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UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI

PROJECT ON: A STUDY OF A BPO INDUSTRY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO EMPLOYEE TURNOVER NAME AND ADDRESS OF COLLEGE: LALA LAJPATRAI COLLEGE OF COMMERCE AND ECONOMICS MAHALAKSHMI (WEST), MUMBAI 400034

SUBMITTED BY: AKASH AGARWAL TYBMS B SEMESTER V ROLL NO. 1112186

PROJECT GUIDE: PROF. ARUN POOJARI

YEAR OF SUBMISSION: 2013-2014

CERTIFICATE

THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT THE PROJECT ENTITLED A STUDY OF A BPO INDUSTRY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO EMPLOYEE TURNOVER COMPLETED BY AKASH AGARWAL ROLL NO.1112186 IS AN AUTHENTIC WORK CARRIED OUT BY HIM AT LALA LAJPAT RAI COLLEGE OF COMMERCE AND ECONOMICS UNDER MY GUIDANCE

THE INFORMATION SUBMITTED IS TRUE AND ORIGINAL TO THE BEST OF MY KNOWLEDGE.

SIGNATURE OF THE GUIDE

COLLEGE STAMP

(PROF. ARUN POOJARI)

DECLARATION

I AKASH AGARWAL THE STUDENT OF LALA LAJPAT RAI COLLEGE OF COMMERCE AND ECONOMIC, TY.BMS HEREBY DECLARE THAT I HAVE COMPLETED THIS PROJECT ON A STUDY OF A BPO INDUSTRY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO EMPLOYEE TURNOVER IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2013-2014 UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF PROF. ARUN POOJARI

THE INFORMATION SUBMITTED IS TRUE AND ORIGINAL TO THE BEST OF MY KNOWLEDGE.

SIGNATURE OF THE STUDENT

COLLEGE STAMP

(AKASH AGARWAL)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

WITH GREAT PLEASURE I THANK PROF. ARUN POOJARI A PROFESSOR OF LALA LAJPAT RAI COLLEGE OF COMMERCE AND ECONOMICS FOR BEING AN INSPIRATION IN THE COMPLETION OF THIS PROJECT. I ALSO THANK HIM FOR PROVIDING ME GUIDANCE AND NUMEROUS SUGGESTIONS THROUGHOUT THE ENTIRE DURATION OF THE PROJECT. I AM THANKFUL FOR HIS INVALUABLE HELP WITHOUT WHICH THIS PROJECT WOULD NOT HAVE MATERIALISED. I EXPRESS DEEP GRATITUTDE TO MY ENTIRE COLLEGE, FRIENDS AND FAMILY MEMBERS WHOSE EFFORTS AND CREATIVITY HELPED ME IN GIVING THE FINAL STRUCTURE TO THE PROJECT WORK. NEVERTHELESS I WOULD LIKE TO THANK THE COLLEGE LIBRARIAN FOR PROVIDING ALL THE SUPPORT IN COMPLETING MY PROJECT. I AM ALSO THANKFUL TO ALL THOSE SEEN AND UNSEEN HANDS WHICH HAVE BEEN OF HELP IN THE COMPLETION OF THIS PROJECT WORK.

- AKASH AGARWAL

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This research is a reflection of the findings of the survey that was conducted to understand what BPO Companies are doing towards the retention of their employees. The project overview encompasses the objective, and methodology adopted for the survey. Its a snapshot of why and how the project was carried out.

The brief profile of the BPO Companies aims not only to introduce the companies but also to impart a better understanding of the BPO Sector as a whole. The introduction to retention provides the theoretical base to build the project upon, and also to better understand the significance of the subject, highlighting the need for the organizations today to be more proactive in retaining their employees.

The survey has also brought out the attempts made by the organizations towards building up of work environment focusing on employees, their morale, motivation, satisfaction and ability and willingness to be highly productive. At the same time, several reward and recognition initiatives have been developed to encourage desired employee behavior benefiting the organizations. The money factor has also been considered to understand the organizations approach towards developing their employee retention strategy around compensation, bonus and incentives etc.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 History of BPO Industry: ..................................................................................................... 1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 1 BPO: An Overview .......................................................................................................... 2 BPO Industry in India ...................................................................................................... 3 Overview of Employee Turnover ....................................Error! Bookmark not defined.

CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE .................................................................................. 8 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .......................................................................... 18 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.1 3.7 3.8 3.9 Research Problem: ............................................................................................................. 18 Objectives of Study ........................................................................................................ 18 Scope of the Study.......................................................................................................... 18 Hypothesis Formulation ................................................................................................. 18 Data Collection ............................................................................................................... 19 Research Instrument ....................................................................................................... 19 Research Design ............................................................................................................. 19 Sampling Plan ................................................................................................................ 20 Testing of Hypothesis..................................................................................................... 20

3.10 Research Limitation ....................................................................................................... 20 CHAPTER 4: MORE ABOUT BPO INDUSTRY ....................................................................... 20 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Services offered by BPO Industry: .................................................................................... 20 Interesting facts about the Indian BPO industry: ........................................................... 22 Major Indian Players in BPO Industry of 2010-11 ........................................................ 22 Benefits of BPO Industry ............................................................................................... 23

CHAPTER 5: CAUSES AND SOLUTIONS FOR EMPLOYEE TURNOVER ......................... 26

5.1 5.2

Causes of Employee Turnover: .......................................................................................... 26 Remedial Measures for Retention of Employees ........................................................... 27

BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................................................... 29

LIST OF FIGURES
History of BPO Source: http://www.outsource2india.com/why_india/articles/outsourcing_history.asp

Introduction of BPO Industry Source: http://www.bellovista.net/blog/the-myths-regarding-the-indian-bpo-industry.php

BPO Industry in India Source: http://spenishta.blogspot.in/ (NASSCOM)

Overview of BPO and IT Source: http://www.nasscom.in/indian-itbpo-industry

Services of BPO Source: http://www.bellovista.net/blog/tag/bpo-industry-in-india

Benefits of BPO Industry Source: http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/2696/11/11_chapter%202.pdf

A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 History of BPO Industry:


The idea of outsourcing is not new. It started way back in the 1700s when manufacturers started shifting the manufacture of goods to countries with cheaper labor during the Industrial Revolution, following the precepts of Adam Smith in his book 'The Wealth of Nations'. The history of outsourcing to India is an interesting story. Even after over a decade of competitive global outsourcing, most of it still goes to India. Reaching this pinnacle in outsourcing has been a long journey. As land, sea, and later, air routes developed between the 15th and 21st centuries, more nations started to outsource trade to other nations, eventually leading to outsourcing to India and other nations. Why do companies actually outsource? In earlier times, cost and headcount reductions were the most common reasons to outsource. Today, the drivers are often more strategic, such as how a company can best utilize its own core competencies. Though the outsourcing of manufacturing is an old story, outsourcing to services is a relatively new phenomenon. Services outsourcing to India started in the 1980s and rapidly accelerated in the '90s. In today's world where information technology has become critical to business, the meaning of outsourcing has undergone a drastic change over the years. Companies have started focusing on their core competencies and outsourcing many non-core functions, for which they had no competence internally.

1.2 Introduction:
With the boat of success steaming ahead in the global markets, India has already become the most privileged destination for Business Process Outsourcing. The word which one would simply lisp in the beginning of this century has become the most pronounced and sought after term. Generating revenues, fostering employments, elevating the living standards, an eternal inventory of opportunities simply showcase a phenomenon which is no less than the renaissance for our Indian markets. Many researchers have talked about BPOs in their works, highlighted its capability as money making sector, showcased its doom of high employee turnover, sketched out its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, and also chalked out its dynamics of HR. Page | 1

A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover Other researchers have extensively worked on various perceived attitudes of employees like their satisfaction, motivation, its influence on their tenure, their loyalty, commitment etc. This chapter unfolds all the relevant literature about the functionality of BPO industry in India, theories and research works of employee motivation and satisfaction, and the findings to tackle the problem of attrition in this sector.

1.3 BPO: An Overview


We live in an age of outsourcing, clearly designates that outsourcing has now become an acknowledged, accepted and established business strategy. One of the most familiar forms of outsourcing is business process outsourcing (BPO), i.e., transferring the operational ownership of one or more of the firms business processes to an external supplier that, in turn, administers the processes according to some predefined metrics. BPO or Business Process Outsourcing thus refers to the rearrangement of entire business functions to some other service providers, primarily in low cost locations. The service provider may be either self-owned or a third party. This relocation or transferring of business processes to an external provider is essentially to accomplish increased shareholder value. Some of the general services provided by the BPOs are Receivables and Payables, Inventory Management, Order Processing, Cash flow Analysis, Reconciliation, Data Entry, Payroll Processing, QuickBooks Accounting, Financial Statement Preparation and Accounting Services. Some of the web based services include live online sales Page | 2

A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover and order entry, E-commerce transaction support, Live online enquiry handling, Web Design/Development. Here it is vital to note that BPO may comprise both IT management and business operations. Business operations include relocating or transferring functions such as payroll, accounting, billing or even real estate management to a third party. Invariably all these business processes depend on IT but they are unlike hard-core IT operations such as data center activities or network administration.

Year FY 2008 FY 2009 FY2010 FY 2011 FY 2012E BPO involves business

Total Revenue Total Revenue Percentage in by Exports by Domestic GDP 41 22 6.4% 47 22 6.7% 50 24 6.9% 59 29 7.1% 69 32 7.5% process management and outsourcing. Business process management

utilizes technology aimed at revamping the process, trimming down unnecessary steps, and eliminating redundancies. On the other hand outsourcing uses proficiency and resources of dedicated external service providers to execute many of these fundamental yet non-core activities.

1.4 BPO Industry in India:


Current Scenario Indian BPO industry currently generated USD 11 billion revenue Employs approx 7,00,000 professionals across 66 countries Accounts for 40% of the overall BPO offshore market.

Potential The Indian BPO industry has the potential to generate USD 50 billion revenue by 2012. Employment opportunities for approx 2 million professionals in India. The BPOs can contribute upto 2.5% to the country's global GDP by 2012

Sectors Merely 5% of the total opportunities exploited Sectors include banking, retail, insurance, media, telecom and government

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A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover

1.5 Challenges for BPO Sector:


The IT enabled services (ITES) and Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) constitute the fastest growing industry in India. BPO industry is considered to be a part of the ITES industry. Today, India is the hottest destination for any company which wants to outsource its business processes. But what can be the reason for India being so popular with the companies worldwide? The attractiveness of India can be contributed to three basic factors - Cost, People and Environment. India ranks first among a host of desirable nations in terms of cost (which includes employee cost, infrastructure cost, management cost and the tax structure). It beats all its competitors on the people front as well. The people factor is evaluated on the lines of size of the job market, workforce education level, language barriers, past outsourcing experience and employee retention. When it comes to environment (which includes country risk, infrastructure, cultural compatibility, proximity etc.) however, India lags behind countries like Canada, Australia and Ireland. This is also being taken care of by government initiatives like the corporate tax exemption to all ITES companies till 2010. Apart from these, the fact that India has 53 of the 83 SEI CMM Level 5 companies3 and that companies outsourcing to India have experienced cost savings Page | 4

A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover in the range of 30% in the first year itself, have added to the attractiveness of India as 'the' destination for outsourcing. Given the strengths of India, it is no wonder that it is the first choice of nearly 82 % companies in the US for outsourcing. The scenario however, is not as rosy as it looks, for this sector with enormous potential. Like any other industry during its growth phase, this industry is also going through its share of turbulence. The fact that the growth has been very sharp has added to its problems. However, all these ups and downs would help the industry in stabilizing and maturing. The Challenges of Growth....

Challenges Internal Challenge External Challenge

The major challenges being faced by the ITES or BPO industry in India can be classified into internal and external challenges. The internal challenges include shortage of competent managers for the middle and senior management and the high attrition rates. The external challenge is in the form of opposition from the US politicians and the UK labor unions against shifting of the BPO operations by local companies to India. The threat of real competition from other players like Philippines also exists, but doesn't seem to need our immediate attention. Let us look at some of these issues. Entry-level recruitment and employment has not been a problem with so many fresh graduates with good language skills, available readily in the job market. The problem is more intense for the third-party outsourcing companies which have just ventured into this business. They cannot even invest in training, given their financial and other constraints. They in fact invest substantially in training their managers. However, they have been facing a problem of a different kind. Their middle and senior level managers are being poached by the new entrants to the industry. Everyone agrees that hiring from competition is a cyclical process and will not help the industry grow, but with very few options available, they resort to the easiest solution - poaching. High attrition rates. Attrition means not only loss of talent, but also includes the cost of training the new recruits. An average Indian call center employee works with a company for Page | 5

A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover 11 months, whereas an average UK call center employee stays in a company for 3 years. It is expected that the attrition rates would come down once the growth stabilizes. Steep growth is one of the reasons for the high attrition rates, according to many in the industry. An employee tend to leave the organization in the first couple of weeks of joining. The reasons are many -- high stress levels, monotonous nature of the job, demand-supply disparity and lack of career growth potential on the professional front; loss of identity, mismatch with normal cycle, complete change of life style and lack of comfort on the personal front. Add to this, the 'poaching' strategy being adopted by the players in the industry. Tackling the Attrition Problem - The industry players are trying out all the tricks in the book to tie down their employees and keep them locked in a safe. They have been offering excellent infrastructure facilities in the form of ergonomically designed work stations and spacious, air-conditioned offices. They have been offering industry specific benefits like 24/7 cafeterias and home pick-up and drop facilities apart from regular benefits like retirals and loans at low interest rates. They have been arranging special weekend parties and offering incentives like tickets to exclusive music shows and dance parties. Some players are also sponsoring the higher education of their employees. This is one of the best ways of retaining a skilled employee for 2-3 years with a company. All this really goes well with a typical employee, who is in his early twenties, fresh out of college and unmarried. The industry has been quite benevolent on the compensation front as well. According to a Hewitt Associates survey conducted last year, the highest salary increase in the Asia Pacific region was in India. Within the country, it was the ITES industry which recorded the highest growth of 14%. The variable pay component varied in the range of 1570%, which is exorbitant, to say the least. At the industry level, companies have tried to get into informal agreements with competitors to avoid poaching. Though these agreements have no legal sanctity, they are based on mutual faith of the companies. For example, GE, HSBC, Nipuna, Microsoft, etc. informally agreed that they would not recruit someone who has worked for less than a year with his employer or someone who has switched 3 jobs in 2 years. In spite of all these measures, the attrition rates have remained high. All these attempts by the employers have resulted in only partial

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A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover success. Experts feel that appropriate staffing strategies and managing employee morale are the key areas. Recruiting the right kind of people not only at the entry level but also for the middle management level can be a big contributing factor. Any fresh graduate in need of a job would say that working during odd hours and adapting to a new life style is not a problem, but when it actually comes to adapting to a completely different way of life, they find it difficult to reorient themselves. Another important area of concern is the limited growth potential for an employee in this industry. Organizations should concentrate on individual career growth of employees and succession planning in the organization. Planning for growth both vertically and horizontally can bring a little reprieve to the employees. Horizontal growth can be in the form of promoting the employee from simple to more complex processes within the organization. This will enhance the learning of the employee and make him "feel-good". The Threat of Competition - Many competitors like Philippines, Ireland and even China are expected to catch up with India in the future, but they have their own constraints. China, which is being forecasted by some as the biggest threat to the Indian BPO industry, for example does not have English-speaking populace who can meet the requirements of a primarily English clientele. India outruns all its competitors when it comes to availability of quality services at the lowest possible rates. However, this does not mean that the Indian BPO industry can sit back and relax. It needs to gear up and prepare itself to face the competition. The strategy of the Indian industry should be to go up the value chain and offer more specialized services that can create a special position for it in the global outsourcing industry. It should not completely bank on the low-end services as they are cost-based and can be transferred to any country that offers the same services at a cheaper rate.

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A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover

CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE


ABSTRACT 1
By Anand Vijay, March 2012 has made a research on Employee attrition - A pragmatic study with reference to BPO Industry Employee attrition reveals a company's internal power and weaknesses. New employee need to be constantly added, further costs in training them, getting them aligned to the company environment. Organizations also face difficulties in retaining the employees as well as attracting potential employees. In this competitive business era, high attrition rates lead to many issues in the boundary of HR people. All this has a significant impact on the strength of a company in managing their business in a competitive environment. ABSTRACT 2 By Thames Valley University has made findings on Employee turnover in call centers India's call centre industry accounts for a quarter of all software and services exports from the country, according to industry association Nasscom, and Indian call centers employ 160,000 professionals. Daimler-Chrysler, British Telecom, Barclays Bank, HSBC, Honeywell, Aventis, and several others have come to India while the old timers of GE, British Airways, Citigroup, Amex, and others have been around for a decade 1. The size of the Indian BPO market is likely to be around $9-12 billion by 2006 and will employ around 400,000 people, ICRA said in its Indian BPO industry report. According to Nasscom-Mckinsey study, the IT-enabled services sector was due to employ 1.1 million people and earn $1 billion by 2008. That was soon revised to $24 billion. The business process outsourcing (BPO) industry in the country which is

expected to employ around one million people by 2008 is facing the challenge of finding quality human resources given the current attrition rate of around 50 percent. The tremendous turnover rate is undeniably one of the main problems faced by the BPO industry globally. HR specialists at the Nasscom 2004 summit brainstormed on various approaches to handle this bugbear- either declare war on attrition and tackle it head on, or adopt a more scientific analytical approach2. At least 60,000 of the 171,000 workforce change jobs every year. About 80% of them look for better leaders. Team leaders want to upgrade to supervisors, quality professionals or operations heads. The HR problem threatens to soon become grave. Good agents are becoming hard to find and with tardy infrastructure, big moves to the much talked about smaller towns will take longer. Page | 8

A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover This means costs will rise making it difficult for small VC-funded companies to survive. The project, therefore aims at analyzing causes of employee turnover.

ABSTRACT 3 By K.R. SreeRekha Febuary 2013 has made a research on the employee turnover intention in ITES/BPO Sector. This paper aims at testing a conceptual model connecting variables of the internal and external work environment to ITES/BPO employee turnover. In India over the past few years, the ITES/BPO sector has been growing in leaps and bounds. This has also posed certain Human Resource challenges to the practitioners and the biggest challenge of them happens to be the retention of the ambitious and the transitory workforce in these sectors. In this paper, employee turnover intention is studied from two dimensions: individual- and organization- level. Based on the gaps identified from the literature, the study seeks to examine the influence of the intervening variables such as organizational commitment on turnover intentions of employees.

ABSTRACT 4 By Kumar Deepak September 2012 has made a research on the various employee related

factors leading to attrition in BPO Industry and establishing the degree of association between these factors and attrition rate.
Call centers and outsourcing have become the main components of globalization and is a result of unparalleled scientific and technological development throughout the world. Because of the vast employment opportunities provided by the Call Centers and Business Process Outsourcing (BPO), they are called the sunshine industries. Today India is the hub of BPO because of the availability of cheap and qualified workforce, state of the art technology, booming IT and telecommunication sectors and its unique geographical location. But the alarming rate of employee turnover in the Call Centers and other BPO sectors has become a stumbling block for the growth of this sector. In India, the average attrition rate in the BPO sector is approximately 30-35 percent. Keeping low attrition levels is a major challenge as the demand outstrips the supply of employees by a big margin. The sample size of 209 employees working in Call Centers / BPOs, of Coimbatore, have been used to establish the degree of association. The objectives of the study are to focus on the employee related factors for increasing attrition rate in BPOs / Call Page | 9

A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover Centers in India and find out the degree of association between these factors and attrition rate. Based on this study various strategies are suggested to control the increasing attrition rate in BPOs / Call Centre. The major findings of the study are that a majority of employees who have moved from one company to another company in the field of Call Center / BPO industry belong to the age group of 25-30 years. Lack of safety for female employees and more career opportunities elsewhere are the topmost reasons for the employees to quit their jobs.

ABSTRACT 5 By Ranganathan Aruna, Cornell University, USA has made an attempt on Employee Turnover in the Business Process Outsourcing Industry in India
In this chapter, we explore the problem of high turnover in the high-tech BPO sector in India, where relatively well-educated employees are performing a variety of primarily low skill, low cost jobs. We highlight the various approaches employers are taking to solve the turnover problem. As we will argue, some of these strategies are fairly traditional, focusing on various instrumental incentives to promote employee retention, while some others are new and rather radical, particularly the articulation of an organizational and work culture tailor-made for the particular demographic profile of BPO employees: young, upper middle class, well-educated graduates. Based on anecdotal evidence and interviews with industry personnel, we sense some ambiguity regarding the effectiveness of these strategies. We argue that this ambiguity is a function of (a) the recent and rapid growth of the industry and the fact that firms are experimenting with a whole variety of retention strategies, and (b) the inability of firms to develop an integrated organizational culture that permits a focus on both longer term organizational performance, as well as retention

ABSTRACT 6 By R.Gayathri MBA., Ph.D (Pursuing) Assistant Professor has made a attempt on Employee Retention Strategies in BPO's - An Empirical Investigation. Employee retention is a process in which the employees are encouraged to remain with the organization for the maximum period of time or until the completion of the project. Retention is more important than hiring. The purpose of this paper is to identify the major factors that influence the employee retention in BPO sector. Primary data was collected by the researcher with the help of structured questionnaire administered to the middle level employees in selected top two BPOs in Bangalore. 132 middle level employees from those organizations constitute the sample size. To test the reliability of the data collected, the researcher used cronbachs Alpha test Page | 10

A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover and the value is 0.735 which shows that the data has satisfactory reliability and validity. Using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) some of the relevant tests were carried out like factor analysis, and multiple regression. Based on these analysis some of the relevant findings were derived, that will be useful, relevant and significant to the present Indian scenario.

ABSTRACT 7 By Chiranjivichr, April. 2011 has made an attempt on Turnover Rates High in BPO High employee turnover rate is problem and because of this many industries have been suffering from losses in term of money and trained mind as well. Many research have been conducted on these topic to find out all reasons behind high employee turnover rate and suggested different ways to deal with but we know because of globalization over market is dynamic and because of dynamism working environment is more pressurized and factor of turnover changes rapidly.

ABSTRACT 8 By Kumar Ravinder, Arora Ritu has made a research on Determinants of Talent Retention in BPO Industry. The literature available was reviewed to identify determinants of talent retention in BPO industry. Most of the sources consulted in the study stress that there are many determinants of talent retention depending upon priorities and life styles of employees. Causes of attrition are different in relation to the gender (Vermaand Garg, 2011). Results of this study show that female employees feel more stressed because of work life imbalances and tend to leave jobs at an early stage of their career. The top reason for talent attrition is "external inequity of compensation". 27 percent of the employees in their exit interviews mentioned compensation as primary reason whereas limited career opportunities and role stagnation are stated as top two reasons for low retention. (Ramaiya, 2008). Thus, despite the fact that there is general agreement about the importance of competitive compensation for employee retention (Ramlall, 2003), there is also a growing consensus that high or even generous compensation will not independently guarantee that an organization will be able to keep its key employees. Talent engagement is necessary to retain an employee as disengaged employee disturbs the system and multiplies the dissatisfaction levels in the organization which results in decreased motivation, high talent turnover and diminished performance. (Jeswani & Souren, 2008). Their research mentions that raising and Page | 11

A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover maintaining employee engagement is in the hands of an organization and requires a perfect blend of time, effort, commitment and investment to craft a successful endeavor. A survey by Mercer Human Resources Consulting Services (2006) showed that salaries soared higher as employers battled to attract and retain staff in the tightest labor market in 30 years. The survey revealed that the real challenge for human resources managers is to maintain the right salaries and other variable rewards in a tight market. Pillai (2006) attempted to bring out the amount of monetary losses; company suffers because of high employee attrition. According to this study major factors responsible for low employee retention are higher salary expectations, lack of promotion opportunities and work life imbalances. Raina (2006) by means of a series of surveys, observations and interviews ascertained that employees' attrition is higher in the age group of 20-25 years and within three months of joining.

ABSTRACT 9 By Joshi, Upasna June 2010 has made a research on Antecedents of employee attrition in BPO industry. Attrition is one of the most significant hidden costs in a business and can amount to as much as six months' salary and there are also other costs such as the negative impact to company's employment brand. The paper examines the factors that lead to employee attrition in Business Process Outsourcing industry using factor analysis. Four factors were identified through principal components analyses with varimax rotation. The paper also reviews various types of attrition. The present study was undertaken in four BPO firms in Chandigarh city as sample for the study. The paper also highlights on some of the conceptual issues of the impact of attrition on organization. ABSTRACT 10 By Steve, Kingston University has made an attempt on Employee turnover in Indian IT industry This research study are try to examine What personal factors are working behind this turnover? Why employees change their job frequently? Why employees feel insecurity in their job?

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A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover This study tries to find out employees and organization relationship. There are many IT hub in India But Author choose Gujarat for his research because now days Gujarat is most developing state in India. Gujarat Government organized business summit and they invite business man from all over the world. In only one days there are more than $20000 Million MOUs signs by different business group. So now days Gujarat is power full state in business and manpower. Author used survey method in this research. Latest technology like computer, internet and telephones are main resources used as per now days need. This research are try to find out employees, organization relationship and commitments what are the mains part in employee turnover. ABSTRACT 11 By Sampath Narayan has made an attempt on Transition Best Practices Primer to getting it right first time Transitioning is a critical step in Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) initiatives. Success of a transition decides the success of outsourcing. It being a onetime activity that has a significant impact on the success of outsourcing, it needs to be done right the first time and every time. Learning from past captured in form of Best Practices can help you get it right.

ABSTRACT 12 By Kuruvilla Sarosh Cornell University, USA has made a research on Employee Turnover in the Business Process Outsourcing Industry in India
In this chapter, we explore the problem of high turnover in the high-tech BPO sector in India, where relatively well-educated employees are performing a variety of primarily low skill, low cost jobs. We highlight the various approaches employers are taking to solve the turnover problem. As we will argue, some of these strategies are fairly traditional, focusing on various instrumental incentives to promote employee retention, while some others are new and rather radical, particularly the articulation of an organizational and work culture tailor-made for the particular demographic profile of BPO employees: young, upper middle class, well-educated graduates. Based on anecdotal evidence and interviews with industry personnel, we sense some ambiguity regarding the effectiveness of these strategies. We argue that this ambiguity is a function of (a) the recent and rapid growth of the industry and the fact that firms are experimenting with a whole variety of retention strategies, and (b) the inability of firms to develop an integrated organizational culture that permits a focus on both longer term organizational performance, as well as retention

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A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover ABSTRACT 13 By Srivastava Ankita SKS Group of Institution,Mathura has made the research on Attrition and Retention of Employees in BPO Sector The broad objective of this research is to identify the root causes of attrition and retention in BPOs, analyzing the level of employee motivation, satisfaction and involvement, generate a model for maximizing sustenance of employees in the organization and come up with concrete recommendations, which will eventually be valuable to the organizations to retain their employees for a long term ABSTRACT 14 By Mrs. E. Deepa and Mrs. M. Stella points out on Employee Turnover in BPO Industry with special reference to Chennai. The objective of this article is to find the level of job satisfaction, safety measures, retaining the employees, working conditions & work load and its reason for Employees Turnover in IT Industries. The employee turnover springs up as a vital issue in IT businesses. The researchers had taken 250 respondents as their sample size from universe and descriptive research design was adopted. This research study uses various methods to analyze the reasons and causes for employee turnover in IT businesses. The tools used are Chi-square analysis, weighted average method, T-test and F-test. Based on the analysis and interpretation, it is inferred that the IT Industry has to implement the Retention Plan by compensation Policies, Changes in work Requirements & improvement in working conditions

ABSTRACT 15 By Ranganathan Aruna (Cornell University, USA) September 2008 has observed the

problems for Employee Turnover in BPO Industry


In this chapter, we explore the problem of high turnover in the high-tech BPO sector in India, where relatively well-educated employees are performing a variety of primarily low skill, low cost jobs. We highlight the various approaches employers are taking to solve the turnover problem. As we will argue, some of these strategies are fairly traditional, focusing on various instrumental incentives to promote employee retention, while some others are new and rather radical, particularly the articulation of an organizational and work culture tailor-made for the particular demographic profile of BPO employees: young, upper middle class, well-educated Page | 14

A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover graduates. Based on anecdotal evidence and interviews with industry personnel, we sense some ambiguity regarding the effectiveness of these strategies. We argue that this ambiguity is a function of (a) the recent and rapid growth of the industry and the fact that firms are experimenting with a whole variety of retention strategies, and (b) the inability of firms to develop an integrated organizational culture that permits a focus on both longer term organizational performance, as well as retention.

ABSTRACT 16 By Mathew Mercy & G Srikanth in the year 2004 has indicated different initiatives for Employee Retention in Indian BPO Industry The Indian BPO (business process outsourcing) industry faced an attrition rate of 30% to 40%, costing the industry Rs. 300 crore in recruitment and training. Added to these were the costs of failed service levels. The total loss due to attrition was estimated to be 25% of the annual revenue. A synergy between incentives, higher education programmes, career growth programmes, selection of right person for the right job and changes in the organisation environment helped organisations in bringing the attrition rate under their control to some extent. But all these efforts had cost implications. The high cost involved in employees retention was eroding the cost competitiveness of Indian BPO companies.

ABSTRACT 17 By C.M. Sudha Arogya Mary points out importance of women in the work place in BPO Industry Women in the Economy:

Women are not only the backbone of nuclear and joint family but also the national economy. They are the fulcrum, foundation upon which the super edifice of any family and the economy built upon. The future of any economy with special reference to socio- economic, religious and cultural development of the family and the nation depends upon the women folk. Women Personality:

There cannot be any two different opinions as to the personality of women. They always have an edge over others especially their counterpart viz men. It is an acknowledged truth that woman are the best. Page | 15

A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover Preference of Women:

One of the appreciable, salient and worth mentioning point to accept by everybody is the preference and forbearance of women. Many have proved beyond doubt that women have the capability and the capacity to handle any issue / problem in a smooth and amicable way. For the BPO job women are the best to answer, clarify any query/doubt raised by the client by their sweet voice and polite way of putting things. Above all, recently Ms. Sunitha William has proved to the world that women are capable of achieving the goal. This paper tries to highlight the prospects and problems of women in their work place and the suitability of women for the BPO industry. ABSTRACT 18 By Anantharaja Ammu November, 2009 has highlighted the causes of Attrition in BPO

Companies: Study of a Mid-Size Organization in India


Employee turnover reflects a company's internal strengths and weaknesses. New hires need to be constantly added, further costs in training them, getting them aligned to the company culture, etc., all pose a challenge. Organizations also face difficulties in retaining the remaining employees as well as attracting potential employees. High attrition rates also lead to a chronic or systemic cycle. All this has a significant impact on the strength of a company in managing their business in a competitive environment. This study is conducted to find out the main causes which increase the employee turnover in BPO companies and to find out the way to control attrition. The work is descriptive in nature. This study was carried out in BPO companies in and around Bangalore. In this study, the opinion of 110 employees was taken for the analysis. The tool used for collecting the data was a structured questionnaire. For the analysis, chi-square and percentage method were used. ABSTRACT 19 By R.; Sivaraman, G.; Kamalamba April 2012 has pointed out the various strategies for Employee Retention in BPO sector - An Empirical Investigation Employee retention is a process in which the employees are encouraged to remain with the organization for the maximum period of time or until the completion of the project. Retention is more important than hiring. The purpose of this paper is to identify the major factors that influence the employee retention in BPO sector. Primary data was collected by the researcher with the help of structured questionnaire administered to the middle level employees in selected Page | 16

A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover top two BPO's in Bangalore. 132 middle level employees from those organizations constitute the sample size. To test the reliability of the data collected, the researcher used cronbach's Alpha test and the value is 0.735 which shows that the data has satisfactory reliability and validity. Using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) some of the relevant tests were carried out like factor analysis, and multiple regression. Based on these analysis some of the relevant findings were derived, that will be useful, relevant and significant to the present Indian scenario.

ABSTRACT 20 By Relan Nikhil & Duggal Sudhanshu has made an attempt on managing the Attrition in BPO Industry Managing attrition is not just a 'nice thing to do' in the BPO industry. It is the route to their survival. Staff attrition (or turnover) represents significant costs to most organizations. It is odd, therefore, that many organizations neither measure such costs nor have targets or plans to reduce them. Many organizations appear to accept them as part of the cost of doing business - a sign of increasing job mobility and decreasing staff loyalty perhaps, a matter to be regretted but just 'one of those things'. An attrition rate in call centers has become legendary. Indeed, the attrition rates in some Indian call centers now reach 80%. This is an extreme figure but the average attrition rates in Indian call centers are up around 30-40%. It is interesting to note that the attrition rates in Indian BPO industry - and the costs associated - are so high that they can override the benefits of lower wage costs. In this paper, we have made an endeavor to highlight attrition issue faced by BPO industry. We try to find out the various reasons for this problem, and have proposed some ways in which this issue can be addressed.

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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Problem:


It is the pain area for which the researcher needs to find or suggest some solutions. The pain area of the researchers topic, a study on employee turnover in BPO Industry to find various reasons and factors of employee turnover and remedial measures for solving the problem in optimum manner.

3.2 Objectives of Study:


1. To study on functionality of BPO industry 2. To study on different cases of the employee turnover 3. To study the various effects on employees 4. How to overcome the problem of employee turnover

3.3 Scope of the Study:


The researcher has made an attempt to collect data, which is representative of parts in suburb. This scope of study was taken due to logistical problems and also Mumbai is a miniature of Maharashtra. All attempts were made to collect the data from different parts of Mumbai. Thus the results of Mumbai can be used for further studies with respect to Maharashtra and India. Also one more reason why this area was taken into consideration was that, the area under research was heterogeneous in nature where all class people could be easily contacted. The research was done amongst all the employees in BPO industry.

3.4 Hypothesis Formulation:


The hypothesis are as follows-

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3.5 Data Collection:


3.5.1 Primary Data Primary Data are those data, which are collected for the first time (first hand information). A structured questionnaire was built in correlation with objective of research and hypothesis Thus, data using structured questionnaire was collected from different employees working in BPO industry.

3.5.2 Secondary Data Magazines, Trade Journals, Internet, Reference Books, etc are used to collect secondary data

3.1 Research Instrument:


To collect the appropriate data, the researcher has used questionnaire as the research instrument. The questionnaire so formed included both open-ended and close-ended questions. Close-ended questions used so that the appropriate statistics could be calculated. Open-ended question were used to find out the reviews of the respondents so that the researcher can make the proper recommendation.

3.7 Research Design:


Research Design is an outline of research study which indicates that what researchers will do right from the initial stage till the final data analysis. Research Design constitutes decision regarding what, where, why, when and how concerning with respect to an enquiry. A Descriptive design was decided to implement as per the demand of this current research. Thus, the research design adopted by the researcher for the study was Descriptive to cover the various facts of the study. A study on tool to identify employee turnover in BPO Industry. The study is being made by the researcher to find out the various aspects of employee turnover and the remedial measures for controlling it. The study is restricted to parts of suburbs in Mumbai and the data used is primary data as well as secondary data. The study will be done with the help of a questionnaire and the report will be prepared in the form of MS WORD and MS POWERPOINT.

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3.8 Sampling Plan:


A sampling design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. It refers to the technique or the procedure the researcher would adopt to select units from the sample. It will also indicate the number of units to be included in the sample also known as sample size. The sampling technique adopted by the researcher was Simple Random Sampling.

3.9 Testing of Hypothesis:


The researcher has made an attempt to test the hypothesis using CHI-SQUARE.

3.10 Research Limitation:


1. The cost incurred is minimal. 2. The scope of study was restricted to the parts of suburbs in Mumbai. 3. Sample size was taken as 100 respondents; the result might have varied had it been number of respondents. 4. The study depends on the biasness of the respondents; the result might have varied had there been a larger sample size. 5. The study depends upon the authentication of secondary data. 6. Possibility that the respondent may have given the incorrect answers. more

CHAPTER 4: MORE ABOUT BPO INDUSTRY 4.1 Services offered by BPO Industry:

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Indian BPO companies offer varied services, such as, customer support, technical support, telemarketing, insurance processing, data processing, forms processing, bookkeeping and internet / online / web research. 1. Customer support services: 24/7 inbound / outbound call center services that address customer queries and concerns through phone, email and live chat. 2. Technical support services: Installation, product support, running support, troubleshooting, usage support and problem resolution for computer software, hardware, peripherals and internet infrastructure. 3. Telemarketing services: Interacting with potential customers and creating interest for the customer's services/ products. Up-selling, promoting and cross selling to existing customers and completing online sales processes. 4. IT help desk services: Level 1 and 2 multi-channel support, system problem resolutions, technical problem resolution, office productivity tools support, answering product usage queries and performing remote diagnostics. 5. Insurance processing: New business acquisition and promotion, claims processing, policy maintenance and policy management.

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A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover 6. Data entry and data processing: Data entry from paper, books, images, e-books, yellow pages, web sites, business cards, printed documents, software applications, receipts, bills, catalogs and mailing lists. 7. Data conversion services: Data conversion for databases, word processors, spreadsheets and software applications. Data conversion of raw data into PDF, HTML, Word or Acrobat formats. 8. Bookkeeping and accounting services: Maintenance of the customer's general ledger, accounts receivables, accounts payables, financial statements, bank reconciliations and assets / equipment ledgers. 9. Form processing services: Online form processing, payroll processing, medical billing, insurance claim forms processing and medical forms processing. 10. Online research: Internet search, product research, market research, surveys, analysis, web research and mailing list research.

4.2 Interesting facts about the Indian BPO industry:


The BPO sector in India is estimated to have reached a 54 per cent growth in revenue The demand for Indian BPO services has been growing at an annual growth rate of 50% The BPO industry in India has provided jobs for over 74,400 Indians. This number is continuing to grow on a yearly basis. The Indian BPO sector is soon to employ over 1.1 million Indians 70% of India's BPO industry's revenue is from contact centers, 20% from data entry work and the remaining 10% from information technology related work Indian BPOs handle 56% of the world's business process outsourcing.

4.3 Major Indian Players in BPO Industry of 2010-11:


NASSCOM recently conducted a survey and evaluated the leading BPO service providers across India. The top fifteen business process outsourcing companies in India are: Genpact India Pvt. Ltd.Tata Consultancy Services BPO Tata Consultancy Services WNS Global Services (P) Ltd Aegis Ltd Page | 22

A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover Wipro BPO Firstsource Solutions Ltd. Infosys BPO Aditya Birla Minacs Worldwide Ltd. exl Service.com(India) Pvt. Ltd Hinduja Global Solutions Ltd Intelenet Global Services Ltd HCL Technologies Ltd. - Business Services. HOV Services Ltd 3i Infotech Ltd. Mphasis Ltd.

4.4 Benefits of BPO Industry:


BPO benefits i.e. benefits accrued as an end result of outsourcing are numerous. BPO or outsourcing is profitable as it relates to shareholder value and optimizes business performance to accomplish value creation. There has been a marvelous surge in BPO and outsourcing industry in many developing countries like India because of their (BPO) expert know-how in lessening costs while amplifying service quality. Organizations are progressively relying more on offshore BPO partners for myriad operations. In some cases, organizations are outsourcing their complete global back-office functions, including human resources, to leverage the cost and time advantages . The growing number of global contracts and alliances focusing on BPO service delivery clearly demonstrate the organizations beliefs in the BPO value-propositions. BPO suppliers not only help reduce clients costs, but also provide expertise, help improve clients services, and increase clients profits. Client and vendor organizations seeking to exploit the benefits of a BPO relationship need to mutually understand their goals, values, and capabilities before entering into an outsourcing partnership.

Few of the benefits of a BPO are diagrammatically represented below and discussed thereafter.

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A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover

Benefits of BPO Sector

Productivity Enhancement

Focus on core Competency

Cost Saving

Improved HR

1. Productivity Enhancement:
Of all the benefits accrued by a BPO, productivity enhancement is quite significant. A successful and lucrative outsourced business process saves the executives plenty of time, which otherwise they would have expended in mundane (poor) managerial activities rather than strategy formulation. The time thus saved is invested in exploring new areas, accelerating other projects, and focusing on their core areas. This, undoubtedly, leads to productivity enhancement. Companies that outsource their business processes are often able to capture new efficiencies and in the process improve upon their productivity. This also helps their employees to increase their efficiency and productivity.

2. Focus on Core Competency:


Another benefit of outsourcing ones business process is to have the span of focus on the core areas. A firms competitive advantage is derived from those capabilities that are unique, inimitable, and non-substitutable. These capabilities constitute the core competencies of the firm. For example, a firm should outsource its IT activities if IT is not part of its core competencies. Business Process Outsourcing gives tremendous help to the companies to concentrate more on the core areas of their business. These critical activities include claims administration, HR services and payment services.

3. Cost Savings:
One very important benefit and advantage of outsourcing the business processes is in terms of cost savings. BPO provides quantifiable benefits through improved efficiencies, lower overhead, reduced payroll and benefit expenses, and fewer capital investments. The companies that outsource their work have access to the best of talent and expertise in the BPO field and that too at very low wages. Various studies have indicated that for every one dollar invested in BPOs Page | 24

A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover across India, the value derived by the US economy is between $12-14. This is what makes the outsourcing to India an irreversible process. It is a reality that the companies which have shifted their BPO work to India have garnered (collected) savings of around 40-50% till now. It is a simple fact that if a bank shifts work of 1000 people from US to India it can save about $18 million a year due to lower costs in India. Call centers in India spend only 33-40% of costs on man power. This includes spending on training, benefits and other incentives for labor.

4. Improved HR:
Improved HR is another great advantage of outsourcing business processes. Several market studies have shown that HR outsourcing can lead to cost savings in the range of 20-40 percent for customers. It also leads to improved HR. HR Business Process Outsourcing (HR BPO) is a market that has experienced extensive growth over the past few years and is now set for even more rapid expansion. This is based on the fact that gradually more companies are looking at outsourcing transactions and processes to create a more strategically focused HR function. Clearly, companies all over the world are getting motivated to outsource their HR processes and transactions to run their HR functions more efficiently, free the HR function to focus on strategic people practices that drive growth and add to the organization's long term success and facilitate their professionals to add value to their business. Companies today, require complete domestic and global HR delivery through systems and processes that can generate economies of scale to reduce or eliminate their need to make future investments in quickly outdated technology. Companies can save between 20-40 percent of their HR costs, depending on their business priorities and the pace at which they want to move.

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CHAPTER 5: CAUSES AND SOLUTIONS FOR EMPLOYEE TURNOVER 5.1 Causes of Employee Turnover:
These are few of the causes of employee turnover which are diagrammatically represented below and discussed thereafter.

Lack of Vision

Salary Scale

Work Environment Employee Paucity of Motivation Turnover

Growth Policies

No Employment Engagement

Alternate Job Opportunities

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1. Lack of Vision: Initially, no employee think about the profits of the company but about their
personal interests and gains. These shortsighted employees come with high expectations without realizing that the process would take some time. Therefore, they tend to change jobs.

2. Salary Scale: This is the common reason why employee turnover rate is high. Employees are
for sure in search of jobs that pay them well. When employees are underpaid, they tend to look out for jobs that offer considerable pay

3. Work Environment: Work environment is also the main cause for employee turnover.
Every employee would want to work in the environment that he is comfortable in. This is one such reason why employees jump from one company to another in just a couple of months.

4. Paucity of Motivation: Employees who leave due to lack of motivation are not among those
who look forward for a pat on their back, but those who would want to know if their works adds value to the company's growth.

5. Growth Policies: This is the prime reasons why employees quit their job. Employees always
look up for potential opportunities for the advancements and promotions

6. No employees engagement: Employee engagement is one of the important motivator.


Employees would be happy to be a part of the company's ups and downs, and therefore they should be kept posted with all the happenings in the organization.

7. Alternate Job Opportunities: After the LPG Model (Liberalization, privatization,


globalization) many job avenues came into the market creating alternates for the employees and choose the job according to their preference. This is also one of the reasons for employee turnover in an organization.

5.2 Remedial Measures for Retention of Employees:


Retaining key personnel is critical to long term success of an organization. A Retention Strategy has become essential if your organization is to be productive over time and can become an important part of your hiring strategy by attracting the best candidates who know of your track record for caring for employees. In fact, some companies do not have to recruit because they receive so many qualified unsolicited submissions due to their history of excellence in employee retention.

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A Study of a BPO Industry with special reference to Employee Turnover i) Don't hire out of desperation - Do not just hire an employee because you needed someone to fill the position yesterday. That is what temporary employees are for. If you are looking for someone to fill the position long term, it is best to take some time to do your research. Gather as much information as you can about a job applicant. ii) Show appreciation - Many employees almost always know when they are doing a job wrong. However, these same employees very rarely ever hear from their employers when they are doing their job right. Encourage your employees by saying kind words to them, and telling how much of a good job they are doing. If you do that, they will be more likely to accept any words of advice on how to improve their work later on. iii) Level the workload - Employees often leave companies because they feel overworked. It's frequently less expensive to hire an additional person, even part-time, than it is to replace a seasoned staff member. iv) Hold regular review sessions - When employees are closely attached to their management team, they are more likely to feel involved. More involved employees tend to perform at a higher level and are more likely to achieve longer tenure. Talk to your employees. Keep them informed of new policies and procedures. Don't keep secrets. An informed and educated employee is much more effective. v) Do exit interviews - Possible factors may be: a better job offer, pursuit for growth, poor colleague relationships, below average compensation, dislike for the nature of work, etc. Knowing what problems to address, and taking action on them, will eventually lessen turnover rates in the future.

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