weight B. study of muscles - myology

II. How skeletal muscles produce movement


A. Origin & insertion
1. Exert force on tendons which pull on bones, skin 2. most cross one joint & attach to the articulating bone that forms the joint

3. when muscles contract, one articulating bone is drawn toward the other.
a) origin- attachment to the stationary bone Usually more prominent b) insertion attachment to the moveable bone Usually distal.. Can be small

B. Lever systems & leverage 1. bones serve as levers; joints as fulcrums 2. the lever is acted on by 2 different forces: resistance (load) & effort 3 types (depends on position of fulcrum
4. Leverage: mechanical advantage gained by lever responsible for muscle strength & range of motion

a) 1st class lever


E F
Example: see-saw, scissors

a) 2nd class lever


E R F

Example: wheelbarrow, nutcracker

a) 3rd class lever


E F R
Example: baseball bat, broom

III. Naming
A. names based on several types of characteristics which help in remembering names
1. direction of muscle fiber 2. location 3. size of muscles 4. shape 5. origin & insertion 6. action

IV Properties of muscle tissue


A. electrical excitability ability to respond to stimuli by producing electrical signals called action potentials
B. contractility- ability to contact (generating tension) when stimulated

C. extensibility ability to stretch w/out being damaged


D. elasticity ability to return to its original shape (after contracting or extension)

V Functions of muscle tissue


A. Produce body movements -walking, running
B. Stabilize body positions holding head upright

C. Moving substances internally -bladder, stomach, blood flow D. Producing heat - thermogenesis; shivering

E. Regulating organ volume - sphincters

VI. types of muscle tissue & functions


A. Skeletal- 40-50% of total body weight- voluntary - can be controlled subconsciously - mostly movement of bone & body parts & stabilizing body positions

B. Cardiac- only in heart - involuntary, striated

C. Smooth- non striated, involuntary - grouped in walls of hollow organs

VII Skeletal Muscle Tissue- in detail


A. connective tissue components - Wrapped in Epimysium - Perimysium surrounds fiber bundles called fascicles - Endomysium surrounds each individual fiber- myofibrils

Figure 8.1

B. Nerve & blood supply


Well-supplied with blood vessels and nerves - needs lots of ATP Terminal of a neuron on each muscle fiber

C. Myofibrils
1. made of protein 2. contractile units - sarcomeres a. thick- myosin b. thin- actin

Figure 8.2a

Figure 8.2b

D. Sarcomere - detail
1. Functional unit of striated muscle fibers - tube within a tube a. Contraction- Myosin heads (attach) form crossbridges with actin filaments- shorten (contract) fiber b. Relaxation- Myosin heads relax fiber lengthens

Figure 8.2c

Figure 8.3a

Figure 8.3b

VII. Skeletal muscle activity


A. Nerve stimulus 1. to contract, muscle cells must be stimulated by nerve impulses 2. 1 neuron & the muscles it stimulates = a motor unit

B. Neuromuscular Junction
1. threadlike extension of neuron- axon branches into axon terminals 2. Forms junction w/ sarcolemma of muscle cell
3. close/never touch- synaptic cleft

C. Muscle stimulation
1. When nerve impulse reaches muscle; neurotransmitter is released- acetylcholine 2. Creates an electrical charge- action potential

Figure 8.5

Figure 8.4

Figure 8.6

Figure 8.7

VII. Cardiac Muscle in detail


Striated, short fibers and branched Single central nucleus intercalated discs- allow action potentials to spread quickly autorhythmicity- built in rhythm Involuntary No nerve- internal pacemaker

Figure 15.2b

VIII. Smooth muscle in detail


Involuntary In internal organs Filaments not regular so not striated Visceral autorhythmic (contract as a unit) or Multi-unit type- each has own nerve and can contract independently

Figure 8.11

IX Aging
Like bone there is a slow progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass

XII. Disorders
Muscle atrophy- wasting away
Disuse Nerve supply disrupted or cut

Bells palsy- 1 sided paralysis of muscle paralysis Strabismus- eyes are not aligned

Carpal tunnel syndrome- compression of median nerve/ pain, numbness, tingling of fingers Myasthenia gravis- autoimmune; progressive damage of neuromuscular junction Muscular dystrophy- inherited X-linked muscle destroying diseases ( 1 in every 3500 male babies)

Fibromyalgia- appears between ages 25 & 50; more common in women; pain, tenderness, & stiffness Cramps- inadequate blood flow, overuse, dehydration, injury, holding a position for a long period, low levels of electrolytes

XIII. Other stuff


Botulinum toxin- blocks release of Achcontraction cannot occur (1 of most lethal chemicals known) (Botox) Rigor mortis- rigidity of death.. Crossbridges dont move (begins @ 3-4 hrs after death; lasts @24 hrs)

Figure 8-13a

Figure 8-13b

Figure 8.14

Figure 8.15

Figure 8.16

Figure 8.17

Figure 8.18

Figure 8.19

Figure 8.20

Figure 8.21ab

Figure 8.21c

Figure 8.22

Figure 8.23a

Figure 8.23b

Figure 8.24ab

Figure 8.24cd