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ROUTLEDGE STUDIES IN TANTRIC TRADITIONS Series Editor: Professor Gavin Flood, University of Stirlin T!

e Routledge Studies in Tantric Traditions series is a "a#or ne$ "ono ra%! series $!i&! !as 'een esta'lis!ed to %('lis! s&!olars!i% on So(t!, East and So(t!east Asian tantri& traditions) T!e series ai"s to %ro"ote t!e serio(s st(dy of 'ot! *ind( and +(dd!ist tantri& traditions t!ro( ! t!e %('li&ation of ant!ro%olo i&al and te,t(al st(dies and $ill not 'e li"ited to any one "et!od) Indeed, t!e series $o(ld !o%e to %ro"ote t!e vie$ t!at ant!ro%olo i&al st(dies &an 'e infor"ed 'y te,ts and te,t(al st(dies infor"ed 'y ant!ro%olo y) T!e series $ill t!erefore %('lis! &onte"%orary et!no ra%!ies fro" different re ions, %!ilolo i&al st(dies, %!iloso%!i&al st(dies, and !istori&al st(dies of different %eriods $!i&! &ontri'(te to t!e a&ade"i& endeavo(r to (nderstand t!e role of tantri& te,ts and t!eir "eanin in %arti&(lar &(lt(ral &onte,ts) In t!is $ay, t!e series $ill !o%e to esta'lis! $!at t!e &ontin(ities and diver en&ies are 'et$een +(dd!ist and *ind( tantri& traditions and 'et$een different re ions) T!e series $ill 'e a "a#or &ontri'(tion to t!e fields of Indolo y, Sinolo y, *istory of Reli ions, and Ant!ro%olo y) IDENTIT-, RITUAL AND STATE IN TI+ETAN +UDD*IS. Martin A) Mills T*E /*ECAR01ID-2 OF 2DIN2T*A A &riti&al edition and annotated translation of an early te,t of !a3!ayo a James Mallinson AN INTRODUCTION TO TANTRIC P*ILOSOP*T!e Paramrthasra of A'!inava (%ta $it! t!e Co""entary of -o ar4#a Lyne Bansat-Boudon and Kamaleshadatta Tripathi


AN INTRODUCTION TO TANTRIC P*ILOSOP*T!e Paramrthasra of A'!inava (%ta $it! t!e Co""entary of -o ar4#a Translated 'y Lyne Bansat-Boudon and Kamaleshadatta Tripathi Introd(&tion, notes, &riti&ally revised Sans5rit te,t, a%%endi,, indi&es 'y Lyne Bansat-Boudon First %('lis!ed 6788 'y Ro(tled e 6 Par5 S9(are, .ilton Par5, A'in don, O,on O:8; ;RN Si"(ltaneo(sly %('lis!ed in t!e USA and Canada 'y Ro(tled e 6<7 .adison Ave, Ne$ -or5, N- 8778= Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor !rancis "roup, an #nforma $usiness

> 6788 Lyne +ansat?+o(don and /a"ales!adatta Tri%at!i All ri !ts reserved) No %art of t!is 'oo5 "ay 'e re%rinted or re%rod(&ed or (tilised in any for" or 'y any ele&troni&, "e&!ani&al, or ot!er "eans, no$ 5no$n or !ereafter invented, in&l(din %!oto&o%yin and re&ordin , or in any infor"ation stora e or retrieval syste", $it!o(t %er"ission in $ritin fro" t!e %('lis!ers) British Li$rary %ataloging in Pu$lication &ata A &atalo (e re&ord for t!is 'oo5 is availa'le fro" t!e +ritis! Li'rary) Li$rary of %ongress %ataloging in Pu$lication &ata A &atalo re&ord for t!is 'oo5 !as 'een re9(ested)


Preface Acknowledgments Introduction 8)T!e t$o Paramrthasra 1.1. The Para"4rt!as4ra of 'di(e)a 1.2. Re*riting 6)T!e Paramrthasra of A'!inava (%ta 2.1. The te+t and its commentator 2.2. Structure of the te+t 2.3. S,etch of the doctrine Translation /4ri54 8 /4ri54s 6?A /4ri54 ; /4ri54 B /4ri54 = /4ri54 < /4ri54 C /4ri54 @ /4ri54s 87?88 /4ri54s 86?8A /4ri54 8; /4ri54 8B /4ri54 8= /4ri54 8< /4ri54 8C /4ri54 8@ /4ri54 67 /4ri54 68 /4ri54 66 /4ri54 6A /4ri54 6; /4ri54 6B /4ri54 6= /4ri54 6< /4ri54 6C /4ri54 6@ /4ri54 A7 /4ri54 A8 /4ri54 A6 /4ri54 AA /4ri54 A;

i, ,i 8 8 6 < 8@ 8@ 6A A6 B@ =8 <6 <= C6 CC @6 @= @@ 87; 888 88< 86= 86@ 8A8 8A= 8AC 8;8 8;6 8;;
145 147 149 150 152 161 163 164 166 169 173 175

/4ri54 AB /4ri54 A= /4ri54 A< /4ri54 AC /4ri54 A@ /4ri54 ;7 /4ri54 ;8 /4ri54 ;6 /4ri54 ;A /4ri54 ;; /4ri54 ;B /4ri54 ;= /4ri54s ;<?B7 /4ri54 B8 /4ri54 B6 /4ri54 BA /4ri54 B; /4ri54 BB /4ri54 B= /4ri54 B< /4ri54 BC /4ri54 B@ /4ri54 =7 /4ri54 =8 /4ri54 =6 /4ri54 =A /4ri54s =;?== /4ri54 =< /4ri54 =C /4ri54 =@ /4ri54 <7 /4ri54 <8 /4ri54 <6 /4ri54 <A /4ri54 <; /4ri54 <B /4ri54 <= /4ri54 << /4ri54 <C /4ri54s <@?C7 /4ri54 C8 /4ri54 C6 /4ri54 CA /4ri54 C; /4ri54s CB?C= /4ri54s C<?CC /4ri54 C@

177 184 187 190 191 193 195 199 200 206 207 209 210 215 217 217 219 219 220 222 223 225 227 231 232 234 237 240 243 245 247

6;C 6B7 6B8 6B6 6BB 6BC 6=7 6=8 6=B 6<7 6<8 6<6 6<C 6<@ 6C6 6CB

/4ri54s @7?@8 /4ri54s @6?@A /4ri54s @;?@B /4ri54 @= /4ri54 @< /4ri54s @C?@@ /4ri54s 877?878 /4ri54 876 /4ri54 87A /4ri54 87; /4ri54 87B Appendix Sanskrit text On t!e Sans5rit te,t List of ty%o ra%!i&al errors &orre&ted List of variants in so"e &ollated %assa es Des&ri%tion of t!e "an(s&ri%ts &ons(lted Te,t Bibliography A''reviations So(r&es Deditions and translationsE St(dies Index Index locorum Anthology of spiritual experience

6C< 6@7 6@6 6@@ A78 A7; A7= A7C A88 A8A A8B A8< A;< A;< A;C A;C AB6 AB= ;7< ;7< ;87 ;6C ;A< ;BA ;=8


Preface In t!e te,t, 54ri54s and %ratF5as are set in 'oldfa&e) In eneral, an effort !as 'een "ade to li"it &itation of Sans5rit ter"s in %arent!eses) *o$ever, it !as 'een #(d ed desira'le to "a5e t!e 'asi& vo&a'(lary of t!e do&trine visi'le to t!e reader) T!(s, t!e Sans5rit ter" is instan&ed $!en it desi nates a 5ey notion of t!e Tri5a, or one of its favorite "eta%!ors, and at its first o&&(rren&e, $!en it is re9(ired in order to ras% t!e sense of a loss De) ), ad AA, $!ere ,r- is lossed 'y ,helaE, in order to ta5e note of t!e "ore or less (nifor" translation of diverse, '(t essentially synony"o(s, Sans5rit ter"s, e) ), : - G, all of $!i&! !ave 'een translated 'y H&ons&io(snessI Dnote, es%e&ially, t!e variety of ter"s for Hli'erationIE, mutatis mutandis, in order to ta5e note of t!e %olyse"y of &ertain &r(&ial Sans5rit ter"s, parmar(a, paramrtha, sm.ti, et&) Certain Sans5rit ter"s of $ider, '(t often te&!ni&al (sa e, $!ose "eanin is not easily ras%ed, or $!i&! are e,%anded (%on, !ave 'een treated in t!e notes) Literal translations are li5e$ise to 'e fo(nd t!ere) Sans5rit ter"s t!at !ave 'e&o"e, or are (sed as, En lis! $ords are left in Ro"an, and "ay a&&e%t a %l(ral s(ffi,: 54ri54, Jlo5a, "antra, avataraKi54, (r(, 5ar"an, et&) Li5e$ise, "ar5s of s(%%letions !ave 'een li"ited as "(&! as %ossi'le to t!ose ne&essary to "a5e sense of an often la&oni& Sans5rit, es%e&ially as &on&erns t!e "any te&!ni&al e,%lanations of &on&e%ts and ter"s) T!e fre9(ently o&&(rrin ha, referrin al$ays to A'!inava (%ta, !as 'een rendered 'y Ht!e "aster saysI) Glosses or ter"s to 'e (nderstood as s(&! are en&losed in single 9(otation "ar5s) &ou$le 9(otation "ar5s indi&ate t!at t!e a(t!or H$is!es to sin le o(t a $ord or %!rase, not 9(otin it fro" a s%e&ifi& do&("ent))) '(t referrin it to a eneral 'a&5 ro(nd t!at $ill 'e re&o niLed 'y t!e readerI D %hicago Manual of Style, 8At! ed)E) Certain ela'orations of notions treated in t!e notes !ave 'een ro(%ed to et!er in an HA%%endi,I) In addition to t!e 5ey ter"s of t!e do&trine, &ertain re&(rrin se "ents of its %!raseolo y !ave 'een inde,ed, ea&! $it! a translation, for"in a lossary of t!e essential %oints of t!e syste") To t!is !as 'een added an Inde, lo&or(" and an HAnt!olo y of s%irit(al e,%erien&eI Dsee Intr), n) @@E) T!e Sans5rit te,t re%rod(&ed !ere is 'ased on t!e /STS edition) It !as 'een revised and &orre&ted at %la&es after &ollation of nine "an(s&ri%tsM see HOn t!e Sans5rit Te,tI) For t!e !istory of t!e $or5 !ere %resented, it "ay 'e (sef(l to note t!at Prof) /) D) Tri%at!i is a dis&i%le of R4"eJvara N!4, t!e a(t!or of t!e P/r0atpratya$hi12, &ited fre9(ently in t!e notes Dsee, es%e&ially, n) A8;E) A $or5 'y D) +) SenS!ar"a !as a%%eared in 677<, to $!i&! I !ave !ad a&&ess only tardily, '(t !ave nevert!eless &ons(lted: Paramrthasra of A$hina3agupta) The 4ssence of the Supreme Truth , *ith the commentary of 5ogar1a ) Translation

introduction) Ne$ Del!i, .(5ta'od!a, and E"eryville, Calif) T!e $or5 is !o$ever "ore a free loss t!an a translation)


Acknowledgments T!e $or5 on t!e annotated translation of t!e Paramrthasra and its loss 'e an in N(ne 6777 in &olla'oration $it! Prof) /a"ales!adatta Tri%at!i, t!(s follo$in t!e ri oro(s tradition of Indian s&!olars!i%) Sin&e t!en, a n("'er of versions !ave seen t!e li !t and !ave res(lted in t!e %resent te,t, $!i&! !as 'enefited fro" &o""ents and advi&e offered 'y several learned s&!olars) S%e&ial t!an5s o to C!arles .ala"o(d, Andre Pado(,, Raffaele Torel?la, Ale,is Sanderson, Do"ini& Goodall, .arion Rastelli, David Seyfort R(e , Eli Fran&o, /arin PreisendanL, Ernst Stein5ellner, Nalini Delvoye, .i&!el *(lin, 1i&toria Lissen5o, +ir it /ellner, Seis!i /aras!i"a, $!o $ere enero(s eno( ! to %rovide t!eir e,%ertise in res%onse to "y 9(eries) One of t!e %leas(res attendant (%on s&!olarly resear&! is &ertainly t!is: t!e &onstant attestation of t!at si"%le and dis&reet fraternity to $!i&! t!e s&ientifi& &o""(nity %ays ta&it !o"a e) I a" %arti&(larly inde'ted to$ards t!ree &ollea (es and friends) Not only did -ves Codet &ontri'(te to el(&idatin several diffi&(lties raised 'y t!e te,t, '(t !e also i""ensly !el%ed 'y for"attin "y "an(s&ri%t (sin t!e :eTe: soft$are) T!is $as a lon and so"e$!at la'orio(s tas5, d(rin $!i&! !is %atien&e never a'ided) Oit! N(dit TorLso5, I !ad lon dis&(ssions &on&ernin %assa es t!at re9(ired !er ras% and 5no$led e of tantri& Pivais", %arti&(larly its rit(als) *er (nfailin s(%%ort $as &entral to t!e esta'lis!"ent of t!e Sans5rit te,t) Finally, t!e 'i'lio ra%!y is t!e res(lt of a dedi&ated &olla'oration $it! Silvia DIIntino $!o enero(sly s!ared !er &atalo (in s5ills and !er s!ar% (nderstandin of t!e Q'i'lio ra%!i& o'#e&tQ) I also $is! to e,%ress "y dee% ratit(de to "y friend and !i !ly estee"ed &ollea (e Ed$in Gero$, $!ose &aref(l readin of "y te,t ens(red %ro%er En lis! $ordin ) D(rin o(r dis&(ssions, $it! talent and #(st t!e ne&essary to(&! of "is&!ievo(sness, !e f(lfilled t!e role of an o'#e&tor, &o""entin and &!allen in "any ter"s and %assa es of earlier drafts of t!is $or5) T!e %resent version !as 'een "aterially i"%roved 'y res%ondin to, and indeed in&or%oratin so"e of, !is &o""ents) Needless to say, any re"ainin infeli&ities s!o(ld 'e attri'(ted to "e) L++


iva (?), with the khavaga. Sirp r, !hatti"garh. 7th #e$t r%. &h't' (% )i#'*e +e$a$t,-i -i'



As soon as t!e e,%anse of i noran&e affe&tin t!e "ind is dis%elled 'y &orre&t insi !t, t!en Hli'eration $!ile livin I is %resent on t!e %al" of t!e !and) R A'!inava (%ta, Tantrlo,a ) The two Paramrthasra T!e Paramrthasra, or HEssen&e of Ulti"ate RealityI, is a $or5 of t!e /as!"irian %oly"at! A'!inava (%ta Dend of t!e tent!, 'e innin of t!e elevent! &ent(ryE) It is a 'rief treatise,8 a &o"%endi("6 in $!i&! t!e a(t!or o(tlines t!e do&trine of $!i&! !e is a nota'le e,%onent Dindeed, t!e "ost fe&(ndE, na"ely nond(alisti& Paivis", $!i&! !e desi nates in !is $or5s as t!e HTri5aI, or HTriadI of t!ree %rin&i%les: Piva, Pa5ti and t!e e"'odied so(l 6nara7)A A&&ordin to -o ar4#a Dse&ond !alf of t!e elevent! &ent(ryE, t!e a(t!or of its &o""entary, 8i3.ti, t!e Paramrthasra is of t!e nat(re of a pra,ara0a,; a H"an(alI or H%re&isI servin as introd(&tion to t!e esta'lis!ed do&trine of a tradition)B T!e $or5, a%%ro%riately, 'e ins 'y feat(rin a mumu,)u, one $!o Has%ires to li'erationI, a st(dent desiro(s of learnin fro" a "aster t!e "eans $!ere'y !e "ay %(t an end to !is doloro(s $anderin s t!ro( ! t!e &y&les of re'irt!)= T!e Paramrthasra s!ares $it! t!e vast "a#ority of Indian %!iloso%!i&al te,ts t!is %ro%aede(ti& %(r%ose t!at is en&oded as $ell in t!e title of t!e $or5, $!i&! "ay
.he #'//e$tar% a0 104 "e" the ter/ stra. sakepa 'r sagraha. See 2$0 magalcaraa '1 the #'//e$tar% (paramrthasrasakepa), Paramrthasra 2&S3 104 (idam... sakepam), 105 (tad ida sakipta strasram) a$0 the #'*'ph'$ '1 the #'//e$tar% (paramrthasrasagrahavivti). 3 See, 1'r i$"ta$#e, Tantrloka 2.43 5 1, 5666 348 a$0 (a" the periphra"ti# e7pre""i'$ 89aar0ha:, 8ha*1 '1 "i7:) .4 5666 301 (where i" e"ta(*i"he0 the " pre/a#% '1 the .rika 'ver a** aiva # rre$t"), 5;6158, 555;66 26, 68, et#. 6 "e the ter/ 8.rika: here i$ thi" "e$"e. <$ the hi"t'ri#a* 0eve*'p/e$t '1 the .rika a$0 'ther "%/('*i# /ea$i$g" '1 the ter/ it"e*1, "ee Sa$0er"'$ 1995= 672> 2007. .he pree/i$e$t #'$#er$ '1 thi" e""a%, 8$'$0 a*i"ti#: 'r 8$'$,0 a*: (advaita) aivi"/ '1 ?a"h/ir, wi** (e, whe$ the #'$te7t 0'e" $'t te$0 t' #'$1 "i'$, re1erre0 t' "i/p*% a" ?a"h/ir aivi"/ 'r eve$ a" aivi"/. <$ thi" 8.ria0:, "ee avatara@ikA 2avat.3 a0 &S 41 ($. 875) a$0 46. 4 See avat. a0 &S 2,3 a$0 105, a$0 $. 276 '$ prakaraa. 5 B" CD p t" it i$ hi" #'//e$tar% a0 104, the the/e $0er*%i$g the e$tire te7t i" 82that brahman , i$ re1ere$#e t' whi#h a #'$#i"e " //ar% (sakepa) #'$tai$i$g the e""e$tia* p rp'rt (ttpar!a) 2'1 ' r 0'#tri$e3 ha" (ee$ "tate0, a$0 e7p*ai$e0, (% B(hi$avag pta, wh'"e $a/e i" t' (e /e$ti'$e0 with revere$#e 2i.e., #e*e(rate03:. 6$ hi" g*'"" '1 &S 105, CD $0er*i$e" a" we** the e"'teri# 0i/e$"i'$ '1 " #h a tra0iti'$, th " Erevea*e0E, at *ea"t i$ part, t' the "i$#ere a0ept= 8.hi" #'re '1 the tea#hi$g (strasra), that i", that e""e$#e (satattva) "prea0 thr' gh' t $ /er' " te7t", ha" (ee$ #'$0e$"e0 (% /e> that i", ha" (ee$ "tate0 2(% B(hi$avag pta3 a1ter havi$g /a"tere0 it hi/"e*1, withi$ the "/a** "pa$ '1 h $0re0 ver"e", th' gh it #a$ har0*% (e e7p*ai$e0 i$ a th' "a$0 te7t". F% thi" i" "tate0 2a" we**3 the re"' r#e1 *$e"" 2'1 the a th'r:"3 * /i$' " #'$"#i' "$e"" (pratibh)". 6 See CD a0 101, where the g'0" "a%, apr'p'" the 81ai*e0: a"pira$t (!ogabhra#a)= $... !as!a svtmani %i%&srtha prg%anmani 'd!amo (bh)t, 86t i" he 2a1ter a**3 wh'"e "trivi$g i$ a previ' " *i1e wa" /'tivate0 (% a 0e"ire t' k$'w regar0i$g hi" 'w$ Se*1.
1 2


e9(ally 'e (nderstood as si nifyin HT!e Core of t!e Tea&!in s on Ulti"ate RealityI, as -o ar4#a e,%lains in !is loss of t!e se&ond and t!ird verses)< 1)1) The Param!rthas!ra of diea O!at "a5es t!e Paramrthasra of A'!inava (%ta (ni9(e is t!e nat(re of its e,%osition of t!e do&trine) It does not in all res%e&ts &orres%ond to t!e ordinary "odel of a pra,ara0a)C In its se&ond and t!ird verses, $!i&! re&o(nt its Q"yt! of ori inQ, t!is Paramrthasra is %resented as a Jaivite re$or5in of anot!er Paramrthasra, attri'(ted to 2diJeSa, also &alled 2d!4ra@ Dsi,t! or sevent! &ent(ryE,87 of $!i&! t!e &o""entator, -o ar4#a, !as retained only t!e S4 5!ya feat(res)88 T!is is %er!a%s in f(n&tion of t!at te,tIs verse seven, in $!i&! t!e mumu,)u, $!o no$ 5no$s !is &ate&!is", %resses t!e "aster to reveal t!e se&rets i"%lied in t!e distin&tion 'et$een puru)a and pra,.ti and #(st $!y 5no$led e of t!at distin&tion is salvifi&) 86 To t!is e,tent, -o ar4#a only ta5es %artial a&&o(nt of t!e do&trine of t!e older
.he p'*%"e/% '1 the ter/ artha /ake" 'ther i$terpretati'$" p'""i(*e= 8.he G""e$#e '1 H*ti/ate +ea$i$g: ("ee &S 59 a$0 CD a0 *'#), 'r, /'re preg$a$t*%, 8&ri$#ip*e" e""e$tia* i$ attai$i$g the S pre/e I'a* '1 *i1e:, $a/e*% moka J "ee &S 103 a$0 CD a0 104, K 'te0 p. 33. .he ter/ 8"Ara: (*it., 8"ap:, 8vivi1%i$g L i#e:) it"e*1 parti#ipate" i$ the p $, e7pre""i$g '$ the '$e ha$0 the 8ker$e*: 'r 8#'re: '1 the Dea*, 1r'/ whi#h the i$e""e$tia* ha" (ee$ "trippe0 awa%, a$0 '$ the 'ther, the 8heart: '1 the tea#hi$g, 1r'/ whi#h " per1* ' " 'r a$#i**ar% 0i"# ""i'$ ha" (ee$ a("tra#te0. 8 See p. 19. 9 B*"' B$a$ta J a** the"e (ei$g "%$'$%/' " with e9a, ;i9@ :" "erpe$t. Me$#e the a*ter$ative tit*e" '1 the w'rk= *dhrakrik, 'r +nantakrik, t' whi#h i" "'/eti/e" a00e0 a 0e"#riptive tit*e= *r!pa&c,ti, 8.he 2w'rk #'/p'"e0 '13 eight%,1ive Ar%A":. .he tra0iti'$ a*"' /ake" thi" i0e$ti1i#ati'$, #'$1erri$g '$ the a th'r a K a"i,0ivi$e "tat " (#1. the epithet %agaddhra, 8" pp'rt '1 the w'r*0:, v. 87). B$0 "', DAghavA$a$0a 2D3, a *ate B0vaiti$ (pr'(a(*% 16th #e$t.), a th'r '1 the Paramrthasravivaraa 24&S;3, the '$*% #'//e$tar% '$ the 1ir"t &S t' have #'/e 0'w$ t' ", '("erve", i$ hi" g*'"" '$ v. 87= ea anantas t' na !a ko (pi vipacit, 8e9a, $a/e*% B$a$ta, $'t "'/e "age 'r 'ther:. F t, i$ hi" g*'"" '$ v. 3, he K a*i1ie" thi" "a/e B$a$ta a" %,vanm'kta g'r'vara (papraccha), 82he a"k"3 the /'"t e7#e**e$t tea#her, *i(erate0 whi*e a*ive ...: .he "a/e a/(ig it% i" "ee$ i$ CD:" #'//e$tar%, whi#h "'/eti/e" pre"e$t" 40hAra a" a "age (m'ni), a /'rta*, ( t a*"' a""'#iate" 40hAra 'r e9a 0ire#t*% with a 0ivi$e 1ig re, B$a$ta$Atha J 8N'r0 B$a$ta: J "'/eti/e" ter/e0 a*"' the 8pre"i0i$g 0eit% '1 +A%A: (.4 ;666 323a, with the #'//e$tar% '1 Oa%aratha 2OD3 (1*. #a. 1250> "ee Sa$0er"'$ 2007= 418,419), the Tantrlokaviveka 2.4;3> re1ere$#e" t' .4; wi** (e /a0e t' -wive0i a$0 Da"t'gi:" e0. 1987). B(hi$avag pta 2BI3 "ee/" ge$era**% t' 'pt 1'r a " pra,/ $0a$e "tat "> he #ite", i$ hi" #'//e$tar% t' -hagavadg,t 2FhI3 ;666 6, v. 81 '1 40iPe9a:" w'rk, whi#h he there ter/" a r'ti> i$ hi" .4 (55;666 309(), he attri( te" thi" "a/e ver"e, with' t $a/i$g the te7t, t' the 8N'r0 '1 the "erpe$t", wh' (ear" the ( r0e$ '1 the $iver"e (% " pp'rti$g it: (ah,no vivdhradh'rndhara). B$'ther threa0 '1 the tra0iti'$ (i$ 1a#t, the e0iti'$ '1 the te7t, p (*i"he0 i$ the Pandit, 1871) i0e$ti1ie" e9a with &ataQLa*i= r,madbhagavaccheaktr!pa&c,ti sampt (#'*'ph'$) v". r,madbhagavatpata&%aliviracitr! (incipit). .he Re"ter$ /e$ta*it% wi** '1 #' r"e atte/pt t' re"'*ve the a/(ig it%= the a th'r i" '$e 40iPe9a, "' $a/e0, wh' i" a 0ev'tee '1 ;i9@ . .he *i$e (etwee$ 0ivi$it% a$0 h'$'re0 pre0e#e""'r (ei$g a*wa%" 0i11i# *t t' 0raw i$ 6$0ia, " #h i0e$ti1i#ati'$" "erve a" we** a" wa%" '1 #*ai/i$g greater a th'rit% 1'r the te7t i$ K e"ti'$. 6$ the"e $'te", the Paramrthasra '1 40iPe9a wi** (e 0e"ig$ate0 (% the a((reviati'$ 4&S 2S *dieaparamrthasra , the Paramrthasra '1 B(hi$avag pta, (% &S. 10 .he .'ktid,pik a0 /kh!akrik 2S?3 2 #ite" v. 83 '1 4&S. .hi" a$'$%/' " #'//e$tar% i" "it ate0 #a. 550 B- (% Tra wa**$er (1973, v'*. 6= 226), #a. 680,720, 'r eve$ *ater, (% ReU*er a$0 +'tegi, .'ktid,pik= 50. 11 SeeCD a0 2,3.


Paramrthasra, $!i&! &onflates S45!ya d(alis" and t!e nond(alis" of t!e 1ed4nta R a 5ind of %re?PaT5ara 1ed4nta8A !alf$ay 'et$een t!e d3aitd3aita3da of +!artU%ra%aV&a8; and t!e ad3aita3da of Ga(a%4da,8B '(t one $!i&!, i"%rinted $it! devotion to 1iSK(, re"ains %rofo(ndly t!eist, in t!e "anner of e%i& S45!ya)8= T!e do&trine t!at e"er es fro" t!e earlier Paramrthasra refle&ts at least a %art of t!e &on&e%t(al a%%arat(s of S45!ya evol(tionis", %la&in it $it!in t!e eneral fra"e$or5 of a ved4nti& "eta%!ysi&s t!at %osits fro" t!e start t!e (nreality of t!e %!eno"enal $orld,8< itself t!e res(lt of t!e all?%o$erf(l my of 1iSK( R a deity $!o, !o$ever, see"s little '(t t!e %ersonifi&ation of a %rin&i%le t!at t!e te,t ter"s e9(ally $rahman, tman, or paramtman) T!is do&trine, evidently e&le&ti&, is none t!e less s(ffi&iently &o!erent to 'e 9(alified as Qsynt!eti&Q) T!e te,t atte"%ts, in effe&t, to inte rate 'ot! t!e %ers%e&tives 6dar(ana7 of S45!ya and of 1ed4nta, rat!er t!an &onsiderin t!e" as alternatives, (nifyin t!e" $it!in t!e r('ri& of a 1aiSKavis" $!ose QdivinityQ, $!atever !is na"e, serves as (ni9(e %rin&i%le R t!(s, in effe&t, %rivile in t!e nond(al as%e&t of t!e do&trine and %la&in it s9(arely $it!in t!e &(rrents of early devotionalis") 8C A %ro ra""ati& verse at t!e 'e innin of 2d!4raIs res%onse to t!e dis&i%le s5et&!es t!e 'asi& o(tlines of s(&! a do&trine: HI s!all %ro%o(nd t!is QEssen&e of S(%re"e Tr(t!Q 6paramrthasra7 after "a5in o'eisan&e to t!at U%endra WX 1iSK(Y,
4&S 7= g'ap'r'avibhga%&e dharmdharma' na bandhaka' bhavata 0 iti gaditap)r1 vavk!ai prakti p'r'a ca me br)hi 00, 8+erit a$0 -e/erit 0' $'t (i$0 hi/ wh' k$'w" the 0i"ti$#ti'$ (etwee$ the V a*itie" a$0 the S' *. 6$ a##'r0a$#e with 2the"e3 "e$te$#e", a" pr'$' $#e0 i$ the 1'reg'i$g, e7p*ai$ t' /e &ri/'r0ia* )at re a$0 S' *W: (tr. -a$ie*"'$ J a" are a** tra$"*ati'$" 1r'/ 4&S #ite0 here, $*e"" 'therwi"e "pe#i1ie0). 13 See, $'ta(*%, F' % *gamastra 243= 23,28> +aha0eva$ 1975= 16,22> Fhatta#har%a 4= N5565 11. 14 See 4&S 27. 40iPe9a "hare" $'ta(*% with FhartXprapaQ#a the #'$#epti'$ '1 a saprapa&cabrahman, i$ virt e '1 whi#h brahman, i$ the #' r"e '1 ev'* ti'$, pa""e" thr' gh 0i11ere$t "tate" (avasth), eight i$ $ /(er, a##'r0i$g t' FhartXprapaQ#a ("ee Miri%a$$a 1924), 1ive, a##'r0i$g t' 40iPe9a (v. 27). 15 See 4&S 31. 16 .h ", (% "'/e a th'r", the &S '1 40iPe9a ha" (ee$ i0e$ti1ie0 a" e""e$tia**% ve0A$ti#, i$ re1ere$#e, parti# *ar*%, t' v. 31, wh'"e ter/i$'*'g% i" i$0 (ita(*% ve0A$ti#, a$0 t' the *a"t ver"e (whi#h /a% $everthe*e"" (e a *ate i$terp'*ati'$)= vedntastram akhila vilok!a eas t' $... (Ia@apati A"trY 4&S= pre1a#e> S r%a$ara%a$a Sa"tri 4&S= ;66> Fhattta#har%a 4= N555> F' % 4= 18, 27> $'te that the 2abdakalpadr'ma i0e$ti1ie" the te7t '1 the Paramrthasra a" the 8w'rk '1 e9a$Aga:, i$ 79 Ar%A", ".v. vednta)> $'te a*"' that the *ater ve0A$ti# tra0iti'$, repre"e$te0 $'ta(*% (% the 3,vanm'ktiviveka (14th #e$t.) appr'priate" the 1ir"t Paramrthasra 1'r it" 0e/'$"trati'$ '1 %,vanm'kti, pre" /i$g t' ig$'re aiva arg /e$t" e$tire*% '$ that $'ti'$. <ther" #'$"i0er it a" /'re aki$ t' SAkh%a (&a$0e% 1963= 63> Si*( r$ &S= 19= 8 $ SAkh%a tei$te 0e ;i9$' i"/e (sic), par #'$"eK e$t thei"te:), 'r vai9@avite (Far$ett &S= 708). &. Ma#ker (1965= 154) treat" the 4&S a" '$e '1 the te7t" 8that pr'1e"" ;ai9@avi"/ a$0 tea#h ra0i#a* a0vaiti"/ at the "a/e ti/e:. T'r -a$ie*"'$ (4&S= 4, 6, 10), 0e"pite $ /er' " SAkh%a trait", 8the w'rk a" a wh'*e (e*'$g" t' a tra0iti'$ '1 ;e0A$ta, a$0 '$e we /a% #a** Fhe0A(he0A0vaita:. 17 4&S 2= tmmb'ra' nikhilo (pi loko magno (pi ncmati nekate ca0 car!am etan mgatikbhe bhavmb'ra' ramate maiva00, 8.he wh'*e w'r*0, th' gh " (/erge0 i$ the '#ea$ '1 the Se*1 (tman), $either 0ri$k" 1r'/ $'r *''k" at it. 6t i" a /%"ter% that 2the w'r*03 L "t (*i$0*% * "t" 1'r the '#ea$ '1 e7i"te$#e", whi#h i" *ike a /irage:> a*"' 4&S 9, #ite0 i$1ra. 18 6t /ight (e "ai0 that the "a/e ta#ti# i" e/p*'%e0 i$ a** the /a$i1e"t'" '1 0ev'ti'$a*i"/, i$#* 0i$g the 4,t, whi#h /a% we** have "erve0 a" /'0e* 1'r th'"e that 1'**'we0.


'y $!o" t!is (nreal $orld $as "ade fro" Pri"ordial .atter as so"et!in see"in ly realI)8@ .oreover, one !as t!e feelin t!at t!e 9(estions %(t 'y t!e dis&i%le are %rin&i%ally fra"ed in ter"s of S45!ya,67 $!ereas t!e res%onses of t!e tea&!er are (s(ally &o(&!ed in advaiti& ter"s, even t!o( ! t!e latter &ontin(es to (tiliLe Din order to "a5e !i"self 'etter (nderstoodZE several S45!ya &on&e%ts R al$ays &aref(l, !o$ever, to esta'lis! e9(ivalen&es, $!ere %ossi'le, $it! 5ey notions of t!e ot!er syste" R for instan&e pra,.ti, %ersistently identified $it! t!e my of 1iSK()68 As a "atter of fa&t, t!e dis&i%le %oses t$o 9(estions: !o$ li'eration is a&!ieved Dvv) ; and =E,66 and !o$ !e is to ras% $!at is at iss(e in distin (is!in puru)a and pra,.ti Dv) <E) It is t!e "aster $!o, in t!e &o(rse of !is res%onse, (nifies t!e t$o re9(ests 'y introd(&in a t!ird ter", $rahman Dor tmanE,6A an (%aniSadi& notion, !en&e ved4nti&, 9(alified as ad3aita in verse B<)6; T!(s, do('tless, t!e li"inary caution of t!e "aster, $!o $arns t!e st(dent t!at t!e res%onse $ill 'e diffi&(lt, and $!o e,!orts !i" to "a5e t!e ne&essary effort to (nderstand it: HAlt!o( ! t!at $!i&! is to 'e said Wa'o(t t!isY in t!e follo$in is very !ard to %enetrate into even for t!ose $!o !ave 5no$led e, do yo( !ear it nevert!eless[I6B One "ay $onder $!et!er 2diJeSaIs %rea"'le offers t!e o&&asion for a%%re!endin t!e "anner in $!i&! t!e transition 'et$een t!e t$o syste"s "ay !ave ta5en %la&e) T!e transition is &on&e%t(al, if not &!ronolo i&al, $!i&! "ay !ave 'een t!e $or5 of a t!in5er or ro(% of t!in5ers R t!o( ! $e "(st not infer fro" t!is any anteriority of one syste" vis?a?vis t!e ot!er, 'e it S45!ya d(alis" or t!e nond(alis" of t!e 1ed4nta)6= T!(s t!e analo y of t!e &!rysalis, $!i&! t!e st(dent e"%loys to ill(strate t!e %ro'le"ati& of li'eration fro" 'onda e, 6< "ay also a%%ly to t!e "anner in $!i&! one do&trine e"er es fro" t!e ot!er R t!e sa"e do&trine, to 'e s(re, yet different, indeed %erfe&ted) Nevert!eless, as !e arrives at t!e end of t!e e,%osition, t!e reader noti&es t!at t!e do&trine R des%ite its a%%arently &o"%osite &!ara&ter R ta5es reat &are to desi nate
4&S 9= sat!am iva %agad asat!a m)laprakter ida kta !ena0 ta praipat!opendra vak!e paramrthasram idam00. 20 Gve$ i1 he a00re""e" (4&S 4) a /a"ter wh'/ he #e*e(rate" a" 8'$e wh' ha" /a"tere0 ;e0a a$0 ;e0A$ga:, a" hi/ 8wh' "peak" the tr th: (tavakt) J that i", #'//e$t" D, wh' k$'w" 8the #'/p*ete /ea$i$g '1 ;e0A$ta 2viU., '1 the pa$i9a0"3, 1'r/e0 (% the w'r0" '1 the N'r0, Frah/a, et#.:. 21 4&S 10(= m!ma!, pravtti sahri!ata i!a p'na kramaa00, 82.he$3 thi" +a$i1e"tati'$, whi#h #'$"i"t" '1 +agi# (m!), i" a("'r(e0 agai$ i$ 2rever"e3 'r0er:. 22 4&S 4= sasrravataraaprana pcchm! aha bhagavan. 23 6$ parti# *ar, 4&S 13 (tman), 16,18, 19 (brahman), et#. 24 B$ advaitabrahman 1 rther 0e"#ri(e0 a" sakalanikala, a$ '7%/'r'$ that D i$terpret" a" re1erri$g ('th t' the saprapa&cabrahman '1 pre,akara ;e0A$ta a$0 t' brahman a" sat, cit, nanda. 25 4&S 8= it! dhro bhagavn p#a i!ea ta sa hovca0 vid'm ap! atigahana vaktav!am ida ' tathpi tvam00. 26 See Sha"tri &S= 65. FhartXprapaQ#a (5th 'r 6th #e$t.), #ite0 (% akara i$ hi" #'//e$tar% t' -hadra!akopaniad 2F4H3, i" there pre"e$te0 a" a$ a'paniada wh'"e 0'#tri$e i" i$1* e$#e0 (% ;aiPe9ika a$0 SAkh%a ("ee F' % 4= 27). 27 4&S 6= karmag'a%labaddho %,va sasarati koakra iva0 mohndhakragahant tas!a katha bandhann moka00, 8.he "' *, (' $0 (% the $et '1 B#t" a$0 V a*itie", i" i$ .ra$"/igrati'$ *ike a #hr%"a*i" 2i$ it" #'#''$3. M'w i" it t' (e 0e*ivere0 (moka) 1r'/ ('$0age, whi#h i" har0 t' pe$etrate (e#a "e '1 the 0ark$e"" 2#'$"i"ti$g3 '1 -e* "i'$?:


and to %resent itself as a sar3tma3da, a Hdo&trine of t!e Universal Self or a Hdo&trine !oldin t!at all is t!e Self 6C R a ter" t!at %ro&lai"s t!e do&trineIs &o!eren&e 'y allyin it $it! a lon ?esta'lis!ed tradition t!at sees t!e Ulti"ate as 'ot! i""anent and trans&endent, '(t $!i&! in effe&t a"o(nts to assertin anot!er ty%e of nond(alis") T!e sar3tma3da of 2diJeSa, in effe&t, finds its %la&e $it!in t!e linea es of Advaita and t!e traditions of /as!"ir Paivis" R "onis"s t!at %ro&lai", in &onsonan&e $it! "any (%aniSads, t!at Ht!e Self is AllI: HWT!ere isY not a sin le do('t as to t!is, WviL), t!e fa&t t!atY t!is all is only t!e Self) Only $!en one realiLes Wt!is SelfY as 'ot! !avin and not !avin %arts, does one 'e&o"e free fro" t!e i"%enetra'le dar5ness of Del(sion, and 'e&o"e S(%re"e Lord at t!e sa"e ti"eI) 6@ Anot!er as%e&t of t!e strate y of identifi&ation ela'orated 'y t!e first Paramrthasra is its &lai" of do&trinal (ni9(eness, $!i&! ta5es t!e (s(al for" of assertin its (niversality $it! res%e&t to rival do&trines, '(t s(&! t!at t!ey find a %la&e $it!in it as s('sidiary "o"ents: HOe &onsent to $!atever Wot!ersY, $!o are 'lind $it! reed, %ro&lai" in t!eir Siddhhtas, 'gamas, and Tar,as, sin&e all t!at Wtestifies to t!e orientation ofY t!eir t!o( !t to$ard Wo(rY do&trine, a&&ordin to $!i&! everyt!in is t!e Self)A7 .oreover, it is evident t!at ved4nti& notions and t!e "onisti& ar ("entation t!at s(%%orts t!e" ta5e %re&eden&e over t!e e,%ose of S45!ya &ate ories: t!e t!eory of t!e tatt3as a%%ears only o&&asionally,A8 and t!ere re"ains of S45!ya ontolo y only t!e notion of t!e t!ree H9(alitiesI 6gu0a7, and of S45!ya es&!atolo y only t!e insisten&e on dis&ri"inatin puru)a fro" pra,.ti,A6 $it! a vie$ t!ere'y to ainin li'eration R a tea&!in , for t!at "atter, fo(nd already in t!e (%aniSads, as re&o niLed already 'y 14&as%ati in !is Tatt3a,aumud- WT/Y D&itin s%e&ifi&ally +2U II ;, B and %hndogyopani)ad WC!UY 1III 8BE: HSays t!e Pr(ti: QT!e S%irit s!o(ld 'e 5no$n and dis&ri"inated fro" Pri"ordial .atterQM D'y so doin E Qt!e a ent does not ret(rn, !e does not ret(rn Dinto t!is $orldE)QIAA In effe&t, "ore even t!an an e,%osition of do&trine R a do&trine "oreover t!at did not ive rise to a dis&rete tradition R t!e Paramrthasra of 2diJeSa %resents itself as a treatise on li'eration, to t!e e,tent t!at it &onstit(tes t!e res%onse of a "aster to !is a&olyte desiro(s of li'eration) S(&! is indeed t!e %oint of arti&(lation 'et$een S4 5!ya?ty%e and Advaita?ty%e reasonin s in t!e first Paramrthasra R t!e soteriolo i&al %ers%e&tive)A; And t!is is
;er"e 29#,0 "ket#he" a*rea0% the ' t*i$e" '1 the 0'#tri$e= na vidanti vs'deva sarvtmna nar m)dh00, 8-e* 0e0 (% thi" err'r, pe'p*e 0' $'t re#'g$iUe ;A" 0eva a" the Se*1 '1 ever%thi$g:. 29 4&S 630,64= na kacid ap! atra sadeha00 tmaiveda sarva nikalasakala !adaiva bhva!ati0 mohagahand vi!'ktas tadaiva paramevar,bh)ta00. Mere, the /'"t evi0e$t 0iverge$#e with re"pe#t t' aiva /'$i"/ 'r that '1 akara i" the /ai$te$a$#e '1 a brahman0atman #'$#eive0 a" ('th pr'vi0e0 with a$0 0ev'i0 '1 part". .he 1i$a* phra"e, h'wever, rea0" a" aiva=:Z a$0 (e#'/e the S pre/e N'r0 at the "a/e ti/e: (tadaiva paramevar-bh)ta). 30 4&S 65= !ad !at siddhntgamatarke' prabr'vanti rgndh0 an'modmas tat te sarvtmavdadhi!00. Si/i*ar "trateg% i$ &S 50 ("ee p. 9). 31 See 4&S 20. 32 See 4&S 7, 35, 44,45, 70, 75, 83. 33 .? 2= tm v (re%&tav!a praktito vivektav!a (F4H 66 4, 5)> na sa p'nar vartate na sa p'nar vartate (!hH ;66615)> tr. I. Oha. 34 6t ha" (ee$ " gge"te0 (-a$ie*"'$ 4&S= 4) that the 1a/' " prea/(*e t' the "e#'$0 "e#ti'$ '1 the re#eive0 te7t '1 the 5padeashasr, /a% have (ee$ (a"e0 '$ the /'0e* 1 r$i"he0 (% the 1ir"t &S= a


also, $it!o(t a do('t R I $ill ret(rn to t!is %oint 'elo$ R one of t!e #(stifi&ations t!at "i !t !ave %ro"%ted t!e se&ond Paramrthasra to (nderta5e a rereadin of t!e first) 1)2) Rewriting 1)2)1) Appropriation *o$ever t!at "ay 'e, t!e &lai" "ade 'y t!e Paiva Paramrthasra to !ave re$ritten t!e older Paramrthasra is 9(ite (n!eard of in t!e !istory of Indian literat(re R $!ere neit!er 'orro$in nor (nattri'(ted &o%yin are "(&! fro$ned (%on AB R for in t!is &ase it is not "erely a "atter of re%rod(&in a te,t of $ell?5no$n re%(tation, A= "a5in !ere and t!ere a fe$ ad#(st"ents or innovations, '(t rat!er of a%%ro%riatin , transfor"in , even investin anot!er te,t, to "a5e it 'etter a'le to e,%ress an i"%roved do&trine) T!is a%%ro%riation is #(stified on t!e ass("%tion t!at t!e i"%roved do&trine Din effe&t, Tri5a Paivis"E is already %resent in seed for" in t!e older do&trine Dof 2diJeSaE, and t!at it is not!in '(t t!e a&&o"%lis!"ent of t!at older do&trine, fro" $!i&! it !as erased all tra&e of d(alis") T!e se&ond Paramrthasra is t!(s a $or5 t!at sees itself as t!e 9(intessential distillation of anot!er R t!o( !, to 'e fair, in for"al ter"s, it is also an e,%ansion, !avin added t$enty or so verses R $!i&! %ro&ess -o ar4#a ill(strates 'y t!e analo y of '(tter e,tra&ted fro" &lotted "il5,A< an analo y t!at &(ts t$o $ays) For, in effe&t, $!ile t!e &lottin of "il5 re%resents a transfor"ation t!at is s%ontaneo(s, iven t!e ri !t &ir&("stan&es, t!e %rod(&tion of '(tter re9(ires $ill and effort) On t!e ot!er !and, a&&ordin to t!e S45!ya do&trine of &a(sality, sat,rya3da, t!e effe&t is %re?e,istent in t!e &a(se, and so "ay t!e Tri5a itself, $!i&! ado%ts t!e sa"e sat,rya3da, 'e (nderstood 'y its advo&ates as already %resent in t!e H&lotted "il5I of 2diJeSaIs QS45!yaQ) O!at re"ains is t!at t!e transfor"ation i"%lies a s(%%le"entary effort, as $ell as a %erfe&tionin R a t!reefold effort &o"%osed of reasonin 6yu,ti7, a&9(isition of e,%erien&e 6anu$ha3a7, and s&ri%t(ral e,e esis 6gama7, as -o ar4#a is fond of re%eatin )AC T!(s t!e %ro&ess of re$ritin at $or5 in t!e se&ond Paramrthasra "a5es it a%%ear t!at t!e de'ate $it! S45!ya !as really never ta5en %la&e, $!i&! #(stifies nond(al Paivis" of /as!"ir in 'orro$in t!e t!eory of t!e tatt3as, all t!e $!ile ada%tin it to t!e needs of a "onisti& syste") A@ Even t!o( ! it is tr(e t!at t!e do&trine
m'm'k' a"ki$g a /a"ter t' i$"tr #t hi/ regar0i$g /ea$" '1 a##e0i$g t' *i(erati'$. 35 See 6v!am,ms, #hapter" 56,566 J 'r 7hvan!loka, #hapter 6;. 36 See, 1'r i$"ta$#e, the 0i11ere$t ver"i'$" '1 the 8adanapar%a!a, The 7e9eat o9 :ove (Fa*(ir, <"ier 2004= 2111.). 37 8.hat ver% B$a$ta$Atha, wi"e i$ tea#hi$g a** the 0'#tri$e" with' t e7#epti'$, i/parte0 i$"tr #ti'$ t' the 0i"#ip*e, "a%i$g= E2?$'w*e0ge '13 brahman, the *ti/ate, /a% (e attai$e0 thr' gh the te7t e$tit*e0 Paramrthasra, a*"' #a**e0 the ;erses o9 *dhra, via the 0i"#ri/i$ati'$ '1 p'r'a 1r'/ prakti, a##'r0i$g t' the pri$#ip*e" '1 the SAkh%a "%"te/E. .he tea#her (g r , viU., B(hi$avag pta), /'tivate0 (% the $ee0 t' "h'w 1av'r t' 'ther", 2$'w3 e7p' $0" the e""e$#e '1 it, L "t a" '$e e7tra#t" ( tter 1r'/ # r0"> that i", he e7p' $0" the e""e$#e '1 tea#hi$g" '$ *ti/ate rea*it% (paramrthopadea) i$ keepi$g with the aiva pri$#ip*e '1 *ti/ate 2'r tra$"#e$0e$t3 $'$0 a*it%, i$ 'r0er t' "h'w 1av'r t' a** #reat re": (tra$"*ati'$" '1 BI:" &S a$0 it" #'//e$tar% are the a th'r:"). 38 Rith, "'/eti/e", a 1' rth ter/= /e0itative pra#ti#e (pari,lana)> "ee CD a0 8, 10,11, 79,80. 39 See p. 54. <$ the Sai00hA$tika treat/e$t '1 the tattvas, "ee Tntrikbhidhnakoa 2.B?3, ".v. tattva.

set fort! in t!e Paiva Paramrthasra is fra"ed %ole"i&ally, as t!e &o""entary fre9(ently atte"%ts to de"onstrate,;7 it is essentially dire&ted a ainst t!e +(dd!ists, %arti&(larly D!ar"a5Frti, and a ainst 1ed4nta, referred to 'y -o ar4#a as +ra!"av4da at lar e, or as P4nta'ra!"av4da);8 I $ill ret(rn to t!is %oint later) In s(%%ort of t!is inter%retation of t!e e,er&ise of re$ritin R in addition to t!e &lotted "il5 analo y R I "i !t %oint to t!e %assa e of t!e &o""entary $!ere t!e ter" guru of t!e t!ird verse is (nderstood to refer 'ot! to 2d!4ra and to A'!inava (%ta) -o ar4#aIs e,e esis is s(%%orted 'y several li"inary &onsiderations: R t!e attri'(tion of t!e first Paramrthasra to an a(t!or desi nated not only as PeSa '(t as PataV#aliM R t!e traditional identifi&ation of PataV#ali D$!et!er !e 'e t!e a(t!or of t!e Mah$h)ya, or of t!e 5ogas/tra W-SY, or of 'ot!E $it! PeSa, in virt(e of t!e e%it!eti&al desi nation $hu1a9ga3i$hu, i"%lyin t!at PataV#ali is a devotee of t!e Ser%ent,;6 and t!(s, in so"e de ree, its in&arnationM R t!e eviden&e of a so(t! Indian tradition, $!i&! !olds A'!inava (%ta also to 'e an in&arnation of PeSa, ;A on t!e 'asis of a %(n on !is na"e $!en s(ffi,ed $it! t!e !onorifi& -pda: $hina3aguptapda, H!e, (tterly novel, $!ose feet are !iddenI) T!o( ! t!e attri'(tion "ay a%%ear fan&if(l, t!is line of ar ("ent does s( est, if H (r(I is to 'e (nderstood as referrin to "ore t!an one tea&!er in t!is %assa e, t!at A'!inava (%ta and 2d!4ra $ere also so"eti"es (nderstood as t!e sa"e tea&!er) T!e %assa e in
See, e"p., &S 32 a$0 the #'//e$tar% a0 *'#, whi#h, i$ the #' r"e '1 0i"# ""i$g riva* #'$#epti'$" '1 the Se*1, re1er" e7p*i#it*% t' the +Y/A"A ("ee $. 738, 740). 41 See, 1'r e7a/p*e, CD a0 10,11, 15, 27, 32 (where the 8Frah/avA0a: i" re1erre0 t' 1'r it" ver"i'$ '1 the )n!avda= neti neti), a$0 35. CD:" g*'"" per/it" " t' #'/p*ete Sa$0er"'$:" '("ervati'$= 8Rhe$ ;e0A$ta i" e7p' $0e0 (% it" 'pp'$e$t" i$ ?a"h/iria$ "' r#e" '1 ' r peri'0 it i" the 0'#tri$e '1 +a@a$a/iPra whi#h i" ge$era**% i$ /i$0 2...3. .' /% k$'w*e0ge $' "' r#e (etra%" 1a/i*iarit% with the 0'#tri$e" '1 akara: (1985= 210, $. 41 J Sa$0er"'$ re1er" here, $'ta(*%, t' the #'//e$tar% '1 DA/aka@ha '$ the Paramokanirsakrik '1 Sa0%'L%'ti"). 6t i" i$ 1a#t K ite 0i11i# *t t' 0e#i0e whether aiva a th'r" 0i"# "" 'r are aware '1 the $i#etie" i$v'*ve0 i$ 0i"ti$g i"hi$g +a@a$a:" 1r'/ akara:" 0'#tri$e". .he% $'where 0ea* with the i"" e" 0ivi0i$g *ater ve0A$ti# "#h''*"> h'w the$ i" it p'""i(*e t' k$'w 0e1i$ite*% whi#h parti# *ar ver"i'$ '1 ;e0A$ta the% have i$ /i$0? B** '$e #a$ rea"'$a(*% "a%, at *ea"t a" regar0" the &S a$0 it" #'//e$tar%, i" that CD a""ig$" t' the 8Frah/avA0a: #ateg'r% ('th the ;e0A$ta stricto sens' J whi#h he a*"' re1er" t' a" the A$ta(rah/avA0a (a0 10,11) J a$0 the a(0a(rah/avA0a '1 FhartXhari a$0 hi" 1'**'wer". B##'r0i$g*%, CD a0 27 re1 te" the #'$#epti'$ '1 Se*1 '1 the 8Frah/avA0i$": a$0 that '1 the 8&rA@a(rah/avA0i$":, viU., '1 FhartXhari. B$0 CD a0 35 app*ie" the w'r0 8Frah/avA0i$: t' FhartXhari. FhartXhari (#a. 650 B-), '1 #' r"e, i" " ("ta$tia**% pri'r ('th t' +a@a$a a$0 akara, wh' are /'re 'r *e"" #'$te/p'ra$e' " with ea#h 'ther. .he 0i"ti$#ti'$ (etwee$ the"e tw' "'rt" '1 8Frah/avA0a: "ee/" / #h #*earer i$ CD:" te7t tha$ a$% p tative 0i"ti$#ti'$ (etwee$ the 0'#tri$e" '1 +a@a$a a$0 akara. <$e /a% w'$0er whether the aiva" '1 the 10th,11th #e$t, were aware '1 'r i$tere"te0 i$ 0'#tri$a* 0i11ere$#e" a/'$g *ater ve0A$ti# E"#h''*"E, whi#h /a% $'t have #'/e i$t' v'g e i$ a$% #a"e / #h (e1're the ti/e '1 ;A#a"pati a$0 hi" great #'//e$tar%, the -hmat,. 6t /a% (e a00e0 that '$e '1 the /ai$ p'i$t" '1 #'$te$ti'$ (etwee$ aiva" a$0 B0vaiti$", a##'r0i$g t' CD, #'$#er$" their re"pe#tive i$terpretati'$" '1 the epithet nta a" app*ie0 t' brahman= nta, 1'r CD, 0'e" $'t /ea$ 8i$ert:, i$ the /a$$er '1 a "t'$e, ( t: E"ere$eE, rep'"i$g 2ever3 i$ it" a("'* te $at re, i$ $i"'$ with it" akti, 1'r there i" $' 0i"t r(a$#e ari"i$g 1r'/ the 0i#h't'/% (etwee$ the k$'wer a$0 the k$'w$: (CD a0 10,11). <$ the a('ve 0i"# ""i'$, "ee a*"' $. 791> '$ +a@a$a, "ee Fiar0ea 1969. 42 )'te that .4 55;666 285(, i$ K 'ti$g the prat,ka '1 CS 6; 27, re1er" t' the a th'r '1 the CS a" 8Fh LagA0hYPa:, 8N'r0 '1 the "erpe$t":. Si/i*ar*%, .4 55;666 309( re1er" t' 40iPe9a, a th'r '1 the 1ir"t &S, a" BhYPA$a, v. 81 '1 wh'"e w'rk .4 55;666 312 K 'te". 43 See &a$0e% 1963= 10,11.


9(estion "i !t t!en 'e translated: HT!e Tea&!er W2d!4raY re%lied to !i" 'y Wre&itin Y t!e 'dhra,ri, of $!i&! WasY A'!inava (%ta, W!e no$Y e,%o(nds t!e essen&e fro" t!e %oint of vie$ of t!e Paiva tea&!in sI) It s!o(ld 'e noted also t!at verse B7 of A'!inava (%taIs Paramrthasra: HT!o( ! not an a ent, it is # $!o &o"%ose t!e $onderf(lly varied Sidd!4ntas, 2 a"as and Tar5asI, 'esides e&!oin 2PS =B, a"o(nts to an i"%li&it %ro&la"ation of t!e s(%eriority of t!e Tri5a do&trine) T!(s is dis&losed one of t!e "ain %(r%oses served, fro" t!e Tri5a %oint of vie$, 'y re$ritin t!e 2diJeSaIs te,t: to %(t an end on&e and for all to t!e dis%(tes of %re&eden&e a"on t!e s&!ools, 'y affir"in t!e (n&ontested s(%re"a&y of t!e Tri5a) At t!e sa"e ti"e, PS B7 %rovides anot!er, as it $ere Q"eta%!ysi&alQ, &l(e as to t!at re$ritin : t!e tr(e a(t!or of t!e Paramrthasra, $!et!er !e 'e &alled 2diJeSa or A'!inava (%ta, is none ot!er t!an Piva !i"self, t!e sole A ent, $!o is oneIs o$n Self in t!e for" of t!e a'sol(te HII) HT!(s, says Piva, in -o ar4#aIs &o""entary, t!o( ! not "yself t!eir &reator, it is # $!o &a(se t!e "(ltit(dino(s $onders t!at are t!e Sidd!4ntas, et&), Wto &o"e into 'ein Y, !avin entered into t!e intentions of ods, sa es and "en, 'ein WalreadyY in essen&e t!eir inner int(ition 6antaprati$ha7 and desiro(s of e,%o(ndin Wt!ese do&trinesY eit!er in a'rid e"ent or in "ore ela'orate for"I);; 1:2:2: Reasons for a choice 8)6)6)8) DESTIN- OF T*E FIRST PARAM'RT;AS'RA O!y !as t!e Paramrthasra of 2diJeSa 'een &!osen as a te,t to 'e re&o"%osedZ It $as, evidently, a te,t t!at en#oyed so"e &ele'rity in t!e Indian tradition R and "ay already !ave a&9(ired 'y A'!inava (%taIs ti"e t!e stat(s of a (ruti) .i !t one s(%%ose t!at A'!inava (%ta, in Qre$ritin Q it, e,%e&ted so"e transfer of its a(t!ority in !is favorZ;B T!e te,tIs a(t!ority $as not li"ited in ti"e or 'y tenden&y) A'!inava (%ta !i"self refers to 2diJeSaIs $or5 else$!ere, &itin t$i&e its verse C8 in !is "-trthasagraha WGASY ad 1III = D$!ere it is ter"ed a (ruti7 and ad 1III 8;, as $ell as in T2 ::1III A86);= T!e sa"e verse $ill 'e re%eated 3er$atim 'y A'!inava (%ta in !is Paramrthasra, as its verse CA) And $!en 14"adeva, %ro'a'ly a dis&i%le of -o ar4#a,;< 9(otes it D%) 68E, !e attri'(tes it to <$haga3n $hogipati=,;C t!e HLord of t!e ser%entsI, t!at is, %res("a'ly, 2diJeSa) Si"ilarly, t!e older Paramrthasra $as $ell 5no$n in &ir&les t!at %ra&ti&ed a syn&retisti& version of Paivis" and 1aiSKavis") T!(s, t!e Spandaprad-pi, WS%PY, a &o""entary on t!e Spanda,ri, WS%/Y, t!e fo(nda?tional te,t of t!e S%anda s&!ool, &ites verse == D$!i&! !as no dire&t &orres%ondent in t!e Paiva ParamrthasraE);@ T!e Spandaprad-pi,, a $or5 of Ut%alavaiSKava Dalso 5no$n as Ut%al4&4rya, +!4 avata Ut%ala,B7 nint! ?tent! &ent(ryE, testifies to t!e sa"e s%irit of syn&retis" as
See $. 946. <$ the K e"ti'$ '1 .rika:" " pre/a#%, "ee a*"' &S 27 a$0 $. 661. See !hatterLi 1914= 14. 46 .he e$tire pa""age (vv. 309,320a() #'$"tit te" a /eti# *' " e7ege"i" '1 the #ite0 ver"e, wh'"e "' r#e, a##'r0i$g t' OD, i" the +nantakrik. 47 See p. 22. 48 Rith e/e$0ati'$= bhogipatinpi 1'r bhegipatinpi. 49 !ite0 $. 80. 50 See Sa$0er"'$ 2001= 35.
44 45


does t!e %iccha,tisastuti of -o in4t!a D%ro'a'ly sa"e %eriodE,B8 a P45ta $!o $as fa"iliar $it! t!e S%anda, and $!o as $ell &ites 2diJeSaIs verse AA for its evo&ation of t!e my of 1iSK()B6 +efore t!is, t!e Paramrthasra of 2diJeSa $as a(t!oritative for S45!ya, as eviden&ed 'y t!e &itation of its verse CA in t!e 5u,tid-pi,, a $or5 &o"%osed so"eti"e 'et$een t!e si,t! and nint! &ent(ries, of (n5no$n a(t!ors!i%, '(t %ro'a'ly of S45!ya affiliation) T!is verse, $!i&! t!e 5u,tid-pi, attri'(tes to t!e HtraditionI 6mny7, is &ited in s(%%ort of its inter%retation of S/ 6, a&&ordin to $!i&! inter%retation Hli'eration is o'tained 'y 5no$led eI 612nn mo,)a7 R t!e 5no$led e, t!at is, $!ere'y puru)a is dis&ri"inated fro" pra,.ti: HN(st as a "an falls to t!e ro(nd fro" t!e to% of a tree invol(ntarily, on&e !e !as lost !is foot!old, si"ilarly, so"eone $!o 5no$s t!e \(alities and t!e So(l 6puru)7 'e&o"es Qse%arateQ 6,e3ala7, even invol(ntarilyI)BA Even Advaitins "a5e (se of t!e first Paramrthasra) T!e fo(rteent! &ent(ry J-3anmu,ti3i3e,a of 1idy4raKya &ites verses << and C8, $!i&! %resent t$o ty%es of 1-3anmu,ta)B; In t!e si,teent!, R4 !av4nanda &o""ents (%on t!e entire te,t) And n("ero(s are t!e Indianists $!o ta5e t!e Paramrthasra of 2diJeSa to 'e a %ossi'le so(r&e for t!e 'gama(stra of Ga(a%4da, t!e &!ef?dIoe(vre of %re?PaT5ara Advaita)BB In addition, t!e %andri, Dsi,teent! &ent(ryE on t!e Pr$odhacandrodaya Dad 1, v) AAE &ites 2PS 8C, as&ri'in t!e verse to PeSa 6yatho,ta $haga3at (e)e07)B= Finally, in t!e ei !teent!, t!e fa"o(s ra""arian N4 eJa'!a33a &ites it several ti"es in !is 8aiy,ara0asiddhntalaghuma21/), $!ile dis&(ssin t!e stat(s of error)B< T!e first Paramrthasra !as t!(s en#oyed a lon and si nifi&ant destiny, of $!i&! t!e "ost stri5in indi&ation is no do('t its !avin 'een re$ritten 'y a %!iloso%!er of anot!er %ers(asion) 8)6)6)6) DI1ERGENCES]CON1ERGENCES T!e identifi&ation of A'!inava (%ta, t!e Hne$ PeSaI, $it! t!e a(t!or of t!e first Paramrthasra is #(st t!e e"'le", t!e "yt!i&al &lot!in , of a "ore %rofo(nd affinity)
F% the te"ti/'$% '1 the Sp& whi#h, i$ it" *'$g avat. (-%#Uk'w"ki Sp&= 5,6), #ite" at *e$gth the <icchaktisast'ti, '$e /a% i$1er that C'gi$Atha i" pri'r t' Htpa*avai9@ava, 'r hi" #'$te/p'rar%. <$ C'gi$Atha, "ee -%#Uk'w"ki Sp?= 290. 52 4&S 33= %valand dh)modgatibhir vividhktir ambare !ath bhti0 tadvad via' s#i svam!a! dvaitavistar bhti00, 8B" a variet% '1 1'r/" appear i$ the "k% (e#a "e '1 "/'ke ri"i$g 1r'/ 1ire, "' #reati'$, e7pa$0e0 i$t' / *tip*i#it%, appear" i$ ;i9@ (% hi" 'w$ +agi#:. F% thi" #itati'$, C'gi$Atha e7p*ai$" the 1a#t that phe$'/e$a* 0iver"it% it"e*1 pre" pp'"e" a $iK e 0ivi$it% i$ whi#h it / "t i$here, th " L "ti1%i$g a$ i0ea*i"ti# /'$i"/. 53 4&S 83= vkgrc c!'tapdo !advad anicchan nara kita' patati0 tadvad g'ap'r'a%&o (nichann api keval,bhavati00. 54 De"pe#tive*%, pp. 74 a$0 49, a"#ri(i$g the/ t' e9a (K a*i1ie0 a" bhagavat, i$ #iti$g v. 81> a" the a th'r '1 the *r!pa&c,ti, i$ #iti$g v. 77). 4&S 77= ha!amedhasahasr! ap! atha k'r'te brahmaghtalaki0 paramrthavin na p'!air na ca ppai sp!ate vimala00> v. 77 repeate0 a*/'"t verbatim (% v. 70 '1 the "e#'$0 &S, a" 4&S 81 i" repeate0 a" " #h (% &S 83. 55 6$ parti# *ar, 4&S 78 (%aavad vicared agdhamati) i" para**e*e0 (% 4 66 360= %aaval lokam caret. See, e"p., Sa"tri 4&S= ;666> Fhatta#har%a 4= N556511. 56 )'te0 (% S'va$i 1912= 259,260. &S 8 repr'0 #e" 4&S 18 i$ *arge part. 57 )AgePa(haa #ite" 4&S 49,50 (p. 232), 33 (p. 236), 9 a$0 30 (p. 246), 25 (p. 247), 28 (p. 268, 287), 29 (p. 268), 56,57 (p. 269), 47 (p. 283), 23 (p. 284), 27 (p. 287), 46 (p. 291), 65 (p. 295). Me "h'w" that B0iPe9a #'$#eive" err'r a" sadasatkh!ti, $'t a" anirvacan,!akh!ti> "ee Sa"tri 4&S= 55.


After all, nond(al Paivis" of /as!"ir, $!i&! A'!inava (%ta !as 'ro( !t to its finis!ed state, ai"s, #(st as did t!e $or5 of 2diJeSa, at t!e inte ration of t$o %oints of vie$ see"in ly in&o"%ati'le: realisti& d(alis" R t!at of t!e S45!ya, fro" $!i&! it 'orro$s t!e !ierar&!y of H%rin&i%lesI 6tatt3a7 R and idealisti& nond(alis", of $!i&! it retains t!e &ore notion of t!e H$orld as a%%earan&eI) Even if t!e "odalities of realiLation are different, t!e %rin&i%le of inte ration is t!e sa"e in 'ot! %ro#e&ts) +(t, #(st as evidently, t!e fa&t t!at t!e t$o do&trines are analo o(s does not "a5e t!e" stri&tly &o""ens(ra'le) For t!e version of /as!"ir Paivis" t!at event(ates in t!e Tri5a is a syste" of t!o( !t of &onsidera'le s&o%e and &o!eren&e, la&5in &o""on "eas(re $it! t!e relatively i"%overis!ed syste" of t!e older Paramrthasra R $!i&!, as $e said 'efore, !as not iven rise to a dis&rete tradition) A'ove all, t!e Tri5a, to $!i&! t!e Paramrthasra of A'!inava (%ta is intended to serve as introd(&tion, is a Paiva do&trine, $!ose reater %(r%ose is t!at of synt!esiLin t!e older &(rrents of Paivis" itself) Fro" t!e" it 'orro$s not only t!e notion of (a,ti, '(t "any ele"ents of rit(al and yo i& %ra&ti&e D mantras, mudrs, ,u0alin-, et&)E t!at serve to %la&e it in a tantri& &onte,t, de%loyin 'ot! a "eta%!ysi&s and a %ra,is of &onsidera'le &o"%le,ity $it!in a syste" of t!o( !t sit(ated (nder t!e ae is of esoteris")BC Still, t!e %oints of &onver en&e of t!e t$o Paramrthasra are not infre9(ent) Let "e "ention only a fe$ "ost $ort!y of note) For t!e te,t of 2diJeSa !as already for ed a n("'er of &on&e%ts t!at $ill 'e&o"e inte ral to t!e Tri5a) sar3tman In t!e first %la&e, t!e notion of sar3tman, t!e (niversal Self, in!erited fro" t!e (%aniSads, is f(nda"ental to t!e do&trine of 2diJeSa) And t!o( ! t!e Tri5a des&ri'es itself (sin ter"s ot!er t!an sar3tma3da, t!e idea of sar3tman is nevert!eless at t!e !eart of its do&trine R as t!e %rin&i%le e,%lainin t!e do('le stat(s of t!e Self, servin also as divinity: 'ot! i""anent and trans&endent) And so /Se"ar4#a tea&!es, in !is a(to?&o""entary to Pratya$hi12h.daya WP*Y Dv) CE, t!at t!e notion of t!e do('le stat(s of t!e Self is t!e &riterion of e,&ellen&e t!at %la&es t!e Tri5a a'ove all t!e ot!er syste"s, even t!ose of t!e T4ntri5as and /a(las)B@ N("ero(s are t!e o&&(rren&es of t!e notion of sar3tman in t!e Paiva Paramrthasra) *ere are #(st t$o e,a"%les: verse <A, $!i&! serves to define t!e 1-3anmu,ta, and $!ose first !e"isti&! i"%lies t!e notion of sar3tman: <There is nothing at all separate from the >,no*er of the Self? to 'e !onored $it! an o'lation or to 'e %raisedM $o(ld t!en !e, $!o is li'erated, $!o !as no (se for !o"a es or
)'te the re# rre$t re1ere$#e i$ the"e te7t" t' the $'ti'$ '1 rahas!a, 8"e#ret:. ?9e/arALa #ite" 1r'/ a$ 4ga/a= vivott,ram tmatattvam iti tntrik0 vivama!am iti k'ld!mn!anivi#0 vivott,ra vivama!a ca iti trikdidaranavida0, 8.he .A$trika" /ai$tai$ that the tman pri$#ip*e tra$"#e$0" the $iver"e. .h'"e wh' are 1'**'wer" '1 the ? *a tra0iti'$, et#., #'$"i0er the tman pri$#ip*e a" i//a$e$t i$ 2'r 8#'$"tit tive '1:3 the $iver"e. .he ?$'wer" '1 the .rika "%"te/, et#., #'$"i0er it a" ('th tra$"#e$0e$t a$0 i//a$e$t: (Prat!abhi%&hda!avtti 2&MvX3 8). Si/i*ar*%, CD a0 82 e7p*ai$"= 8Me i" the ESe*1 '1 a**E (sarvtman), the Se*1 '1 a** that #'g$iUe" a$0 i" #'g$iUe0> 'r 2taki$g the #'/p' $0 a" a bah'vr,hi he i" that wh'"e Se*1 i" 2#'/p'"e0 '13 the e$tiret% '1 k$'wer" a$0 thi$g" k$'w$> i$ 'ther w'r0", he i" ('th the tra$"#e$0e$t a$0 the i//a$e$t:.
58 59


rit(al for"(lae, 'e satisfied $it! !y"ns of %raise, et&)ZIM=7 and verse C6, $!i&! re%eats al"ost 3er$atim verse C7 of t!e first Paramrthasra: H*e $!o 5no$s t!e Self of all, t!(s des&ri'ed R Wso(r&e ofY s(%re"e and in&o"%ara'le 'liss, o"ni%resent, (tterly devoid of diversity R 'e&o"es one $it! t!at SelfI)=8 ,r- Anot!er %oint of &onver en&e is s(%%lied 'y t!e notion of H%layI 6,r-7, $!i&! serves to e,%lain, in t!e first Paramrthasra, t!e do('le "ove"ent of %!eno"enal "anifestation R a$ay fro", and ret(rn to, t!e One t!at is 'ot! i""anent and trans&endent, 'ot! e,troverted and introverted: H*avin dis%layed !i"self, li5e a "ira e, e"%loyin t!e infinite varieties of 'reat! Wand t!e ot!er %rin&i%lesY, 14s(deva $it!dra$s a ain Wall into !i"selfY t!ro( ! !is o$n %o$er, as if %layin I) =6 *ere t!e idea of H%layI is asso&iated $it! t!e notion of s3a3i$h/ti, $!i&! anti&i%ates t!e Jaivite notion of s3tantrya, Hfreedo"I or Hinde%enden&eI) Note also t!at R4 !av4nanda losses s3a3i$h/ty, H'y oneIs o$n soverei ntyI, as s3tantrya(a,ty myay, H'y virt(e of my, t!e ener y of freedo"I R Jaivite ter"inolo y indeed, and $!i&! does ta5e t!e reader a'a&5 &o"in fro" an Advaitin[ Nevert!eless, t!o( ! t!e t!e"e of Hdivine %layI is &o""on to Paivis" and to Advaita Deven %re?PaT5aranE, it s!o(ld 'e noted t!at Advaitins %rivile e t!e ter" l-l, $!ereas Paivas %refer ,r-, as does 2diJeSa)=A sa,.d3i$hta tm E9(ally re"ar5a'le is t!e %resen&e of a %!rase in 2diJeSaIs te,t destined to find its %la&e in t!e treas(ry of Jaivite "a,i"s: sa,.d 3i$hta, H!avin a%%eared on&e Wand for allYI: HT!e Self is devoid of all &on&e%ts, %(re, Wal$ays and foreverY $a5ed, (na ein , i""ortal, &al", s%otless, !avin a%%eared on&e Wand foreverY, s%irit(al, WandY %ervasive, li5e s%a&eI)=;
&S 73= st't!a v hotav!a nsti v!atiriktam as!a kircana ca0 stotrdin sa t'!en m'ktas tannirnamasktivaa#ka00. 61 &S 82= v!pina abhihitam ittha sarvtmn vidh)tanntvam0 nir'pamaparamnanda !o vetti sa tanma!o bhavati00> #1. 4&S 80= v!pinam abhinnam ittha sarvtmn vidh)tanntvam0 nir'pamaparamnanda !o veda sa tanma!o bhavati00. See a*"' CD a0 69, whi#h 0i"# ""e" the 0' (*e /ea$i$g '1 sarvabh)ttman. 62 4&S 30= prd!anantabhedair tmna savitat!a %lam iva0 saharati vs'deva svavibh)t! kr,amna iva00 (tra$"*ati'$ i" /i$e> #1. -a$ie*"'$= 8B1ter havi$g e7te$0e0 hi/"e*1 thr' gh i$1i$ite varietie", viU., (reath, et#., *ike 2a 1eat '13 /agi#, ;A" 0eva 2S ;i9@ 3, (% hi" 'w$ "'vereig$t%, rea("'r(" 2ever%thi$g3 a" i1 p*a%i$g:). D rea0" kr,damna iva. 63 6$ the -rahmas)tra 2FS3 (66 1, 33), #reati'$ it"e*1 i" 1ree p*a% (l,l)= lokavat t' l,lkaivai!am, 8F t 2Frah/a$:" #reative a#tivit%3 i" /ere "p'rt, " #h a" we "ee i$ 'r0i$ar% *i1e: (tr. .hi(a t). <$e "h' *0 0i"ti$g i"h thi" the'r% 1r'/ the te*e'*'gi#a* the'r% a##'r0i$g t' whi#h the N'r0 #reate" i$ 'r0er t' p*a%> akara i$ hi" -h!a 2FSFh3 66 1, 33 '("erve"= 8B$a*'g' "*%, the a#tivit% '1 the N'r0 a*"' /a% (e " pp'"e0 t' (e /ere "p'rt, pr'#ee0i$g 1r'/ hi" 'w$ $at re, with' t re1ere$#e t' a$% p rp'"e: (tr. .hi(a t, wh' a00" i$ $'te= 8.he $at re (svabhv) '1 the N'r0 i", the #'//e$tat'r" "a%, +A%A L'i$e0 with ti/e a$0 karman:). .hi" i" eK a**% the view '1 4S 6 9. D a0 4&S 30, whi*e #'//e$ti$g '$ the w'r0 he rea0" a" kr,damna, #ite" a" we** FS 66 1, 33. B$0 he a00"= svr%!asamddhimanto narendr !ath svavibh)t! kr,anti tadvad tmantman! eva vihart'kma iva, 8O "t a" pri$#e" wh'"e 0'/i$i'$ i" #'/p*ete 2#'$ti$ e t'3 p*a% 2at (ei$g ki$g"3 (% e7er#i"i$g their /aLe"t%, "' a*"' 20'e" ;i9@ 3, 1'r he *'ve" t' "p'rt, i$ a$0 (% hi/"e*1:. 64 4&S 25= sarvavikalpanahina 'ddho b'ddho (%armara nta0 amala sakd vibhta cetana tm khavad v!p,00 (tr. -a$ie*"'$, /'0i1ie0).


T!is very verse finds a %arallel in t!e se&ond Paramrthasra, in referen&e to its verses 87 and 88, $!i&! atte"%t as $ell a definition of t!e Self) -o ar4#a, after e,%lainin t!at t!e &o"%o(nd Hdevoid of dissol(tion and &reationI 6layodaya3ih-nam7 "eans HeternalI 6santanam7, oes on to &ite t!e for"(la sa,.d 3i$hto <yam tm, HT!e Self a%%ears on&e and for allI) Paivite te,ts t!at ta5e (% t!is for"(la in "ore or less develo%ed versions are n("ero(s) Its ori in is %er!a%s to 'e fo(nd also in t!e (%aniSads, as for instan&e, in C!U 1III ;, 8?6, $!ere t!e H$orld of $rahmanI is 9(alified as sa,.d3i$hta) As far as t!e ontolo i&al i"%li&ation of t!e for"(la is &on&erned, na"ely t!at t!is Self Hon&e and for all a%%earin I is t!e so(r&e of t!e a%%earan&e of all ot!er t!in s, is t!e H(ni9(e RealI, R4 !av4nanda, $!ile &o""entin on 2diJeSaIs verse 6B, re&alls t!at t!e for"(la is already all(ded to in Mu0a,opani)ad W.(UY II 6, 88: HEvery t!in s!ines only after t!at s!inin li !t) *is s!inin ill("ines all t!is $orldI)=B S(&! an idea is also %resent in one of t!e leit"otifs of t!e Tri5a, t!e for"(la npra,(a pra,(ate, HT!at $!i&! is not l("ino(s &annot "anifest itselfI,== $it! its &o"%le, net$or5 of i"%li&ations) In a Jaivite %ers%e&tive, t!e e%it!et sa,.d3i$hta in effe&t esta'lis!es not only t!e eternality of t!e Self, '(t t!e &onte"%oraneity of t!e SelfIs revelation and t!e advent of li'eration R and as $ell t!at t!e e,%erien&e itself is %erennial) T!is is t!e tr(t!, $!en a%%re!ended, t!at Qasto(ndsQ li5e a flas! of li !tnin Dt!e root sphurE R t!e s(dden and si"(ltaneo(s realiLation 'ot! of t!e Self and of oneIs li'erationM on it is ro(nded t!e ot!er$ise %arado,i&al idea of li'eration in t!is life 61-3anmu,ti7) For if t!e e,%erien&e of t!e Self ta5es %la&e in t!is life, t!e sa"e "(st 'e said of li'eration, $!ose realiLation is t!ere(%on de%endent) S(&! is t!e Trai5a (sa e of t!e old e%it!et a%%lyin to t!e Self, sa,.d3i$hta R a (sa e t!at t!e se&ond Paramrthasra ill(strates: HSi"ilarly, t!e W5no$erIsY o$n essential Self re"ains in t!e &ondition it $as in $!en it 'e&a"e "anifest on&e and for all at t!e "o"ent 5no$led e $as a&9(iredM it does not 'e&o"e ot!er$ise $!en t!e 'ody falls a$ayI)=< Li$eration through gnosis T!e %rin&i%le of Hli'eration t!ro( ! nosisI a%%ears as t!e first &orrelative of t!e do&trine of sar3tma3da: to 5no$ t!at all is t!e Self is to 'e instantaneo(sly li'erated) Several verses of t!e t$o Paramrthasra %ro%o(nd t!is %rin&i%le)=C T$o are %arti&(larly $ort!y of attention R if only for t!e $ay in $!i&! t!e se&ond Paramrthasra 'orro$s fro" t!e first) 2diJeSaIs verse <A reads: HT!ere is neit!er any %la&e for Release, nor Wdoes Release &onsist inY oin else$!ere) +rea5in t!e fetter $!i&! &onsists of i noran&e: t!at is $!at one 5no$s as ReleaseI) =@ It is ta5en (% 'y verse =7 of A'!inava (%taIs Paramrthasra, $!ose first !e"isti&! is identi&al, '(t $!i&! s!o$s Jaivite "odifi&ations in t!e se&ond: HNeit!er !as li'eration any
!hH ;666 4, 1,2 i" K 'te0 $. 455. + H 66 2, 11= tam eva bhntam an'bhti sarva tas!a bhs sarvam ida vibhti (tr. Da0hakri"h$a$ J a" are a** tra$"*ati'$" 1r'/ pa$i9a0" #ite0 here, $*e"" 'therwi"e "pe#i1ie0). 66 See CD a0 30. 67 &S 93= eva %&nvasare svtm sakd as!a !dg avabhta0 tda eva tadsa' na dehapte (n!ath bhavati00. 68 )'ta(*%, 4&S 39,40, 67,68, 72, 73, 81> &S 60 2S 4&S 733, 83 2S 4&S 813. 69 4&S 73= /'k9a"%a $aiva ki#i0 0hA/A"ti $a #Api ga/a$a/ a$%atra[ aLQA$a/a%agra$ther (he0' !as ta vid'r /'k9a[[ (the w'r0" #'//'$ t' the tw' &S are i$ r'/a$).


a'ode, nor does it involve a oin else$!ere) Li'eration is t!e "anifestation of oneIs o$n ener ies realiLed 'y &(ttin t!e 5not of i noran&eI)<7 Si"ilarly, 2diJeSaIs verse C8<8 is re%eated 3er$atim as verse CA of A'!inava (%taIs $or5 R &onstit(tin one of t!e rare &ases of $ord?for?$ord &itation in t!e se&ond Paramrthasra: HO!et!er !e ives (% !is 'ody in a %la&e of %il ri"a e or in t!e !(t of an o(t&aste, 'e !e &ons&io(s or not, !e oes Wt!en&eY to a &ondition of trans&endent Isolation, !is rievin at an end, for !e $as li'erated at t!e very "o"ent !e a&9(ired 5no$led eI)<6 T!ere is no 'etter e,a"%le of t!e affinity of t!e t$o te,ts, inas"(&! as, %ro"%ted, al"ost fort(ito(sly, 'y t!e e%it!et na)@asm.ti, t!e later Paramrthasra introd(&es anot!er %oint of &onver en&e: on&e a&9(ired in t!is life, t!e fa&t of li'eration &annot 'e a'olis!ed, even 'y t!e "indlessness and disorder of t!e final a ony) 1erse C8 of t!e initial Paramrthasra #(st all(des to t!at 9(estion, $!i&!, as is $ell 5no$n, is "(&! de'ated in Indian s%e&(lation) +(t t!e Paiva Paramrthasra, in t!e %erson of A'!inava (%ta, develo%s t!e iss(e at len t!, over several verses, follo$ed 'y -o ar4#a $!o %ro&eeds even to reinter%ret in a Jaivite sense several %arallel %assa es of t!e Bhaga3adg-t)<A Meditati3e realiAation 6$h3an7 T!e "eans $!ere'y one a&&edes to t!at final 5no$led e of t!e Self Dor of $rahman7, a&&ordin to t!e first Paramrthasra, is H"editationI 6$h3an7, or rat!er, as $e !ave translated t!e ter" as it o&&(rs in t!e se&ond Paramrthasra, H"editative realiLationI) T!is is also t!e "eans %rivile ed 'y t!e Paiva Paramrthasra, to t!e e,tent t!at it is t!is "eans t!at %revails in t!e (,topya, t!e H$ay of ener yI R of t!e fo(r H$aysI t!e one $!ose %ers%e&tive is &!iefly ado%ted 'y A'!inava (%ta in !is Paramrthasra)<; Indeed, t!e notion is fo(nd as $ell in ot!er do&trines Dt!o( ! so"eti"es in anot!er &onte,t, or $it! different i"%li&ation or si nifi&an&eE,<B '(t its (nderstandin is !ere dire&tly in!erited fro" t!e older te,t) T!e first Paramrthasra devotes, in effe&t, t!ree verses to $h3an: HAfter one !as dis&arded Ill(sion, $!i&!, 'ein del(sive, !as t!e nat(re of falla&y Win t!at it %rod(&esY t!e idea of %l(rality, let !i" realiLe +ra!"an, $!i&! is $it!o(t %l(rality, 'ein 'ot! $it! and $it!o(t %arts) As $ater 'e&o"es one $it! $ater, "il5 $it! "il5, $ind $it! $ind, so, 'y "editation 6$h3an7 on t!e s%otless +ra!"an, W"anY 'e&o"es one $it! it) If in t!at $ay, t!e s(" total of %l(rality !as re&eded into t!e state of +ra!"an 'y "editation 6$h3an7, no del(sion, no sorro$ Wre"ainsY for !i", as !e loo5s on everyt!in as +ra!"anI)<=
&S 60= /'k9a"%a $aiva ki#i0 0hA/A"ti $a #Api ga/a$a/ a$%atra[ aLQA$agra$thi(hi0A svaaktabhiv!aktat /'k9a[[. 71 Brg a(*% the ver"e /'"t 1reK e$t*% #ite0 i$ *ater *iterat re, parti# *ar*% (% BI> "ee p. 9. 72 &S 83= rthe vapacaghe v na#asmtir api parit!a%!an deham0 %&nasamak,am'kta kaival!a !ti hataoka00. 73 See &S 90,91, 94,95, with $'te". 74 See p. 49, a$0 $. 858> a*"' $. 1227. 75 See $. 1054, the "age the +Y/A"A /ake" '1 it. 76 4&S 57,59= eva 0vaitavika*pa brahmasvar)p vi/'ha$Y /A%A/[ 'ts%!a sa1 kalanikalam advaita bhva!ed brahma00 %a0vat "a*i*e "a*i*a k9Yre k9Yra sam,rae v!'0 tadvad brahmai vimale bhvana! tanma!atvam 'p!ati00 ittha 0vaita"a/\he (hAva$a%A (rah/a(h\%a/ pa%Ate[ k' /'ha ka P'ka "arva (rah/Ava*'ka%ata[[.


After an en&o"i(" of $h3an Dv) ;8E, t!e se&ond Paramrthasra &ondenses in a sin le verse Dv) B8E t!e tea&!in of its %rede&essorIs verses B<?BC: HT!(s, on&e t!e %ost(lation of d(ality !as &eased, Wt!e ade%tY after over&o"in t!e 'e$ilderin %o$er of ill(sion, s!o(ld "er e in $rahman as "il5 "er es in "il5, and $ater in $aterI, << and in &on&atenation re%rod(&es verse B@ of t!e first Paramrthasra, ver'ally "odified to s(it Jaivite "eta%!ysi&s: HT!(s, on&e t!e !ost of %rin&i%les !as 'een reinte rated into Piva t!ro( ! "editative realiLation, $!at sorro$ is t!ere, $!at del(sion for !i" $!o vie$s everyt!in as $rahmanZI<C For its %art, t!e first Paramrthasra ret(rns Dv) =;E to t!e notion of $h3an, in t!e (ise of t!e &a(sative ver' $h3ayati, $!i&! it asso&iates $it! t!e idea of li'eration 6parame(3ar-$h/ta7, H!e 'e&o"es t!e S(%re"e LordIE)<@ And, in verse ==, t!e ter" itself, t!o( ! not "entioned as s(&!, is a'ly ety"olo iLed as follo$s: H+y $!i&!ever a%%earan&e t!e Lord, $!o !as all for"s, is "editated (%on t!at a%%earan&e !e ado%ts, as !e is li5e a #e$el Wf(lfillin allY $is!esI)C7 Si"ilarly, at verse =C, t!e se&ond Paramrthasra asso&iates a ain t!is notion $it! t!at of li'eration: HT!(s a$a5ened 'y t!e $inds of !is "editative realiLation, as !e %o(rs an o'lation of all !is t!o( !t &onstr(&ts into t!e 'laLin Fire of t!e Self, !e 'e&o"es Fire itself)C8 And $e note t!at t!e "eta%!or H$inds of "editative realiLationI, $!i&! serves as "atri, to t!e e,tended "eta%!or of t!e verse, "ay $ell 'e a ree"%loy"ent of a se "ent of 2diJeSaIs verse BC, not ot!er$ise (tiliLed, W)))Y sam-ra0e 3yu, HAs W)))Y $ind 'e&o"es one $it! $indI R verse B8 of t!e Paiva Paramrthasra !avin retained, in its e,er&ise of trans%osition, only t!e t$o initial i"a es: $ater and "il5) T!e Paiva Paramrthasra t!(s %(ts e9(al e"%!asis on t!e idea of $h3an, '(t $it! t!e differen&e t!at t!e notion is t!ere %la&ed a"on %ra&ti&es of an 4 a"i& yo a, in $!i&! t!e Tri5a sets reat store) Asso&iated $it! "antri& %ra&ti&e, $it! ,u0alinyo a and $it! t!e %ra&ti&e of t!e mudrs, $h3an is t!e s%irit(al e,er&ise %ar e,&ellen&e, t!an5s to $!i&! t!e mumu,)u a&&edes si"(ltaneo(sly to 5no$led e and to li'eration, $!ile !e yet lives)C6 1-3anmu,ti
&S 51= ittha 0vaitavika*pe galite pravilagh!a /'ha$Y /A%A/[ "a*i*e "a*i*a k9Yre k9Yra/ iva brahmai la!, s!t00. 78 &S 52= ittha tattva"a/\he (hAva$a%A iva/a%atva/ a(hi%Ate[ ka P'ka k' /'ha "arva (rah/Ava*'ka%ata[[. )'te e"pe#ia**% the " ("tit ti'$" iva 1'r brahman, tattva 1'r dvaita. .he "e#'$0 he/i"ti#h, i$ ('th te7t", re#a**" =opaniad 6,7, the 1ir"t &S (ei$g "'/ewhat #*'"er t' it" "' r#e, "i$#e it re"pe#t" the pa$i9a0i# 'r0er '1 the w'r0" (ko moha ka oka)= !as t' sarvi bh)tn! tman! evn'pa!ati00 sarvabh)te' ctmna tato na vi%'g'psate00 !asmin sarvi bh)tn! tmaivbh)d vi%nata00 tatra ko moha ka oka ekatvam an'pa!ata00, 8B$0 he wh' "ee" a** (ei$g" i$ hi" 'w$ "e*1 a$0 hi" 'w$ "e*1 i$ a** (ei$g", he 0'e" $'t 1ee* a$% rev *"i'$ (% rea"'$ '1 " #h a view. Rhe$, t' '$e wh' k$'w", a** (ei$g" have, veri*%, (e#'/e '$e with hi" 'w$ "e*1, the$ what 0e* "i'$ a$0 what "'rr'w #a$ (e t' hi/ wh' ha" "ee$ '$e$e""?: 79 See 4&S 64, K 'te0 $. 29. 80 4&S 66= sarvkro bhagavn 'ps!ate !ena !ena bhvena0 ta ta bhva bh)tv cint1 maivat samabh!eti00. .hi" ver"e *a#k" a #'rre"p'$0e$t i$ the *ater &S. 81 &S 68= ittha sakalavikalpn pratib'ddho bhvansam,raata0 tma%!otii d,pte %'hva%%!o1 tirma!o bhavati00. 82 See CD a0 9, 61, 62, 64,66, 83, 86, 96.


HLi'eration in t!is lifeI is indeed t!e &o""on %ro#e&t of t!e t$o Paramrthasra, even t!o( ! t!e se&ond reserves to it a "ore e,%li&it treat"ent) It %rovides also, do('tless, t!e first a"on t!e "otives for re$ritin t!e te,t itself) T!e Paiva Paramrthasra trans%oses t!e Paramrthasra of 2diJeSa %re&isely 'e&a(se it !as a%%re!ended t!ere t!e fo(ndation for t!e do&trine of 1-3anmu,ti) It is a 1-3anmu,ti t!at does not s%ea5 its na"e &learly in t!e first Paramrthasra, '(t $!i&! is t!ere re&o niLed 'y "any indi&ations, $!en vie$ed in t!e li !t of later develo%"ents, on&e t!e de'ate %rovo5ed 'y t!e o,y"oron of t!e ter" itself DH#FvanI *hile li3ing B H"(5tiI li$eration >from this life?7 finally s('sided, &onferrin on t!e notion its eneral le iti"a&y) R4 !av4nanda, t!e Advaitin e,e ete "entioned earlier, "a5es no "ista5e $!en, in !is &o""entary on verse A, !e %resents 2diJeSa as a 1-3anmu,ta)CA T!e entire la'or of A'!inava (%ta and -o ar4#a is ai"ed at 'rin in to li !t t!at very tr(t!: t!e Hli'erationI t!at is at iss(e in t!e older Paramrthasra is already t!e Hli'eration in t!is lifeI t!at A'!inava (%ta "a5es into t!e iss(e of t!e se&ond) In t!is sense, t!e Jaivite trans%osition is also an e,e eti&al %ro#e&t) Unders&orin t!e soteriolo i&al vo&ation of t!e first Paramrthasra, t!e trans%osition reveals in addition t!at t!e soteriolo y, 'ased do('ly on S4 5!ya and Advaita, esta'lis!es t!e notion of 1-3anmu,ti) T!(s t!e Paramrthasra of A'!inava (%ta "a5es t!e te,t of 2diJeSa into a treatise on li'eration in t!is life) T!e 'est %roof t!at "ay 'e iven of t!is is t!at t!e stanLas of 2diJeSaIs $or5 &ited in later literat(re R $it! t!e %ossi'le e,&e%tion of N4 eJaIs ra""ati&al referen&e R &on&ern "ore or less t!e idea of 1-3anmu,ti) T$o a"on t!e" Des%e&ially C8, t!e "ost fa"o(sly &ited in any &aseE are %art of t!e de"onstration of 1-3anmu,ti %ro%o(nded 'y t!e J-3anmu,ti3i3e,aM "oreover, t!e 9(asi?totality of t!e se&ond Paramrthasra=s 'orro$in s fro" t!e first &on&ern li'eration R and t!at "eans, as t!e &o""entary in&essantly atte"%ts to s!o$, Hli'eration in t!is lifeI) Even if t!e ter" H#Fvan"(5tiI a%%ears no "ore often in t!e se&ond Paramrthasra t!an it does in t!e first, it is %ossi'le to read it t!ere in o(tline, t$i&e, 'y t!e 'ias of %eri%!rases $!ere t!e &on&essive Ha%iI %oints to and resolves in one est(re t!e o,y"oron t!at t!e notion re%resents) T!(s, at verse =8: H*e $!o !as &(t t!e 5not of i noran&e, $!ose do('ts !ave vanis!ed, $!o !as %(t aside error, $!ose "erits and de"erits !ave 'een destroyed, is li'erated, t!o( ! still #oined $it! !is 'odyI,C; and at verse C=: HIn t!e sa"e "anner, &ons&io(sness, on&e it !as 'een se%arated fro" t!e &o"%le, of s!eat!s Wt!at is t!e 'ody, et&)Y, is WforeverY &o"%letely alien to t!eir to(&!, even t!o( !, as a li'erated Self, it re"ains t!ere Wfor a ti"eY d(e to root i"%ressions W%revio(sly a&&("(latedYI)CB .oreover, in &o"%arin t!e strate ies of &o"%osition of t!e t$o Paramrthasra, one notes t!at, 'e innin $it! verse <= of t!e first D X verse =@ of t!e se&ondE, t!e
B&S; 3= $... tmatattvaskd bodhavanta %,vanm'kta g'r'vara !athvidh! 'pagam1!a baddh&%ali papraccheti, 82...3 havi$g appr'a#he0 i$ a pr'per wa% a$0 with a ge"t re '1 "a* tati'$ the /'"t e7#e**e$t tea#her 240iPe9a3, wh' i" *i(erate0 whi*e "ti** *ivi$g a$0 wh' p'""e""e" a$ i$t itive gra"p '1 the rea*it% '1 the Se*1 2'r 8a$0 wh' p'""e""e" a$ evi0e$t /a"ter% '1 the rea*it% '1 the Se*1:3, he a"k"Z: 84 &S 61= bhinn%&nagranthir gatasadeha parktabhrnti0 prak,ap'!appo vigraha%'ge 8p% a"a / kta[[ (the w'r0" at i"" e are i$ r'/a$). 85 &S 86= tadvat ka&c'kapa#al,pthakkt savid atra saskrt0 ti#hat! api m'kttm tatsparavivar%it bhavati00.


te,t(al %arallelis" ro$s "ore o'vio(s, t!e &orres%onden&es are "ore %atent, and s(&&eed one anot!er in a r!yt!" t!at &annot 'e i nored) O!ole se9(en&es of verses are re%eated 3er$atim or al"ost so, in "any &ases) C= One o'serves also t!at verse <B of t!e first Paramrthasra, stron ly &olored $it! S45!ya and not as s(&! ta5en (% 'y A'!inava (%ta, itself &learly %ost(lates t!e notion of 1-3anmu,ti, via a %eri%!rasis, and as s(&! introd(&es t!e lon &on&atenation of sy""etri&al verses in t!e t$o te,ts: HAs soon as t!e So(l !as (nderstood .atter as different Wfro" itselfY, it 'e&o"es, Weven t!o( ! it stillY e,ists in t!e "idst of Trans"i ration, free fro" all a&ts, as a lot(s leaf Wis freeY fro" t!e $ater Win $!i&! ro$s t!e lot(s %lantYI)C< T!e first Paramrthasra even ta5es (% t!e "atter of o'sta&les to li'eration as re%resented 'y t!e notion of t!e yoga$hra)@a, t!e a&olyte Hfallen fro" dis&i%lineI Dvv) C;?CBE) T!(s oin o(t of its $ay, t!e te,t %ro"ises even to s(&! as !e a&&ess to t!e li'eration t!at !ad 'een to !i" for so lon a ti"e denied Dv) C=E) T!is is, in its $ay, also a "anner of esta'lis!in t!e le iti"a&y of t!e notion R t!at of envisa in e9(ally all t!e o'sta&les t!at "i !t 'e alle ed to interfere 'et$een t!e mumu,)u and !is li'eration) And so a Qr!etori& of soli&it(deQ is %(t in %la&e t!at A'!inava (%ta also "a5es (se of R !is verses 877?878 re%eatin al"ost 3er$atim 2diJeSaIs verses C;?CB, $!ile !is verse 876 trans%oses 2diJeSaIs C=, t!e %rin&i%al differen&e 'ein es?&!e$al of any referen&e to 1iSK() And finally, t!is last %oint of &onver en&e: t!e t!eisti& di"ension of t!e t$o do&trines, so evident t!at it often s(ffi&es, in t!e e,er&ise of trans%osition, to re%la&e referen&es to 1iSK( $it! t!ose &orres%ondin to Piva)CC 8)6)6)A) DESTIN- OF T*E SECOND PARAM'RT;AS'RA In t!e sa"e $ay "ost "odern a&&o(nts ta5e little note of t!e &ontri'(tion of Paivis" to t!e iss(e of li'eration R li'eration in t!is life or not R li5e$ise later Indian tradition, nota'ly ins%ired 'y 1ed4nta, is &aref(l to avoid Paiva reasonin s) Per!a%s, for t!e ort!odo,, it is d(e to t!e reti&en&e aro(sed 'y s(s%i&ion of tantri& leanin s)C@ O!en t!e J-3anmu,ti3i3e,a invo5es, in t!e fo(rteent! &ent(ry, t!e a(t!ority of t!e Paramrthasra, it is t!e first Paramrthasra t!at its a(t!or !as in "ind, t!o( ! t!e Paramrthasra of A'!inava (%ta &ontains t!e sa"e verse, !ardly "odified: later tradition, it is tr(e R A'!inava (%ta in&l(ded R a&&ords to t!e first Paramrthasra t!e stat(s of (ruti) I !ave fo(nd referen&es to t!e Paramrthasra of A'!inava (%ta only in $or5s of Jaivite tenden&y: t!e T21 ad I A<, I A@?;7, and I: B7, as $ell as t!e Parimala WP.Y ad Mahrthama21ar- W..Y 6B D%ro'a'ly t!irteent! &ent(ryE,@7 $!i&! &ite, res%e&tively, vv) 8B?8=a, vv) 8='?8<, v) 8; and v) 6=) Note as $ell t!at, $!en A'!inava (%ta &ites 2PS C8 in !is T2 ::1III A86, and e,%lains it in t!e follo$in verses, it is as t!o( ! !e $ere (sin !is treat"ent of 2diJeSaIs $or5 in order to &o""ent, t!o( ! all(sively, on !is o$n PS CA) And so t!e destiny of A'!inava (%taIs Paramrthasra !as 'een li"ited to Paiva &ir&les)
!'/pare 4&S 76,78 a$0 &S 69,71> 4&S 79,82 a$0 &S 81,84. 4&S 75= b'ddhv vibhakt prakti p'r'a "a"Ara/a0h%ag' (havati[ $ir/ kta sarvakarmabhir amb'%apattra !ath salilai00. 88 .hi" i" $'t the p*a#e t' p r" e the 0i"# ""i'$ '1 the e*0er Pramrthasra a$0 it" re*ati'$"hip t' the %' $ger. B "eparate /'$'graph wi** (e 0ev'te0 t' the " (Le#t, t' (e p (*i"he0 i$ 0 e #' r"e. 89 See p. 35. 90 <$ the 0ate '1 the ++, "ee !'7 2006> Sa$0er"'$ 2007= 379, $. 479.
86 87


2: The Paramrthasra of Abhina"agupta 2)1) The text and its commentator -o ar4#a des&ri'es as a pra,ara0a t!e te,t !e is &o""entin on) T!o( ! t!e te,t of A'!inava (%ta does &onfor" to t!e stri&t(res of t!e enre in t!at it is indeed an e%ito"e, a &on&ise treat"ent of do&trine Dsee vv) 87; and 87BE, it does nevert!eless diver e fro" t!e ty%e in t$o %rin&i%al $ays: one is in!erent in t!e need to re&on&ile t!e i"%erative of do&trinal &o!eren&e $it! t!e %ro#e&t of re$ritin an older te,t of so"e$!at different %ers(asionM t!e ot!er is t!at t!e Paramrthasra of A'!inava (%ta does not &onfine itself to an e,%osition of t!e do&trine as s(&! '(t at ti"es !ints at a se&ond sense lyin 'eneat! t!e evident sense, na"ely esoteri& te&!ni9(es and %ra&ti&es t!at are at t!e !eart of t!e %!iloso%!i&al dis&o(rse, as stri5in ly e,e"%lified 'y verses ;8?;=) .oreover it &an 'e said t!at t!e do&trine itself is esoteri& 'y nat(re, $!i&! does not %revent it !o$ever fro" 'ein for"(lated in %re&ise %!iloso%!i&al ter"s) At least, it is !o$ t!e syste" %er&eives itself: HT!(s, t!e s(%re"ely re&ondite &ore of t!e tea&!in 6(strasram atig/ham7 !as no$ 'een &ondensed in one !(ndred 4ry4? verses 'y "e, A'!inava (%ta, ill("ined WviL), ins%iredY 'y re"e"'ran&e of PivaIs feetI Dv) 87BE) -o ar4#a never fails to e,%and (%on t!at Hs(%re"ely re&ondite &ore of t!e tea&!in I, t!e s%irit(al realiLation of nond(alis" R $!i&! is t!e (lti"ate tr(t! of t!e syste" R and t!e "eans or $ays to attain it) *e refers fre9(ently to t!e Hse&retI 6rahasya7 t!at &onsists in t!e H5no$led e of oneIs o$n SelfI 6s3tma12narahasya, vv) C<?CCE, in ot!er $ords, in re&o niLin t!at oneIs o$n Self is not different fro" .a!eJvara Dv) C8E)@8 Even t!o( ! !e !as not t!e 'readt! of A'!inava (%ta, $!o &o""ented on "any of t!e 5ey te,ts of t!e tradition, or of Nayarat!a, $!o felt a'le to &onfront t!e "on("ental Tantrlo,a, -o ar4#a is nevert!eless a %rofo(nd e,e ete, so"eti"es even a(da&io(s R des%ite $!at Lilian Sil'(rn says) @6 Not only is !e sensitive to t!e s('tle and ever re&i%ro&al transitions in t!e te,t 'et$een t!e &os"i& Self and t!e individ(al self, 'et$een Piva and t!e H5no$erI 612nin7, 'ot! of $!i&! a%%ear in o(r te,t (nder t!e (ise of t!e %rono(n HII t!at verses ;<?B7 are at %ains to re%resent, '(t !e s!o$s !i"self &a%a'le of de&odin t!e dou$le entendres) T!(s !e de&i%!ers referen&es to t!e arti&(lation of t!e "antra t!ro( !o(t verses ;8?;=, and to t!e sy"'oli& si nifi&ation of its ele"ents) As $ell, in !is &o""entary on verse 87;: idam a$hina3aguptoditasa,)epa dhyyata para $rahma B acird e3a (i3at3a ni1ah.day3e(am a$hyeti, HTo !i" $!o "editates on t!is trans&endental $rahman, as &on&isely e,%o(nded 'y A'!inava (%ta, Piva!ood &o"es $it!o(t delay, on&e it !as %ervaded !is o$n !eartI R t!e a%%arently strai !tfor$ard a(t!orial si nat(re is reinter%reted "etony"i&ally,@A as a &o%(lative &o"%o(nd 6d3and37 of ad#e&tives t!at 9(alify t!e ter" H'ra!"anI: HTo !i" $!o "editates on t!is trans&endental $rahman in referen&e to $!i&! a &on&ise s(""ary !as no$ 'een
See CD a0 14 (rahas!ana!a), 75 (rahas!avid), 81 (rahas!a paramrthamahevarkh!am ... 'palabh!a), 87,88 (svtma%&narahas!a), 96 (svmasabodham'khmn!arahas!a) a$0 104 (parabrahmarahas!tia!a). 92 8!'$traire/e$t a 7 gra$0" #'//e$tate r" 0e #ette e#'*e phi*'"'phiK e, C'garALa $:e"t K : $ "i/p*e e7egete K i $e p'""e0e a # $e 'rigi$a*ite> #:e"t *a rai"'$ p' r *aK e**e $' " $e 0'$$'$" K : $ re" /e 0e "a g*'"e: (Si*( r$ &S= 20). 93 .rika *iterat re a(' $0" i$ " #h rei$terpretati'$" '1 the $a/e 8B(hi$avag pta:.


stated, Ws(&! t!at $rahman is no$ (nderstood as 'ot!Y 9(ite novel 6a$hina3a7, and W!eretoforeY !idden 6gupta7, Piva!ood &o"es $it!o(t delay W)))YI) .oreover, -o ar4#a %roves !i"self very a&&(rate $!en !e finds in t!e dis&(ssion of li'eration of verse =7 a referen&e to t!e Tri5a den(n&iation of t!e %ra&ti&e of yo i& s(i&ide 6ut,rnti7, $!i&! is also &onde"ned at reater len t! in t!e Tantrlo,a R t!o( ! $it! so"e "is ivin s, as t!e %ra&ti&e $as ta( !t in t!e Mlin-3i1ayottaratantra W.1TY, t!e te,t t!at is ot!er$ise &onsidered a(t!oritative in t!e Tri5a)@; It is e9(ally o'vio(s t!at -o ar4#a is fa"iliar $it! t!e i""ense literat(re of nond(alist Paiva tradition, $!i&! !e &ites a'(ndantly, and $it!o(t "(&! re ard to tenden&y R $!i&! in effe&t esta'lis!es !is a(t!ority to &o""ent on t!e Paramrthasra) Nevert!eless, a %redile&tion for a /ra"a?oriented e,e esis is felt in !is &o""entary, in t!e "anner of !is (r(, /Se"ar4#a D8777?87B7E, $!o re%eatedly &on&erns !i"self $it! t!e /ra"a do&trine, &ele'rated as t!e !i !est of all syste"s) @B -o ar4#a !i"self $as %ro'a'ly initiated into /ra"a, as "ay 'e inferred fro" anot!er te,t as&ri'ed to !i", t!e re&ently dis&overed Ci3)@a,a)@= T!is !y"n to CaitanyaJiva, HPiva as &ons&io(snessI, is of /ra"a affiliation and #(stifies o(r re&o niLin , at vario(s %la&es in t!e Paramrthasra, -o ar4#aIs referen&es as !avin a /ra"a &oloration) For e,a"%le, after referrin to t!e Kli,,rama in !is loss on PS ;8, -o ar4#a, ad ;6, 9(otes t!e te,t of /alla3a t!at /Se"ar4#a !i"self 9(otes in !is 3.tti ad P* 8C R a verse t!at is instr("ental in definin (a,ti3i,sa, t!e H'losso"in of ener yI, also &alled $haira3-mudr, $!i&!, as t!e &onte,t s!o$s, i"%lies a referen&e to /ra"a %ra&ti&e)@< It is one e,a"%le a"on "any of -o ar4#aIs !intin at esoteri& as%e&ts of t!e do&trine DHesoteri&I 'ein (nderstood in its narro$, te&!ni&al senseE, e,%andin on t!e diversity of yo i& %ra&ti&es $!ere t!e 'ase te,t "erely all(des to t!e") T!(s, $it!in t!e a%%arent linearity of t!e ParamrthasraIs %!iloso%!i&al dis&o(rse, -o ar4#a finds "any o&&asions to 'rin o(t "ore or less &ry%ti& referen&es to t!e notion of s(%re"e S%ee&!, to t!e do&trine of %!one"i& e"anation and t!e role of t!e mt.,s Dvv) 87?88E, to mudrs Dv) ;6E, to "antri& %ra&ti&e Dvv) ;8?;=E, to t!e %la&in of t!e t!irty?si, tatt3as on t!e 'ody of t!e (r( and of t!e initiand Dv) <;E, and to t!e ,u0alin-,@C (nderstood nota'ly in its asso&iation $it! t!e arti&(lation of t!e "antra ;ASA Dv) <CE) *o$ever, t!e "a#or &ontri'(tion of -o ar4#a to t!e (nderstandin of t!e te,t is !is e"%!asis, 'e innin $it! t!e &o""entary on verse @, on $!at !e &onsiders its &ore iss(e, 1-3anmu,ti) *e does ado%t a style t!at is !is o$n R &ons&io(s do('tless of t!e reti&en&es and t!e disa ree"ents s(rro(ndin t!e notion, !e "a5es &onstant referen&e
See $. 1031. )'te that BI a*"' 1i$0" a vei*e0 re1ere$#e t' that pra#ti#e whi*e #'//e$ti$g '$ FhI ;666 13,14. 95 See hi" /pandanira!a 2Sp)3 a0 6 1 (?a * ShA"trY Sp?= 6, 1. 5)> hi" K 'tati'$" '1 the 6likkrama i$ the 2ivas)travimarin, 2S;3> hi" a t',#'//e$tar% a0 &M 15, where he revere$t*% #ite" 8the 6ramas)tras #'/p'"e0 (% a$#ie$t tea#her" i$ their 'w$ #hara#teri"ti# *a$g age: (tad 'kta p)rvag'r'bhi svabhma!e' kramas)tre'), a$0 a0 19, i$ whi#h he re1er" agai$ t' the 6ramas)tras, whi#h he $'t '$*% K 'te", ( t e7p*ai$" at *e$gth, i$ 0ea*i$g with the $'ti'$ '1 kramam'dr, 'r m'drkrama> "ee a*"' Sa$0er"'$ 2007= 39811. 96 See Sa$0er"'$ 2007= 380, $. 483. 97 See a*"', inter alia, the re1ere$#e t' the $'ti'$ '1 8great ;'i0 (e%'$0 the ;'i0: (mah)n!ti)n!a), i$ CD a0 14 ($. 495). 98 !'vert*% a0 &S 78, /'re e7p*i#it*% a0 &S 97, agai$ a0 &S 98,99, thr' gh '$e a** "i'$.


to t!e interior e,%erien&e of t!e yo in, of t!e 1-3anmu,ta so in&o"%re!ensi'le to ordinary "en) Of &o(rse, t!e fra"e$or5 is $ell 5no$n, 'ot! in t!e literat(re of /as!"ir Paivis" Dand in t!e Paramrthasra itselfM see v) B@E, and in %an?Indian tradition, 'e innin $it! t!e (%aniSads R '(t -o ar4#a ives its e,%osition a %arti&(lar t$ist) For instan&e, !e a&&ents !is a&&o(nt $it! a series of %!rases in t!e first?%erson sin (lar, %res("a'ly to 'e attri'(ted to t!e yo in !i"self, $!erein t!e yo in for"(lates t!e &ontent of !is Qin&o""(ni&a'leQ realiLation)@@ S(&! are t!e ori inality and t!e l(&idity of t!is &o""entary t!at it tr(ly "erits its a%%ellation as a 3i3.ti, an Hela'orate e,%lanationI)877 It "i !t 'e noted also t!at -o ar4#a &o(ld !ave fi (red in roles ot!er t!an t!at of /Se"ar4#aIs dis&i%le, e,e ete of t!e Paramrthasra, and a(t!or of t!e Ci3)@a,a, if !e is t!e -o eJvara or -o eJvar4&4rya t!at 14"adeva, t!e a(t!or of t!e Janmamara0a3icra, sal(tes as !is "aster R t!(s f(rt!erin a %re&e%torial linea e or parapar)878 T!(s read in t!e li !t of its &o""entary, t!e te,t of A'!inava (%ta %resents a re"ar5a'ly e,!a(stive e,%osition of Tri5a do&trine, $!i&! -o ar4#a atte"%ts to %osition, as "(&! $it!in t!e vast Jaivite tradition as in t!e %ers%e&tive of ot!er Indian syste"s R so"eti"es in order to a%%ro%riate t!e ot!ers, as in t!e &ase of t!e Bhaga3adg-t and t!e Mah$hrata, so"eti"es in order to a&!ieve distan&e fro" t!e", as in t!e &ase of idealisti& "onis"s of t!e Advaita or t!e +(dd!ist 1i#V4nav4da sort, and so"eti"es to Q&o"%leteQ t!eir ar ("entation, %arti&(larly in referen&e to t!e S45!ya)876 Note es%e&ially t!e $ay in $!i&! A'!inava (%ta87A &ondenses t!e %ole"i&al de"onstration of t!e Tri5aIs s(%re"a&y into one verse, v) 6< R a verse t!at s(""ariLes, so"eti"es idiosyn&rati&ally, several rival do&trines, and $!i&! is 'ased, $it! si nifi&ant alterations, on verse 6< of t!e first Paramrthasra) It 'e&o"es, in t!e se&ond, a do,o ra%!y in "iniat(re) T!(s t!e Paramrthasra of A'!inava (%ta a&!ieves a do('le oal: it re$rites an older te,t $it!o(t &o"%ro"isin its o$n %oint of vie$, and it "a5es of itself 'ot! a do&trinal synt!esis and a defense of 1-3anmu,ti) And it does t!is $it!in t!e &onfines of a ti !t ar ("ent, t!e arti&(lations of $!i&! -o ar4#a is at %ains to e"%!asiLe, ta5in %arti&(lar note of t!e vario(s i"%li&it o'#e&tions to $!i&! s(&! or s(&! a verse "ay 'e said to 'e a res%onse) 2)2) Structure of the text

&hra"e" that 6 have th' ght i$tere"ti$g e$' gh t' #'**e#t i$ a$ 8B$th'*'g% '1 "pirit a* e7perie$#e: ("ee p. 461), t' whi#h "h' *0 (e a00e0 the >ahast'ti> that #'$"tit te ver"e" 47,50 '1 the &S it"e*1> "ee p. 25, a$0 p. 55. 100 .ha$k" t' thi" #'//e$tar%, we have (ee$ a(*e t' /ake "e$"e ' t '1 " #h p UU*i$g pa""age" a" kArikA" 27, 63, 78 'r 84,85, t' #ite '$*% a 1ew> "ee, 1'r i$"ta$#e, the wa% CD 0i"#*'"e" the 8i/p*i#ati'$: (ttpar!) '1 kA 63 ($. 1065). 101 S #h i" the h%p'the"i" '1 ShA"tri, i$ the pre1a#e t' hi" e0iti'$ '1 the 3anmamaraavicra J a$ h%p'the"i" that /ight (e #'rr'('rate0 (% a 1ew a00iti'$a* i$0i#e"= 1) the '## rre$#e '1 the i/age '1 the water,whee* (aragha##agha#i!antra), i$ a "i/i*ar #'$te7t i$ ('th CD:" #'//e$tar% a0 47 a$0 i$ the 3anmamaraavicra= 18,19> 2) ;A/a0eva:" #itati'$ (pp. 20,21) '1 the "a/e tw' ver"e" that CD ha0 K 'te0 i$ hi" #'//e$tar% a0 83. 102 See p. 52. 103 6$ " pp'"i$g that the i$terpretati'$ '1 CD re1*e#t" the view" '1 BI.


T!e str(&t(re of t!e te,t is overned 'y a diale&ti& 'et$een 'onda e and li'eration R a diale&ti& t!at is arti&(lated in ter"s of instr(&tion as to t!e "eans of a'olis!in 'onda e) 1) 8: %ro ra""ati& verse, in $!i&! -o ar4#a, follo$in a $ell?5no$n %ro&ed(re, all(des not only to t!e essential %rin&i%les of t!e syste", '(t also, if &overtly, to $!at &onstit(tes its "a#or t!e"e, and t!at of t!e Paramrthasra itself: t!e notion of 1-3anmu,ti) 1v) 6?A: t!e "yt! of ori in of t!e Paramrthasra of A'!inava (%ta, str(&t(red in ter"s of t!e "yt! of ori in of t!e Paramrthasra of 2diJeSa) 1v) ;?8A: &ondensed e,%ose of t!e syste"Is nond(alis": %!eno"enal diversity (nderstood as t!e "anifestation of t!e LordIs ener iesM s(&&essive and &on&entri& "anifestation of t!e fo(r envelo%es, or &os"i& s%!eres Da0a, v) ;E, $!i&! &o"%re!end t!e "(lti%li&ity of $orlds and finite &reat(resM reaffir"ation of nond(alis": t!e pa(u is none ot!er t!an Piva in&arnate, $!o ass("es as a&tor t!e infinity of roles in ter"s of $!i&! t!e t!eater of t!e $orld is &!ara&teriLed DBEM series of e,a"%les D=?@, 86?8AEM do&trine of Hrefle&tionI 6prati$im$aM 86?8AE and t!e related do&trine of Hdifferen&e?and?non?differen&eI 6$hed$heda7) -o ar4#a introd(&es Dad @E for t!e first ti"e t!e fi (re of t!e 1-3anmu,ta, $!i&! !e reads all(sively in t!e notion of ra&e t!ere set fort!) 1v) 87?88, %ro%osin to define t!e Self Dor s(%re"e %rin&i%leE, anti&i%ate t!e later definitions of t!e 1-3anmu,ta) 1v) 8;?66: e,%ose of t!e t!irty?si, H%rin&i%lesI 6tatt3a7, ontolo i&al &ate ories or %rin&i%les &onstit(tive of t!e H%(re %at!I and t!e Hi"%(re %at!I, t!at are rad(ated "anifestation of t!e Self, itself desi nated in $!at follo$s as $rahman, or as Hs(%re"e %rin&i%leI 6paratatt3a7, or as HPiva 'eyond Wt!e %rin&i%lesYI 6parama(i3a R Piva seen as t!e t!irty?sevent! %rin&i%leE) T!ese %rin&i%les, arran ed %ro ressively, e,%lain t!e enesis of finit(de R as t!ey do in t!e %rototy%i&al S4 5!ya, $!i&! serves as 'asis for t!is and ot!er Indian t!eories of Qo'#e&tivityQ) All(sions to t!e t!e"e of error a%%ear fro" v) 8B on$ard, $!ere is introd(&ed t!e notion of Hfalla&io(s &reative %o$erI 6my 3imohin-7) 1v) 6A?6<: &!ara&teriLation of finit(de as a Hs!eat!I, H&onstri&tionI, or Hi"%(rityI R all realiLations of error, and &onse9(en&es of myM all(sive referen&e to t!ree of t!e fo(r Henvelo%es]s%!eresI 6a0a, 6AE, t!e t!ree Hi"%(ritiesI Dmala, 6;EM t!e f(nda"ental "isa%%re!ension of ta5in t!e Self for t!e non?Self, e,%ression of Hnes&ien&eI 6a3idy7, ter"ed as $ell Hi noran&eI 6a12na7 R in ot!er $ords, Self? for etf(lness and t!e advent of s('#e&t?o'#e&t d(alis" in t!e for" of Hd(aliLin t!o( !tI D3i,alpa, 6BEM nond(alis" reaffir"ed D6=EM ref(tation of &o"%etin t!eories of t!e Self, all of $!i&! %arta5e of error, t!o( ! in different de rees D6<, re%rised in A6E) 1v) 6C?A6: introd(&tion of t!e t!e"e of Hall?%o$erf(l errorI, des&ri'ed as t!e o'f(s&ation of t!e tr(t! DHt!e dar5ness of errorI, A7E, t!e &onstri&tion of t!e i""e"orial and eternal freedo" of t!e Self DA6EM a t!e"e t!at is o"ni%resent, inas"(&! as on t!e dissol(tion of t!at error de%ends li'eration in t!is life R t!e "a#or iss(e !ere treated) Trai5a innovation: notion of t!e se9(entiality of t!e t$o errors, t!at of ta5in t!e Self for t!e non?Self 'ein %rior to and "ore f(nda"ental t!an t!at of ta5in t!e non?Self for t!e Self DA8E)87; T!e t$o errors &onstit(te t!e mithy12na of PS BA, Hfalse]a%%arent 5no$led eI) Si"ilarly, Hd(aliLin t!o( !tI

See $. 848, a0 &S 39.


63i,alpa7, $!i&! in&l(des all t!e false &onstr(&tions of t!e relation of Self and non? Self es%o(sed 'y rival syste"s, is &onde"ned as HfalseI Dmithy, A6E) 1v) AA?AC: reversi'ility of finit(de and li'eration, of $!i&! t!e freedo" of t!e Lord is t!e e,%li&ative %rin&i%le: A'!inava (%taIs introd(&tion of t!e t!e"e of Hdivine %layI 6,ri7, e,%ression of t!e LordIs soverei n freedo"M 'e innin of t!e treat"ent of li'eration, $!i&! is o'tained 'y reversin t!e %ro&ess t!at is instr("ental in eneratin 'onda eM li'eration %res&ri'ed in v) AA: HOne s!o(ld (nveil !is %ro%er Self )))I, to $!i&! one a&&edes, sy""etri&ally, 'y (nveilin , 'y %(rifi&ation, 'y re&on9(est or re&o nition of HSelf?5no$led eI 6s3a12na7M &orres%onden&e esta'lis!ed 'et$een "a&ro&os"i& D&reation, et&)E and "i&ro&os"i& Dt!e fo(r states, $a5in , et&)E "odes of t!e Self DA;EM #(stifi&ation of t!e a%%arent %arado, of a Self Dor a $rahman7 'ot! one and "any DABEM ref(tation of t!e o'#e&tion t!at t!e Self is %oll(ted 'y its %arti&(lar realiLations DA=E and t!at t!e Self is &o"%ro"ised 'y t!e variety of its states of &ons&io(snessM ref(tation of t!e o'#e&tion t!at t!e Self is s('#e&t to affe&tations: t!e Q%sy&!olo iLationQ of t!e Self 'ein a "ere "atter of "eta%!or DACE) 1erse AC, $!i&! des&ri'es t!e Self Has it is in realityI 6paramrthata7, anti&i%ates t!e des&ri%tions of 1-3anmu,ti t!at follo$) 1v) A@?;7: eradi&ation of t!e t$ofold error 6$hrntid3aya, avat) ad ;7E and t!e si"(ltaneo(s advent of 5no$led e and li'eration) T!e sa"e freedo" of t!e S(%re"e Lord R t!at is, oneIs o$n Self 6s3tmamahe(3ara7 R $!i&! !as t!e %o$er to s('#( ate !as also t!e %o$er to li'erate Dad A@E) T!e li'eration t!at $as %res&ri'ed in v) AA is a&9(ired in v) ;7, $it! t!e ne&essary i"%li&ation t!at it is a li'eration a&9(ired in t!is life: HIn t!is $ay, $!en t!ese t$in del(sions !ave 'een &(t off, alon $it! t!eir roots, t!ere is no %en&!ant at all on t!e %art of t!e s(%re"e ade%t $!o !as attained !is oal to a&&o"%lis! anyt!in elseI) *ere $e find, in A'!inava (%taIs te,t, t!e first referen&e, even t!o( ! veiled, to t!e 1-3anmu,ta, des&ri'ed as t!e Hs(%re"e ade%tI 6parayogin7) -o ar4#a inter%rets v) ;7 as i"%lyin a den(n&iation of e,ternal rites, %re%arin t!(s t!e $ay for an esoteri& a&&o(nt of "antri& %ra&ti&e Dvv) ;8?;=E e,e"%lifyin t!e HinterioriLed riteI 6antaryga7) 1v) ;8?;=: &!an e of tone in t!e &o""entary t!at fo&(ses on an esoteri& and "ysti&al inter%retation of t!e %!iloso%!i&al &on&e%ts treated a'ove D $hed$heda, et&)E)87B T!e stress is %(t (%on t!e "eans of si"(ltaneo(s a&&ess to 'ot! 5no$led e and li'eration, 'y %resentin , in ter"s t!at are a"'i (o(s, a Hdis&i%lineI 6yoga7 'ased on s&ri%t(ral so(r&es 6gama7 t!at is %ro%er to t!e H$ay of ener yI 6(,topya7, t!is latter also &alled t!e H$ay of 5no$led eI 612nopya7 R t!e $ay of interioriLin rit(al t!at is &!ara&teriLed 'y H"editative realiLationI 6$h3an7 and "antri& %ra&ti&e, nota'ly t!at 'ased on t!e "antra M des&ri%tion of t!e 1-3anmu,ta as a yo in e"'ar5ed on t!e $ay of ener y) 1v) ;8?;= &onstit(te t!(s an esoteri& %arent!esis Dor t!e 'e innin of s(&! a %arent!esisE in a dis&o(rse t!at is %ri"arily %!iloso%!i&al R $!ose esoteris" is re&o niLed 'y its %artial %resentation and 'y t!e disse"ination of o&&(lt tea&!in s D-R ad ;A, nota'lyEM sy"'oli& &orres%onden&e 'et$een t!is se&tion of t!e treatise R $!i&! des&ri'es t!e !eart 6h.daya7, t!at is, Hener yI, as $ell as t!e Hseed of t!e !eartI 6h.day$-1a7, t!at is, t!e "antra R and its %la&e in t!e &enter of t!e treatise)


See $. 865.

1v) ;<?B7: self?%ro&la"ation of t!e HII as (lti"ate %rin&i%le, on t!e "odel of t!e vedi& Hself?%raiseI 6tmastuti7)87= T!e realiLation of t!e a'sol(te HII 6aham7, e9(ally t!at of t!e yo in and t!at of t!e Lord, is &!ara&teristi& of t!e H$ay of Pa '!(I 6($ha3opy7, defined, as $ell, as t!e Hdire&t $ayI 6s,)dupy7)87< In &onse9(en&e, t!e first?%erson %rono(n e,%resses t!e H(ndenia'leI Danapaha3an-ya, -R ad ;<, B7E fa&(lty of e,%erien&e Dor &ons&io(snessE %resent in all 'ein s) T!is HII, t!e "ode of affir"ation of t!e HGreat Lord t!at is t!e Self of ea&! %ersonI 6s3tmamahe(3ara7, red(&es all t!e ot!er "odes of valid 5no$in Din&l(din revealed te,ts, 2 a"asE, to a %osition of e,ternality and relativity D-R ad B7E) 87C T!is self? %raise of t!e HII Hsta"%s t!e yo in in t!e $ay of Pa '!(I, as is said in Tantrlo,a)87@ On anot!er level of inter%retation, it is not t!e "eta%!ysi&al %rin&i%le of t!e HII t!at is solely at iss(e !ere, '(t t!e "antra as $ell, $!i&! re%resents t!at %rin&i%le sy"'oli&ally) 1v) ;<?B7 $o(ld in t!at &ase &onstit(te a follo$?(% to t!e esoteri& %arent!esis of vv) ;8?;=, devoted to "antri& %ra&ti&e and arti&(lated in ter"s of t!e "antra) T!e "antra defined else$!ere as t!e Hs(%re"e reat "antraI 6paramahmantra7, so(r&e of all t!e ot!er "antrasI effi&ien&y 63-ry7, is t!(s in effe&t t!e &o(nter%art, in t!e $ay of Pa'!(, of t!e "antra t!at %ertains to t!e $ay of ener y) 1v) B8?B@: t!e esoteri& %arent!esis is 'rief) Fro" v) B8 on$ards, $e ret(rn to a %ro%erly %!iloso%!i&al a&&o(nt) At t!e very "o"ent t!at 5no$led e is a&9(ired Dv) B8, Hafter over&o"in t!e 'e$ilderin my )))IE, t!e yo in is li'erated) *e is !en&efort! a H5no$erI D12nin, -R ad B8 Wfirst o&&(rren&eYE) After t!is s5et&! of t!e yo in in "a#esty as t!e H"aster of t!e O!eel of ener iesI Dv) ;<E, t!at is, of t!e yo in follo$in t!e ($ha3opya, $e ret(rn to t!e de%i&tion of t!e yo in in "a#esty a&&ordin to t!e (,topya: t!e avataraKi54 ad B8 %la&es in t!e "o(t! of t!e yo in, at t!e "o"ent of !is a$a5enin , t!e %ro&la"ation of 0P/ I1 86: HT!is "i !t is all "ineI) T!e %ortrait of t!e 1-3anmu,ta %resented in vv) B8?B@ ans$ers t!e i"%li&it o'#e&tion t!at t!e notion of Hli'eration $!ile livin I is in&o"%ati'le $it! t!e 5ar"i& destiny t!at "(st 'e attri'(ted to t!e yo in in virt(e of !is in&arnate state) T!e res%onse is t!at s('#e&tion to t!e la$ of 5ar"an is t!e %rod(&t of Hfa(lty 5no$led eI) In &onse9(en&e, t!e advent of Htr(e 5no$led eI s(ffi&es to free one fro" t!at la$ DBAE, $it!o(t it 'ein ne&essary to distin (is! 'et$een a&ts datin fro" 'efore t!e
6 #a** it ahast'ti, 82"e*1,3prai"e '1 the E6E:. )'te that the 1ir"t appeara$#e" '1 the ke% $'ti'$ '1 the a("'* te E6E are t' (e 1' $0 i$ CD:" #'//e$tar% a0 6 ("ee $. 369), with the #'$#ept '1 ahantcamatkra, a$0 a0 8, with the #'$#ept '1 ahaprat,ti, the #'g$itive e7perie$#e '1 the 81ir"t per"'$: ("ee $. 397). 107 See .4 6 142. 108 !1. .4 666 125(,127a, 6; 212,218. 109 See .4 666 269= $... sa evsa' bhavop!am'drita. .he three pri$#ipa* trait" '1 the bhavop!a are 1' $0 i$ thi" &S:" ahast'ti, a" the% are "et 1'rth i$ Tantrloka, a*'$g with the "a/e "t%*i"ti# "age '1 the 1ir"t per"'$> "ee .4 666 280,281= matta evoditam ida ma!!eva pratibimbitam0 madabhinnam ida ceti tridhop!a sa bhava00 $... s#e sthite sahte ca tad etat s)traa ktam0, 8 EB** thi" pr'#ee0" 1r'/ /e, i" re1*e#te0 i$ /e, i" i$"epara(*e 1r'/ /eE. .he wa% '1 a(h i" a trip*e '$e 2...3. 6$ thi" wa% 1'**'w '$e a$'ther e/a$ati'$, /ai$te$a$#e, a$0 rea("'rpti'$:. !1. &S 48a= ma!!eva bhti viva darpaa iva nirmale $... > 48(= matta prasarati sarvam $... > 49(= sarvasmin aham eva sph'rmi $... , a$0 CD a0 47,50= 82... the /a"ter3 e7p*ai$", "i$g ter/" e7pre""ive '1 the pr'$' $ E6E, that iva i" the ver% "e*1 '1 ever%thi$g 2that e7i"t"3, that, (ei$g i$ evi0e$#e ever%where i$ virt e '1 (ei$g e"ta(*i"he0 1ir"t 2a" #'$0iti'$ 1'r ever%thi$g e*"e3, he e$L'i$" the #reati'$ a$0 a** that 1'**'w" 1r'/ it:.


a$a5enin and t!ose %osterior to it: in 'ot! &ases, it is a 9(estion of deta&!in t!e &onse9(en&e fro" t!e a&t, seen not as a "o"entary event, '(t as t!e settin in "otion of a lon %ro&ess event(atin in its %ro%er fr(it Din .F"4 sa5a ter"s, it is t!(s t!e ap/r3a, enerated 'y t!e a&t and lin5in it $it! its fr(it, t!at Qdisa%%earsQE) For !i" $!o !as 'een &onse&rated Hli'erated $!ile livin I 'y !is a$a5enin , t!ose fr(its in %ro&ess of "at(ration 6prra$dha,arman7 are &ons("ed 'y t!e fire of a$a5enin itself Dv) BBE, $!ile t!ose set in "otion after t!e a$a5enin event(ate in no &onse9(en&e, inas"(&! as Ha$a5enin I si nifies t!e a'olition of t!e desire for fr(ition Dv) B=E) T!e 12nin frees !i"self t!(s fro" all t!e "odes of 5ar"i& realiLation Dv) BCE, t!e %rin&i%al indi&ator and effe&t of $!i&! is !is e"an&i%ation fro" all sorro$) 1) =7: t!is initial %ortrait of t!e H5no$erI &(l"inates in t!e Trai5a definition of li'eration as Ht!e "anifestation of oneIs o$n ener ies realiLed 'y &(ttin t!e 5not of nes&ien&eI, in ot!er $ords, as li'eration $!ile livin R a ainst a 'a&5dro% of Qd(alisti&Q definitions of li'eration, re#e&ted 'e&a(se t!ey a&&o(nt only for li'eration at deat!) 1v) =8?=<: less all(sive "ention, in t!e 54ri54s, of 1-3anmu,ti D al'eit via a %eri%!rasis: HW)))Y !e is li'erated t!o( ! still #oined $it! !is 'odyI Dv) =8EM s5et&!, in t!e &o""entary to =8, of a distin&tion 'et$een li'eration in t!is life, 1-3anmu,ti, and li'eration at deat!, $!i&! later traditions, a"on t!e" %ost?PaT5ara 1ed4nta, $ill ter" 3idehamu,tiM reiteration of t!e %rin&i%le (nderlyin t!e notion of 1-3anmu,ti: it is a&&ess to 5no$led e, t!at is, t!e re&o nition of oneIs o$n self as t!e (niversal Self Dor t!e Lord, or P(re Cons&io(snessE, t!at sets aside t!e ne ative effe&ts of t!e la$ of 5ar"an, to et!er $it! t!e fatality of trans"i ration D=8?=6E) 1v) =A?== res%ond to t!is a%%arent %arado, 'y &ontestin t!e ne&essity of any &onver en&e 'et$een a "e&!anisti& a%%li&ation of t!e la$ of 5ar"an and t!e so?&alled fatality of rein&arnation) S(&! QfatalityQ a%%lies only to t!e e"'odied so(l la'orin (nder t!e &ontrol of nes&ien&e, $!i&! o'li es !i" to a&t in vie$ of a fr(it or res(lt) As soon as !is nes&ien&e dissi%ates and !is identity $it! t!e (niversal Self is re&o niLed, t!e H5no$erI R in&arnate, as !e is Dat least in t!e eyes of ot!ersE R a&&edes to a state of Hdisin&arnationI 6a(ar-rat3a7, synony" of li'eration887 R res%onses t!at are !ardly "ore t!an &o""on %la&es (sed 'y t!e &o""entator to f(rt!er !is de"onstration) As %roof t!at t!e 'enefit of an a&t "ay not %ertain to t!e a ent, v) =<, 'orro$in fro" ordinary e,%erien&e, %ro%oses t!e ra""ati&al e,a"%le of t!e ver' ya1- Hto sa&rifi&eI, $!i&!, $!en infle&ted in t!e "iddle voi&e 6ya1ate7, i"%lies t!at t!e ya1amna, t!e %atron of t!e sa&rifi&e, is its 'enefi&iary, '(t, $!en infle&ted in t!e a&tive voi&e 6ya1ati7, i"%lies t!at t!e y1a,a, t!e offi&iatin %riest, a&ts $it!o(t a&9(irin t!at %arti&(lar 'enefit $!i&! 'elon s to !is %atron) T!e y1a,a t!(s 'e&o"es a "eta%!or for t!e "an Hli'erated $!ile livin I) 1v) =C?<A: e,onerated !en&efort! fro" t!e &orr(%tion of !is a&ts, t!e 1-3anmu,ta &an no$ 'e des&ri'ed in t!e li !t of t!e very a&ts t!at &o"%ose !is daily life R indifferent to t!e in#(n&tions and %ro!i'itions t!at are t!e "eat of t!e ordinary "an, a%%earin to ot!ers not (nli5e a "ad"an, $anderin !it!er and yon, so deviant is !e fro" t!e (s(al standard D<8E) *is rit(als of &onse&ration are interior, "eta%!ori&al D=CE: t!e H5no$erI "a5es o'lation of !is d(aliLin t!o( !ts in t!e fire
!1. FSFh 6 1, 4= aar,ratva mokkh!am> See CD a0 63, 70, 72 (a$0 $. 1062), 79,80 (a$0 $. 1212).


of !is &ons&io(sness, fanned 'y t!e $ind of "editative realiLation 6$h3an7 D t!e "ention !ere of $h3an si nals t!at t!e %at! ta5en 'y t!e H5no$erI, in t!is se&tion of t!e Paramrthasra, is t!at of Hener yI) Re ardless of t!e a&&idents t!at "ay affe&t !is life and a&ts !en&efort!, t!e &!ara&teristi& of t!e H5no$erI is !is %(rity D<7E, (naltera'le 'e&a(se innate) 1v) <;?C7: des&ri%tion of t!e "ysti& %ra&ti&e of t!e H5no$erI devoted to t!e $ay of ener yM "eta%!ori&al e,tensions of t!e inner?o(ter %arallelis" noted a'ove: &onstr(&tion of t!e 'ody as te"%le Dde3ag.ha, <;EM oneIs o$n self as t!e divinity Dde3at, <BEM t!o( !t as o'lation Dha3ana, <=EM (ns!a5a'le a$areness of t!e Ulti"ate as !is o$n "editation Ddhyna, <<EM &onte"%lation of s(%re"e i%seity as !is silent Dor $!is%eredE re&itation D1apa, <CEM s(r%assin of all d(ality as !is vo$ D3rata, <@?C7E) T!e des&ri%tion of %ra&ti&e &(l"inates $it! a &!ara&teriLation of t!e 1-3anmu,ta as a /4%4li5a D<@?C7E R alt!o( ! !is vo$, 9(alified as Hot!er$orldlyI 6alau,i,a7 'y -o ar4#a, oes $ell 'eyond t!at of t!e ordinary ,pli,a, $!ose %ra&ti&es are soiled 'y d(ality des%ite t!eir terrifyin ri orM %(rs(it of t!ese i"a es: t!e trans"i ratory $orld $!ere a'ides t!e 1-3anmu,ta is 9(ite as terrifyin as t!e '(rnin ? ro(nd of t!e ,pli,aM t!e sy"'oli& ,ha@39ga of t!e latter, a staff s(r"o(nted 'y a s5(ll, 'e&o"es, literally, t!e 'ody of t!e for"erM t!e ,pli,a=s 'e in ?'o$l, in t!e for" of a s!ard of s5(ll, 'e&o"es t!e Hs!redI of t!e 5no$a'le t!at s(stains e9(ally t!e 1-3anmu,taM t!e ,pli,a=s li9(or is t!e ot!erIs Hessen&e of t!e (niverseI) In s(", t!e 1-3anmu,ta is Hli'eratedI 'e&a(se !e is e,e"%t fro" d(ality) -o ar4#a &on&l(des: HS(&! is t!e vo$ of !i" $!o !as &(ltivated t!e lot(s feet of a tr(e tea&!er) +eyond t!at is not!in '(t t!e desi&&ation of t!e 'odyI R a &o""ent t!at serves also to introd(&e a ne$ "otif De,tensively develo%ed in vv) C@?876E, t!at deat! does not interr(%t or "odify t!e fa&t of li'eration) 1v) C8?CC: ne$ %ortrait of t!e 1-3anmu,ta, a ain in 9(asi?%!iloso%!i&al ter"s DC8E: t!e &o""entary 'orro$in fro" t!e S,hya,ri, t!e fa"o(s i"a e of t!e %otterIs $!eel D$it!o(t !o$ever a&5no$led in t!e so(r&e WS/ =<Y, $!i&! it &ites al"ost 3er$atimE, t!e livin 'ody of t!e H5no$erI is said t!ere, li5e t!e %otterIs $!eel, to Qs%inQ for so"e ti"e after t!e last i"%(lsion iven to it 'y t!e %otter) *ere, t!e i"%(lsion is t!e inertia %rovided 'y a&ts %revio(sly (nderta5en 6prra$dha,arman7, $!ose "otion &ontin(es (nrestrained: it e,%lains $!y and !o$ li'eration o&&(rs $it!in t!is $orldM888 introd(&tion of t$o ne$ ele"ents definin 1-3anmu,ti DC6E: t!at t!e e,%erien&e is 'lissf(l Dt!at is, %ositively feli&ito(s, not "erely a'sent of sorro$E, and t!at it is o%en to all, $it!o(t rit(al %rere9(isites R and t!erefore does not re9(ire t!e so&ial H%erfe&tionin I 6sas,ra7 i"%lied in t!e &aste syste") In !is &o""entary to v) CA, -o ar4#a s5et&!es t!e distin&tion 'et$een li'eration in t!is life and li'eration at deat!,886 and all(des to a t!e"e t!at $ill 'e later develo%ed Dvv) @7?@BE: t!e si nifi&an&e of t!e yo inIs final "o"ents for !is already
.he $'ti'$ '1 %,vanm'kti it"e*1 repre"e$t" i$ a** *ike*ih''0 a$ e11'rt t' re"'*ve the 0i*e//a th " p'"e0= h'w #a$ E1r it"E '1 a#ti'$ (e a('*i"he0 at the /'/e$t '1 awake$i$g, a$0 %et the /'ti'$ i/p'"e0 '$ the ('0% 0 ri$g the peri'0 (e1're awake$i$g #'$ti$ e $ti* the 0eath '1 the ('0%? .' a11ir/ ('th i" i$ a "e$"e t' #*ai/ that #ertai$ a#t" 'r /a$$er" '1 a#ti$g have $' re" *t, $'r 0' the% pr'p'"e a$% g'a* ("ee &S 67). .he 1ig re '1 the p'tter a$0 hi" whee* "ee/" t' e7#* 0e a$'ther p'""i(*e re"'* ti'$ '1 thi" 0i*e//a J that "ee/i$g*% a0'pte0 (% the 4,t a$0 (% +ahA%A$a F 00hi"/ J that the 1r it" '1 " #h a#t" #a$ (e #'$ve%e0 t' 'ther", /'re w'rth% 'r #apa(*e '1 re#eivi$g the/, ?X9@a, i$ the 1'r/er #a"e, a bodhisattva i$ the *atter. B 8g'0: i" i$0ee0 a #'$ve$ie$t a0L $#ti'$ t' a$% " #h "%"te/ '1 th' ght.


a&9(ired li'eration) T!e vanity of in#(n&tions and %ro!i'itions is a ain noted DCA?C;E) A ne$ o'#e&tion is raised Davat) ad CB?C=E, $!i&!, $!ile ad"ittin t!e si"(ltaneity of H5no$led eI and li'eration, denies t!e %ossi'ility of &ontin(in to Hlive in a 'odyI, for t!is is ne&essarily %oll(tin R li'eration 'ein %ossi'le, in ot!er $ords, only at t!e "o"ent of deat!) In res%onse, it is %ointed o(t DCB?C=E t!at Henli !ten"entI i"%lies t!e disa%%earan&e of t!e t!ree i"%(rities t!at are res%onsi'le for t!e so(lIs finit(de and trans"i ration) T!e %ersisten&e of a 'ody does not &o"%ro"ise in any $ay t!e li'erated stat(s of t!e 1-3anmu,ta R and !is li'eration is irreversi'le, esta'lis!ed on&e and for all, a&&ordin to t!e Paiva "a,i": sa,.d 3i$hto <yam) A &on&ession is "ade nevert!eless to t!e adversary D-R ad CB?C=E: a radation, or %er!a%s a se9(en&in , of t$o orders of li'eration: li'eration in t!is life, &orres%ondin to t!e HFo(rt! stateI 6turya7, and li'eration at deat!, &orres%ondin to t!e Hstate 'eyond t!e Fo(rt!I 6turyt-ta7)88A 1v) C@?@B: t!e"e of t!e irreversi'ility of li'eration develo%ed in detail) A %arado,i&al ar ("ent #(stifies t!is irreversi'ility 'y a%%ealin to t!e la$ of 5ar"an R t!e sa"e la$ t!at, for t!e ordinary "an, &onde"ns !i" to t!e fatality of trans"i ration) One 'e&o"es, in effe&t, t!at $!i&! one !as al$ays 'een R $!et!er !e 'e a 'o(nd so(l 6pa(u7 or a H5no$erI 612nin7) No intervenin a&&ident, no (ne,%e&ted s!o&5 is s(ffi&ient to defle&t one fro" t!e destiny !e !as so( !t) 88; S(&! is t!e tea&!in of v) C@, $!i&! on its fa&e see"s to &on&ern only t!e 'o(nd so(lM it is t!e &o""entary t!at s(%%lies t!e "issin lin5 $it! t!is Jaivite inter%retation of t!e la$ of 5ar"an) In virt(e of t!is %rin&i%le, t!e final a ony of t!e H5no$erI, $!atever disorder of "ind or 'ody "ay a&&o"%any it, does not 'rin into 9(estion !is stat(s as Hli'eratedI D@7?@BE) One readin of v) @8 s( ests t!e %ossi'ility of &o"%arin t!e o%a&ity of t!e H5no$erIsI final "o"ents to t!e &ondition of &ertain ani"als as t!ey &onfront deat! D&f) t!e e%isode of ga1endramo,)a, for e,a"%le, ta5en (% 'y -RE: t!e ani"al &ondition itself does not o'str(&t t!e state of li'eration to $!i&! t!e ani"al "ay !ave 'een entitled) 1v) @=?@<: 1-3anmu,ti is no$ %!iloso%!i&ally esta'lis!ed) One 9(estion re"ains: $!y are so"e as%irants, t!o( ! en(inely desiro(s of li'eration, not a&&orded t!eir release in t!is lifeZ In ot!er $ords, !o$ does one a&&o(nt for Q radationsQ or Qde reesQ of li'eration R and so"eti"es even fail(resZ T!e res%onse, even t!o( ! it "ay a%%ear not entirely satisfa&tory, "a5es a%%eal to Hdivine ra&eI in t!e for" of a Hdes&ent of ener yI 6(a,tipta7: it is t!at Hdes&ent of ener yI of t!e S(%re"e Lord, (n&onditioned, (nrestri&ted,88B and yet varied, t!at li'erates) T!is a%%arent radation of Qdes&entsQ is of &o(rse &orrelated $it! t!e a'ilities of t!e as%irant, $!i&! notion
8... i$ 'ther w'r0", a1ter the 0e"tr #ti'$ '1 hi" ('0%, he attai$" a #'$0iti'$ '1 6"'*ati'$ (kevalata) that i" (e%'$0 the T' rth "tate 2'1 #'$"#i' "$e""3, #'/p'"e0 "'*e*% '1 (*i""1 * #'$"#i' "$e"" 2...3:. 113 8.hi" (ei$g the #a"e, the 2/i$0 '1 the3 k$'wer '1 the Se*1 (%&n,), whi*e *ivi$g (%,vann ev), i" 1'r/e0 (% the T' rth> a$0 he tra$"#e$0" eve$ that T' rth, '$#e hi" ('0% $' *'$ger e7i"t":. 114 8<$ the 'ther ha$0, #'//e$t" CD a0 89, whe$ hi" ('0% 1a**" awa%, $'thi$g at a** (e1a**" the /a$ 2viU., the %&nin3 wh' ha" rehear"e0 $' 2a#t" e$ge$0eri$g3 *ate$t 0i"p'"iti'$"> i$0ee0, with whatever i$te$ti'$ the #'g$iUer rehear"e" (abh!as!ati) 2hi" a#ti'$"3, he (e#'/e" '$e with that 2i$te$ti'$3, a$0 at the /'/e$t '1 0eath the '(Le#t that he 0e"ire" with #*arit% #'/e" i$t' evi0e$#e 1'r the #'g$iUer. 6$ thi" wa%, there #a$ (e $' rever"a* 2'r "etti$g at $a ght3 (vipar!a!a) '1 the /atter" that have (ee$ rehear"e0 2thr' gh' t *i1e3, $'r #a$ a$%thi$g $'t '1 the $at re '1 previ' "*% rehear"e0 a#tivit% #'/e i$t' p*a% i$ "'/e $pre#e0e$te0 1a"hi'$ (ap)rvatvena). .h ", previ' " rehear"a* (p)rvbh!sa) i" a*'$e the #a "e 2'13 whatever 2e11e#t e$" e"3. .hi" i" the p rp'rt:. 115 vikhala, a" it i" "ai0 i$ the avat. a0 9.


$o(ld 'e diffi&(lt to see as anyt!in '(t a restatin of t!e 9(estion, rat!er t!an an Qans$erQ) In fa&t, a s!ift in %oint of vie$ is in &o(rse: at t!e end of t!e treatise, it is solely PivaIs %ers%e&tive t!at is at iss(e R paramrthata R in ter"s of $!i&! t!e %ers%e&tive %rovided 'y t!e la$ of 5ar"an is "erely instr("ental, and (lti"ately to 'e &ast aside, as "ere 3ya3ahra, inas"(&! as it is valid for t!e e"'odied a ent, $!o a&ts only 'y %ro,yM t!e sole real a ent is Piva) T!e Hdes&ent of ener yI t!(s a"o(nts to t!e a&9(isition Dor Hre&o nitionIE of a Hfreedo"I t!at is oneIs already R inas"(&! as Piva is !ere &on&eived as Hfreedo"I itself) Given t!e de rees of ra&e, one &annot es&a%e t!e idea t!at different de rees of effort are also &alled for R on t!e %art of different as%irants R and so t!e te,t, in t!ese final se&tions, s!ifts fro" an e"%!asis on t!e 12nin to one on t!e yogin, !e $!o is en a ed in a Hdis&i%lineI 6yoga7 leadin to e"an&i%ation) If t!e e&!o of t!e "-t is &lear, t!e ter" Hyo inI i"%lies as $ell a referen&e to t!e Paiva syste" of upyas) A readin of vv) @=?@< R $it!o(t any referen&e to t!e &o""entary R finds t!ere easily a des&ri%tion of 1-3anmu,ti and t!e t!ree H$aysI &a%a'le of leadin to it) In @= is des&ri'ed an as%irant $!o, 'enefitin fro" a ra&e t!at is Hvery intenseI 6atit-3ra7, follo$s t!e H$ay of Pa'!(I, t!e i""ediate or dire&t %at! to li'eration, &!ara&teriLed t!ro( ! t!e analo y of &o%%er &!an ed al&!e"i?&ally into old 'y &onta&t $it! "er&(ryM s(&! an as%irant a&&edes to final enli !ten"ent, as it $ere, HeffortlesslyI and in t!is life R t!e only "ediation re9(ired 'ein t!at of t!e tea&!er) 1) @< envisa es an as%irant $!o !as devoted !i"self to t!e se9(ential %ra&ti&es of t!e H$ay of ener yI 6(,topya7 R and %ro'a'ly, to t!e H$ay of t!e finite so(lI 60a3opya7) T!e ele"ent t!at is &o""on to vv) @=?@< is t!eir referen&e to a yo in $!o !as or $ill !ave s(&&eeded in !is 9(est, $!o !as a&9(ired li'eration in t!is life or $ill in t!e ne,t) 1v) @C?876 are devoted to a len t!y e,%osition of t!e (ns(&&essf(l as%irant, t!e as%irant $!o !as Hfallen fro" dis&i%lineI 6yoga$hra)@a7, ty%i&ally, 'y an (ne,%e&ted deat! t!at !as interr(%ted !is %ra&ti&e R and $!o t!(s sees !is li'eration deferred) 1v) @C?@@ %ro"ise to s(&! a one a residen&e in Hdivine $orldsI and a re'irt! t!at is (aranteed to %rod(&e a sal(tary res(lt) Not only is no effort $asted, '(t !is %ra&ti&e is ta5en (% at #(st t!e %oint it $as interr(%ted) 1v) 877?876 des&ri'e an as%irant even "ore i"%erfe&t, $!ose %ra&ti&e !as (tterly failed, $!o !as, for instan&e, failed to ras% $!at !as 'een &learly e,%lained to !i") After a so#o(rn lastin even lon er in t!e divine $orlds, !e too is %ro"ised an (lti"ate li'eration, '(t only after a s('se9(ent deat!) T!e so(r&e of t!e notion of t!e yoga$hra)@a is do('tless t!e "-t D1I A<?;@E, as -o ar4#a notes ad 876) T!e notion, stran ely eno( !, is lar ely a'sent in ot!er te,ts of nond(al Paivis" of /as!"ir R $it! t!e sin le e,&e%tion of T2 :::1II =B D$!i&! (ses t!e synony" yogacyuta $!ile referrin to /USKaIs tea&!in a%ro%os t!e yoga$hra)@a7 and Tantrlo,a3i3e,a ad lo&, $!ere t!e ter" yoga$hra)@a fi (res in a &itation of t!ose very verses DviL), +!G 1I ;8'?;A, in vol) 1III: A<8AE) O!y t!is Paramrthasra=s re"ar5a'le and 9(ite detailed e,&e%tionZ In %art, t!e ans$er "(st lie in t!e fa&t t!at A'!inava (%taIs Paramrthasra is t!e re$ritin of an e,tra?Paiva te,t, t!e 2diJeSaIs Paramrthasra, of $!i&! t!e last verses Dvv) C;? C=E !ave 'een re%rod(&ed 9(asi 3er$atim in A'!inava (%taIs verses 877?876 R %re&edin $!i&!, !o$ever, &o"es a %rea"'le t!at refers, even t!o( ! &overtly, to t!e Trai5a notion of t!e t!ree H$aysI Dvv) @=?@<E and s(%%lies a %!iloso%!i&al fo(ndation for t!e notion of t!e yoga$hra)@a Dvv) @C?@@E) T!is 'rin s into fo&(s, %er!a%s, t!e strate y of re$ritin at iss(e !ere, $!ere so"eti"es fidelity and &o!eren&e "(st 'e

re&on&iled so"e$!at loosely) T!is 'orro$in fro" t!e older te,t does serve A'!inava (%ta, !o$ever, in fa&ilitatin !is &lai" t!at li'eration is (niversally a&&essi'le R $itness t!e vi'rant %lea of -o ar4#a in favor of t!e effort to o'tain li'eration D87AE) 1) 87A: T!is verse &ontains t!e Q"oralQ to 'e derived fro" vv) @=?876, $!i&! is t!at of t!e entire treatise: every effort 'ears fr(it, %rovided t!at it 'e sin&ereM li'eration is &ertain, 'e it no$ or later) Neit!er "(st t!e as%irant fear %res("%tion: not only is !is effort %ro"ised s(&&ess, '(t it is le iti"ate) 1v) 87;?87B: As e,%e&ted at t!e end of a treatise li5e t!e Paramrthasra, v) 87; ret(rns to t!e te,t itself and its a(t!or, and finds an additional reason to 'elieve in t!e inevita'ility of li'eration: it is even "ore &ertain no$ t!at it !as 'een e,%lained in t!e 'est of all %ossi'le treatises, na"ely, t!e Paramrthasra of A'!inava (%ta) 1) 87B oes even f(rt!er, &ele'ratin t!e $or5 for its &on&ision, and t!e a(t!or for !is a(t!ority, &onferred 'y t!e (ne9(alled s%lendor of !is "ysti&al realiLation, in $!i&! !e is li5ened to none ot!er t!an .a!eJvara !i"self) 2)3) S etch of the doctrine On t!e "odel of a do&trine t!at %la&es in tande" servit(de and e"an&i%ation, t!e te,t of t!e Paramrthasra is &onstr(&ted diale&ti&ally: to verse 6;, $!i&! des&ri'es t!e installation of i"%(rities, &orres%onds verse B<, $!i&! &onte"%lates t!eir a'olitionM 88= to verses ;?B, $!i&! introd(&e t!e "otif of t!e Hs!eat!sI or Henvelo%esI 6a0a7, $!ose (nf(rlin &a(ses finit(de, &orres%ond verses ;8?;=, $!i&! des&ri'e t!e "anner in $!i&! "antri& %ra&ti&e %ro&eeds to t!eir 'ein sto$ed a$ayM to verses A7?A8, $!i&! set fort! t!e notion of t$ofold error, &orres%ond verses A@?;7, $!i&! &onse&rate its eradi&ationM verse 8B, $!i&! defines my, is refle&ted in verse B8, $!i&! "a5es "4y4Is dissi%ation t!e %re&ondition of li'eration) In effe&t, finit(de and li'eration are not!in '(t a%%earan&es, !ave no QrealityQ a%art fro" $orldly &onvention and lin (isti& (sa e) 88< To t!e e,tent t!at PivaIs a"e 'rin s t!e" into %lay, t!ey ass("e alternatin roles, endlessly, in a $orld t!at !as no ot!er destiny t!an trans"i ration, s('#e&t only to PivaIs $ill: HT!(s does t!e S(%re"e Piva e,tend W$it!in o(r s%!ereY !is %lay W"adeY $onderf(l 'y Wt!e alternation ofY 'onda e and li'erationI)88C On t!e level of (lti"ate reality 6paramrthata7, in &ontrast, t!ere e,ist neit!er servit(de nor e"an&i%ation R #(st soverei n freedo", $!i&! is "anifest in t!e %lay of t!e od, $!o is %leased so"eti"es to &on&eal !i"self, so"eti"es to reveal

.he/e take$ p agai$ at vv. 85,88. See CD a0 60= 86$ L "t thi" wa%, #'$"#i' "$e"", 2whe$3 #'$"tri#te0 (% the *i/itati'$" 0erivi$g 1r'/ the #'$#eit that *'#ate" the Se*1 i$ the ('0%, et#., i" "ai0 t' (e Ea" i1 (' $0E (baddham iva)> a$0 "i/i*ar*%, '$#e the ('$0age that #'$"i"t" '1 the #'$#eit attri( ti$g t' the ('0%, et#., the #apa#it% t' #'g$iUe ha" #'/e t' a$ e$0 thr' gh the /a$i1e"tati'$ '1 the k$'w*e0ge '1 '$e:" 'w$ $at re, that "a/e 2#'$"#i' "$e""3 i" "ai0 t' (e Ea" i1 *i(erate0E (m'ktam iva), 2"i$#e $'w it i"3 1 **% 0ep*'%e0 thr' gh the 0i"#ri/i$ati'$ '1 it" 'w$ e$ergie" 2'1 i$0epe$0e$#e, et#.3 2...3. Me$#e ('$0age a" we** a" *i(erati'$ are ('th e""e$tia**% 21 $#ti'$" '13 #'$#eit '1 "e*1 a11e#ti$g the *i/ite0 #'g$iUer> it i" $'t that a$% eve$t" '1 thi" "'rt 2rea**%3 take p*a#e i$ the rea*it% that i" #'$"#i' "$e"" J the *ti/ate tr th 2'1 thi" "%"te/3:> "ee $. 1039. 118 &S 33.
116 117


!i"self, r!yt!"i&ally, in a&&ordan&e $it! !is t$o Hener iesI 6(a,ti7, t!at of o's&(ration 6tirodhna(a,ti7 and t!at of !is ra&e or favor 6anugraha(a,ti7)88@ Everyt!in , in t!is syste" of t!o( !t, e,tendin even to notions and entities of little val(e, is a %rod(&t of an Hener yI of t!e od) T!e do&trine is $ell s(ited t!en to t!e needs of t!e mumu,)u, t!e a&olyte as%irin to e"an&i%ation, for it a&&ords !i" ass(ran&e t!at !e $ill rea&! !is oal: even in t!e s%!ere of finite interests, t!ere is not!in set in stone, not!in irre"edia'le R even finit(de itself is finite) In t!is sense, e"an&i%ation is defined not so "(&! as a "otivated effort to (ndo 'onda e, as it is a %ositive recognition 6pratya$hi127 t!at one is already free R if anyt!in , t!e %arado,i&al a&9(isition of a freedo" t!at one !as never lost) Alt!o( ! t!is %arado, is, in so"e $ay, &o""on to "ost Indian radi&al "onis"s, t!is s&!ool affir"s in %arti&(lar t!at t!e re&o nition at iss(e ta5es t!e for" of t!e Hf(ll de%loy"ent of oneIs o$n ener iesI Ds3tma(a,ti3i,as3arat, -R ad v) =7E) Oit! t!e introd(&tion of t!e notion of (a,ti, t!e Tri5a affir"s 'ot! its do&trinal &o!eren&e Dt!e ot!er syste"s do not !ave re&o(rse to s(&! a notion in order to des&ri'e li'erationE and its taste for %arado, R a $ay to s!ore (% a &o(nterfa&t(al vie$ of t!e !("an &ondition) Li'eration is freedo": in ot!er $ords, t!ere e,ists no li'eration, '(t a freedo" t!at %lays at !idin itself) At t!e !eart of t!e do&trine, as $e !ave seen, is t!e notion of 1-3anmu,ti, Hli'eration Wfro" lifeY $!ile one yet livesI, t!e o,y"oron %ar e,&ellen&e R and s&andalo(s as $ell for ordinary reasona'le "en, &on&erned, as all "en s!o(ld 'e, $it! e,e&(tin t!eir reli io(s and et!i&al d(ties) T!e n("ero(s o'#e&tions to t!e notion %oint to t!at s&andal, o'#e&tions for t!e "ost %art i"%li&it in t!e te,ts t!e"selves, '(t $!i&! t!e &o""entators deli !t in 'rin in o(t) T!e &!allen e t!at 1-3anmu,ti re%resents as $ell for t!e Paramrthasra itself &an 'e as&ertained s('li"inally in t!e %olyse"y of t!e $or5Is title, $!ere paramrtha si nifies not only H(lti"ate 6parama7 reality Dor tr(t!, arthaEI, '(t Das t!e &o""entary to v) 87; at t!e end of t!e treatise so"e$!at 'elatedly revealsE Ht!e !i !est 6parama7 of t!e fo(r oals 6artha, s&il), puru)rtha7 of !("an lifeI, na"ely e"an&i%ation 6mo,)a7: HNo$ t!e a(t!or WA'!inava (%taY %ro&eeds to s(" (% t!e %(r%ose of t!e te,t, sayin t!at Qit alone is t!e tea&!in t!at serves as a "eans for realiLin t!e !i !est a"on t!e oals of !("an life)Q I Li5e$ise, in !is &o""entary on t!e first verse, -o ar4#a a%%ears to des&ry a referen&e, al'eit &on&ealed, to 1-3anmu,ti in t!e na"e HPa'!(I, $!i&! !e inter%rets ety"olo i&ally as si nifyin H$!ose nat(re is (ns(r%assed feli&ityI 867 R a not (n&o""on %loy, $itness t!e si"ilar readin s of t!e na"e HPaT5araI D&f) S%P 8 , 9(oted 'elo$E) *e &ontin(es: HOit! t!is s(""ary senten&e, $!i&! tea&!es t!at t!e s(%re"e state to 'e attained is a'sor%tion in W$!at is alreadyY oneIs o$n essen&e, t!e tea&!er !as stated in a''reviated for" t!e %(r%ort of t!e te,t in its entiretyI) In t!is syste", t!e only freedo" to $!i&! one s!o(ld as%ire, is e"an&i%ation in t!is life868 R a notion t!at a%%ears to follo$ fro" nond(alis" itself, if one (nderstands 'y He"an&i%ationI oin 'eyond t!e &ontraries and reinte ration $it!in t!e One: t!ere is no reason $!y a %erson, in t!is $orld, s!o(ld not 'e as free as is
See CD a0 60 a$0 69. an'ttarare!asvabhva J 'r 82appr'priati'$ '13 wh'"e $at re (e#'/e" 21'r the a"pira$t3 the *ti/ate g'a*:. 121 See Sp& 1 2S a0 11, i$ the te7t a* 'rga$iUati'$ '1 Sp)3= iha hi %,vanm'ktataiva moka.
119 120


Piva, for !e is not?different fro" !i", %rovided t!at !e (nderta5es t!e real la'or of re&o niLin t!at tr(t!)866 T!e e,istential diffi&(lty of 'e&o"in Piva "ay 'e read, in effe&t, 'et$een t!e lines of t!e do&trine of t!e fo(r upyas R $!i&! do&trine in&l(des, nevert!eless, at least for a !andf(l of individ(als, eit!er t!e %ossi'ility of t!e Hnon?"eansI 6anupya7, t!at is, t!e a'sen&e of all e,istential diffi&(lty in realiLin oneIs o$n identity $it! PivaM or t!at of t!e 9(asi?instantaneo(s H$ay of Pa'!(I) Indeed, one !as t!e sense t!at /as!"ir Paivis" is one of t!e first syste"s to see5 to #(stify do&trinally t!e notion of 1-3anmu,ti) As s(&!, t!e treat"ent of t!e notion and its re%resentation as a %!iloso%!i&al iss(e &onstit(te in t!eir o$n $ay "a#or &ontri'(tions to t!e develo%"ent of Indian t!o( !t) T!e t!e"e of a'andonin 5ar"i& life is nearly as old as Indian &iviliLation itself, and !as iven rise to a de'ate t!at is a %ersistent leit"otif of Indian intelle&t(al !istory) T!e as%erity of t!at de'ate "i !t 'e d(e as "(&! to a lin erin s(s%i&ion t!at +ra!"anis" !ad already s(rrendered too "(&! to +(dd!ist infl(en&e, as to t!e ne$ly %o%(lar devotionalis" and its reinvi orated sense of rit(al, "ena&ed 'y any a'andonin of $orldly life) T!e "ena&e re%resented 'y t!e a'andon"ent of 5ar"i& life !ad 'een first "anifest in t!e late?vedi& &riti9(e of t!e effi&a&ity of t!e sa&rifi&e itself Dsee, for instan&e, .(U I 6, 87?88E) T!at &riti9(e $as at least %artially disar"ed 'y t!e notion of t!e fo(r sta es of life 6(ramadharma7, rele atin sanysa to t!e end of life, $ell after t!e !o(se!older !ad f(lfilled !is rit(al destiny Din&l(din t!e %ro&reation of sonsE) In t!e sa"e $ay, t!e ideal of li'eration 6mo,)a7 $as s(%eradded to t!e t!ree Qnor"alQ oals of !("an life, &orres%ondin to t!is ne$ Qe,tra?!("anQ &ondition) Fro" a stri&tly %!iloso%!i&al %oint of vie$, t!e de'ates t!at are e&!oed in t!e Paiva te,ts on t!e de rees of li'eration relate to a narro$er iss(e, rat!er "ore te&!ni&al in nat(re: &an li'eration R a&&e%ted 'y nearly everyone at t!e ti"e R 'e re&on&iled $it! 5ar"i& life, or "(st one $ait for t!e end of life in order to a&&ede t!eretoZ T!at is, is t!e notion of 1-3anmu,ti defensi'leZ .any s&!olars, Reno( a"on t!e", !ave re"ar5ed on t!e Indian eni(s for synt!esis, re&on&iliation R a s%irit t!at ref(ses to re ard any &ontradi&tion as final) In t!is sense, t!e tension 'et$een t!e life of t!e !er"it and $orldly life is not a re&ent %!eno"enon, nor a fatality R and t!e notion of 1-3anmu,ti offers on&e a ain t!e o%%ort(nity to %alliate it) T!e dyna"is" of Indian intelle&t(al !istory de%ends in lar e %art on t!at diale&ti&, $!ere &o"%ro"ises !ave 'een n("ero(s Dand not all &on enial to Oestern fas!ions of t!o( !tE, s(&! as t!e interioriLation of &o"%le, e,ternal rites, t!e +ra!"ani&o?+(dd!ist a"al a", t!e notion of t!e H (r(I, 'ot! QfreeQ and so&ially en a ed) T!e 9(arrel refle&ted in t!ese Paiva te,ts is t!(s far fro" ori inal, '(t is nevert!eless felt as irre"edia'ly &r(&ial) As far as t!e ter"s 1-3anmu,tiBEmu,ta are &on&erned, "ost "odern inter%reters &onsider t!e" as relatively re&ent) To date, t!ey !ave 'een noti&ed in several Advaita or Advaita?li5e te,ts of t!e e%o&!, s(&! as t!e 5oga3si)@ha Dalso it see"s fro" /as!"ir, and %resentin several Paiva traitsE, t!at so"e Din&l(din Das (%ta 8@<B, vol) II: 6A8E $o(ld attri'(te to t!e nint! &ent(ryM and t!e 'tma$odha, traditionally
!'$#er$i$g the #'$#epti'$ '1 %,vanm'kti i$ the Si00hA$ta, whi#h i" 0 a*i"t at the ti/e '1 the ?a"h/iria$ e7egete", "ee, e"pe#ia**%, Fr $$er, /omaabh'paddhati 2S&3, v'*. 666= 5666, a$0 .B?, ".v. %,vanm'kta (v'*. 66= 27511.).


assi ned to PaT5ara !i"self R t!o( ! erroneo(sly, a&&ordin to t!e sa"e a(t!orities)86A T!e ter"s fi (re as $ell in Paiva te,ts of t!e sa"e %eriod, as I $ill atte"%t to s!o$, '(t t!eir "ore &ertain datin s!o(ld not !ide t!e fa&t t!at t!e idea of 1-3anmu,ti !ad lon a o fo(nd its $ay into t!e &on&e%t(al a%%arat(s of "onists Dof $!atever stri%eE R it is t!ere in t!e "-t,86; as $ell as in so"e older (%aniSads,86B and re&o niLed as s(&! 'y PaT5ara)86= Even its te&!ni&al inter%retation is t!ere: are Hfree $!ile aliveI t!ose t!at Qa&tQ no "ore, '(t are o'li ed to live o(t t!eir prra$dha,arman, 'e&a(se Das indi&ated 'y PaT5ara and ot!ersE a 5ar"an on&e set in "otion is not easily ann(lled) -et, t!e &ontri'(tion of t!e vast Jivaite literat(re to t!e de'ate on 1-3anmu,ti &annot 'e i nored, as !as 'een "ainly t!e &ase, not only 'y "odern s&!olars!i% Dat least 'eyond t!e field of Paiva st(diesE, 86< '(t also 'y later Indian tradition) In effe&t, one &an say $it!o(t e,a eration t!at t!e Paiva a(t!ors ive (s one of t!e first "ore or less &o"%lete a&&o(nts of an idea t!at !ad ta5en root for so"e ti"e in Indian a'sol(tist t!o( !t R alt!o( ! t!ey do not deviate fro" t!e &o""only re&eived o%inion as &on&erns t!e eneral &!ara&ter and i"%ortan&e of li'eration itself, as s!o$n 'y t!eir &onstant referen&es to %rior dis&(ssions of t!is iss(e, and "ost nota'ly to t!e "-t) T!ere is no do('t as to t!e soteriolo i&al orientation of t!e 9(asi?totality of develo%ed Indian %!iloso%!i&al syste"s R 'e t!ey "onist or d(alist, as t!e S45!ya R '(t t!e novelty of t!e Tri5aIs a%%roa&! lies in its vie$in , indeed reeval(atin , mu,ti in t!e li !t of its "eta%!ysi&s, s!o$in t!at, for instan&e, on t!e level of t!e a'sol(te, t!ere is no li'eration, inas"(&! as 'onda e e,ists only on t!e e"%iri&al level) A vie$ $it! .4d!ya"i5a overtones, it is tr(e, '(t freed fro" t!e eristi& and ne ative &!ara&ter of t!e latter R 'onda e itself 'ein resolved in t!e a'sol(te freedo" of t!e Self, a state of dyna"i& %lenit(de Da"on ot!er na"es, Tri5a &onfers (%on itself t!at of p/r0at3da7 t!at s(ffi&es to define li'eration as freedo" itself) T!(s, t!e Tri5a or aniLes (nder t!e !eadin of a Hdo&trine of freedo"I 6s3tantrya3da7 t!e ele"ents of t!e i""e"orial dialo on t!e li'erated "an)
<$ the $'ti'$ '1 %,vanm'kti i$ the dvaitavednta '1 +a0hva (13th 'r 14th #e$t.), "ee D. +e"K ita 2007. 124 See $'ta(*% -a"g pta 1975, v'*. 66= 247. 125 See $. 1405. 126 See -a"g pta 1975, v'*. 66= 246> <(erha//er 1994= 15. &r'1. Da11ae*e .'re**a ha" ki$0*% re1erre0 /e t' the epi# "age '1 %,vanm'kta, 'r rather %,van... m'kta, t' whi#h &r'1. +i$'r Mara ha" 0ev'te0 a$ arti#*e (1996). 6t i" t' (e $'te0, h'wever, that i$ the Gpi# the ter/ 0'e" $'t '## r a" " #h, ( t rather a" variati'$" '$ a "t'#k phra"e, " a**% (i$ the +Fh) i$ the $egative= na me %,van vimok!ase, 8C' wi** $'t e"#ape 1r'/ /e a*ive:, a phra"e whi#h e7pre""e" '$*% the her':" 0eter/i$ati'$ $'t (na) t' *et hi" 1'e e"#ape (m'kta) a*ive (%,van) 1r'/ the (att*e. .he *'# ti'$ i" 1' $0 i$ the a11ir/ative i$ the ?arivaa= %ita ... %,van m'kta ca vi'n, 8va$K i"he0, he wa" re*ea"e0 a*ive (% ;i9@ :. .he #'$te7t here i" #*ear*% $'t >m'kti> (a" it i" *ater $0er"t''0) ( t the ver% w'r*0*% i"" e '1 a katri!a"s h /i*iati'$. +. Mara i" '1 #' r"e L "ti1ie0 i$ rai"i$g the K e"ti'$ '1 the re*ati'$"hip (etwee$ the phi*'"'phi#a* a$0 epi# varia$t" '1 the *'# ti'$ >%,van m'kta>> it "ee/" /'re appr'priate, h'wever, t' "ee the tw' a" 0i"ti$#t 0eve*'p/e$t", 0i11ere$t $'t '$*% i$ #'$te7t ( t i$ "%$ta#ti# "age. 127 See <(erha//er 1994= 15, with re1ere$#e t' FhIFh ;6 27= 8Se*'$ t' te appare$#e, #e te7te e"t *a p* " a$#ie$$e re1ere$#e a *a %,vanm'kti et pe t,etre *e "e * pa""age ' akara e/p*'ie *e ter/e te#h$iK e 0e %,vanm'kta:.


Anot!er i"%ortant e"%!asis of t!e Tri5a, %er!a%s even an innovation, is, as I !ave already indi&ated, its %rivile in t!e a&9(isition of 1-3anmu,ti, even to t!e %oint of deni ratin t!e older notion of Hli'eration at deat!I)86C Nayarat!a, in !is &o""entary on T2 I 68R t!e &on&l(din verse of t!e te,tIs introit R o'serves, in effe&t, t!at Ht!e o'#e&tive Wof t!is treatiseY is to &onfer e"an&i%ation in t!is life 'y re&o niLin t!e Self as s(&!, 'y e"%loyin %ro ressively s(&! "eans as $ill 'e des&ri'ed in $!at follo$sI, and t!at t!is oal Halt!o( ! develo%ed t!ro( ! t!e lon se9(en&e of verses t!at follo$, is dire&tly de&lared 'y t!e %resent verse D68E, $!i&! 'e ins $it! QPriJa'!(n4t!aQ H)86@ At t!e ot!er e,tre"e of t!e treatise, verses A6?AAa of &!a%ter :::1II &onfir": HT!is treatise W&on&ernin t!eY Real, W$!erein is de&laredY t!e essen&e of t!e Tri5a itself, is evidently to 'e ta5en (% Wand st(diedY, %rovidin as it does $it!o(t reat effort t!e s(%re"e 'enefit t!at is e"an&i%ation in t!is life, and arran ed in s(&! a $ay as to &onvey t!e !i !est satisfa&tions #(st as desiredI)8A7 Nayarat!a Dad T2 :::1II A6?AAaE does not fail to stress t!e &o!eren&e of t!e treatise on $!i&! !e &o""ents, 'y relatin t!ese verses to t!ose of t!e first &!a%ter: HT!(s, W$it! t!e arti&(lation of vv) A6?AAa of &!) :::1IIY t!e "ain %(r%ose of t!e $or5 is a&&o"%lis!ed, $!i&! !ad 'een set fort! in Wvv) 6C;'?6C=a of &!) IY: QT!e sa e $!o &ontin(ally o&&(%ies !i"self $it! Wt!is $or5Y of t!irty?seven &!a%ters $ill 'e&o"e an in&arnate +!airavaM sin&e !e $!ose 5no$led e !as 'een &o"%leted in Wst(dy ofY t!ese t!irty?seven $ill 'e&o"e +!airava, $!y s!o(ld one 'e s(r%rised $!en even finite &reat(res, 'y &onte"%lation of !i", attain to t!e state of +!airavaZQ I8A8 Re&allin t!(s, in !is &o""entary on verses A6?AA of t!e final &!a%ter, t!e %assa e in t!e initial &!a%ter $!ere t!e 1-3anmu,ta is des&ri'ed, alon $it! !is vo&ation of !el%in ot!ers on t!e sa"e %at!, Nayarat!a reaffir"s t!at t!e t!e"e of e"an&i%ation in t!is life is t!e t!read of Ariadne strin in to et!er t!e entire te,t R and I "i !t add, t!e entire do&trine) In effe&t, t!e 5ey notions of t!e syste" R H ra&eI 6(a,tipta7, t!e H"eansI or H$aysI of li'eration 6upya7, t!e triad of Hi"%(ritiesI 6mala7, to &ite only a fe$ R enter into its soteriolo i&al %ro#e&t) Oe learn, for instan&e, fro" t!e Tantrlo,a=s treat"ent, and to a lesser e,tent, t!at of t!e Paramrthasra, t!at 1-3anmu,ti is a&&essi'le in t!e t!ree inferior H$aysI) S(%%ortin t!is notion is t!e al&!e"i&al "eta%!or, $!i&! is one of t!e Tri5aIs favorite to%oi) 8A6 A&&ordin to -o ar4#a Dad @=E t!e %ro&ess at $or5 in attainin 1-3anmu,ti 'y t!e 9(asi?instantaneo(s H$ay of Pa'!(I is si"ilar to t!at involved in trans"(tin &o%%er into old 'y "eans of "er&(ry R viL), t!e pa(u into Piva 'y t!e Hver'al trans"issionI 6mnya7 of Paiva do&trine) +y mnya is !ere "eant, so"e$!at aty%i&ally, t!e dire&t a(dition of t!e
See Htpa*avai9@ava:" e7ege"i", p. 41. .4; 6 21= vak!amop!akramea svtmata! prat!abhi%&n% %,vanm'ktipradatva pra!o%ana lokntars)tritam api r,abh'ntha it!dilokena skd 'ktam. 130 .4 555;66 32,33a= ittha dadad an!s% %,vanm'ktimahphalam0 !athepsitamahbhoga1 dttvena v!avasthitam00 aardhasra sacchstram 'pde!am ida sph'#am00. 131 .B; 555;66 32,33a= anena ca as!a granthas!a J iti saptdhikm en triata !a sad b'dha0 hnikn samabh!as!et sa skd bhairavo bhavet00 saptatriats' sap)rabodho !ad bhairavo bhavet0 ki citram aavo (p! as!a d bhairavatm i!' @ it!din 'pakrntam eva mahpra!o%anatva nirvhitam00. 132 ... whi#h "erve" a*"' t' 0e"#ri(e the tw' 1i$a* 8"tate": (avastha), t'r!a a$0 t'r!t,ta ("ee CD a0 96 a$0 $. 1365).
128 129


do&trine, ar (a'ly on&e only, fro" t!e "o(t! of t!e tea&!er) In T2 1 8B8, t!at sa"e analo y a%%lies to 1-3anmu,ti o'tained 'y t!e H$ay of t!e finite so(lI) Still, t!e i"%erative of e"an&i%ation in t!is life is not li"ited to t!e Tantrlo,a, nor to t!e %!ase of develo%"ent of nond(al /as!"iri Paivis" of $!i&! A'!inava (%taIs treatise is t!e s(""ation) At t!e very 'e innin of !is treat"ent, A'!inava (%ta relies on t!e a(t!ority of vario(s 2 a"as on t!e 9(estion of e"an&i%ation, and %arti&(larly on t!at of e"an&i%ation in t!is life R nota'ly, t!e Raura3a, S3ya$hu3a, Mata9ga, et&) DI ;=E)8AA T!e Fi(@ana is &ited in T2 I B7?B8 as %ositin in (na"'i (o(s ter"s t!e distin&tion 'et$een li'eration at deat! and li'eration in t!is life)8A; In t!ese sa"e verses one &an also dete&t a s5et&! of t!e notions of pauru)a12na and $auddha12na, to $!i&! T2 I A=ff) !as #(st devoted a novel treat"ent: H*e $!ose "ind re"ains s('#e&t to d(aliLin t!o( !ts 'e&o"es Piva after t!e dissol(tion of t!e 'odyM '(t t!e ot!er W$!o is not so s('#e&tY 'e&o"es WPivaY in t!is very life R s(&! is t!e "ain tea&!in of t!e J4stra WviL), t!e Fi(@anaYI)8AB In T2 :I1 ;;'?;B, A'!inava (%ta all(des a ain to t!is %assa e of t!e Fi(@ana, $!i&! Nayarat!a &ites "ore ela'orately, &on&l(din : HT!(s it !as 'een de"onstrated t!at li'eration is only for t!e livin $!ose "ode of 'ein la&5s d(aliLin t!o( !t &onstr(&tsM '(t, as for t!e rest, it $ill 'e $!en t!e 'ody falls a$ayI) 8A= Si"ilarly, t!e %assa es T2 I1 68A?668a and 6B@?6<7 rely on t!e Mlin-3i1ayottaratantra, a s(%re"e a(t!ority for t!e Tri5a, in order to develo% t!eir notion of 1-3anmu,ti as o'tained via t!e H$ay of ener yI R a H$ayI t!at i"%lies t!e interioriLation of rit(al D.1T :1III <;?C6, T2 I1 686E) A ain, referen&e is "ade, in t!e te,ts of t!is s&!ool, to ot!er Tantras or 2 a"as, nota'ly t!e S3acchandatantra WSvTY, t!e M.tyu21it Dor Fetratantr7 WNTY, t!e Kularatnaml and t!e Kli,,rama, %rof(sely &ited 'y t!e Ci3as/tra3imar(in- Dsee n) CC8E and t!e Spandanir0aya WS%NY, $or5s of /Se"ar4#a, $!o as $ell &o""ented on t!e S3acchandatantra and t!e Fetratantra) In so"e of t!ese &itations, t!e notion of 1-3anmu,ti is e,%li&itly for"(lated, nota'ly: SvT 1II 6B@a Din S%N II =?<E: >)))? 1-3ann e3a 3imu,to <sauyasyeya $h3an sadBB Dsee also A%%endi, 67, %) A;BEM SvT I1 A@C' Din PS1 III 6CE: >)))? dehapr0asthito <py tm tad3all-yeta tatpadeBBM SvT : A<6' Din PS1 III ;BE: tatrastho <pi na $adhyeta yato <t-3a sunirmalaBBM and Kli,,rama Din PS1 III A8E: sar3a (uddha nirlam$ha 12na s3apratyaytma,amB ya pa(yati sa mu,ttm 1-3ann e3a na sa(ayaBB, H*e $!o sees all 5no$led e as %(re, free of We,ternalY s(%%ort WviL), o'#e&tY, and !avin t!e
6$ the #'$te7t '1 treati$g pa'r'A%&na a$0 ba'ddha%&na. <$ the 0ati$g '1 th'"e te7t", "ee (e*'w. 134 Gve$ th' gh the ter/" %,vanm'kti 'r %,vanm'kta are $'t there 1' $0, OD a0 6 50,51 i" e7p*i#it= eva vikalpo (tra sambhavan m'kta' v!avadh!aka iti na tadaiva m'kti, tas!a p'nar asabhave sat!api dehe m'kti, 8Si$#e 0 a*iUi$g th' ght", "ti** p'""i(*e, i$terp'"e the/"e*ve" at the p'i$t '1 *i(erati'$, there i" the$ $' *i(erati'$> whe$ the% are $' *'$ger p'""i(*e, there i" *i(erati'$, eve$ th' gh the ('0% e7i"t:. 135 .4 6 50,51= vikalpa!'ktacittas t' piaptc chiva vra%et0 itaras t' tadaiveti stras!tra pradhnata00. See a*"' .4; a0 *'#, whi#h #'/p*ete" the #itati'$= $... vikalpah,nacittas t' h! tmna ivam av!a!am0 pa!ate bhva'ddh! !o %,vanm'kto na saa!a, 8Me wh' "ee" hi/"e*1 a" the $#ha$gi$g iva, hi" /i$0 1ree '1 0 a*itie", (e#a "e hi" (ei$g i" #*ea$"e0, i" E1ree0 whi*e *ivi$gE> '1 thi" there i" $' 0' (t:. 136 .4; 56; 44(,45= eva nirvikalpavtt,n %,vatm eva m'ktir itare t' dehaptnan1 taram iti siddham (v'*. ;= 2438).


nat(re of !is o$n (nderstandin , Wis no$ s(&! t!atY !is self is li'erated Wor Q!as a li'erated self^Y $!ile yet !e lives) Of t!is t!ere is no do('tI) *ere, a fe$ re"ar5s as to t!e datin of s&ri%t(ral so(r&es referred to 'y A'!inava (%ta and !is &o""entators in t!e &onte,t of 1-3anmu,ti "i !t 'e of so"e (se)8A< Sadyo#yotis, $!o $as a&tive 'et$een =<B and <6B a&&ordin to Sanderson 677=: <=, &ertainly 5ne$ t!e Raura3as/trasagraha, t!e S3ya$hu3as/trasagraha and t!e Mata9gaprame(3ara, 'elon in to t!e Sidd!4nta &anon) T!e last $or5 is later t!an t!e fift! &ent(ry AD, as Sanderson 677=: <C also s!o$s) Oe &an also affir" $it! a fair a"o(nt of &ertainty t!at all t!ese te,ts, as $ell as all ot!er 5no$n s&ri%t(ral so(r&es, %ostdate t!e early layers of t!e Fi(3sa, $!i&! is %ro'a'ly t!e earliest of all 5no$n Tantras) Goodall and Isaa&son D677<E !ave esta'lis!ed ;B7?BB7 for t!e early Fi(3sa, t!(s BB7 is a very li5ely terminus post Guem for "ost of o(r so(r&es D=<B 'ein t!e terminus ante GuemE) T!e &ase of t!e Mlin-3i1ayottara is less strai !tfor$ard, for Sadyo#yotisIs referen&es or all(sions to it are not esta'lis!ed 'eyond do('t) 8AC *o$ever, it is "ore li5ely t!an not t!at !e indeed 5ne$ t!e Mlin-3i1ayottara, $!ose date &an 'e tentatively esta'lis!ed 'efore =<B Dand after BB7E) T!e S3acchanda, $!i&! is often &onsidered relatively late,8A@ "ay also &o"e fro" t!is %eriod Dsi,t!?sevent! &ent(ryE) For t!e Mlin-3i1ayottara 5no$s and &lai"s to 'e 'ased on t!e Siddhayoge(3ar-mata, $!ose s!ort re&ension de&lares itself to 'e an a'rid ed S3acchanda)8;7 Sin&e t!e datin of t!e Mlin-3i1ayottara is itself %ro'le"ati& and t!e Siddhayoge(3ar-mata s(rvives only in its s!ort re&ension, $e are not on fir" ro(nd !ere) Nevert!eless, 'ot! t!e Siddhayoge(3ar-mata and its near &onte"%orary, t!e Brahmaymala, of t!e 1idy4%F3!a &anon, are li5ely to !ave 'een &o"%osed in or aro(nd t!e sevent! &ent(ry for vario(s ot!er reasons)8;8 T!e Brahmaymala also in&l(des transfor"ations of t!e &(lt of Sva&&!anda'!airava,8;6 $!i&! s( ests a ain t!at t!e S3acchandatantra, t!e s&ri%t(re of t!at &(lt, %redates t!e 1idy4%F3!a) As to t!e Fetratantra, also referred to in t!e &onte,t of 1-3anmu,ti 'y /as!"irian e,e etes, Sanderson !as &on&l(ded fro" i&ono ra%!i&al eviden&e t!at it $as &o"%osed 'et$een AD <77 and CB7, %ro'a'ly to$ard t!e end of t!at %eriod)8;A Con&ernin t!e Fi(@ana, t!e Kularatnaml and t!e Kli,,rama,8;; t!e datin of t!ese te,ts !as 'een dis&(ssed "(&! less e,tensively t!an t!e a'ove "entioned titles) Given t!eir /a(la and /ra"a affiliations, t!ey are li5ely to 'e later t!an t!e a'ove listed $or5s of t!e Sidd!4nta and t!e 1idy4%F3!a, 8;B %ossi'ly oin 'a&5 only to t!e ei !t! &ent(ry or later) In any &ase, t!ey "(st %redate t!e /as!"irian e,e etes of t!e tent!)
6 a/ grate1 * t' -r O 0it .'rU"'k 1'r 0etai*e0 0i"# ""i'$" '$ the " (Le#t. See .'rU"'k /iddha!ogevar,mata 2SC+3= 14 #iti$g Sa$0er"'$. 139 See I''0a**= 8.e$tative "ket#h '1 a p'""i(*e re*ative #hr'$'*'g% '1 "'/e ear*% .a$tri# w'rk" a$0 a th'r", pri$#ipa**% '1 the aiva"i00hA$ta:, 14th R'r*0 Sa$"krit !'$1ere$#e, ?%'t', Septe/(er 1,5, 2009. 140 .'rU"'k SC+= 16 a$0 262. 141 See e"pe#ia**% Mat*e% 2007= 20011., e"ta(*i"hi$g the peri'0 '1 #'/p'"iti'$ '1 the -rahma!mala 1r'/ the 6th t' the 8th #e$t. 142 Mat*e% 2007= 223. 143 Sa$0er"'$ 2004= 273,293. 144 <$ the 6likkrama, "ee Sa$0er"'$ 2007= 369,370. 145 <$ the Si00hA$ta a$0 the ;i0%ApYha #a$'$", "ee, e"p., Sa$0er"'$ 2007= 233,234.
137 138


T!is tentative datin of t!e relevant s&ri%t(ral so(r&es indi&ates t!at not only t!e idea, '(t also t!e very ter"s 1-3anmu,ti, 1-3anmu,ta, et&), $ere %resent at an early date in t!e Paiva tradition) T!e fi (re of t!e 1-3anmu,ta is also %resent in t!e "ore easily data'le te,ts of t!e S%anda and t!e Pratya'!i#V4, all of $!i&! $ere &o"%osed $it!in t!e s%an of one &ent(ry, 'et$een C<B and @<B)8;= It is only !inted at in t!e Ci3as/tra, %arti&(larly in t!e t!ird se&tion devoted Da&&ordin to /Se"ar4#aIs e,e esisE to t!e 0a3opya DIII @ff), III 8C?;BE, and it is t!e te,tIs 8imar(in- t!at develo%s t!e idea, eit!er t!ro( ! &itations Dnota'ly Kli,,rama, in PS1 III A8M see s(%raE, or dire&tly, as in III ;6, $!i&! des&ri'es t!e state of t!e 1-3anmu,ta)8;< +(t t!e ter" itself is e"%loyed in t!e Spanda,ri, DII BE)8;C Even 'etter, 1-3anmu,ti is t!e real s('#e&t of t!e treatise, as 'ot! t!e S%P and t!e S%N e"%!asiLe, and t!e 1-3anmu,ta is des&ri'ed in t!e "anner of t!e (a,tica,re(3ara, HLord of t!e O!eel of ener iesI) T!e ter", in its /a(la a&&e%tation, 8;@ fi (res 'ot! at t!e 'e innin and at t!e end of t!e treatise and is ta5en (% also in v) ;< of t!e Paramrthasra R as a $ay of reaffir"in one of t!e f(nda"ental traits of t!e do&trine: t!e inse%ara'ility of Hener yI and t!e H%ossessor of ener yI R (a,ti and (a,timat) Ut%alavaiSKava o'serves t!at, in t!e first verse, 1-3anmu,ti is 'eto5ened in t!e very na"e of t!e divinity HPa5araI, H"a5erI 6,ara-7 of Hfeli&ityI 6(am-7, t!is last (nderstood as t!e e9(ivalent of (reyas, HW(lti"ateY oalI, itself defined as en#oy"ent 6$hoga7 and release 6apa3arga7)8B7 Ut%alavaiSKava &ontin(es 'y %ointin o(t t!e "a#or &o"%onents of t!e e,%ose of 1-3anmu,ti: S%/ A7 WX II B, in t!e te,t(al or aniLation of S%NY, 87 WX I 87Y et B8 WX III 8@Y) To 'e %re&ise, S%P A7 atta&5s d(alisti& &on&e%tions of e"an&i%ation, $!i&! re&o niLe only e"an&i%ation at deat!, as $ell as %ra&ti&es s(&! as ut,rnti t!at ai" at a&!ievin s(&! a deat!)8B8
See Sa$0er"'$ 2007= 411, 418. SS; 666 42= ar,ravttir vratam it!'ktas)trrthan,t! dalakalpe dehda' sthito (pi na tatpra1 mttsaskrepi sp#a0 tad 'kta r,k'laratnaml! !ad g'r'vara sam!ak katha!et tan na saa!a0 m'ktas tenaiva klena !antras 2perhap" a$ aia 1'r/ 1'r !antram, whi#h appear" i$ 'ther #itati'$" '1 the "a/e ver"e= .4 5666 231(, 555;6 293 ti#hati kevalam00, 86$ a##'r0a$#e with the "\tra >ar,ravttir vratam> (2ivas)tra 2S3 666 26) th' gh he "ti** e7i"t" i$ the ('0% whi#h i" t' hi/ *ike a /ere "heath, he i" $'t t' #he0 eve$ (% a tra#e '1 2the #'$#eit that thi" ('0% i"3 the " (Le#t. 6t ha" (ee$ "ai0 i$ the 6'laratnaml= ERhe$ the e7#e**e$t tea#her tea#he" hi/ #'rre#t*%, he i" $0' (te0*% *i(erate0 at that ver% /'/e$t> the 8/a#hi$e: 2viU., the ('0% J the i/p*i#it i/age (ei$g that '1 the p'tter:" whee*3 a*'$e per"i"t" 2viU., therea1ter he i$ha(it" a ('0% /ere*% /'vi$g *ike the rev'*vi$g whee* '1 the p'tter3.E : !1. the rea0i$g" '1 the "e#'$0 he/i"ti#h i$ CD a0 83= m'ktas tatraiva kle (sa' !antravat kevala vaset, a$0 &+ a0 ++ 66= tadaiva kila m'kto (sa'!atra ti#hati kevalam, a$0 $. 1239. 148 Sp? 66 5= iti v !as!a savitti kr,dt!enkhila %agat0 sa pa!an satata !'kto %,vanm'kto na saa!a 00, ]<r he, wh' ha" thi" aware$e"", viewi$g the e$tire w'r*0 a" the p*a% 2'1 the Se*13, a$0 #'$"ta$t*% $ite0 2with it3, i" *i(erate0 whi*e *ivi$g> there i" $' 0' (t a(' t it]. 149 B##'r0i$g t' the ?a *a, the aktis are $'t !ogin,s, a" i" the #a"e i$ the ;i0%ApYha a$0 i$ the Fhairava,ta$tra", ( t i$ter$a* e$ergie". See Sa$0er"'$ 2007= 402,403> 1988= 67911. 150 Sp& 1 2a0 6 1, i$ the te7t a* 'rga$iUati'$ '1 Sp)3= bhogpavargkh!a a re!a s'kha v karotiti akara 0 amala svasvabhvo !a prgabhidhe!ata!optta 0 iha hi %,vanm'ktataiva moka. 151 Sp& 30 2 S a0 66 53= !e tv h' vinotkrnti k'to moka0 tannirs!ha @ vin svabhv1 n'bhavena p'sa kaival!am 'tkrntibald !adi s!t0 atra (pi pake nan' mokabhg
146 147


As $ell, /Se"ar4#a, in !is e,%lanation of t!e first and last verses, states t!at 1-3anmu,ti is t!e oal of t!e Spanda,ri,: HO!at is to 'e ta( !t in t!is treatise is t!at a'sor%tion in t!e WLordY !as for its fr(it li'eration $!ile livin I Dad I 8EM 8B6 and &o""entin on t!e ca,re(3ara of III 8@, !e o'serves: HT!(s !e 'e&o"es t!e Lord, t!at is, t!e .aster, of t!e O!eel of ener ies des&ri'ed in t!e first s_tra) In ot!er $ords, !e attains t!e s(%re"e soverei nty in t!is very 'odyI)8BA Finally, t!e notion of 1-3anmu,ti is at %lay in 0P/ I1 86?8=, and %arti&(larly in I1 86: HAll t!is "i !t is "ineI,8B; and in t!e treatiseIs &on&l(sion DI1 8=E, $!i&! Ut%aladevaIs 3.tti losses: H*e $!o 'y a%%lyin !i"self intensely to t!is enters into t!e nat(re of Piva, 'e&o"es in t!is very life a li'erated so(lI)8BB Ut%alavaiSKavaIs sar&asti& dis"issal of t!e yo i& notion of ut,rnti Drelayed 'y -R ad =7E testifies also to t!e s!ar% de'ates t!at "(st !ave ta5en %la&e on t!e 9(estion of 1-3anmu,ti, not only in Paiva %re&in&ts, '(t also a"on t!e Advaitins, as, for e,a"%le, PaT5ara ad +2U I1 ;, = "a5es &lear) T!ese de'ates %ro&eed, in t!e first %la&e, fro" t!e in&red(lity and s5e%ti&is" t!at t!e notion aro(ses: iven t!e iron la$ of 5ar"an, 1-3anmu,ti offends &o""on sense) T!e 1-3anmu,ta is a $al5in %arado,) And t!(s does t!e Paramrthasra des&ri'e !i" as "ad, a va a'ond livin a life of rando"ness R at least as t!e ordinary "an sees !i" Dvv) =@, <8E) +ot! te,t and &o""entary are 5een to stress t!at essential "is(nderstandin )8B= Per!a%s, as I !ave already indi&ated, resistan&e to t!e idea of 1-3anmu,ti is related as $ell to its i"%lied evi&tin of dharma fro" t!e syste" of val(es, or at least to %ayin it only an o%tional res%e&t: HO!et!er !e %erfor"s a !(ndred t!o(sand !orse sa&rifi&es, or 5ills a !(ndred t!o(sand 'ra!"ins, !e $!o 5no$s (lti"ate reality is not affe&ted 'y "erits or de"erits) *e is stainlessI DPS <7E) 8B< T!e s&andal $o(ld 'e reater !ad t!e Paivas not fo(nd a $ay to def(se it 'y relativiLin t!eir re#e&tion of &ond(&t (niversally ad"itted) S(&! &o(ld 'e one of t!e i"%li&ations of t!e fa"o(s "a,i" des&ri'in t!e Paiva 'ra!"in: H/a(la $it!in, Paiva $it!o(t, 1edi& for $orldly affairs R li5e t!e &o&on(t, t!e essential is 5e%t $it!inI, 8BC $!i&! is also a $ay of re&allin t!e esoteri& di"ension of t!e do&trine) In t!e sa"e s%irit of re&on&iliation, -o ar4#a Dad PS ;7E refers to t!e %an?'ra!"ani&al a(t!ority of t!e
'dbandhana !a k'r'te pram)ha00, 86$ 'r0er t' re1 te th'"e wh' /ai$tai$ that *i(erati'$ #a$$'t (e a#hieve0 with' t #'//iti$g rit a* " i#i0e, it i" "ai0 E61 '$e #' *0 a#hieve *i(erati'$ (% virt e '1 rit a* " i#i0e with' t e7perie$#i$g '$e:" 'w$ tr e $at re, the$, 1r'/ thi" p'i$t '1 view, w' *0 $'t the 0e* 0e0 '$e wh' ha$g" hi/"e*1 a#hieve *i(erati'$?E : <$ the $'ti'$, "ee CD a0 60 a$0 $. 1031. 152 Sp) 6 1= tatsamvea eva hi %,vanm'ktiphala iha prakaraa 'pade!a. 153 Sp) 666 19= tata ca prathamas)tranir,tas!a akticakras!a $... ,varo (dhipatir bhavet0 anena ca dehena mahevaratvam avapnot! eveti !vat. 154 sarvo mam!a vibhava iti, K 'te0 (% CD a0 33 a$0 51 (avat.). 155 =varaprat!abhi%&krikvtti 2^&vX3 6; 16= etatpari,lanena ivatvet %,vann eva m'kto bhavati (tr. .'re**a ^&?). 156 See CD a0 83= 8+'re'ver, (% wh'/ 2e*"e3 #a$ the *a"t /'/e$t '1 the k$'wer '1 the Se*1 (e 0ire#t*% e7perie$#e0, apart 1r'/ the wit$e"" (skin) that i" hi" 'w$ e7perie$#e? J <$ the "tre$gth '1 whi#h 2wit$e""3 '$e /ight p'"it the e7i"te$#e i$ hi/ '1 #'$"#i' "$e"" 'r it" 'pp'"ite, i$a"/ #h a" Eth'"e wh' "ee h'riU'$ta**%E 2viU., 1ettere0 " (Le#t"3 are $'t priv% t' a$% " #h rea*/ '1 e7perie$#e? .here1're, i$ thi" /atter, *et the '/$i"#ie$t '$e" (e a"ke0 2their 'pi$i'$3:, a" we** a" .4 55;66 319,320a a$0 .4; a0 *'#. 157 See a*"' .4 6; 248,253. 158 V 'te0 with' t attri( ti'$ i$ .4; 6; 250= anta ka'lo bahi aivo lokcre t' vaidika0 sram d!a ti#heta nrikelaphala !ath00> "ee a*"' Sa$0er"'$ 2007= 232.

512a3al,yasm.ti in order to distin (is! 'et$een ordinary and s(%re"e dharma) O!ereas ordinary dharma &onsists of sa&rifi&e, ood &ond(&t, and t!e li5e, Ht!e s(%re"e dharma is to see t!e Self t!ro( ! dis&i%lineI D512a3al,yasm.ti I CE) T!(s is t!e 1-3anmu,ta #(stified in ne le&tin t!e lo$er dharma in %(rs(it of t!e !i !er one, t!at of !is inner realiLation) Alone a"on t!e te,ts of t!e syste", it see"s, t!e Tantrlo,a develo%s, in t!e &onte,t of e"an&i%ation, t!e ori inal do&trine of do('le?i noran&e DI A= ff)E: Hs%irit(alI 6pauru)12n7 and Hintelle&t(alI 6$auddh12n7 R and alon $it! it its %ositive &o(nter%art, t!e do&trine of do('le?a$a5enin : Hs%irit(alI 6pauru)a12n7 and Hintelle&t(alI 6$auddha12n7) If t!e rationale for t!ese &on&e%ts is %resent in t!e Paiva 2 a"as, t!e ter"inolo y, $!i&! %resents overtones of t!e S4 5!ya, see"s to 'e a &reation of t!e Tantrlo,a) It is in t!is do&trinal &onte,t t!at a%%ears t!e definition of 1-3anmu,ti t!at fi (res as an e%i ra%! to t!is introd(&tion)8B@ T!e Paramrthasra refers not to t!ese sy""etri& %airin s) One "ay infer, !o$ever, fro" t!e &itations t!at Nayarat!a "a5es of vv) 8='?8< of t!e Paramrthasra, in !is &o""entary on t!e %assa es of t!e Tantrlo,a Dad I A@?;7E t!at &on&ern pauru)12na and $auddh12na, t!at t!ese %airs &orres%ond in t!e Paramrthasra to t!e &on#oined %la&e"ent of finit(de and do('le error) T!e pauru)12na &orres%onds to t!e 0a3amala, t!e i"%(rity of dee"in oneself finite, t!at is, t!e $!olly de&eitf(l Hato"iLationI of (niversal &ons&io(sness R itself t!e %rod(&t of my DPS 8BE R and to t!e &onstit(tion of t!e puru)a, finite Dor "(ndaneE "an DPS 8=aEM t!e $auddh12na to t!e 9(int(%le &onstri&tion of t!e ,a2cu,as DPS 8='?8<E) Still, t!e arti&(lation of t!ese notions in t!e Tantrlo,a, and t!e ri or $it! $!i&! t!ey are ar (ed, &onstit(te a sin (lar &ontri'(tion to t!eir (nderstandin ) O!en s%irit(al i noran&e, t!e "eta%!ysi&al i noran&e %ro%er to in&arnate "an &onsistin in "ista5in t!e Self for t!e non?Self, is dissolved 'y initation 6d-,)7, t!at is, 'y rit(al, t!ere s('sists still an intelle&t(al i noran&e, "ar5ed 'y t!e (nleas!in of Hdi&!oto"o(s t!in5in I 63i,alpa7) In &onse9(en&e, s%irit(al i noran&e 'y itself &an 'e an instr("ent of li'eration only at deat!, $!en t!e 'ody Dand so t!e $uddhi, lo&(s of 3i,alpa7 is no "ore) On t!e ot!er !and, $!en intelle&t(al i noran&e, &onsistin in "ista5in t!e non?Self for t!e Self, is a'olis!ed 'y t!e st(dy of t!e treatises and %ra&ti&es t!at t!ey tea&!, t!is does not s(ffi&e for attainin e"an&i%ation in t!is life, nor in t!e follo$in ) It is s%irit(al 5no$led e, a&&o"%anied 'y Dor %re&eded 'yE intelle&t(al 5no$led e, t!at is t!e instr("ent of li'eration in t!is life) In any &ase, it is intelle&t(al 5no$led e t!at is de&isive for deter"inin $!et!er or not one rea&!es enli !ten"ent in t!is life)8=7 +y pauru)a12na, in effe&t, t!e pa(u-puru)a is delivered in essen&e, '(t, e,istentially, &ontin(es (nder t!e do"ination of !is Hd(aliLin t!o( !tsI) A%art fro" t!e fa&t t!at t!ese ar ("ents seal t!e allian&e of rit(al and nosis, t!ey &onfir" t!at 1-3anmu,ti is not!in else t!an t!e re&on&iliation of t!e %lans of essen&e and e,isten&e)
Tantrloka 6 44= ba'ddha%&nena t' !ad ba'ddham a%&na%mbhitam0 vil,!ate tad%,vanm'kti karatale sthit00. 160 See .4 6 45= d,kpi ba'ddhavi%&nap)rv sa#!a vimocik0 tena tatrpi ba'ddhas!a %&1 nas!sti pradhnat00 a$0 .4;, avat. a0 6 44= nan' !ad! eva d,ka! dehnta eva m'ktir bhavet, tat katha >%,vann eva vim'kto (sa'> it!d! 'ktam it! ak!ha0.


For its %art, t!e Paramrthasra R at least as -R ad CB?C= reads it R introd(&es a &orres%onden&e (n5no$n to t!e Tantrlo,a, $!i&! is esta'lis!ed 'et$een t!e t$o 5inds of li'eration R see"in ly Q&onse&(tiveQ: t!at o'tained $!ile livin and t!at se&(red at deat! R and t!e t$o final Hstates of &ons&io(snessI 6a3asth7, t!e HFo(rt!I 6turya7 and HTrans?Fo(rt!I 6turyt-ta78=8R t!e latter a%%earin as a Paiva innovation)8=6 Fro" t!e "o"ent t!e Hstate of li'erationI 6mo,)a7 fo(nd a !o"e in life e,istential 61-3anmu,ti7, t!e insertion of t!e latter in t!e %an?Indian s&!e"a of t!e fo(r states, and its desi nation t!ere as t!e Hfo(rt!I o'li ed t!e %ro"otion of t!e old Hfo(rt!I R Hli'erationI (niversally (nderstood as Hli'eration at deat!I R to a Hfift!I, or rat!er to a HTrans?Fo(rt!I, %osition in t!e !ierar&!y of states !avin no na"e of its o$n, yet retainin so"et!in of its %revio(s stat(s)8=A As "entioned a'ove, t!e ter" itself 61-3anmu,ti, or 1-3anmu,ta7 "a5es so"e of its first a%%earan&es in tantri& te,ts, $!ose ai" $as, a"on ot!er t!in s, to s(%ersede t!e ort!odo, rit(al syste") As Sanderson D8@@B: 6Bff) and 8@CC: ==7ff)E s!o$s, tantri& do&trine and rit(al atte"%ted to de"onstrate t!eir s(%eriority &o"%ared to ort!o%ra,y in several $ays, $!i&! in&l(ded t!at tantris" %resented itself as a "ore effi&ient "eans to t!e sa"e end: on t!e $!ole, it %ro%osed to li'erate one t!ro( ! tantri& initiation Deven if li'eration $as not i""ediately f(lly effe&tiveE) T!is "eant t!at t!e avera e initiate &o(ld 'e &onsidered li'erated already in t!is life and did not need to "a5e any %arti&(lar effort for t!e attain"ent of mo,)a s('se9(ently) T!erefore it is not s(r%risin t!at t!e ter" and t!e &on&e%t of 1-3anmu,ti $ere not (n5no$n to t!e early tantri& tradition) *o$ever, $!en nond(alist /as!"irian e,e etes "a5e (se of t!is notion, t!ey tend to do so fro" t!e /a(la %oint of vie$, $!i&! is anti?rit(alist) 8=; Conse9(ently, one is li'erated in t!is $orld t!ro( ! internal realiLation, and (lti"ately t!ro( ! 5no$led e, rat!er t!an t!ro( ! rit(al a&tion) T!e 1-3anmu,ta is a 12nin) T!is 5ind of li'eration in life $as in t(rn seen 'y %ro%onents of t!e ort!odo, 'ra!"ani&al reli ion as a %arado,, and it is on t!eir 'e!alf t!at avat) ad PS CB?C= as5s t!e follo$in 9(estion: H*o$ &an one &ontin(e to a&t after enli !ten"ent, $it!o(t a&&("(latin f(rt!er &onse9(en&es of t!ose a&tsZ In effe&t, li'eration is %ossi'le only at t!e "o"ent of deat!I) T!e fa&t t!at tantris" %ro%osed "ore effi&ient "eans of li'eration did not i"%ly t!at ar ("ents of t!e 'ra!"ani&al ort!odo,y $ere ref(sed 'y /as!"irian e,e etes) T!e Tri5a, as set fort! 'y t!e Paramrthasra and its &o""entary, e"%loys a rat!er virt(oso strate y t!at (ses t!e la$ of 5ar"an in order to s('vert t!at sa"e la$) And so t!e last %ortion of o(r te,t, fro" v) C@ on$ards, "(lti%lies referen&es to t!e
B #'rre"p'$0e$#e a*rea0% "ket#he0 i$ S; 666 25 a$0 S 666 41. See a*"' CD a0 61= 8B$0 he wh'"e 2ig$'ra$#e3 i" 0e"tr'%e0, eve$ whi*e re/ai$" a rapp'rt with the ('0%, i" at that ver% /'/e$t *i(erate0 (m'kta), th' gh he "ti** *ive" (%,vann eva). 6t i" $'t that ('$0age i$v'*ve" $e#e""ari*% a #'$$e#ti'$ with a ('0%. .he re/'va* '1 that ig$'ra$#e i" *i(erati'$. M'wever 2it /a% (e a00e0 that3, with the peri"hi$g '1 the ('0%, #'/p*ete (p)ra) *i(erati'$ i" attai$e0:, a$0 a0 83= 8 EMe g'e" t' a #'$0iti'$ '1 tra$"#e$0e$t 6"'*ati'$E (kaival!a) 2viU., rea#he" 8"eparati'$: 1r'/ the *i/ite0 w'r*0 '1 ('$0age3 thr' gh k$'w*e0ge '1 the Se*1 a*'$e> that i", i$ 'ther w'r0", a1ter the 0e"tr #ti'$ '1 hi" ('0%, he attai$" a #'$0iti'$ '1 6"'*ati'$ that i" (e%'$0 the T' rth "tate 2'1 #'$"#i' "$e""3 (t'r!t,tar)p kevalat !ti), #'/p'"e0 "'*e*% '1 (*i""1 * #'$"#i' "$e"":. 162 .he ter/ appear" i$ "'/e *ate pa$i9a0" '1 ta$tri# #'*'rati'$. 163 See a*"' CD a0 35. 164 See p. 51. <$ the ?a *a 0eve*'p/e$t" i$ ge$era* a$0 their i/p'rta$#e i$ the e7egeti#a* tra0iti'$, "ee Sa$0er"'$ 1988= 69211.


%ro%erly .F"4sa5a notion of ap/r3a8=B in ar ("ents intended to esta'lis! not only t!e %ossi'ility of 1-3anmu,ti, '(t its very le iti"a&y) In %arallel, t!e Tri5a is not loat! to invo5e a(t!orities 6pram0a7 o(tside its o$n tradition,8== t!o( !, to 'e fair, its readin s are (s(ally favora'le to its o$n t!eses) In t!e first %la&e, t!e Bhaga3adg-t, $!ose o"ni%resen&e in -o ar4#aIs &o""entary and in ot!er te,ts of t!e syste" is %er!a%s intended &!iefly to affir" !o$ t!e t!is? $orldly as&esis8=< re&o""ended 'y t!e "-t is, in fa&t, t!is?$orldly li'eration) Si"ilarly, several indi&es f(rnis!ed 'y t!e Paramrthasra and its &o""entary %er"it a%%re!ension of t!e relation of in!eritan&e t!at Tri5a s(stains $it! S45!ya on t!e 9(estion of li'eration: t!e &o""entary to PS C8 D$!i&! %ara%!rases $it!o(t attri'(tion S/ =<E and CA, $!ere $e find "ention of t!e %otterIs $!eelM t!e re(tiliLation of S45!ya notions of ,ai3alya Dat v) CA, itself t!e re%rise of 2PS C8E and of apa3arga D-R ad AAEM t!e i"%ortant role assi ned to t!e anta,ara0a in t!e %ro&ess of li'eration D-R ad @7?@8, @6?@AEM t!e &itation of S/ ;; 'y -R ad @6?@A) It is tr(e t!at S45!ya and Tri5a start fro" t!e sa"e %ost(late: li'eration is not a&&essi'le 'y rit(al DS/ 8E, '(t rat!er 'y dis&ri"inatin 5no$led e 63i12na, S/ 6E) T!ere &o"es to t!e s(rfa&e, in t!e (sa e t!at t!e Paramrthasra "a5es of t!ese S45!ya notions, a Trai5a rereadin of S45!ya do&trine a&&ordin to $!i&! t!e notion of 1-3anmu,ti, or at least a ty%e of t!is?$orldly release t!at !as not yet re&eived t!at na"e, is already er"inatin in t!e S,hya,ri,, in re vv) =<?=C)8=C As s(&!, t!e Tri5a %ro%oses an inter%retation of S/ =< t!at is not all t!at distant fro" t!at of Ga(a%4da)8=@ T!e "auapd-ya$h)ya WG+!Y on t!e S,hya,ri,, in effe&t, 'rin s o(t t!e dyna"i& or aniLation of t!e ense"'le &onstit(ted 'y vv) =<?=C: &ontrastin t!e Hin&arnateI state of v) =< $it! t!e Hdisin&arnateI state of v) =C 6prpte (ar-ra$hede7 R life and deat! in effe&t) .oreover, t!e li'eration t!at o&&(rs H$!en t!e 'ody falls a$ayI DG+! =<: (ar-rapteE is t!e li'eration t!at v) =C ter"s ,ai3alya, des&ri'ed as HtotalI 6ai,nti,a7, t!at is, a&&ordin to t!e "auapd-ya$h)ya, Hne&essaryI 6a3a(ya7, and HdefinitiveI 6tyanti,a7, or H$!i&! en&o(nters no o'sta&leI 6anantarhita7 R t!e %rin&i%al o'sta&le 'ein t!e 'ody, $!i&! no lon er, in any $ay s!a%e or for", affli&ts t!e s%irit, no$ li'erated, of t!e de%arted) In s(", v) =< refers to 1-3anmu,ti, v) =C to ,ai3alya, Ha'sol(teI li'eration, in t!e ety"olo i&al sense of Ha'? solvoI, Hloosen fro"I) T!e Tri5a %retends !o$ever to i nore t!e a%%ro%riation of t!is radation 'y t!e Advaita ins%ired 'y PaT5ara) At t!e very "ost, one noti&es, es%e&ially in -o ar4#aIs
See p. 29. !'/pare the tra$"1'r/ati'$ '1 the +Y/A"aka $'ti'$ '1 bhvan, 8e11i#ie$t 1'r#e: (&S 63) i$t' the .raika $'ti'$ '1 bhvan, 8/e0itative rea*iUati'$: (&S 41, 52, 68). 166 T'r i$"ta$#e, the aiva 4ga/a", " #h a" the Triirobhairava (#ite0 .4 55;666 320(,324a), a$0 the 4,t (#ite0 .4 55;666 324(, a$0 325,326a) are p t '$ the "a/e *eve*. 167 .hi" i" a$ atte/pt t' tra$"*ate i$t' G$g*i"h the 1'r/ *a= 8a"#e"e i$tra,/'$0ai$e:, #'i$e0 (% M *i$ (2001= 268) apr'p'" the FhI. 168 B rerea0i$g i/p*i#it i$ CD:" ('rr'wi$g 1r'/ S? 67, whi*e #'//e$ti$g '$ the para0'7i#a* #'$0iti'$ '1 the %,vanm'kta, a" 0e"#ri(e0 (% &S 81. .hi" .raika rerea0i$g '1 *i(erati'$ a##'r0i$g t' SAkh%a appear" eK a**% i$ the .4, $'ta(*% i$ 6; 212, whi#h a""'#iate" e7p*i#it*% the $'ti'$ '1 kaival!a with that '1 %,vanm'kti, a$0 i$ 55;666 307,320 a$0 .4; a0 *'#. (i$ parti# *ar, a0 317, whi#h #ite" a*"' S? 67). Miri%a$$a (1995= 116, a$0 1993= 297) 1i$0" a" we** a** "i'$ t' the $'ti'$ '1 %,vanm'kti i$ S? 67,68. 169 &r'(a(*% $'t the Ia apA0a, a th'r '1 the *gamastra> "ee Tra wa**$er 1973= 226> Nar"'$ 1998= 148,149.


&o""entary, t!e ved4nti& idea of a(ar-rat3a, t!e Hdisin&arnationI t!at &!ara&teriLes t!e 1-3anmu,ta in t!at !e &eases to &onf(se !is 'ody $it! t!e Self)8<7 Anot!er ele"ent of t!e definition of Hli'erationI t!at Tri5a s!ares $it! Advaita, and $!i&! disso&iates it fro" S45!ya, is t!e notion of Hfeli&ityI 6nanda7 t!at a&&o"%anies t!e e,%erien&e of li'eration) T!at S45!ya !as i nored t!is Hfeli&ityI is a re%roa&! "ade 'y PaT5ara ad +2U III @, 6C, <: HSo"e, li5e t!e %artisans of S45!ya or 1aiJeSi5a, o%ine t!at in li'eration, one tastes no 5ind of #oyI) T!e Tri5a does not &onfront S45!ya dire&tly on t!is %oint, '(t never &eases to stress t!e as%e&t of Hfeli&ityI, asso&iatin $it! it an as%e&t of e,%erien&e t!at is a'sent fro" advaiti& ar ("ents: t!e H"arvelo(sI 6camat,ra7, a notion t!at Paiva "eta%!ysi&s s!ares $it! Paiva aest!eti&s)8<8 O!atever "ay 'e t!e &ase $it! t!ese si"ilarities and differen&es, t!e Tri5a develo%s an ori inal do&trine re ardin li'eration, of $!i&! a sin (lar trait is t!e %ost(late t!at li'eration in t!is life is in&on&eiva'le in t!e a'sen&e of t!e LordIs ra&e, des&ri'ed !ere as a Hdes&ent of ener yI 6(a,tipta7) It is t!is s('ordination of li'eration to H ra&eI t!at, a&&ordin to T2 :III 6<='?6<@a, &onstit(tes t!e s(%eriority of t!e Paiva %at! in relation to ot!er syste"s) As Andre Pado(, o'serves, HW))) la ra&eY deter"ine la voie %ar&o(r(e, le "aitre ren&ontre, lIinitiation re&(e et #(s9(Ia( syste"e reli ie(, a(9(el on a&&orde sa foiI)8<6 Fro" t!is %oint of vie$, Tri5a "ay 'e &onsidered as a Q"ysti9(e of ra&eQ) In t!is vein, t!e Paramrthasra %ro%oses at t!e very 'e innin Dv) @E t!at t!e 5ey to t!e syste" is PivaIs ra&e 6(i3a(a,tipt7)8<A Even if t!at "ysti9(e resonates %erfe&tly $it! t!e e"otional eff(sion %ro%er to $ha,ti R an e,%erien&e t!at is o"ni%resent in Tri5a literat(re8<; R it is still s('#e&t to reasonin and to ar ("entation) Oe o'serve in effe&t an atte"%t to t!eoriLe t!at "ysti9(e of ra&e, $!i&! not only add(&es a &o"%le, !ierar&!iLation of its Qde reesQ, set fort! in &!) :III of Tantrlo,a,8<B '(t also esta'lis!es &orres%onden&es $it! t!e do&trine of t!e H"eansI or H$aysI 6upy7 of li'eration) T!e %ro ressive e,ten(ation of ra&e is refle&ted, in effe&t, in t!e
See p. 27, a" we** a" CD a0 63, 70, 79,80 (a$0 $. 1212), a$0 85,86= 8.he #'rp'rea* "heath i" e11e#tive '$*% "' *'$g a" a re*ati'$ with the "heath" '1 the 2three3 i/p ritie" 2...3 that ari"e 1r'/ ig$'ra$#e e7i"t". F t "i$#e the "heath #reate0 (% ig$'ra$#e ha" a*rea0% (ee$ 0e"tr'%e0 (% 2the g r :"3 i$"tr #ti'$ regar0i$g k$'w*e0ge '1 '$e:" 'w$ 2tr e3 Se*1, h'w #a$ a$% " #h #'rp'rea* "heath, 2eve$3 /'ri( $0, e11e#t a$% #'$tr'* 'ver the k$'wer '1 the tr e Se*1 at the e$0?: .he i0ea '1 aar,ratva # */i$ate" i$ the i0ea (whi#h i" a" we** a$ e7perie$#e) that the $iver"e (e#'/e", a" it were, the per/a$e$t ('0% (svgakalpa) '1 the %'gi$ $'w 1ree0 1r'/ hi" tra$"it'r% ('0%> "ee, e"p., CD a0 87,88. 171 See p. 55. 172 Si*( r$, &a0' 7 .4= 47. <ther" have "ee$, i$ 'ther #'$te7t", "%"te/" "etti$g 1'rth the 0i"pe$"ati'$ '1 gra#e '$ the part '1 a /er#i1 * g'0> 1'r i$"ta$#e, Miri%a$$a (1995= 412,413), apr'p'" the 0'#tri$e '1 DA/A$ La= 8.he w'r0 (viU., prapatti) p'i$t" t' a (e*ie1 that "a*vati'$ i" '(tai$e0 thr' gh 1ree gra#e. 6t i" 0e"#ri(e0 a" aragati, 1*i$gi$g '$e"e*1 '$ I'0:" #'/pa""i'$ 2...3. 6$ '$e '1 it" 1'r/" 0e"#ri(e0 a" 8re"ig$ati'$ i$ e7tre/e 0i"tre"": (rta1prapatti), it i" (e*ieve0 t' (ri$g *i(erati'$ i//e0iate*%. B "i$g*e /'/e$t '1 "eri' "$e"" a$0 "i$#erit% i" #'$"i0ere0 e$' gh 2...3:. 173 Rhi#h /'ti1 i" take$ p agai$ (% CD, $'ta(*% a0 18= 8Rhe$ the (' $0 "' * (e#'/e" '1 p ri1ie0 heart, 0 e t' the S pre/e N'r0:" gra#e, the$ the vei* '1 "heath" that a11*i#t " with 1i$it 0e "p'$ta$e' "*% 0i"appear", '$ a##' $t '1 the #'/i$g i$t' (ei$g '1 the k$'w*e0ge '1 '$e:" 'w$ Se*1 (svtma%&na) 2#'$"i"ti$g i$ the i$"ight=3 E6 a/ /%"e*1 the Ireat N'r0.E : 174 See, 1'r i$"ta$#e, CD a0 94,95, 100,101, a" we** a" the ri#h stotra *iterat re. 175 See Si*( r$, &a0' 7 .4= 44,47.


des&endin !ierar&!y of t!e H"eansI R distin&tions, of &o(rse, as $e !ave seen, t!at a%%ly only at t!e "(ndane level)8<= As t!e first five &!a%ters of t!e Tantrlo,a affir", t!e H$aysI of li'eration are t!e"selves s('ordinated to t!e de ree of ra&e a&&orded to t!e ade%t R in ot!er $ords, to !is relative &a%a&ity of re&eivin t!at ra&e)8<< S(&! a &on&e%tion of ra&e i"%lies for t!e Tri5a t!e a'andon"ent of so&ial and rit(al re9(isites, "eas(red in ter"s of t!e a&9(isition of "erit and de"erit) No %arti&(lar H9(alifi&ationI 6adhi,ra7 is %ost(lated: a&&ess to 1-3anmu,ti is t!(s o%en to everyone, if only !e "a5e a s(stained effort in t!at dire&tion)8<C It is t!(s &lear t!at t!e Paramrthasra arti&(lates t!e 9(asi?totality of t!e do&trine it see5s to a'rid e aro(nd its defense and &!ara&teriLation of li'eration) +(t t!is %ro#e&t is not $it!o(t its &osts, as &ertain a&&ents are dis%la&ed t!at are re9(ired in order to esta'lis! t!e &o!eren&e of t!e $or5) On t!e one !and, an e"%!asis is %(t on t!e notion of t!e aKas Dvv) ;?B, 6A, ;8, ;=EM on t!e ot!er, referen&e to t!e t!eory of t!e H$ordI re"ains "ostly i"%li&it Dvv) 87?88E, 8<@ as is t!e treat"ent of t!e upyas R a notion t!at 'e&a"e so i"%ortant in A'!inava (%taIs syn&retisti& e,e esis, 8C7 t!at /Se"ar4#a divides t!e te,t of t!e Ci3as/tra into t!ree %arts or aniLed in ter"s of t!e t!ree inferior upyas) As I !ave atte"%ted to s!o$ in e,a"inin t!e arran e"ent of t!e Paramrthasra te,t, t!ese t!ree H$aysI are t!ere all(ded to, t!o( ! not e,%li&itly desi nated, $it! t!e e,&e%tion of t!e avat) ad ;8?;=, $!i&! "entions t!e H$ay of Pa '!(I Dor t!e H&ondition of Pa'!(I, ($ha3apada7 and t!at Hof ener yI 6(,ta$h/mi,7)8C8 T!is &onf(sion of 'o(ndaries 'et$een t!e H$aysI %er!a%s si nifies 'y indire&tion t!eir %orosity R a %orosity of %ra&ti&es %ro%er to ea&! of t!e $ays, and es%e&ially, t!eir %orosity of essen&e) For, as t!e Tantrlo,a insists, in t!e last analysis, little "atters t!e $ayM it is t!e end t!at &o(nts 8C6 R na"ely, a'sor%tion in Piva Dor in t!e SelfE, 8CA t!at is, li'eration itself) Indeed, it is to li'eration in t!is life t!at lead t!e t!ree inferior
<$ the 0'#tri$e '1 the 'p!as, "ee $. 858. T'r the /a$$er i$ whi#h a pra#ti#e e$ge$0er" a pra#ti#e a""'#iate0 wi1h the i//e0iate*% i$1eri'r path, 'r a$'ther pra#ti#e '1 the "a/e path, "ee .4 ; 155(,157. .he pr'#e"" i" #'/para(*e t' the $1'*0i$g '1 the tattvas, a$0 *ike it, i" rever"i(*e. .he %'gi$ wh' i" $'t a##'r0e0 a 8ver% i$te$"e: gra#e (a*'$e a""'#iate0 with the an'p!a), /a% rai"e hi/"e*1 1r'/ '$e path t' the $e7t, "ee$ a" *eve*" J 1r'/ /e0itati'$ t' bhvan, 1'r i$"ta$#e, a$0, a" .4 666 174 "a%", 1r'/ bhvan t' the e7perie$#e '1 the 86:, #hara#teri"ti# '1 the bhavop!a. See a*"' the ge$era* avat. a0 &S 41,46. 177 See CD a0 96> a*"' .4 ; 158a. 178 CD a0 103= 8.here1're, it i" "h'w$ (% the w'r0" Ewh'"'ever e$gage" i$ thi" ver% (ea ti1 * pathE J that i", i$ the path *ea0i$g t' the /'"t e7#e**e$t 21'r/ '13 *i(erati'$ J that there i" $' re"tri#ti'$ '1 K a*i1i#ati'$ 2'$ " #h pra#ti#e3:. 179 6t i" CD wh' /ake" it e7p*i#it. 180 B" B. Sa$0er"'$ (1983= 160) '("erve"= 8.he 'p!as 2...3 ' t '1 their h /(*e 'rigi$ i$ the 8al,n,vi%a!ottaratantra (2.21,23) 2...3 ha0 (e#'/e i$ hi" 2BI:"3 e7ege"i" the 0e1i$i$g #'re '1 hi" e$tire "%"te/, /'re tha$ a th' "a$0 ver"e" (ei$g 0ev'te0 t' their 0e1i$iti'$ i$ hi" Tantrloka"> "ee $. 858. 181 See $. 865. )'te that, a##'r0i$g t' CD:" #'//e$tar%, &S 96 a** 0e" t' the bhavop!a= 8.he a#K i"iti'$ '1 the k$'w*e0ge '1 '$e:" 'w$ Se*1 ha" 1'r it" $iK e /ea$" ('p!) the 1av'r '1 the S pre/e N'r0. Mere, " #h 2a#t"3 a" "i*e$t re#itati'$, /e0itati'$, '11eri$g "a#ri1i#e, et#., whi#h ari"e tha$k" t' the 2N'r0:"3 p'wer '1 #a "a* #'$"trai$t, are i$e11e#t a* a" /ea$":, wherea" &S 97 i/p*ie" a re1ere$#e t' the tw' 'ther wa%"= the ktop!a a$0 the avop!a ("ee $. 1376). 182 .4 666 293, 6; 273,275a, ; 153(,155a. 183 See .4 ; 151= $... tdtm!a !t! anan!adh,0 ivena hemat !advat tmra s)tena vedhitam00.


$ays, for, in t!e Hnon?$ayI 6anupya7, t!ere is neit!er servit(de nor li'eration DT2 III 6<AE) For t!is reason, all t!e $ays !ave a de ree of le iti"a&y) O!et!er one enters $it!o(t delay into one of t!e t$o s(%erior $ays 6anupya, ($ha3opya7, t!an5s to a s%e&ta&(lar Hdes&entI of ra&e t!at "a5es any f(rt!er "ediation (nne&essary or (seless,8C; or $!et!er one raises !i"self %ro ressively fro" one $ay to t!e ne,t De,&l(din , of &o(rse, t!e Hnon?$ayIE, ea&! $ay is instr("ental eit!er as s(&! or as transitional, in virt(e of a f(n&tional !ierar&!y t!at is, !o$ever, not a !ierar&!y of val(e) In effe&t, even t!e lo$est $ay, t!at of t!e finite so(l 60a3opya7 is not $it!o(t val(e) A%art fro" t!e fa&t t!at A'!inava (%ta says t!at !e $as !i"self initiated into t!at $ay 'y !is "aster Pa '!(n4t!a,8CB it e"er es fro" t!e or aniLation of t!e Tantrlo,a itself t!at t!e treat"ent of t!e 0a3opya is not &onfined to t!e fift! &!a%ter, '(t is %rolon ed $ell 'eyond t!at, even to t!e final &!a%ter)8C= In t!e last analysis, t!e differentiation of t!e vario(s $ays is not very si nifi&ant, in t!e sense t!at Heveryt!in is PivaI) 8C< T!at is $!y t!e "otif of 1-3anmu,ti is asso&iated $it! t!e t!ree inferior $ays in t!e &!a%ters of t!e Tantrlo,a devoted to t!e", $!ereas it is a'sent fro" t!e &!a%ter devoted to t!e anupya) Anot!er indi&ation of t!e %orosity of t!e $ays and t!eir %artial overla%%in is t!e re&i%ro&ity of yo i& and "ysti& %ra&ti&es) In effe&t, t!e sa"e %ra&ti&es %ost(late different "odes of realiLation a&&ordin to t!e $ay in $!i&! t!ey are %(t into effe&t) T!(s are %resent in t!e t!ree $ays "antri& %ra&ti&e, 8CC ,u0alin- Dalso (tiliLed &onsidera'ly in t!e 0a3opyE,8C@ and "editation on t!e O!eel of ener ies, 8@7 $!ereas mudrs are s!ared 'y t!e (,topya DT2 I1 8@;?688E and t!e 0a3opya DT2 1 <@?CBE) In t!is sense, t!e H$aysI are so "any Ha%%roa&!esI to or s%e&ifi& %oints of vie$ on t!e sa"e &ontent of e,%erien&e) Te,ts li5e t!e 8i12na$haira3a W1+!Y s!o$ !o$, $it!in t!e &onfines of t!e sa"e %ra&ti&e, t!e yo in raises !i"self fro" one "eans to anot!er) So does t!e &o""entary on PS ;8?;= Davat)E)8@8
See .4 6 58a a" we** a" &S 96 a$0 CD a0 *'#. Bt *ea"t i$t' tw' pra#ti#e" t%pi#a* '1 that path, $a/e*%, re1*e#ti'$ '$ the Rhee* '1 e$ergie", a$0 rai"i$g the e$erg% '1 (reath (.4 ; 41, 50(,52). 186 See .4 6 231 a$0 Si*( r$, &a0' 7 .4= 31. 187 .4 6; 273,375a. 188 See, re"pe#tive*%, .4 666 200(,208a, 223(,225 (whi#h #ite" /iddha!ogevar,mata), '$ the /a$tra ________> 6; 181(,193 (________ a$0 ________)> ; 54,100 (________)> ; 131(,155a (________ a$0 'ther"). 189 6$ the #'$te7t '1 a #'/p*e7 pra#ti#e a""'#iate0 with rai"i$g the e$erg% '1 (reath (; 43,53), with the 'ccra '1 ________ (; 54,70 a$0 141,145), with the 1 "i'$ pr'per t' "e7 a* $i'$ (; 70,74), a$0 with m'drs (; 79,85)> vv. 86,95, a #itati'$ 1r'/ Triirobhairava, agai$ ev'ke it, a" we** a" ; 100(,128a, where it i" agai$ a""'#iate0 with "e7 a* pra#ti#e. T'r the k'alin, i$ the bhavop!a, "ee .4 666 137(,141a (whi#h #ite" Triirobhairava), a$0 666 220,223a (whi#h #ite" /iddha!ogevar,mata), where it i" 0e"#ri(e0 a" ph'$e/i# e$erg%, a$0 i0e$ti#a* with the t'ta*it% '1 w'r0 (vc). 6$ the ktop!a, the k'alin, i" /ere*% a** 0e0 t', i$ a #itati'$ 1r'/ .ogasacratantra (.4 6; 136,144) whi#h ev'ke" the k'#il, the 8#'i*e0 2"erpe$t3: (6;142), i$ it" a""'#iati'$ with "e7 a* pra#ti#e ("ee Si*( r$, &a0' 7 .4= 230), a$0 with the pra#ti#e '1 hasoccra (6; 135,136). Si/i*ar*% OD apprehe$0", " ( 6; 153,157, a re1ere$#e t' the sahrak'alin,, a$0, " ( 6; 200, a re1ere$#e t' the /'/e$t where the k'alin, arrive" at the 1'r/ '1 /%"ti# 0r $ke$$e"" whi#h i" it" # */i$ati'$. 190 See .4 666 248a,267, 6;122(,147, .4 ; 26(,42. 191 See ;Fh 28,31, 1'r i$"ta$#e, a$0 .4 5556; 2, K 'te0 $. 868.
184 185


Still, t!o( ! %er!a%s &overtly, t!e Paramrthasra %rivile es, it $o(ld see", t!e %oint of vie$ of t!e (,topya Dor 12nopya, H$ay of 5no$led eIE, $!i&! allo$s in %rin&i%le a &ertain %l(rality of %ra&ti&e, t!o( ! one %ra&ti&e s(ffi&es) 8@6 T!is is one of t!e "atters in $!i&! t!e (,topya is distin (is!ed fro" t!e 0a3opya, in $!i&! a %l(rality of %ra&ti&es is of t!e essen&e, asso&iated $it! an intense sensory a&tivity) A"on t!e indi&ations &orro'oratin t!at inter%retation: t!e e"%!asis %la&ed on H5no$led eI 612na7 and on t!e H5no$erI 612nin7, as $ell as t!e i"%ortan&e attri'(ted to t!e notion of $h3an Dnot %resent in t!e t$o s(%erior $aysE)8@A On t!e ot!er !and, t!e "antri& %ra&ti&e t!at -o ar4#a dis&erns in vv) ;8?;= is t!at %res&ri'ed 'y t!e (,topya:8@; not only does !e a%%re!end, in t!e ad#e&tives (ntam and am.tam of v) ;A, an o&&(lt referen&e to t!e "antra, 8@B $!i&! evo5es Par4, t!e divinity %ro%er to t!e (,topya, '(t !e e"%!asiLes t!e effe&tiveness 63-rya7 of "antras in eneral Davat) ad ;8E R one of t!e "ain t!e"es of t!e (,topya) An effe&tiveness t!at is not "erely a f(n&tion of &orre&t en(n&iation, '(t %res(%%oses t!e in?terioriLation of a "ysti& realiLation) T!e yo in en a ed on t!e H$ay of ener yI identifies, not $it! t!e divinity t!at t!e "antra e,%resses, as is t!e &ase $it! t!e Sidd!4nta, '(t $it! Ht!e (niversal sense of t!e "antraI 6mantrrthasr3tmya, T2 I1 6BC'?6B@aE) In ot!er $ords, for t!is yo in, t!e "antra is not a si"%le for"(la for rit(al (sa e, '(t re%resents (lti"ate reality itself)8@= .antri& %ra&ti&e and $h3an !ave as t!eir &onse9(en&e &onversion of a dis&(rsive "ode of t!o( !t into an int(itive and non?dis&(rsive a$areness fo&(sed Dif t!at is t!e $ordE on (lti"ate reality, an a$areness of Hdifferen&e?and?non?differen&eI 6$hed$heda7)8@< .antri& %ra&ti&e and $h3an &on&ern t!e interioriLed sa&rifi&e 6antaryga7, dra$n fro" t!e /a(la tradition, $!i&! itself involves t!e %ro"ise of li'eration in t!is life)8@C T!is HinterioriLed sa&rifi&eI R to(ted 'y t!e (,topya8@@ R defies des&ri%tion and is never 'etter %ortrayed t!an 'y analo y) T!(s, as I !ave already s!o$n, vv) <;?C7 of t!e Paramrthasra transfor" t!e %ro&ed(res of t!e Q"(ndaneQ rit(al "eta%!ori&ally into t!eir interioriLed &o(nter%arts R in ot!er $ords, transfor" %ra&ti&es %ro%er to t!e 0a3opya into t!ose s(ita'le to t!e (,topya)677 1v) <@?C7 are %arti&(larly e,e"%lary of t!is, to t!e e,tent t!at -o ar4#a evo5es t!e fi (re of t!e /4%4li5a as&eti& in order to o%%ose to !i" t!e fi (re of t!e 1-3anmu,ta Trai5a) T!is also s!o$s !o$ t!e Tri5a of t!e e,e etes !as 'een a'le to inte rate, $!ile do"esti&atin and %(rifyin , t!e older tradition of t!e /4%4li5as, $!i&! reserved t!e "ost e,tre"e %ra&ti&es to its 3irtuosi 63-ra7) T!e loss of
Si/i*ar*%, a##'r0i$g t' S; 666 4, the ktop!a i" the pri$#ipa* 1'# " '1 the Sp?= iti r,p)rvastre dh!ndi eva avatvena 'ktam0 etac ca sth)latvt ktop!aprakatmani spandastre na sagh,tam, 86$ the 2r,p)rvastra 2viU., the +;.3 /e0itati'$, et#., are "p'ke$ '1 '$*% i$ re*ati'$ t' the 1i$ite "' * 2viU., t' the wa% '1 the 1i$ite "' *3> the%, (e#a "e '1 their gr'"" #hara#ter, are $'t re1ere$#e0 i$ thi" /pandastra, whi#h i" 0ev'te0 t' the e7p'"iti'$ '1 the wa% '1 e$erg%:. 193 See &S 41 a$0 $. 858. <$ bhvan, "ee a*"' Bppe$0i7 20, p. 345. 194 6$ 1a#t, /a$tri# pra#ti#e i" the pri$#ipa* #hara#teri"ti# '1 the ktop!a. 195 _______ i", i$ e11e#t, that /a$tra wh'"e i$itia* i" /+1 ('r /,), a$0 it i" 0e"ig$ate0 a" the amtab,%a> "ee CD a0 *'#. 196 B" ta ght a*"' i$ S 66 1 (citta mantra) a$0 Sp? 66 1,2 (K 'te0 i$ S; 66 1 a$0 66 3). 197 <$ thi" $'ti'$, "ee &S 12,13 (a$0 it" #'//e$tar%), a" we** a" avat. a0 &S 41 a$0 46. 198 See .4 6; 211 (antar!ga) a$0 212 (0e"#ripti'$ '1 the %,vanm'kta). 199 See .4 6; 211 a$0 &S 41,46, 74,80. 200 Sa/e rhet'ri# i$ .4 6; 194,203.


-o ar4#a ill(strates t!is &learly: t!e as&eti& $!o follo$s t!e Tri5a %at! is as $ort!y, or %er!a%s even "ore $ort!y, of t!e title of 3-ra, for !e o'serves an ot!er?$ordly vo$, $!ereas t!e /4%4li5aIs is "erely "(ndane) T!e %rivile ed %la&e a&&orded to t!e (,topya in t!e Paramrthasra derives as $ell fro" t!e fa&t t!at it is %resented t!ere as HeasierI) S(&! is t!e tea&!in of T2 I1 6B<'?6BCa: HWT!e Sidd!4nta re&o""endsY, in order to identify W$it! PivaY, ivin oneself (% to restri&tive %ra&ti&es s(&! as $earin t!e to%5not) T!e /(la %res&ri'es t!eir a'andon"ent, for it tea&!es an easy $ayI, or of PS <=: HFor !i" $!o is en a ed in offerin into t!e 'laLin fire of &ons&io(sness all t!e reat seeds of differen&e Wt!at 'losso" fort!Y on t!e %res(%%osition of inner vers(s o(ter, t!e o'lation is "ade $it!o(t effortI)678 Si"ilarly, $!en PS C7 des&ri'es t!e vo$ of t!e yo in en a ed on t!e H$ay of ener yI as H'ot! easy and very diffi&(ltI, it si nifies t!at t!e (,topya is 'ot! easier and "ore diffi&(lt t!an t!e 0a3opya: easier in t!at t!e %ra&titioner need no lon er &on&ern !i"self $it! t!e %ano%ly of rites %res&ri'ed in t!e 0a3a nor a&9(ire t!eir re9(isite in redients and votive o'#e&tsM "ore diffi&(lt in t!at all rites "(st 'e interioriLed s(&&essf(lly) T!e (,topya is t!(s t!e $ay t!at o&&(%ies t!e "iddle ro(nd 'et$een t!e ($ha3opya and t!e 0a3opya, #(st as t!e $hed$heda, t!e e,%erien&e to $!i&! it ives a&&ess, o&&(%ies t!e "iddle ro(nd 'et$een t!e a$heda of t!e ($ha3opya and t!e $heda of t!e 0a3opya) T!e t$o ot!er $ays are not for all t!at a'sent in t!e %resentation of t!e Paramrthasra, and t!e e,!ortation in t!e &o""entary to verse 87A to H(se all "eansI in order to a&&ede to t!e s(%re"e !("an oal is %er!a%s to 'e (nderstood in t!at sense)676 T!e "anner in $!i&! t!e Paramrthasra %ositions itself in relation to ot!er syste"s deserves also to 'e noted in 'rief) Oit! t!e si nal e,&e%tion of verse 6<, $!i&! is a do,o ra%!y in "iniat(re, t!e only evident &riti&is" of ot!er syste"s is ai"ed at t!e rival idealis"s of Advaita and 1i#V4nav4da R as t!o( ! t!e d(alis" of
See a*"' &S 77= 8B$0 $#ea"i$g i" hi" /e0itati'$ 2...3: a$0 CD a0 *'#= 8.here1're, the /e0itati'$ '1 " #h a %'gi$ ari"e" $at ra**% (svarasodita)", a" we** a" &S 78 a$0 CD a0 *'#= 8e/ergi$g $at ra**%, 2the e$erg% '1 the /i00*e (reath3 i" "ai0 t' (e a$ i$$ate 2ki$0 '13 r'"ar%, a" it #'/prehe$0" a** the "e$"e":. 202 De1ere$#e" t' Fhairava (.4 666 1, a$0 pa""i/), t' Fhairava a" abdari, 8/a"" '1 "' $0": (.4 666 198,200a), a$0 t' the 8#'$0iti'$[$at re '1 Fhairava: (bhairav,bhva, 666 271, 277) J a ter/ 1'r %,vanm'kti rea*iUe0 i$ the /a$$er '1 the bhavop!a ("ee OD a0 271) J are #hara#teri"ti# '1 the bhavop!a. B" we**, are the a$a*'g% '1 the /irr'r (.4 666 1,66> 268,293), the /a$tra _______(.4 666 20(,206), the #e*e(rati'$ '1 the a("'* te 86: (.4 666 207,208a, 280,281), a$0 the /'ti1 '1 the Rhee* '1 e$ergie" (.4 666 248a,267). .he "a/e the/e" /a% (e rea0 " ( &S 9,13, 43, 47,50, 96. .he avat. a0 41 re1er" t' the /a$$er i$ whi#h the %'gi$ rai"e" hi/"e*1 1r'/ the ktop!a t' the bhavop!a. .he p'i$t '1 view '1 the avop!a, with it" pr'1 "i'$ '1 pra#ti#e", i" re*ative*% rare*% a0'pte0 i$ the &S. .hi" p'i$t '1 view appear" '$*% (% i/p*i#ati'$ i$ the 0e"#ripti'$ '1 the ktop!a (vv. 74,80) J the pra#ti#e" '1 #'$#er$ t' the ava are th'"e that the ktop!a tra$"1'r/" J a$0 i$ that '1 the bhavop!a J the e$*ighte$/e$t that v. 96 0e"#ri(e" ha" a" it" 8/ea$": ('p!) the gra#e '1 iva a*'$e, $'t the #'**e#ti'$ '1 /ea$" that #hara#teriUe" the avop!a= 8)'w the p rp'rt '1 thi" i" a" 1'**'w"= the a#K i"iti'$ '1 the k$'w*e0ge '1 '$e:" 'w$ Se*1 ha" 1'r it" $iK e /ea$" ('p!) the 1av'r '1 the S pre/e N'r0. Mere, " #h 2a#t"3 a" re#iti$g the r'"ar%, /e0itati'$, '11eri$g "a#ri1i#e, et#., whi#h ari"e tha$k" t' the 2N'r0:"3 p'wer '1 2#a "a*3 #'$"trai$t, are i$e11e#t a* a" /ea$" ('p!a): (CD a0 96). .he '$*% p'"itive re1ere$#e t' the 8wa% '1 the 1i$ite "' *: i" perhap" 1' $0 i$ the 1'**'wi$g ver"e. CD a0 97 0e"#ri(e", i$ e11e#t, the "tage" '1 the e*evati'$ '1 the k'alin,, a pra#ti#e pre"e$t i$ the three wa%", ( t wh'"e 0i"# r"ivit% "ee/" t' atta#h, here, t' the 8wa% '1 the 1i$ite "' *:.


t!e S45!ya $ere not!in '(t a venial sin, destined to dissolve itself in t!e Q&o"%leteQ soteriolo y of t!e Tri5a) On&e S4 5!ya d(alis" is ref(ted in t!e &o""entary to verses 6?A, -o ar4#a "a5es no f(rt!er referen&e to t!at syste", a%art fro" so"e veiled 'orro$in s of ele"ents in its t!eory of li'eration, s(&! as t!e analo y of t!e %otter and !is $!eel,67A and t!e very ter"s of S/ ;<, of $!i&! !e offers Dad PS CAE a Trai5a inter%retation)67; It is interestin t!at t!e Paramrthasra %refers to effa&e s(&! differen&es in order 'etter to 'rin o(t t!e relations!i% of one tradition to t!e ot!er) T!e S4 5!ya is not only a syste" t!at t!e Tri5a &onsiders to !ave sto%%ed s!ort in $or5in o(t t!e as%iration to$ard enli !ten"ent and li'erationM it is also a syste" $it! $!i&! t!e Tri5a s(stains an affinity, indi&ated 'y its !avin ado%ted t!e do&trine of t!e tatt3as, to et!er $it! t!e notion of t!eir evol(tion)67B For t!e S45!ya do&trine of t!e tattvas i"%lies t$o &orollaries: on t!e one !and, t!at t!e e"%iri&al $orld is iven a val(e67= R 'y t!e Hen("erationI 6sa,hy7 t!at is "ade of its for"sM on t!e ot!er !and, t!at t!e $orld t!(s eval(ated is also instr("entaliLed in t!e 9(est for li'eration) A&&ordin to t!e S,hya,ri, Dand t!e &o""entary of Ga(a%4da %arti&(larlyE t!e sa"e attra&tions of t!e $orld t!at s('#e&t t!e puru)a to in&arnate e,isten&e R (nderstood as 'ot! intelle&t(al and sensi'le e,%erien&e R and to t!e &y&le of re'irt!s !ave also t!e vo&ation of &ond(&tin t!e puru)a to its li'eration R $!i&! a"o(nts to esta'lis!in t!e final &a(se as a f(nda"ental %rin&i%le of t!e syste") T!at is even t!eir raison dIetre: pra,.ti de%loys t!e &reation D(nderstood as t!e t$enty?t!ree re"ainin tatt3as7 only for t!e sa5e of t!e puru)a=s se%aration fro" !erself) S!e $or5s indefati a'ly Dvv) B=?BCE to t!at end, or 'etter, s!e dis%lays t!e &reation 'efore t!e puru)a, as an a&tress 'efore an a(dien&e Dv) B@E) S(&! $o(ld 'e t!e "eanin of t!e arrestin and s(stained analo y of t!e pra,.ti?a&tress %layin 'efore t!e puru)a? s%e&tator Dvv) B@, =8, =B?==E) T!e sa"e Qt!eater of t!e $orldQ in $!i&! t!e puru)a is i"'ri&ated so lon as !e is de%rived of dis&ern"ent is also t!e lo&ale of !is li'eration, for t!at li'eration is s('ordinated to t!e a&9(isition of Hdis&ri"inatin 5no$led eI 63i12na7: on&e Creation is ras%ed as a &o"%le, of or aniLed &onstit(ents, $!i&! "(st t!erefore 'e Hfor anot!erI, t!e puru)a is ipso facto HdifferentiatedI fro" it and fro" t!e &o"%le,M it is HfreeI, it re&o niLes itself as t!e inde%endent ter", Ht!at for $!i&!I)67<
S? 67 "ee/" t' (e the 'rigi$ '1 thi" i/age, whi#h "''$ (e#'/e" a t'p'"> "ee FSFh 6; 1, 15. 6$ the "a/e wa%, .4; 55;666 312 #ite" S? 67. 205 .he .rika:" a11i$it% with SAkh%a i" agai$ /a$i1e"te0 (% it" a0'pti'$ '1 the satkr!avda. 206 6$ #'$tra"t with it" 0eva* ati'$, pre"e$te0 (% the B0vaita a" $e#e""ar%, t' the e7te$t that '$ that 0eva* ati'$ 0epe$0" the "tat " '1 brahman it"e*1 ("ee M *i$ 2001= 83). .he a0vaiti# 0eva* ati'$ '1 the phe$'/e$a* w'r*0 e7te$0" eve$ t' a#'"/i"/ J the a%tivda, 8view that 2the w'r*03 $ever #a/e i$t' e7i"te$#e: J whi#h "erve" the view that brahman '$*% Etr *%E e7i"t" (M *i$ 2001= 56> 102,103> F' % 4= 48,49, 249,254, 266,272). -a"g pta (1975, v'*. 6= 423), h'wever, 1i$0" a$ a%tivda i$ Ia 0apA0a:" 6riks, a$0 #'$"i0er" thi" a$ i$0i#ati'$ '1 Ia 0apA0a:" p tative F 00hi"/ J a p'i$t '1 view / #h 0e(ate0 ('$ thi" 0e(ate, "ee F' % 4= 42,43). 207 IFh 55= $... pa&caviatitattva%&na s!t sattap'r'n!athkh!tilakaam ida pradhnam i!a b'ddhir a!am ahakra imni pa&ca mahbh)tni !ebh!o (n!a p'r'o visada iti 0, 8.he k$'w*e0ge '1 the twe$t%,1ive pri$#ip*e" i" /arke0 (% the 'ther$e"" '1 "pirit a$0 e7i"te$#e= Ethi" i" /atterE, Ethi" i" /i$0E, Ethi" i" eg'E, Ethe"e are the great e*e/e$t"E J 1r'/ a** '1 whi#h a*ie$ "pirit i" 0i""i/i*ar:> "ee a*"' IFh 60 a$0 64.
203 204


T!e puru)a, in its essen&e freed of any taint of o'#e&tivity R o'#e&tivity as s(""ed (% in t!e t$enty?fo(r re"ainin tatt3as R is t!at differen&e) And t!at dis&ri"inatin %rin&i%le is "ade t!e f(nda"ental inde, of t!e S,hya,ri,=s soteriolo y, fro" its se&ond 54ri54 on$ards, $!i&! en#oins t!e f(nda"ental distin&tion 'et$een t!e H"anifestI 63ya,ta7, t!e H(n"anifestI 6a3ya,ta7 and Ht!e 5no$erI D12a R lit), H5no$in IE R t!at is, 'et$een t!e t$enty?t!ree H%rod(&edI tatt3as, 'e innin $it! t!e $uddhi, and t!e t$o H(n%rod(&edI or ori inal tattvas R %ri"al Q"atterQ 6pra,.ti7, desi nated as t!e (n"anifest 6a3ya,ta7, and %ri"al Qs%iritQ 6puru)a7, t!e for"er also fre9(ently referred to as pradhna, t!e H'aseI, H%la&ed? 'eforeI) T!is is ta5en (% 'y Ga(a%4da in !is Bh)ya, $!o &ites t!e follo$in verse: H*e $!o 5no$s t!e t$enty?five %rin&i%les, $!atever !is style of life, $!et!er !is !air 'e %laited or in a to%5not, or !is !ead s!aven, is li'erated R no do('t a'o(t it[I67C T!(s, in t!e S,hya,ri,=s "anner of settin fort! t!e tatt3as &an 'e seen in o3o t!e %rin&i%le of reversi'ility of servit(de and li'eration) One !as t!e feelin t!at Paivis" Dnond(alist and d(alistE ta5es (% t!is %rin&i%le and %(ts it into %ra&ti&e se9(entially, introd(&in t$o sy""etri&al "ove"ents of installation and HdisIinstallation of t!e tatt3as, no$ t!irty?si, in n("'er) T!e Paiva innovation &onsists in t!e reversal of t!ese tatt3as, fro" ross to s('tle, in t!e as&endin "ove"ent of t!e self s re&o nition of its Self) 67@ Of &o(rse, t!e idea is si"ilar to t!e strate y of t!e &o"'ined S45!ya?-o a, a&&ordin to $!i&! t!e %ro&ess of a$a5enin , for t!e yo in, is in so"e "anner t!e reverse D pratisarga, or pratiprasa3a, -S I1 A;E of t!e %ro&ess des&ri'ed in S4 5!ya, res(ltin in t!e $orld of o(r e,%erien&e) Still, -o a !as not develo%ed t!e notion of a QreversionQ of t!e tatt3as, one after anot!er, as a "eans of a&&ess, or rat!er, of as&ent to li'eration) T!erefore one &an s%ea5 of a Paiva QinnovationQ, 687 at least in a te&!ni&al sense) +esides, s(&! a reversal of t!e tattvas is i"%lied in t!e do&trineIs lo i& of t!e syste" to t!e e,tent t!at it &an 'e &onsidered as &onditioned on t!e introd(&tion of t!e notion of (a,ti, $!i&! is itself de%endent on t!e introd(&tion of eleven s(%%le"entary tatt3as $!ere'y a d(alis" is &onverted into a "onis") In effe&t, t!e idea of a QreversionQ of t!e tatt3as &an only 'e &on&eived of dyna"i&ally, at t!e &ost of a &onsidera'le effort &a%a'le of esta'lis!in t!e notion t!e Paivas &all adh3a(uddhi, H%(rifi&ation of t!e %at!sI) It is a reversal t!at is i"%li&it in t!e ter" adh3an, H%at!I, iven to t!e differentiated "anifestation of t!e S(%re"e Lord)688 A%art fro" t!e fa&t t!at t!e H$orld as %at!I lends itself to dire&tionality, it see"s destined to %oint to a Qret(rn %at!Q) In effe&t, in virt(e of a fol5 ety"olo y t!at derives adh3an fro" t!e root ad, HeatI, t!e %at! is not #(st a %ro&ess, a "ovin to$ard so"et!in , it is also t!at $!i&! Hs!o(ld 'e

IFh 1= pa&caviatitattva%&o !atra tatrrame vaset 0 %a#, m', vpi m'c!ate ntra saa!a 00, repeate0 a0 2. 209 See Sp) 666 19= $... dhardiivntasamagrabhog!akavalanena paramapramtt sat,m eva prat!abhi%&nakramevalambate0, 8F% g *pi$g 0'w$ the e$tire ra$ge '1 thi$g" t' e$L'%, 1r'/ earth t' iva, he rea#he" gra0 a**% thr' gh the pr'#e"" '1 re#'g$iti'$ the "tate '1 " pre/e " (Le#t, whi#h e7i"t" $#'$0iti'$a**%:> "ee a*"' &.NvX 21,24, K 'te0 $. 621. 210 <$e that #' *0 (e '*0> "ee, 1'r i$"ta$#e, the $'ti'$ '1 tattva%a!a, 8#'$K e"t '1 the tattvas", i$ +;. (;a" 0eva +;.= 149). 211 )'t '$*% the 'ddhdhvan a$0 the a'ddhdhvan, ( t the $'ti'$ '1 adadhvan, the 8"i7 path":.


&ons("edI, t!at is, t!e e,%e&ted res(lt of t!at "ove"ent: t!e H%at!I Danalo y of t!e e"%iri&al "anifestationE, $!i&! t!e a&t of ret(rnin itself a'olis!es)686 Oit! t!e insertion of my and t!e Hs!eat!sI 6,a2cu,a7 asso&iated $it! it, not only is t!e d(alis" of S45!ya "ade to "es! $it! Paiva nond(alis", '(t, inversely, Paiva nond(alis" atte"%ts to fortify itself a ainst lo i&al defe&t to t!e e,tent t!at it is &aref(l, in its %!iloso%!i&al dis&o(rse, to %resent my as one of t!e "odes of realiLation of t!e Pa5ti) Oit! t!e addition of t!e eleven s(%erior tatt3as, of $!i&! t!e first five re%resent t!e H%(re %at!I 6(uddhdh3an7, Paivis" re&on&iles t!e level of essen&e 6(uddhdh3an7 $it! t!at of e,isten&e 6a(uddhdh3an7) .oreover, t!e Paiva settin fort! of t!e eleven s(%erior tatt3as %er"its t!e resol(tion of anot!er %ro'le" t!at is raised 'y t!e 'orro$in fro" S45!ya of t!e notion of t!e tatt3as: t!e idea of evol(tion itself, in effe&t, is in %rin&i%le in&o"%ati'le $it! "ost Indian idealisti& syste"s, $!i&!, esta'lis!in an e9(ivalen&e 'et$een Q&!an eQ and t!e Q(nrealQ, &onsider t!e very idea of evol(tion in and of itself fa(lty, erroneo(s) T!e Tri5aIs re&on&iliation of idealis" $it! t!e Qrealisti&Q a%%roa&! i"%lied 'y t!e idea of evol(tion oes even to t!e e,tent of revisin t!e notion of $hed$heda, Hdifferen&e?and?non?differen&eI) Evol(tionis" in effe&t &annot 'e "aintained a%art fro" t!e notion of $hed$heda, for s(&! an idea is i"%lied in any t!eory of &a(sation lin5in a &a(se $it! its effe&t, different fro" t!at &a(se, '(t in so"e sense also t!e sa"e, for it is not t!e &ase t!at any &a(se &an %rod(&e any effe&t) T!(s t!e 9(adri%artite distin&tion of t!e tatt3as %ro%osed 'y &lassi&al S45!ya re%oses i"%li&itly on t!e notion of $hed$heda: t!at $!i&!, not %rod(&ed, %rod(&es 6pra,.ti7M t!ose $!i&! are %rod(&ed '(t %rod(&e not!in Dt!e mah$h/tasEM t!ose t!at 'ot! %rod(&e and are %rod(&ed Dfro" mahat to t!e tanmtrasEM and t!at $!i&! neit!er %rod(&es nor is %rod(&ed 6puru)a7) In t!e last analysis, t!e Paiva treat"ent of $hed$heda, ill(strated, so"e$!at aty%i&ally,68A 'y t!e "eta%!or of t!e "irror and its refle&tion DPS 86?8AE, $o(ld derive as "(&! fro" a do&trinal &onstraint R t!at of an idealisti& syste" R as it does fro" t!e e,ternal &onstraint i"%osed 'y inte ratin a Qrealisti&Q evol(tionis" $it!in an Qidealisti&Q evol(tionis") For t!at, t!e notion of evol(tion itself !ad to 'e re&onsidered) O!ile S45!ya "a5es it de%endent on pra,.ti alone, a&tive '(t (n&ons&io(s, %resented to a puru)a &ons&io(s '(t ina&tive, Paivis" s('ordinates evol(tion D$!ere t!e puru)a is rele ated to t!e Hi"%(re %at!IE to t!e a ent %ar e,&ellen&e, t!e (ni9(e (lti"ate %rin&i%le, Piva ani"ated 'y !is Pa5ti R in ot!er ter"s, &ons&io(sness indisso&ia'le fro" self?&ons&io(sness) T!is a en&y e,%resses itself as t!e a'sol(te HII 6aham7, $!i&! is iven a &entral %la&e in t!e Paramrthasra itself, via t!e QahastutiQ of verses ;<?B7, t!e self?%ro&la"ation of t!e HII as t!e (lti"ate Real)68; T!(s t!e idea of t!e (lti"ate %rin&i%le as itself a ent seals t!e differen&e, on t!e ontolo i&al %lane, 'et$een S4 5!ya and Tri5a, or rat!er &onse&rates t!e inte ration of t!e first in t!e se&ond)68B
See .4 ;6 30 a$0 .4; a0 *'#. #ite0 $. 1387. 6$ B0vaita, the "a/e a$a*'g% i** "trate" the $'ti'$ '1 8appeara$#e:, bhedbheda (ei$g reLe#te0 (% akara a" a *'gi#a* #'$tra0i#ti'$> "ee p. 57. 214 See, e"p., Tantrasra 2.S3 ;666 (p. 86) K 'te0 $. 594, a$0 .S ;666 (p. 87), K 'te0 $. 605, whi#h "peak" '1 the 8age$tive part: (kartraa) '1 the ahakra, it"e*1 $'thi$g e*"e tha$ the 0eva* ate0 1'r/ '1 the a("'* te (aham". 215 See a*"' &S 10,11, &S 14, &S 45, a$0 CD a0 *'#> a*"' ^&vX 666 2, 5, K 'te0 $. 515.
212 213


T!e Tri5a distin (is!es itself also fro" S45!ya in t!at t!e reval(ation of t!e sensi'le $orld &(l"inates in a sense of "arvel 6camat,ra7, a H"arvelin I t!at 'orders al$ays on #oy 6nanda7, and $!i&! &!ara&teriLes 'ot! t!e re ard t!e yo in &asts (%on t!is "arvelo(sly varie ated $orld and t!e o%en?eyed deli !t $it! $!i&! !e &onte"%lates !is identity $it! t!at $orld and $it! t!e Lord)68= Oe find !ere %er!a%s t!e so(r&e of one of t!e &!ara&teristi& feat(res of t!e nond(al Paivis" of /as!"ir, $!i&! !as develo%ed, alon side a reli io(s %!iloso%!y and a "ysti&is", an aest!eti&s t!at !as 'e&o"e one of t!e leit"otifs of Indian s%e&(lation, and &o"%ellin eno( ! as an aest!eti&s to overs!ado$ all its rivals) A series of $riters, %ree"inently Jaivite, a"on $!o" A'!inava (%ta $as %ro'a'ly t!e "ost infl(ential,68< develo%ed a Qt!eory of 'ea(tyQ, or rat!er, of Qaest!eti& e,%erien&eQ, t!at re"ains one of t!e #e$els of /as!"ir to t!is day) Not only is aest!eti& e"otion des&ri'ed in t!e very ter"s t!at /as!"irian Paivas a%%ly to s%irit(al e,%erien&e R rasa, HsavorI, nanda, H'lissI, camat,ra, H$onderI, tma3i(rnti, Hre%ose in t!e SelfIR '(t t!e Ha"aLe"entI 63ismaya7 of ordinary e,%erien&e is trans"(ted into t!e Hsenti"entI 6rasa7, as aest!eti&al as it is s%irit(al, of t!e H.arvelo(sI 6ad$huta7) T!e yo in and t!e s%e&tator of dra"a !ave in &o""on t!e Hre&o nitionI of t!e Self, or, $!at a"o(nts to t!e sa"e t!in , t!eir identifi&ation $it! t!e (niverse R a transitory e,%erien&e for t!e s%e&tator '(t esta'lis!ed on&e and for all for t!e yo in,68C $!o is t!(s not!in '(t an He"an&i%ated s%e&tatorI)68@ O!at a'o(t t!e relation of Tri5a $it! AdvaitaZ It is o'vio(s t!at t!e for"er s!ares $it! t!e latter t!e notion of my Dalready %resent in t!e first Paramrthasra7 and its fa&(lty of Hveilin I 63ara0a7, in!erited fro" t!e traditionM after all, even in its vedi& o&&(rren&es, and in &onfor"ity $it! its ety"olo y, my is a H%o$er of fa'ri&ationI, and as s(&! &an 'e seen as to re%resent t!e advaiti& version of t!e Paiva (a,ti) -et, $!atever "ay 'e t!eir f(nda"ental affinity in t!is re ard, it is still t!e &ase t!at t!e t$o syste"s differ &onsidera'ly in t!eir "anner of treatin my) In t!e Paramrthasra, $e find, in effe&t, a %ole"i&al atta&5 on 1ed4n?taIs vie$s re ardin (a,ti and my) -o ar4#a Dad 8BE re%roa&!es t!e H+ra!"av4dinsI for
See CD a0 75 a$0 79,80. See Fa$"at,F' 0'$ 2004= 27311. 218 See =varaprat!abhi%&vimarin, 2^&;3 6 1, 1, v'*. 6= 38, i$ the #'$te7t '1 a 0e(ate '$ the 1 $#ti'$ '1 /e/'r% i$ a##' $ti$g 1'r the e7perie$#e '1 the %'gi$= n)na sa eva ,varo (ham iti, 8Ce", 6 a/ the N'r0:> i$ the "a/e #'$te7t, "ee a*"' ^&; 6 4, 3, v'*. 6=165= ea sa iti cchditas!eva pramttattvas!a sph'#vabhsana ktam, idam iti, visma!agarbha!na! 'kt! prat!abhi%& eva s)cit, 8Rhe$ '$e "a%" Ethi" i" heE there i" #*ear reve*ati'$ '1 a #'g$iUer, hi00e$ a" it were> 2eve$ i$ #a"e" whe$ '$e "a%" '$*%3 EBhaWE (idam), a re#'g$iti'$ i" i$0i#ate0 (% thi" ttera$#e, wh'"e #e$tra* /ea$i$g i" a/aUe/e$t:. B" 1'r the e7perie$#e '1 the "pe#tat'r, "ee +bhinavabhrat, 2BFh3 a0 B#!astra 2)3 6 107, v'*. 6= 36= p#h!akranaptrntarapraveavat sam'tpanne deaklavievenligite ... rmarvadivia!dh!avas!e ... bhavat pa&caair divasai sacamatkratad,!acaritamadh!apravi#asvmar)pamati svtmadvrea viva tath pa!an prat!eka sm%ika ... 8<$#e the #'$vi#ti'$ ha" 0eve*'pe0 that DA/a a$0 DAva@a, a$0 "' '$, are (e1're hi/, ... tha$k" t' the e$tra$#e" '1 'ther #hara#ter" a$0 the heari$g '1 *i$e" "p'ke$ J 2a #'$vi#ti'$3 $/arke0 (% the irr pti'$" '1 parti# *ar ti/e" a$0 p*a#e" J ... the "pe#tat'r th " view2"3 ever% parti# *ar thr' gh the *e$" '1 hi" 'w$ "e*1, 2th' gh the "pe#ta#*e3 #'$ti$ e (bhavat) 1'r 1ive 'r "i7 0a%", 1'r hi" atte$ti'$ i" $'w '$e with hi" 'w$ "e*1, whi#h ha" e$tere0 i$t' the /i0"t '1 that a#ti'$ with a "e$"e '1 w'$0er:. ).(.= .hi" #hara#teriUati'$ i" e7#erpte0 1r'/ a / #h *'$ger pa""age 0e"#ri(i$g the "pe#tat'r:" e7perie$#e i$ re"p'$"e t' the p*a%. See Fa$"at,F' 0'$ 1992= 151,152. 219 &hra"e ('rr'we0 1r'/ the tit*e '1 O. Da$#iere:" (''k (2008).
216 217


!avin &onsidered my distin&t fro" $rahman, $!ereas, fro" t!e Paiva %oint of vie$, my is not!in '(t a realiLation of PivaIs (a,ti, (nderstood initially as Hener y of freedo"I 6s3tantrya(a,ti7) It is 'e&a(se of t!is fail(re to re&o niLe t!e essential freedo" of t!e s(%re"e %rin&i%le t!at -o ar4#a Dad 6<E finds fa(lt $it! t!ese +ra!"av4dins, even t!o( ! s(&! an a&&o(nt of t!e ved4nti& syste" Des%e&ially t!at of PaT5araE "(st 'e ta5en as a serio(s a'rid e"ent, $!i&! fails to ta5e note of t!e i"%ortant &os"olo i&al role %layed t!erein 'y 0Jvara, or of t!e &o"%le, inter%lay of my and t!e 1-3a in its a&&o(nt of t!e Q%er&e%ti'leQ $orld) As a &onse9(en&e, one o'serves t!at t!e Trai5a vie$ of t!e Qreal $orldQ differs so"e$!at fro" t!at of PaT5araIs Advaita, $!ere notions of t!e QrealQ are 'ased e,&l(sively on t!e sin le (n&!an in Real, $rahman Dsat, E, $!i&! &an never 'e ot!er t!an it is Din later Advaita (sa e, ter"ed pramrthi,a sat7) +y &ontrast, t!e Qa'sol(tely (nrealQ 6prti$hsi,a7 &an a%%ear only ver'ally, is al$ays ot!er t!an it is 6asat7 R t!e Hson of a 'arren $o"anI Da &ontradi&tion in ter"sE or t!e H!orn of a !areI Dan i"a inary asso&iationE) +et$een t!ese t$o e,tre"es is t!e Qreal $orldQ 63y3ahri,a7 R or $!at $e li5e to &all t!e Qreal $orldQ R $!i&! is Hine,%li&a'leI 6anir3acan-ya7 in t!e sense t!at it is neit!er a'sol(tely real nor a'sol(tely (nreal 6sadasad3ila,)a0a7 R t!e $orld, in ot!er $ords, of &!an e, $!ere r(les of &a(se and effe&t a%%ly) PaT5ara %refers t!e for"(la sadasad3ila,)a0a to t!e older $hed$heda Ddifferent?and?not?differentE for !e &onsiders t!is last a &ontradi&tion in ter"s) O!ile t!e Paivas and t!e Advaitins a ree in not denyin a %rovisional reality to t!e $orld of nor"al e,%erien&e, t!ey see" to %art &o"%any in t!eir vie$ of t!e Qa'sol(tely (nrealQ, $!i&! notion !as disa%%eared fro" t!e Paiva le,i&on, leavin (s $it! a Q'i?%olarQ (niverse &onsistin of t!e God on one side and !is Q&reationQ on t!e ot!er) S(&! QentitiesQ as s5y?flo$ers and s9(are &ir&les are a&&orded no s%e&ial stat(s, for as ideas t!ey Qe,istQ in t!e sa"e &reated (niverse) 667 In a sense, $e !ave ret(rned to a "ore S45!ya?oriented vie$ of t!e Real, $!ere t!e &reated $orld is le iti"ated as a f(n&tion of t!e a'sol(te, no do('t "otivated 'y t!e PaivasI vie$ t!at a&tion is %art and %ar&el of t!at a'sol(te, &on&eived as inse%ara'le fro" its Pa5ti) T!(s, in t!e s&!e"a of t!e Tri5a, Pa5ti a%%ears t$i&e, as t!e &onsort of Piva, t!at is, as self?&ons&io(sness still indistin&t fro" %(re &ons&io(sness, and as t!e s('tly Qde radedQ for" of my R $!i&!, it $ill 'e re"e"'ered, fi (res as t!e si,t! in t!e %ro&ession of t!e tatt3as) In t!is sense, one &an say t!at t!e Tri5a s('stit(tes for t!e %air $rahmanBmy of Advaita t!e &o(%le Piva]Pa5ti, on&e my, or "ore %re&isely, t!e oddess .4y4, is ta5en as a !y%ostasis of Pa5ti) It 'ein (nderstood t!at, in a Trai5a %ers%e&tive, t!e disso&iation Pa5ti]my is valid only in a $orldly %ers%e&tive, verti&allyM it !as no reality fro" t!e (lti"ate %oint of vie$, $!en envisa ed !oriLontally) In so"e $ays, it &o(ld 'e said t!at t!e Tri5a &on&e%tion of my is &loser to t!at of t!e "-t R or in any &ase, to t!e version of t!e "-t as &o""ented (%on 'y A'!inava (%ta) +esides, it s!o(ld 'e noted t!at t!e %!iloso%!i&al dis&o(rse of Advaita, t!o( ! fo(nded on t!e %air $rahman-my, does not assi n to t!e tatt3as

See &S 44 a$0 $. 915. .rika the'r% h'*0" that #'$"#i' "$e"" #'$tai$" ever%thi$g withi$ it" 1'*0. <$*% that whi#h i" k$'w$ e7i"t"> whatever i" $'t a$ '(Le#t '1 k$'w*e0ge 0'e" $'t e7i"t. 6t i" # ri' " that the "a/e 1'r/ *ati'$ '1 the re*ati'$ '1 the i0ea a$0 it" '(Le#t /a% (e 1' $0 a*"' i$ the /'"t e7tre/e rea*i"ti# 0'#tri$e" J $'ta(*% &rA(hAkara/Y/A"A J where it #a$$'t (e a0/itte0 that a$ i0ea (eve$ a$ err'$e' " '$e) ha" E$'thi$gE 1'r it" '(Le#t> "ee a*"' $. 265.


t!e soteriolo i&al role $!i&! is t!eir d(e in S45!ya and in Tri5a R alt!o( ! in varyin $ays) As re ards t!e inte ration of S45!ya into t!e Tri5a, &ertain dis%la&e"ents are in eviden&e: t!e my of t!e Tri5a re%resents f(n&tionally t!e pra,.ti of S45!ya $it! t!e "a#or differen&e t!at t!e for"er no$ e"'odies a oddess and is not an H(n&ons&io(sI %rin&i%leM in &ontrast, t!e pra,.ti of t!e Tri5a is a deval(ed for" of t!e S45!ya pra,.ti, red(&ed to its trigu0tma,a f(n&tion) Li5e$ise, t!e puru)a of t!e S45!ya 'e&o"es, in t!e Tri5a !ierar&!y, little "ore t!an t!e ar&!ety%e of t!e finite, 'o(nd so(l) It is tr(e t!at Indian soteriolo ies !ave as t!eir %rin&i%le t!e a'ro ation of a &ondition dee"ed (n!a%%y, and one &an ar (e t!at t!ey are all or aniLed aro(nd a diale&ti& of servit(de and li'eration) Still, t!e $ay %ro%osed 'y Paivis" is distin (is!ed fro" ot!er syste"s 'y t!e dyna"is" and dis&(rsivity of t!at diale&ti&) A 9(ality t!at relates evidently to its notion of t!e A'sol(te D&alled PivaE, $!i&! t!e t!ro''in essen&e of its ener y %redis%oses to a series Dli"ited in n("'erE of "anifestations) T!e eneses of finit(de and of li'eration o%erate, dyna"i&ally, 'y a %ro ressive installation and disinstallation of t!e tatt3as, 'y t!e e"anation of diversity and its rea'sor%tion) T!(s does Paivis" inter%ret 'ot! S4 5!ya and Advaita) T!e t!o( !t?(niverse of t!e Tri5a is indeed t!at of an idealis" 'ased on t!e notion of (niversal &ons&io(sness, of $!i&! "any variants e,ist, in t!e Oest as $ell) Still, t!e $ide ran e and t!e &o"%le,ity of t!e syste" "a5e it (ni9(e, inas"(&! as it develo%s, as a &o!erent tradition, over several &ent(ries, and is ra&ed 'y t!e $or5s of so"e of t!e "ost a&(te t!in5ers of t!e Indian %ast) Lyne +ansat?+o(don Saint?A('in?s(r?"er, N(ne A, 677@


Sal(tation to t!e one !avin t!e for" of (lti"ate reality, $!i&! is t!e Self, $!i&! is &ons&io(sness) No$ 'e ins t!e Paramrthasra, t!e HEssen&e of Ulti"ate RealityI,668 &o"%osed 'y t!e revered "aster, A'!inava (%ta, "ost e"inent a"on t!e reat Paiva tea&!ers666 to et!er $it! t!e &o""entary of t!e revered "aster -o ar4#a

.he #'/p' $0 paramrtha i" eK iv'#a* a" i" the 1i$a* ter/ artha, whi#h /a% (e $0er"t''0 a##'r0i$g t' a$%'$e '1 it" vari' " /ea$i$g", " #h a" 8g'a*:, 8'(Le#t:, 8tr th:, 8rea*it%:> "ee 6$tr., $. 7. 222 mhevarcr!a J *it., 8pre#ept'r i$ the *i$eage '1 2tea#her"3 0ev'te0 t' +ahePvara:.


8) To t!e One $!o, alt!o( ! not!in '(t a "ass of &ons&io(sness, 66A is yet solidified in t!e for" of t!e $orld,66; to t!e (n'orn One $!o is %rofi&ient in t!e %lay 66B of &on&ealin 66= !is o$n Self, lory to t!is S(%re"e Lord[ 6) On t!e &o"%endi("66< Paramrthasra, artf(lly66C &o"%osed 'y t!e "aster, I, -o ar4#a, "a5e t!is 'rief &o""entary, at t!e re9(est of t!e learned) #!rik!
cidghana= the i/age, / #h e7p*'ite0 i$ the aivi"/ '1 ?a"h/ir, '1 #'$"#i' "$e"" a" 8"'*i0: 'r 8#'/pa#t: (ghana) i" tra$"*ate0 here /'re 'r *e"" *itera**%, th' gh it pr'(a(*% "ee/" K ite para0'7i#a* t' the Re"ter$ rea0er, a" 8"'*i0it%: i" $'r/a**% a""'#iate0 with ph%"i#a* '(Le#t", e"pe#ia**% weight% '$e", $'t with eve$t" '1 the /i$0. F t it a*"' appear" t' (e the #a"e that aiva a th'r" were K ite aware '1 the para0'7 a" we**, a$0 ha0 g''0 rea"'$ t' "tre"" it. Gve$ i$ /'0er$ Sa$"krit, the ter/ ghana #'$ti$ e" t' (e a""'#iate0 with the gr'"", rather tha$ the " (t*e, a" 1'r i$"ta$#e 8i#e: i" #'//'$*% re1erre0 t' a" (ghan,bh)ta %alam". Severa* rati'$a*e" #a$ (e a00 #e0 1'r thi" "tra$ge /etaph'ri#a* "age, a/'$g the/ the 1a#t '1 para0'7 it"e*1, whi#h /a% "erve (a" it '1te$ 0'e" i$ B0vaita a$0 +A0h%a/ika e7p*a$ati'$") t' "h'#k the /i$0 ' t '1 it" " a* ha(it" a$0 t' prepare it 1'r " pra,/ $0a$e i$"ight". 6t /a% a*"' (e the #a"e, e"pe#ia**% 1'r ?a"h/iria$ aiva" J wh' 0' $'t 0i"/i"" the 8"'*i0: w'r*0 a" a p re*% i** "'r% phe$'/e$'$ (a" i" " a**% 0'$e (% B0vaiti$"), ( t "ee it a" a$ a#tivit% '1 the N'r0 hi/"e*1 J that, (% thi" para0'7, attri( te" $'r/a**% a""'#iate0 with the e11e#t are tra$"1erre0 t' the #a "e, e/pha"iUi$g th " the #a "e:" tr *% " ("ta$tia* rea*it%. Rhi#h " gge"t" a thir0 rati'$a*e 1'r the "age, whi#h i" "i/p*% that it i" the 'vert'$e" " gge"te0 (% the *itera* 8"'*i0it%: that are at i"" e J th " #'$"#i' "$e"" i" 8#'/pa#t:, 8 $i1'r/:, 8perva"ive:, et#. B$0 1i$a**%, i$ "tre""i$g what a/' $t" t' the /ateria*it% '1 #'$"#i' "$e"", ' r a th'r" /a% (e /aki$g a p'i$t that i" '1te$ a""'#iate0 with the 8/ateria* #a "e: (i$ Bri"t'te*ia$ ter/"), $a/e*%, that, K ` /atter, a** 1'r/ i" " pera00e0 a$0 ip"' 1a#t' e7tri$"i#. B" <hndog!a "a%", what i" 8rea*: i" the #*a%, $'t the p't 'r the 0i"h 'r the t'% 1'r/e0 '1 it. 8'tatis m'tandis, the #*a% (a" /atter) i" 8i$e7pre""i(*e: e7#ept a" 'r thr' gh 1'r/ J '$e #a$$'t e$#' $ter #*a% a" " #h, a$0 %et a** #*a% '(Le#t" are $'thi$g ( t #*a%. .ake$ t'gether, the"e i$terpretive p'""i(i*itie" pre"e$t a "tr'$g L "ti1i#ati'$ 1'r thi" appare$t*% a$'/a*' " /etaph'r. M'wever that /a% (e, the 1'r/ *a ha" pa$i9a0i# a$te#e0e$t"= #1. F4H 6; 5, 13= eva v are (!am tm $... ktsna pra%&naghana eva, a$0 F4H 66 4,12= ida mahad bh)tam $... vi%&naghana eva> a*"' +AH 5, re1erre0 t' $. 792> "ee a*"' $. 234 '$ cidnandaikaghana. 224 %aganm)rti= i$ "pite '1 the "'*i0it% i/p*ie0 (% the ter/ ghana, the "a/e cit i" "ee$ a" rasa, 1* i0it% (#1. the e7pre""i'$ (cidrasa" i$ &M 4, K 'te0 (e*'w), whi#h, whe$ 'rie$te0 t'war0 '(Le#tivit% i$ the pr'#e"" '1 bhedav!akti, 8/a$i1e"tati'$ a" 0i11ere$#e:, i" agai$ 0e"#ri(e0 i$ ter/" '1 gra0 a* "'*i0i1i#ati'$, 'r #r%"ta**iUati'$, whi#h pr'#e"" e$0" i$ pthiv,tattva. S'*i0i1i#ati'$ i" a*"' e/pha"iUe0 thr' gh ter/" " #h a" !na ('r !na, 'r pr!n) a$0 m)rti. 6$ the "e$"e '1 8i/age:, m)rti (0erive0 1r'/ the r''t m)rch, 8t' "'*i0i1%:, 8t' #'ag *ate:) "ig$i1ie" the #'ag *ati'$ '1 the e""e$tia* 1* i0it% '1 the 0ivi$it%. 6$ thi" magala, CD "ee/" t' e#h' the w'r0" '1 hi" 0ire#t g r ?9e/arALa:" a t',#'//e$tar% '$ &M 4, pp. 55,56= r,paramaiva $... cidrass!natr)peatattvabh'vanabhvatattatpramtrd!tmata!pi prathate0, 8&ara/aPiva 2...3 /a$i1e"t" 2*it., 80i"p*a%":3 hi/"e*1 ('th a" the t'ta*it% '1 pri$#ip*e", w'r*0" a$0 e$titie" a$0 a" their re"pe#tive e7perie$#er", that are '$*% a "'*i0i1ie0 1'r/ '1 the e""e$tia* 1* i0it% '1 #'$"#i' "$e"":. See a*"' ?9e/arALa:" Sp) 6 2 K 'te0 $. 226> a*"' CD a0 46. V 'te0 i$ Htpa*avai9@ava:" Sp& (A"trY 6"*A/p rkar= 6), the <icchaktisast'ti, whi#h 0eve*'p" the i/age, "e" the "a/e ter/i$'*'g%= pr!na cidrasas!ogha skratvam 'pgata0 ava!!a prabodhrke t)dite svasvabhvabhk00, 8.he "trea/ '1 the e""e$tia* 1* i0it% '1 #'$"#i' "$e"" "'*i0i1ie", a"" /i$g 2#'$#rete3 1'r/". M'wever, it re#'ver" it" 'w$ e""e$tia* $at re 2i.e., it" 1* i0it%3, a" 0'e" the /'r$i$g 0ew, whe$ the S $ '1 #'$"#i' "$e"" ri"e":. 225 kr, J a ke% ter/ '1 the 0'#tri$e.


WT!e "asterY 'ein of t!e o%inion t!at t!e &o"%letion of t!is treatise R in 5ee%in $it! t!e syste" of nond(alisti& Paivis" 6(i3d3aya(sana7 R re9(ires first t!e re"oval of t!e (n&easin flo$ of o'sta&les, s(&! as a%%re!ension,66@ fear, idleness and do('t,6A7 $!i&! arise $!en one i"a ines oneself as %ri"arily deter"ined 'y t!at &ondition $!erein t!e 'ody and t!e li5e is ta5en to 'e t!e &o niLer 6dehdipramt.t7,6A8 no$ first &onsiders !is reveren&e 6A6 to t!e S(%re"e Lord 6parame(3ara7) T!e essential "eanin of t!e entire treatise is in!erently %resent in t!is reveren&e, and it is t!ro( ! t!is reveren&e t!at is ena'led a'sor%tion 6sam3e(a7 in t!e divinity
pracchdana p'i$t" here t' a #e$tra* #'$#ept '1 the aivi"/ '1 ?a"h/ir= the tirodhnaakti, p'wer ('r e$erg%) '1 #'$#ea*/e$t '1 the N'r0, it"e*1 a rea*iUati'$ '1 hi" svtantr!aakti, hi" e$erg% '1 a("'* te 1ree0'/. !1. ?9e/arALa i$ Sp) 6 2= tato (!a cidtm bhagavn ni%aras!natr)pa %agad 'nma%%a!at,ti !'%!ate, 8.here1're, it i" per1e#t*% va*i0 t' "a% that the N'r0 wh' i" #'$"#i' "$e"" (ri$g" a(' t the e/erge$#e '1 the w'r*0 (% "'*i0i1%i$g hi" 'w$ e""e$#e:, a$0 2ivas)travimarin, 2S;3 6 2= !a paramevarea svasvtantr!aakt! bhsitasvar)pagopanr)pa! mahm!akt! svtman! kakalpe (nritt prabhti m!pramtranta sakoco (vabhsita sa eva $... bandha, (B *i/itati'$ i" /a0e t' appear (% &ara/aPiva i$ hi" 'w$ (ei$g whi#h i" p re *ike the "k%. .aki$g the 1'r/ '1 2e7perie$#e", (egi$$i$g with th'"e '13 B$APritaPiva a$0 e$0i$g with 2th'"e '13 the m!pramt, thi" *i/itati'$ i" the e11e#t '1 2&ara/aPiva:"3 e$erg% '1 mahm!, whi#h it"e*1 #'$"i"t" 21'r the N'r03 i$ the vei*i$g '1 hi" 'w$ $at re (r' ght a(' t (% hi" e$erg% '1 1ree0'/. .hat *i/itati'$ a*'$e 2...3 i" ('$0age:. 227 sakepa J #1. CD:" "%//etri# "tate/e$t i$ the #'*'ph'$ a$0 $. 1445. 228 !'kt! #' *0 (e $0er"t''0 /'re *itera**% a" 8(% /ea$" '1, (% havi$g re#' r"e t', rea"'$i$g:, i$a"/ #h a" the e7p'$e$t" '1 the aivi"/ '1 ?a"h/ir #*ai/ a rati'$a* L "ti1i#ati'$ 1'r the 0'#tri$e> "ee $. 427. M'wever, taki$g i$t' #'$"i0erati'$ the #'$te7t, we have 'pte0 1'r the tra$"*ati'$= 8art1 **%:, 8"ki**1 **%:, a" pertai$i$g /'re 0ire#t*% t' the #'/p'"iti'$ '1 a te7t> thi" i" a** the /'re L "ti1ie0, i$a"/ #h a" CD #a$ th " (e "ee$ a" a** 0i$g t' BI:" Paramrthasra a" a ("ki**1 *) rewriti$g '1 the Paramrthasra '1 40iPe9a. 229 6$ thi" #'$te7t, where the dehdipramt i" re1erre0 t', ak i" pr'(a(*% t' (e take$ i$ the "e$"e '1 vicikits, 8 $#ertai$t%: (8i$#erteUUa:, i$ I$'*i:" tra$"*ati'$ 2.4= 3093), 8apprehe$"i'$:> "ee CD a0 58 (avat.) a$0 CD a0 83, whi#h give" thi" 0e1i$iti'$= 82...3 0' (t" '##a"i'$e0 (% 2the pre"e$#e '13 #h'i#e (vikalpa)"> #1. Tantrloka 2.43 5666 198(, 1'r a ge$era* 0e"#ripti'$ '1 ak= ak vikalpam)l hi m!et svaprat!a!d iti, 8-' (t 'rigi$ate" 1r'/ /e$ta* #'$"tr #t". 6t /a% (e pa#i1ie0 (% '$e:" 'w$ 21ir/3 #'$vi#ti'$ 2viU., 8whe$ p'""e""e0 '1 i$te$"e 'r average gra#e: (t,vramadh!aaktiptavata)3:. 6$ hi" #'//e$tar%, OD K 'te" 1r'/ the Bi#ana (re1erre0 t' i$ .4 5666 197,198) a 0e1i$iti'$ '1 0' (t a" ('$0age par e7#e**e$#e= vikalpa% %a!ate ak s ak bandhar)pi, 0 bandho (n!o na hi vid!ate te ak vikalpa%m 00 vikalp!sa!'ktas!a na hi s!c chre!as, gati 0, 8.he 0' (t that ari"e" 1r'/ /e$ta* #'$"tr #t" take" the 1'r/ '1 ('$0age. .here i" $' 'ther ('$0age tha$ the 0' (t ari"i$g 1r'/ /e$ta* #'$"tr #t". .he '$e wh' i" #'$#er$e0 with e7erti'$" re" *ti$g 1r'/ /e$ta* #'$"tr #t" #a$$'t attai$ t' the highe"t g'a*:> a*"' .4 566 24= ak!%!ate glni ak! vighnabh%anam, a$0 25, whi#h K 'te" Htpa*a0eva:" 2ivastotrval, 2S43 66 28= sarvakani mrga n'mo mhevara tv iti. )'te Sa$0er"'$:" " a* tra$"*ati'$ '1 ak a" 8i$hi(iti'$: (1985= 199, a$0 $. 69> 1986= 181). See a*"' Partr,iklagh'vtti 2&.NvX3 a0 18= kevala parik,aaktakatvam atropa!ogi ak! $... ekarasatadvimartmakasamveavighnabh)tatvd, 8.he 0e"tr #ti'$ '1 the 0' (t that i" perp*e7it% i" a*'$e "e1 *, 1'r thi" 0' (t i" a$ '("ta#*e t' the a("'rpti'$ that #'$"i"t" i$ #'$"ta$t aware$e"" '1 hi/ '$*%:. Sa$0er"'$ (2007= 379) #a"t" 0' (t '$ the attri( ti'$ t' BI '1 the &.NvX, ( t '("erve" that thi" attri( ti'$ i" atte"te0 at a$ ear*% 0ate i$ the &+, pr'(a(*% 12th 'r 13th #e$t. 230 Sa$0er"'$ 2005= 91, $. 7, tra$"*ate"= 8the / *tit 0e '1 hi$0erer", $a/e*%, " #h 2"tate" '1 /i$03 a" he"itati'$, $ea"i$e"", *aUi$e"", a$0 $#ertai$t%:. 231 pramt J *it., 8age$t '1 2pre" /a(*% va*i03 #'g$iti'$ (pram):. .he tw' 1a/i*ie" '1 ter/" (a"e0 '$ the r''t" %& (%&na, et#.) a$0 m (mna, e"p. pramna, et#.) pre"e$t parti# *ar 0i11i# *tie" t' the


$!o is '(t oneIs o$n Self 6s3tmade3at7,6AA a (nifor" "ass of 'lissf(l &ons&io(sness 6cidnandai,aghan7,6A; on&e t!e &ondition of finite &o niLer 6parimitapramt.7 !as 'een over&o"e:6AB ) To $ou, the transcendent, situated beyond the abyss, beginningless, uni%ue, yet who dwell in manifold ways in the ca"erns of the heart , the foundation of all this uni"erse,6A= and who abide in all that mo"es and all that mo"es not , to $ou alone, & 'abhu, I come for refuge)6A< To $ou, $!ose for" is t!e od t!at is "y o$n Self, $!o are t!e essen&e of $!at is %resent 6sphuratt76AC in every &o niLer,6A@
tra$"*at'r. Re have te$0e0 t' pre1er 8k$'w: a$0 it" 0erivative" 1'r the 1'r/er, a$0 8#'g$iUe:, et#., 1'r the *atter J a*th' gh ('th tra$"*ati'$" are et%/'*'gi#a**% #*'"er t' Skt. %& tha$ either i" t' the 'rigi$a* "e$"e '1 m, 8t' /ea" re, 0eter/i$e:. Dather tha$ (e#'/e e/(r'i*e0 i$ the Ier/a$i# [ Nati$ate #'$"tra"t, "'/e have pre1erre0 the Ireek,(a"e0 8g$'"i": 1'r %&na, 1'r '(vi' " rea"'$" (Skt. %&ti w' *0 (e a$ e7a#t tra$"p'"it'$ '1 thi" ter/), ( t '1 #' r"e thi" t'' i", et%/'*'gi#a**%, L "t a$'ther varia$t '1 the 6G r''t ag$b. .' the e7te$t, h'wever, that the ter/" (a"e0 '$ the r''t m retai$ a$ a""'#iative $ a$#e with their 'rigi$" i$ the )ai%A%ika,Fa 00ha 0e(ate" '$ 8va*i0 /ea$" '1 #'g$iti'$:, it wa" th' ght at *ea"t per/i""i(*e t' e/p*'% here the rather /'re 8a#a0e/i#: a""'#iati'$" '1 8#'g$iUe:, re"ervi$g the "'*i0 Ier/a$i# 8k$'w: 1'r %& a$0 it" 0erivative" J wh'"e app*i#ati'$" are ('th / $0a$e a$0 e"'teri#, ( t *e"" '1te$ Ete#h$i#a*E J i$ the "e$"e '1 "ervi$g t' 0i"a/(ig ate the #'$#rete pr'(*e/" '1 the Ek$'werE e$/e"he0 i$ the tra//e*" '1 / $0a$e aware$e"". B*'$g with pramt 8#'g$iUer: / "t (e a##' $te0 a$ e$tire 1a/i*% '1 ter/" that "erve t' #hara#teriUe the pr'(*e/ati# '1 the #'$#rete k$'wer J prame!a, 8'(Le#t '1 #'g$iti'$: (1'r the )%A%a, there i" $' 8k$'w*e0ge: with' t a #'rre"p'$0i$g '(Le#t J a p'"iti'$ #'//'$ t' /'"t Erea*i"/"E)> prama, 8/ea$": '1 e"ta(*i"hi$g a #'rre#t re*ati'$ (etwee$ the pri'r tw'> a$0 pram, the 8va*i0: #'g$iti'$ th " 0erive0. 61 the"e a""'#iati'$" are t' (e th " retai$e0, the 0i"ti$#ti'$ i$ tra$"*ati'$ /a% t' that e7te$t (e L "ti1ie0. 6$ "'/e #'$te7t", h'wever, "t%*i"ti# a$0 'ther #'$"trai$t" /a% 'perate t' " gge"t a *e"" rigi0 a0here$#e t' thi" "tri#t 0i"ti$#ti'$. See &S 30,31, 39,40, 60,61 #'$#er$i$g the tw' *eve*" '1 err'r, a" "' r#e" '1 ('$0age. 232 pravaat J *it., 8hi" 2#'$"ta$t3 " (/i""i'$:. !1. ^&; 6 1 (v'*. 6= 1811.), i$ whi#h prahvat i" "%$'$%/' " with the pravaat 1' $0 here. !'//e$ti$g p'$ Htpa*a0eva:" 1ir"t w'r0"= kicid sd!a mahevaras!a ds!m $... , 8Mavi$g "'/eh'w rea*i"e0 /% #'$0iti'$ a" (ei$g +ahePvara:" "erva$t 2...3:, ^&; 6 1, 1 (v'*. 6= 18) e*a('rate" the /ea$i$g a$0 the #'$$'tati'$" '1 thi" "a* tati'$= iha paramevara prati !e!a k!avmanas tadekavia!atni!o1%anlaka prahvat s namaskras!rtha, 86$ thi" "%"te/, "a* tati'$ /ea$" the revere$#e #'$"i"ti$g i$ the 0e0i#ati'$ '1 ('0%, "pee#h a$0 /i$0 e7#* "ive*% t' Mi/: (tr. &a$0e%)> "ee Sa$0er"'$ 2005= 8911. 233 ^&; 6 1,1 (v'*. 6= 21) e7p*ai$" that the "a* tati'$ a$0 the v'w, 'r #e*e(rati'$, '1 0ivi$e vi#t'r% it i/p*ie", whether e7pre""e0 'r $'t, are i$terre*ate0= 'ddhapraka $... prakh!opkh!kramea svtmaparvabhsavia!abhva%igamia! nieotkarbhidh,!i%a!at!diabdn'vedhena parmaran,!am, 8& re Night 2i.e., #'$"#i' "$e"", 'r the N'r03 2...3 "h' *0 h'wever (e #*ear*% apprehe$0e0 (% #a**i$g t' /i$0 "'/e w'r0" *ike >%a!ati>, Ehe i" vi#t'ri' "E, whi#h "ta$0" 1'r a**, " rpa""i$g great$e"", with the i$te$ti'$ '1 (ri$gi$g it (e1're '$e:" 'w$ a" we** a" 'ther": #'$"#i' "$e"" (% /ea$" '1 i$$er vi" a*i"ati'$ a$0 it" e7ter$a* e7pre""i'$ 2thr' gh the ttera$#e '1 the "a* tati'$ it"e*13 re"pe#tive*%: (tr. &a$0e%, v'*. 666= 2, /'0i1ie0). 234 cidnandaikaghana J *it., 8/a"" #'$"i"ti$g "'*e*% '1 #'$"#i' "$e"" a$0 (*i"": (i1 the #'/p' $0 cidnanda (e $0er"t''0 a" a dvandva, a" i" ge$era**% the #a"e)> 'r 8/a"" #'$"i"ti$g "'*e*% '1 the (*i"" that i" #'$"#i' "$e"": 'r 8/a"" #'$"i"ti$g "'*e*% '1 the (*i"" '1 #'$"#i' "$e"": (i1 the #'/p' $0 (e $0er"t''0 a" a karmadhra!a 'r tatp'r'a). T'r a$ i$ve$t'r% '1 /'re,'r,*e"" eK iva*e$t e7pre""i'$" g*ea$e0 1r'/ the #'//e$tar% (cidekaghana, cidekavap's, cidekam)rti, cinm)rti, cinm)rtatva, cinr)pa, citsvar)pa, cidghana, abhinnacidghana) " gge"t", (e$eath the 0iver"it% '1 "t%*e, a$ i$"i"te$#e '$ (1) the "'*e rea*it% '1 cit J (% appr'priati$g K a*i1i#ati'$" $'r/a**% a""'#iate0 with it" E'(Le#t"E, viU., vap's, m)rti, r)pa, et#.> (2) the /ateria*it% '1 cit, a" the "'*e (a"i" '1 the vi"i(*e w'r*0. .he /e$ti'$ nanda i$ the *'$ger ver"i'$" '1 the #'/p' $0 "ee/"

'abhu, Wa%%ro%riation ofY $!ose nat(re 'e&o"es Wfor t!e as%irantY t!e (lti"ate oal 6(reyas7,6;7 $!o are as $ell Wa'sol(teY +ein 6satta7, I &o"e for refuge to -o( as "y %rote&tor in order to attain a'sor%tion in -o(M +y t!e $ord He"aI t!e a(t!or "eans: HI ta5e Wref( eY in Pa"'!(, not in so"e ot!er od o%eratin $it!in t!e real" of Ill(sion 6my7, $!o is Wt!ereforeY different fro" "e R Pa"'!(, t!e divinity $!o !as ta5en t!e for" of "y o$n Self) 6;8 T!(s t!e "aster e,&l(des any &onne&tion $it! anot!er divinity)6;6 .oreover, $!at sort of Pa'!(Z6;A

0e"ti$e0 t' a00 a E"e$"i(*eE 0i/e$"i'$ t' that $iK e$e"". B** '1 whi#h /ight (e a**ege0 t' 1av'r the i$terpretati'$ '1 the #'/p' $0 it"e*1, $'t a" a dvandva, ( t a" a karmadhra!a 'r tatp'r'a J 1'r, pre#i"e*%, cit a$0 nanda are $'t tw'> there1're ' r tra$"*ati'$= 8a $i1'r/ /a"" '1 (*i""1 * #'$"#i' "$e"":. 235 .he avataraik J *it., 80e"#e$t:, i" the prea/(*e t' the #'//e$tar% pr'per, "ervi$g t' i$tr'0 #e the ver"e, a$0 #*ari1%i$g the "eK e$#e '1 the te7t 1r'/ '$e kArikA t' the $e7t. 236 Si*( r$ tra$"*ate"= 8K i rep'"e" e$ t' te #h'"e:. 237 .he ver"e (a tri#'bh) i" $ear*% i0e$ti#a* t' 4&S 1 ('$ the tit*e a$0 a th'r"hip '1 the 1ir"t Paramrthasra, "ee 6$tr., p. 2), " ("tit ti$g parastha gahant 1'r paras! prakter, a$0 abh'm 1'r vi'm. .he e0iti'$" '1 the 4&S a00 t' thi" magala a ver"e (4&S 2= tmmb'ra' nikhilo (pi loko magno (pi ncamati nekate ca 0 car!am etan mgatikbhe bhavmb'ra' ramate maiva), t' whi#h $'thi$g i$ BI:" &S #'rre"p'$0". .he &a$0it e0iti'$ '1 the 4&S '/it" th'"e 1ir"t tw' "ta$Ua", (egi$$i$g 0ire#t*% with the *'$g $arrative 1ra/e (garbhaghaC...) that pre#e0e" the e7p'"iti'$ pr'per. .h " i" the tit*e *r!pa&c,ti L "ti1ie0= i1 the #'$#* 0i$g ver"e i" e7#epte0, the te7t 0'e" #'$"i"t '1 85 Ar%A"> "ee 6$tr., $. 16. 238 .he ter/ sph'ratt i" '$e '1 the ke% w'r0" '1 the .rika. +a%rh'1er, +'$ier,Ri**ia/" (/anskrit1 Dnglish dictionar! 2+R3), a$0 'ther a th'ritie" #'$"i0er the r''t" sph'r, sphar, a$0 sph! /'re 'r *e"" re*ate0> the vari' " "e$"e" that /a% atta#h i$0ivi0 a**% t' ea#h r''t are '1te$ #'$1' $0e0 i$ the "age '1 a**, e7te$0i$g 1r'/ 8(e e$'r/' ": t' 8e7p*'0e:. F% rea"'$ '1 the 1reK e$#% '1 their '## rre$#e" a*'$e, a$0 give$ the prep'$0era$#e '1 the $'ti'$ '1 *ight i$ thi" 0'#tri$e, the r''t" $pra1 k, $pra1, vi1, ava1 bh, bhs, sph'r, et#., appear t' (e e/p*'%e0 with' t /aL'r 0i11ere$tiati'$ '1 /ea$i$g. .h ", we have pre1erre0 t' tra$"*ate the/ i$ a /'re 'r *e"" a$'0%$e 1a"hi'$ a$0 i$0i11ere$t*% with ter/" " #h a" 8appear:, 8(e#'/e evi0e$t:, 8(e#'/e pate$t:, 8/a$i1e"t:, et#. B pa""age 1r'/ .4; ; 123 " pp'rt" thi" i$terpretati'$= #'//e$ti$g '$ bhsate d'rgha# aktir '1 the ver"e, OD "a%"= bhsate svtmaiktm!ena prathate, ( 2a$0 "', that e$erg%3 E/a$i1e"t" it"e*1, 2that i"3 it e7te$0" it"e*1 2a" ever%thi$g vi"i(*e3 i$a"/ #h a" it i" 2ever3 i0e$ti#a* with it"e*1 2viU., i$#apa(*e '1 a('*i"hi$g it" 'w$ $at re3: ("ee the e$tire pa""age, $. 872)> a*"' .4; 6; 14, where sph'#a!et i" g*'""e0 a" sktk'r!t. M'wever, t' 1 **% $0er"ta$0 the #'$$'tati'$" '1 the"e "age" wi** reK ire a #'/p*ete e7p'"iti'$ '1 the aiva 0'#tri$e, whi#h i" rather the ( "i$e"" '1 &S it"e*1. .he ter/ sph'ratt appear" i$ ^&? 6 5, 13,14, i$ the #'$te7t '1 0e1i$i$g citi J 8#'$"#i' "$e"":, 'r, a" tra$"*ate0 (% &a$0e%, 8"e$tie$#%:, 'r 8pri$#ip*e '1 #'$"#i' "$e"": (^&?, v'*. 666= 73), a ter/ that i" g*'""e0 (% the ;imarin, a" ! citi citikri! tas! prat!avamara, 8the a#t '1 #'$"#i' "$e"" whi#h ha" "e*1,re1ere$#e: (tr. &a$0e%, v'*. 666= 73). Fei$g e""e$tia**% re1*e#tive aware$e"" (prat!avamara), #'$"#i' "$e"" (citi) i" repre"e$te0 a*"' a" 8" pre/e Spee#h: (parvc), 81ree0'/: (svtantr!a) a$0 8"'vereig$t%: (aivar!a) '1 the " pre/e Se*1 (paramtman) (^&? 6 5 13)> a" the 8/a$i1e"tati'$: (sph'ratt), 8a("'* te (ei$g: (mahsatt), a$0 8heart: (hda!a) '1 the S pre/e N'r0 (^&? 6 5 14). ^&; 6 5, 14 g*'""e" agai$ mahsatt a" mahdev,, thr' gh the #itati'$ (v'*. 6= 261)= mahsatt mahdev, viva%,vanam 'c!ate. <$ the ;aiPe9ika a$0 ;ai%Akara@a #'$#ept '1 mahsatt, "ee Bppe$0i7 15, p. 339. Mere, the "e '1 the r''t sph'r i$ the "e$"e '1 8t' /a$i1e"t: i" "ig$i1i#a$t, 1'r the .rika phe$'/e$a* w'r*0 i" $either a$ i** "'r% appeara$#e (vivarta), a" B0vaiti$" h'*0, $'r a rea* tra$"1'r/ (parima), a" "tate0 (% 1'**'wer" '1 SAkh%a a$0 &AQ#arAtra, ( t the * /i$' " /a$i1e"tati'$ '1 the N'r0 ('r spanda pri$#ip*e) that i" i/p*i#it i$ ever% a#t '1 #'$"#i' "$e"" a$0 whi#h E" rge" 1'rthE peri'0i#a**% a" the i$"ight 0eter/i$i$g eve$ the p'""i(i*it%

Transcendent 6para76;; "eans Hf(llI 6p/r0a7, na"ely, Hre%lete $it! all five ener iesI: Cons&io(sness 6cit7, +liss 6nanda7, Oill 6icch7, /no$led e 612na7, and A&tion 6,riy7,6;B and $!o !as t!(s t!e nat(re of t!e Uns(r%assed) T!(s is !e Hsituated beyond the abyssI) No$, beyond the abyss6;= "eans H'eyond t!e %rin&i%le of myI 6mytatt3a7 WviL), 'eyond t!e &ate ory of a%%arently o'#e&tive e,isten&eY, 6;< ever re"ainin in !is trans&endent 6para7, or all?en&o"%assin 6p/r0a7 nat(re, t!at is, re"ainin on t!e %(re %at! 6(uddhdh3an76;C W&o"%osed of t!e five %rin&i%lesY 'e innin $it! Piva and endin $it! 3idy)

'1 aware$e"". See Sp) 6 3. 239 See &S 49 a$0 CD a0 *'#. 240 <r 8wh'"e $at re i" $" rpa""e0 (an'ttara) 1e*i#it%:. <$e /ight " "pe#t here a p*a% '$ the w'r0 re!as J a ter/ #'//'$*% "e0 (% the +Y/A"aka" i$ the "e$"e 8the g'a* par e7#e**e$#e:> that i" t' "a%, the rewar0, i$ the *arge"t "e$"e, 0erivi$g 1r'/ "tri#t per1'r/a$#e '1 the "a#ri1i#e= the /ai$te$a$#e '1 the g''0 'r0er '1 thi$g" (dharma) a$0, *ti/ate*%, the per"'$a* rewar0 theret' perti$e$t, *'$g *i1e a$0, at it" #'$#* "i'$, re"i0e$#e a/'$g the g'0". Rhere the te7t 0e#*are" $' e7p*i#it p rp'"e 0erivi$g 1r'/ the rit a*, the +Y/A"aka" p'"it thi" Ege$era*E e$0, 1'r ever% a#t "h' *0 (e $0ertake$ i$ view '1 "'/e re" *t, whatever it /a% (e. S', i$ *ater *''"e "age, re!as (e#'/e" a ter/ 1'r the 8p rp'"e '1 p rp'"e":, "'/ethi$g aki$ t' the &*at'$i# 8I''0:, h /a$ 1e*i#it% i$ it" /'"t a("tra#t 1'r/, 'r (eve$ (etter) 8heave$: J ( t ge$era**% t' (e 0i"ti$g i"he0 1r'/ the 8'ther,w'r*0*%: p rp'"e (whi#h i" $'t a$ Ee$0E), m'kti, *i(erati'$. 6$ ' r te7t, h'wever, "'/e '## rre$#e" '1 re!as appear t' re1er t' m'kti> "ee a*"' $. 150 a$0 1421. 241 abh' svtmadevatkram evaprapad!e na ca p'nar m!ntacrina kicid bhinna devam. See ^&; 6 1, 1 (v'*. 6= 29)= sabhavanti hi m!garbhdhikrio vi'viri&cd!, 8.here 0' e7i"t 20eitie"3 p'wer1 * withi$ the pa*e '1 m!, " #h a" ;i9@ , ;iriQ#a (S Frah/a), et#.:> a$0 ^&; 6 5, 13 (v'*. 6= 254,255)= E.h'"e 'perati$g withi$ the pa*e '1 m! are Frah/a, ;i9@ , 6$0ra, et#.:> #1. F4H 6 4, 10 (K 'te0 (% D a0 4&S 80), #hara#teriUi$g the pa'= atha !o (n! devatm 'pste an!o (sa' an!o (ham asm,ti, na sa veda0 !ath pa'r eva sa devnm, 8S' wh'ever w'r"hip" a$'ther 0ivi$it% (tha$ hi" "e*1) thi$ki$g that he i" '$e a$0 (brahman) a$'ther, he k$'w" $'t. Me i" *ike a$ a$i/a* t' the g'0":. 242 an!a!oga v!avacchinati= the i$0e#*i$a(*e eva i" "e0 i$ tw' 0i11ere$t "e$"e"= avadhraa, 80eter/i$ati'$:, 8a"#ertai$/e$t: (viU., 8that ver% 5:)> a$0 that '1 an!a!ogav!avaccheda, 8e7#* "i'$: (viU., 85 '$*%:), a" i" the #a"e here. !1. ^&; 6 1, 1 K 'te0 $. 241. 243 .he "%$ta7 '1 #'//e$tarie" '$ ver"i1ie0 te7t" i" re*ative*% 1ree> tw' e7egeti#a* pr'#e0 re" are 1'**'we0= the dadnva!a, 8r'0,*ike "%$ta#ti# #'$"tr #ti'$:, a$0 the khadnva!a, 8"%$ta#ti# #'$"tr #ti'$ 2/a0e #*ear3 (% 2havi$g re#' r"e t' it"3 e*e/e$t" (khaa)". Fegi$$i$g with the " (Le#t (i1 e7pre""e0), e$0i$g with the ver(a* 1'r/, the dadnva!a /eth'0 p*a#e" the i$ter/e0iar% w'r0" i$ their re"pe#tive #a"e" i$ keepi$g with the $'r/a* pr'"e 'r0er. S #h i" the "t%*e '1 +a**i$Atha:" #'//e$tarie" '$ ?A*i0A"a:" w'rk". Mere, a$0 thr' gh' t hi" #'//e$tar%, CD 1'**'w" the khanva!a "t%*e= the *'$g "e$te$#e #'$"tit ti$g the e$tire kArikA i" 1ir"t re0 #e0 t' it" #'re "e$te$#e= tvm eva abh' araa $prapad!e E sara!e, whi#h i" the$ e7p*ai$e0 i$ the 'r0er '1 it" w'r0". .he$, the e7egete e7p*ai$" the 'ther w'r0" '1 the "e$te$#e J a** here a0Le#tive" K a*i1%i$g (abh'm" J (% a"ki$g K e"ti'$" that e*i#it the K a*i1i#ati'$" a" re"p'$"e"= 8what "'rt 2'1 a(h 3?: <$e wi** 1i$0 e7#e**e$t i** "trative e7a/p*e" '1 thi" "t%*e i$ CD:" #'//e$tar% a0 98,99. )'te that the K e"ti'$= 8what "'rt 2'1 a(h 3?: (ki bh)tam) wi** (e agai$ a$"were0 i$ kArikA" 10,11, 43, a$0, eve$ /'re e*a('rate*%, i$ kArikA" 64,66. Bt the "a/e ti/e, CD:" #'//e$tar% a0here" t' the ge$era* pri$#ip*e" '1 6$0ia$ her/e$e ti#" i$ "tre""i$g the i$$er #'here$#e (sagati) '1 the te7t, a$0 i$ rai"i$g p'""i(*e '(Le#ti'$" a$0 '11eri$g "'* ti'$" (kepas!a samdhnam)> #1. Iri/a* 2000= 765,785. 244 Sa/e g*'"" i$ CD a0 43. 6$ thi" a##eptati'$, (para" appear" t' have (ee$ 0erive0 1r'/ the g'a 0egree '1 the ver(a* r''t p, 81i**: (pre"e$t= piparti), with " 11i7 1a.

And alt!o( ! !e "anifests !i"self 6sphurat7 as "arvelo(sly differentiated, $!en "anifestin vario(s states of &ons&io(sness, 6;@ !e does not deviate fro" !is trans&endent nat(re, $!i&! is all?en&o"%assin ) As it !as 'een said in t!e Spanda(stra: Even t!o( ! different Wstates of &ons&io(sness, s(&! asY $a5in , et&),6B7 t!at are not Wtr(lyY different fro" !i",6B8 %ro&eed fro" !i",6B6 !e never de%arts fro" !is o$n nat(re, $!i&! is t!at of %(re a ent of e,%erien&e 6upala$dh.7)6BA Beginningless "eans Han&ientI,6B; d(e to t!e %res("%tion of %riority 6disiddhat3a76BB Wt!at ne&essarily devolvesY fro" !is stat(s as t!e &o niLer %resent in all %ossi'le %er&e%tions as t!e %rin&i%le of e,%erien&e itself 6anu$ha3it.t7M
<$ the N'r0:" aktis, e"pe#ia**% hi" 1ive 1 $0a/e$ta* aktis, "ee &S 4, CD a0 *'#, &S 10,11, CD a0 *'#, a$0 &S 14. 246 <$ the /ea$i$g '1 gahana, "ee B&S 6(= mohndhakragahant tas!a katha bandhann moka, a$0 D a0 *'#. B##'r0i$g t' D, the a0Le#tive gahana (*it., 80e$"e:, 8i/pe$etra(*e:), a" K a*i1%i$g the $' $ bandhana, /ea$" 80i11i# *t t' 0e"tr'%: (d'r'ccheda). 6$ thi" $0er"ta$0i$g, 4&S 6( /ea$"= 8M'w i" the *i/ite0 "' * t' (e 0e*ivere0 1r'/ ('$0age, 2whi#h i"3 0i11i# *t t' era0i#ate (e#a "e '1 the 0ark$e"" that i" 0e* "i'$?: (Re 0i11er 1r'/ -a$ie*"'$:" $0er"ta$0i$g '1 the ver"e.) See a*"' .4 ;666 322a, whi#h a""'#iate" m!tattva with gaha$a= m!tattva vibh' kila gahanam ar)pa samastavila!apadam0, (m!tattva i" i$0ee0 perva"ive, i/pe$etra(*e, 1'r/*e"". 6t i" the a('0e '1 0i""'* ti'$ '1 the e$tire $iver"e:. .hi" rather #r%pti# "tate/e$t i" 1 rther e7p*ai$e0 (% OD= vibh' v!pakam ata eva gahanam0 ar)pam iti s)kmatvt0 samastavila!apadam iti s)kmea krametra vivas!vasthnt, (vibh' /ea$" Eperva"iveE, there1're Ei/pe$etra(*eE (gahana). 6t 2viU., m!tattva3 i" E1'r/*e""E, 0 e t' it" " (t*et%. 6t i" the Ea('0e '1 0i""'* ti'$ '1 the e$tire $iver"eE, 1'r the e$tire $iver"e re/ai$" there i$ a " (t*e "eK e$#e:. 6$ 'ther w'r0", "i$#e phe$'/e$a* 0iver"it% i$ it" e$tiret% (me!a) ari"e" 1r'/ the tattva $a/e0 m!, it i" #'$"i0ere0 t' a(i0e there i$ a " (t*e 1'r/. B" " #h, m!g'h i" a*"' 0e1i$e0, i$ .4 ;666 308a, a" %agad!oni, the 8w'/( '1 $iver"e:. Re wi** 0ev'te a "eparate "t 0% '$ the .rika $'ti'$ '1 a three1'*0 m!, $a/e*%, m!granthi, the 8k$'t: ('r m!bila, the 8#avit%:), m!tattva, the 8pri$#ip*e: ('r m!g'h, the 8#aver$:) a$0 m!akti, 0e"#ri(e0 i$ &S 15. !1. F4H 6; 4, 13= !as!n'vitta pratib'ddha tm 0 asmin sadeh!e gahane pravi#a 0 sa vivakt sa hi sarvas!a kart 0 tas!a loka sa ' loka eva, 8Rh'ever ha" 1' $0 a$0 ha" awake$e0 t' the "e*1 that ha" e$tere0 i$t' thi" peri*' " i$a##e""i(*e p*a#e (the ('0%) (sadeh!e gahane) 2$'te that Se$art tra$"*ate"= 8e$gage 0a$" *e" te$e(re "e" #'/p*e7ite" 0 #'rp":3, he i" the /aker '1 the $iver"e, 1'r he i" the /aker '1 a**. Mi" i" the w'r*0. 6$0ee0, he i" the w'r*0 it"e*1:, a$0 akara 2 S 3 a0 *'#= gahane viame anekaatasahasravivekavi%&napratipake viame, 8a p*a#e i$a##e""i(*e, that i" a p*a#e with h $0re0" a$0 th' "a$0" '1 '("ta#*e" t' attai$i$g e$*ighte$/e$t thr' gh 0i"#ri/i$ati'$:. 247 6$ the $'$0 a*i"t aivi"/ '1 ?a"h/ir, #reati'$ i" $'thi$g ( t the N'r0:" /a$i1e"tati'$> the tattvas are th " the #ateg'rie", 'r 8pri$#ip*e":, #'$"tit tive '1 thi" /a$i1e"tati'$> i$ "'/e #a"e" the% are (etter re$0ere0 a" 8rea*it%,*eve*": ("ee Sa$0er"'$ 2005= 104, $. 45)> '$ thi" #'$#ept a$0 it" et%/'*'g%, "ee &S 10,11 a$0 CD a0 *'#. .he 1ir"t 1ive tattva" are gr' pe0 t'gether a" the 'ddhdhvan, the p re path> the a'ddhdhvan i$#* 0e" the 'ther 31. <$ m!tattva, "ee a*"' $. 246. 248 .hi" $'ti'$ a##' $t" 1'r that i0ea*, 'r i$ter$a*, *eve* '1 /a$i1e"tati'$, whi#h ha" $'t %et /ateria*iUe0 i$t' a#t a* #reati'$. B" +i#he* M *i$ (1978= 305) "tate", at the *eve* '1 the s'ddhdhvan, 8iva 21ait3, "i *:'$ '"e 0ire, *e t' r 0e "a $at re: (8iva, "' t' "peak, take" a$ 'vera** view '1 hi" 'w$ $at re:). 249 De1*e#ti$g '$ the "tate" '1 #'$"#i' "$e"" (avasth) J waki$g (%grat), 0rea/ (svapna), 0eep "*eep (s''pti) J ha", 1r'/ the ti/e '1 the ear*ie"t pa$i9a0", the F4H a$0 !hH, (ee$ a wa% '1 0i"#'veri$g the i$$er tman, 1'r s''pti i" take$ t' (e the "tage (avasth 'r sthna) where '(Le#tivit% re"'*ve" i$t' it" "' r#e, a" it were. See F4H 66 1,15,19 (svapna a$0 s''pti), 6; 3, 9,34 (%grat, svapna a$0 s''pti), with the 1a/' " i/age (6; 3,18) '1 the tman0p'r'a #'$ti$ ' "*% wa$0eri$g thr' gh the tw' "tate" '1 waki$g a$0 "*eep, a" a great 1i"h "wi/" 1r'/ '$e (a$k '1 the river t' the 'ther> "ee a*"' F4H (66 1, 15,19, 6; 3, 9,20)> !hH 6; 3, 3> ;666 6, 1,3> ;666 10,11>


uni%ue "eans H(na&&o"%aniedI, for t!e attri'(tion to !i" of differen&e "a5es no sense, inas"(&! as !e is (niversally %resent 6sphura0t7 as t!e (nity of &ons&io(sness 6cidai,y7) T!e "aster oes on: Hwho dwell, etc)I) Even if !e is of t!is sort, yet, o(t of !is o$n freedo" 6s3tantrya7, !e !as %enetrated in manifold ways, t!at is, in "any different $ays, into the ca"erns 6guh7, t!at is, into t!e &averns t!at are t!e !earts 6h.d76B= Wof all li"ited &o niLersY, $!et!er t!ey 'e R(dras or ordinary so(ls 6,)etra12a7)6B<

?a FH 666 13> F 5 3 3, 6 a$0 5 2, 11,15> FSFh 6 1, 4 a$0 6 1, 23. 6$ a##'r0a$#e with a re# rri$g patter$ where c 1 #'/p*ete" a "erie" '1 three i$ a$ e$ /erati'$ ("ee +a*a/' 0 1989= 14011.), "'/e te7t", *ike + H 666 2 8 (K 'te0 (% D a0 4&S 70), p'"t *ate a "tate ($'t %et 0e"ig$ate0 a" the 8T' rth:, t'r,!a 'r t'r!a) tra$"#e$0i$g a** three= vidvn nmar)pd vim'kta part para p'r'a 'paiti div!am, 8Me wh' k$'w", 0e*ivere0 1r'/ $a/e a$0 1'r/, attai$" the 0ivi$e Fei$g, higher tha$ the highe"t:> "ee a*"' !hH ;66 24, 1= !atra nn!atpa!ati $... sa bh)m. 6t i" +AH 7 a$0 12 that, 1'r the 1ir"t ti/e, e7p*i#it*% a00 #e" a cat'rtha, 81' rth: "tate ('$ the +AH a$0 it" e7p'"iti'$ (% Ia apA0a, wh' *ive0 (e1're akara, "ee &S 35 a$0 CD:" g*'""). .he aivi"/ '1 ?a"h/ir a00" a 1i1th, t'r!t,ta, 8(e%'$0 the T' rth:, the 8tra$",1' rth: "tate. .h " i" 0eve*'pe0 the *'gi# '1 tra$"#e$0e$#e, i$ #'$"eK e$#e '1 whi#h the aivi"/ '1 ?a"h/ir p'"t *ate" a('ve iva hi/"e*1, &ara/aPiva> "ee CD a0 14 (a$0 $. 513), whi#h e"ta(*i"he" the #'rre"p'$0e$#e '1 t'r!a with the 8p re path: ('ddhdhvan), i.e., the t'ta*it% '1 the 1ir"t 1ive tattvas> a*"' CD a0 15 a$0 85,86. 250 B##'r0i$g t' the Sp) (Si$gh= 34), 8et#: i$#* 0e" $'t '$*% 0rea/ (svapna) a$0 0eep "*eep (s''pti), "tate" '1 #'$"#i' "$e"" #'//'$ t' a** (lokaprasiddha), ( t a*"' #'$#e$trati'$ (dhra), /e0itati'$ (dh!na) a$0 i$te$"e a("'rpti'$ (samdhi) that are pr'per t' %'gi$". Sp) 6 3 "ee/" t' e"ta(*i"h a ter/,(%,ter/ #'rre"p'$0e$#e (etwee$ waki$g [ dhra, 0rea/ 0 dh!na, a$0 0eep "*eep [ samdhi. <$ thi" p'i$t, "ee S; 6 8,10 (Si$gh= 43). 251 B##'r0i$g t' Sp) 6 3, tadabhinne /a% (e $0er"t''0 a" a het'garbhavieaa, a$ 8a0Le#tive #'$tai$i$g a$ i/p*i#it rea"'$:. .h " '$e #' *0 $0er"ta$0= 8Gve$ th' gh 0i11ere$t 2"tate" '1 #'$"#i' "$e"" " #h a"3 waki$g, et#., pr'#ee0 21r'/ hi/3, he $ever 0epart" 1r'/ hi" 'w$ $at re, whi#h i" that '1 a 2p re3 age$t '1 e7perie$#e ('palabdh), 1'r th'"e 2"tate" '1 #'$"#i' "$e""3 are $'t 2tr *%3 0i11ere$t 1r'/ hi/:. 252 <r e*"e (a##'r0i$g t' the g*'"" prasarpati E pravahati sati)= 81*'w '$:, i.e., 8g' '$ appeari$g:. M'wever, ' r tra$"*ati'$ '1 prasarpati a" 8pr'#ee0 1r'/: i" a*"' " pp'rte0 (% the Sp) whi#h e/pha"iUe" the pr'#e"" '1 /a$i1e"tati'$, e7pre""i'$ '1 the N'r0:" a("'* te 1ree0'/= anena ctid'rgha#akritvam eva bhagavato dhvanitam0 !asm% %gardivibheda ca praka!ati tatraiva ca svbhedam iti bhedtman tadabhedtmanobha!tman ca r)peparparparparaktitra!asvar)pea sph'rati, E.hi" 2a0Le#tive 8ta0a(hi$$e:3 " gge"t" that the N'r0 a##'/p*i"he" 2what i" 'therwi"e3 0i11i# *t t' #'$"tr e. 6$a"/ #h a" he 2i" the '$e wh'3 /a$i1e"t" (praka!ati) the 0i11ere$t "tate", waki$g, et#., 2he /a$i1e"t"3 hi" 'w$ *a#k '1 0i11ere$#e vi",a,vi" that 2/a$i1e"tati'$ '1 0i11ere$#e3. .h ", he /a$i1e"t" hi/"e*1 a" 0i11ere$tiate0, a" $'$, 0i11ere$tiate0 a$0 a" ('th 0i11ere$tiate0 a$0 $'$,0i11ere$tiate0 whe$ he a"" /e" the 1'r/ '1 the tria0 '1 hi" e$ergie", viU., $'$," pre/e, " pre/e, " pre/e,$'$," pre/eE. 253 Sp? 6 3. B$#ie$t #'//e$tat'r", a" we** a" /'0er$ "#h'*ar", have vari' "*% i$terprete0 thi" ver"e ("ee Si*( r$, Si$gh, -%#Uk'w"ki a0 Sp?), *arge*% 1'r the rea"'$ that the "%$ta#ti# #'$"tr #ti'$ '1 the 1ir"t he/i"ti#h /a% (e a$a*%Ue0 i$ tw' wa%", a" "h'w$ (% ?9e/arALa i$ hi" /pandanira!a. 6$ the 1ir"t i$terpretati'$, the 1ir"t he/i"ti#h i" t' (e take$ a" a *'#ative a("'* te i$ whi#h the tatp'r'a #'/p' $0 tadabhinne i" a$ a0Le#tive K a*i1%i$g %graddivibhede (pi, a$0 prasarpati i" the *'#ative '1 the pre"e$t parti#ip*e. Re have pre1erre0 t' retai$ thi" i$terpretati'$ i$ ' r tra$"*ati'$ i$a"/ #h a" ?9e/arALa a*"' "ee/" t' pre1er it ("ee the (egi$$i$g '1 the g*'""= lokaprasiddhe $.., bhede !ogaprasiddhe (pi v $... prasarpat! an!n1!ar)pepravahati sati artht tat tattva $... naiva nivartate). 6$ the "e#'$0 i$terpretati'$, tad (e#'/e" a$ a t'$'/' " pr'$' $, a$0 the " (Le#t '1 the pre"e$t i$0i#ative prasarpati. tat w' *0 the$ re1er t' the spanda pri$#ip*e, a$0 the /ea$i$g

In ot!er $ords, even t!o( ! !is nat(re is W(nitaryY &ons&io(sness, !e sit(ates !i"self as t!e variety of &o niLers, "anifestin 6$hsya7 !i"self freely 6s3ayam7 as insentient or sentient, #(st as an a&tor Wass("es vario(s rolesY)6BC T!erefore !e is Hthe foundation of all this uni"erseI)6B@ T!e foundation, t!e %la&e of re%ose 63i(rntisthn7 of all this uni"erse 6sar37 WviL), Ht!e %la&e $!ereon re%osesI, t!at is, Hon $!i&! de%endsI, all t!is (niverseY R na"ely, t!is W"anifestY $orld 61agat7, &onsistin of all &o niLers, $!et!er t!ey 'e R(dras or ordinary so(ls, and, as $ell, of all o'#e&ts of &o nition 6pramey7)6=7

w' *0 (e= 8B*th' gh that 2spanda pri$#ip*e3 1*'w" '$ (prasarpati E prasarati) 2i.e., 8a"" /e" 0iver"it%: (vaicitr!a ghti)3 i$ 0i11ere$t 2"tate" '1 #'$"#i' "$e"" " #h a"3 waki$g, et#., whi#h are $'t 2tr *%3 0i11ere$t 1r'/ it it $ever 0epart" 1r'/ it" 'w$ $at re whi#h i" that '1 a 2p re3 age$t '1 e7perie$#e: ("ee Si*( r$ Sp?= 71)> 'r e*"e, i1 '$e retai$" the a*ter$ative $0er"ta$0i$g '1 %graddivibhede (pi a" %graddivibhede (pi sati, '11ere0 (% Sp)= 8B*th' gh that 2spanda pri$#ip*e3 1*'w" '$ 2i.e., 8a"" /e" 0iver"it%:3, whe$ 0i11ere$t 2"tate" '1 #'$"#i' "$e"" " #h a"3 waki$g, et#., take p*a#e 2...3:. .he tw' i$terpretati'$" J eK a**% " pp'rte0 (% Sp) J are $'t 1 $0a/e$ta**% 0i11ere$t, e7#ept 1'r the e/pha"i" that the 1ir"t p t" '$ the a("'* te 1ree0'/ '1 the N'r0. .he kArikA /ea$" that iva, 'r the spanda pri$#ip*e, i" the #'$0iti'$ per/itti$g " #h "tate" '1 #'$"#i' "$e""> the e""e$tia* $at re '1 iva i" that '1 p re age$t '1 e7perie$#e ('palabdh), a$0 thi" per"i"t" eve$ whe$ '$e 0rea/", 'r i" i$ 0eep "*eep. 6$ 'ther w'r0", "tate" '1 e7perie$#e " #h a" waki$g, et#., /a% 0i11er phe$'/e$a**%, ( t iva, a" G7perie$#er, re/ai$" '$e a$0 the "a/e a" #'$"#i' "$e"". See Sp) 6 3= nivartate ni%n naiva svabhvd 'palabdhta= tat tattva ni%d anap!ina sarvas!tmabh)tc cn'bhavitr)pt svabhvn naiva nivartate, 8.hi" $spanda pri$#ip*e $ever 0epart" 1r'/ it" i// ta(*e $at re, whi#h #'$"i"t" i$ (ei$g the $iver"a* Se*1 a$0 the 2p re3 age$t '1 e7perie$#e: ('$ the /ea$i$g '1 'palabdh, g*'""e0 a" an'bhavit, "ee $. 337). B" '("erve0 (% Sp), thi" /etaph%"i#a* tr th ha" it" pra#ti#a* #' $terpart i$ "pirit a* pra#ti#e a$0 e7perie$#e= ata ca %gardidavasthito (p! evam imam svasvabhva pari,la!an !a cin'te sa akara evet! 'padi#a bhavati, 8.h ", thi" ver"e tea#he" that, a*th' gh hi/"e*1 the (a"i" '1 0i11ere$tiate0 "tate", " #h a" waki$g, et#., he wh' per"i"t" e""e$tia**% (cin'te) whi*e #'$te/p*ati$g hi" 'w$ $0i11ere$tiate0 $at re i" that ver% akara:. &+ a0 ++ 19 2&+ 193 K 'te" Sp? 6 3. 254 !1. F4H 6; 4, 18= te nicik!'r brahma p'ram agr!am, 8.he% have rea*i"e0 the a$#ie$t pri/'r0ia* -rahman. 255 See Htpa*a0eva:" ^&vX 6 1, 2, where the ter/ disiddha '1 the kArikA, *it., 8e"ta(*i"he0 1r'/ the (egi$$i$g:, 'r 8*'gi#a**% pri'r:, i" g*'""e0 ('th (% p)rvasiddha 81'r/er*% e"ta(*i"he0: a$0 p'ra 8a$#ie$t:. 6t /ea$" that the #'g$iUer i" pri'r t' the #'g$iti'$, that he i" it" #'$0iti'$ sine A'a non. .he " (Le#t pre#e0e" the '(Le#t, whi#h i" ( t the '(Le#t '1 hi" #'g$iti'$, a$0 a" " #h i" e"ta(*i"he0 (siddha) 1ir"t. .hi" K e"ti'$ '1 the N'r0:" disiddhatva i" 0i"# ""e0 at *e$gth i$ Sp) 6 2, whi*e a$"weri$g the F 00hi"t '(Le#ti'$ that there i" $' Se*1, $' *ti/ate*% rea* ?$'wer> that whi#h we #'$"i0er rea* i", 1'r wa$t '1 a (etter w'r0 (#1. Sp) 6 4) a #'$ti$ /, a "erie", '1 #'g$iti'$" (%&nasantna). ?9e/arALa 0e/'$"trate" that a 0e$%i$g " (Le#t i" $ee0e0 1'r 0e$%i$g the Se*1> i$ 'ther w'r0", that with' t a 0e$%i$g Se*1, there #a$$'t (e 0e$ia* '1 the Se*1, 1'r thi" 0e$ia* w' *0 (e the$ a pai$ti$g with' t a #a$va" (abhittikam etac citram). .he pr''1 '1 the rea*it% '1 the N'r0 i" pre#i"e*% hi" /a$i1e"tati'$ a" 0e$%i$g " (Le#t. .here1're the te7t #a$ #'$#* 0e= bhagavn disiddhasvaprakam)rtir ast,ti, 8.he N'r0, (ei$g *'gi#a**% pri'r (disiddha), a$0 i$ the 1'r/ '1 "e*1,* /i$'"it%, 0'e" e7i"t:. S #h arg /e$t" a" t' the *'gi#a* pri'rit% '1 the Se*1 'r #'$"#i' "$e"" are 1' $0 i$ a** the 6$0ia$ i0ea*i"/"= #1. akara:" 5padeashasr, 97= siddh tarh! tmana pramt' svatasiddhi pramanirapekata!aiva. 6$ ^&;; 6 1,2 (v'*. 6=51), BI, whi*e a$"weri$g the '(Le#ti'$ that i$ the #a"e '1 1ire i$1erre0 1r'/ "/'ke, it i" "/'ke that i" e"ta(*i"he0 1ir"t, #'$tra"t" that "'rt '1 pri'rit% with the pri'rit% '1 the Se*1, whi#h i" K a*i1ie0 a" p'ra, "i$#e there #a$$'t (e a$% '(Le#ti1i#ati'$ '1 the Se*1, the p re " (Le#t. See a*"' Sp& avat., p. 6, whi#h 0ea*" with the #'$#ept '1 disiddhatva whi*e 0e/'$"trati$g the irre1 ta(i*it% '1 the Spa$0a 0'#tri$e. .h " ^&? (6 1, 2) a11ir/" the *'gi#a* pri'rit% '1 the Se*1, i.e., the spanda= ata evevaraprat!abhi%&!m

For is it not $ell 5no$n6=8 t!at t!is (niverse, $!i&! indeed is ro(nded in t!e (niversal 5no$er 6p/r0apramt.7 WviL), t!e Lord, or &ons&io(snessY,6=6 is nevert!eless referred to in vario(s $ays, "anifestin 6pra,(amn7 itself t!ro( ! differen&e, as t!o( ! e"er in 6=A Wfro" t!e %la&id sea of (nityY, (r ed on 'y a %ressin need 6=; to arti&(late everyt!in into %airs of 5no$ers and 5no$ns 6grhyagrha,a7Z If t!is $ere not t!e &ase, t!is (niverse $o(ld not e,ist at all R for it $o(ld 'e on s(&! !y%ot!esis ot!er t!an Li !t 6pra,(7)6=B Refle&tion6== on t!e %rono(n WHallI 6sar37Y6=< ives rise to t!e 9(estion: H$!en&e e"er es t!is all 63i(3a7ZI6=C -et, for all t!at, t!e nat(re of t!e Lord is not "erely trans&endent 6samutt-r0a7M t!erefore t!e "aster says: H($ou) who abide in all that mo"es and all that mo"es
disiddhir it! 'ktam (#'rre#ti$g a /i"pri$t $disiddhar i$ -%#Uk'w"ki:" e0iti'$). 6$ ^&; 6 1, 2 (v'*. 6= 55), BI g*'""e" the ter/ disiddha with avicchinnapraka, 8'1 $i$terr pte0 *ight:, a$0 re*ate" it t' the $e7t w'r0 '1 the kArikA, mahevara, the 8"'vereig$ N'r0: J wh' i" " #h '$ a##' $t '1 hi" (ei$g $i$terr pte0 *ight, /a$i1e"ti$g hi/"e*1 there(% a" '/$i"#ie$t (%&at) a$0 '/$ip'te$t (kart). BI attri( te" the /ea$i$g 8eter$a*: ("ee &a$0e%:" tra$"*., p. 10), 'r 8eter$a**% pre"e$t:, t' disiddha J a /ea$i$g that #a$ (e retai$e0 i$ CD:" #'//e$tar%, where disiddha g*'""e" andi, 8(egi$$i$g*e"":. <$ p'ra, "ee CD a0 7> a*"' the avat. a0 47,50, whi#h re1er" t' the #'$#ept '1 disiddhat. 256 .he e7pre""i'$ a00re""e" the pr'(*e/ #'//'$ t' a** /'$i"/"= h'w #a$ '$e re#'$#i*e the '$e$e"" '1 the N'r0, the '$*% Dea*, with phe$'/e$a* 0iver"it%? .he N'r0:" i//a$e$#e #'$"i"t" i$ hi" (ei$g the #'$"#i' "$e"" '1 ea#h a$0 ever% 1i$ite (ei$g, 1r'/ the D 0ra" t' the ketra%&as. g'h, 8#aver$:, i" a 0e"ig$ati'$ '1 m!, 8p'wer '1 0i11ere$tiati'$:, 'r 80e* "i'$:. 6t i" $'t t' (e take$ a" a /ere /etaph'r> rather, it i" a te#h$i#a* ter/ that 0e"ig$ate" '$e a"pe#t 'r *eve* '1 m!, "ee$ a" three1'*0> "ee $. 246. 257 .he phra"e a""'#iati$g r'dras a$0 ketra%&as re# r" a" a /'ti1 i$ .rika te7t"> #1. CD a0 5, 6, 14, 23 a$0 S;, magalcaraa= r'draketra%&avarga sam'da!ad !ato !atra virntim cched $... caitan!a &kara ta% %a!ati, 8;i#t'r% t' thi" #'$"#i' "$e"" '1 akara 1r'/ whi#h pr'#ee0" the h'"t '1 D 0ra" a$0 ketra%&as, a$0 i$ whi#h the% #'/e t' re"t:. 6t i" a wa% '1 #*a""i1%i$g the / *tit 0e '1 #'g$iUer" (pramt) J 'r, a" "tate0 (% &S 5, '1 8e$L'%er": (bhokt) J e$0'we0 with ('0ie" ('r, /'re ge$era**%, 81'r/":), 1a# *tie" (kara) a$0 the #'rre"p'$0i$g attri( te" (g'a), i$t' a hierar#h% '1 #ateg'rie", a##'r0i$g t' the 0egree" '1 e7#e**e$#e '1 their 1a# *tie"= g'0" (D 0ra, et#., viU., Frah/a a$0 ;i9@ ), /e$ (a/'$g whi#h the %'gi$" e$L'% e7tra'r0i$ar% 1a# *tie" a$0 p'wer"), a$0 8a$i/a*":, thi" *atter #ateg'r% i$#* 0i$g "tati'$ar% (ei$g" (sthvar) " #h a" p*a$t"> "ee Bppe$0i7 1, p. 317. 258 .he a$a*'g% '1 the a#t'r i" re# rre$t i$ 6$0ia$ "pe# *ati'$, '$e '1 the (etter,k$'w$ e7a/p*e" (ei$g the 0a$"e "e ('r a#tre"") '1 the /kh!akrik. .he the'r% '1 the "eve$ " (Le#t" (saptapramt) i" i/p*i#it*% re1erre0 t' here. See CD a0 14, a$0 Sp) 6 1 K 'te0 i$ Bppe$0i7 10, p. 330. T'r the "a/e a$a*'g% '1 iva a" a$ a#t'r, "ee CD a0 5 a$0 26. 259 .he L 7tap'"iti'$ '1 the tw' epithet" sarvla!a a$0 sarvacarcarastha p'i$t" '$#e agai$ t' the "i/ *ta$e' " tra$"#e$0e$#e a$0 i//a$e$#e '1 the N'r0. .he epithet sarvla!a i" a$'ther 1'r/ *ati'$ '1 Sp? 6 2= !atra sthitam ida sarva kr!am $... , 82.he <$e, i.e., !'$"#i' "$e""3 i$ wh'/ i" "it ate0 a** thi" pr'0 #t, i.e., a** thi" w'r*0 2pr'0 #e0 (% that Bge$t wh' i" the N'r0, 'r !'$"#i' "$e"" ...3:. 260 <$ %agat, "ee, e"p., $. 465. 261 kila J "ee G/e$ea 1969= 24111. .he #'//e$tat'r wi"he", a" it were, t' 0i"ta$#e hi/"e*1 1r'/ " #h a rep'rt, with' t 0e$%i$g it. 262 !1. ^&? 6 4, 8= tan ma! d!ate d#o (!a sa it! mat! api0 grh!agrhakatbhinnv artha' bhta pramtari, 8.here1're, whe$ there i" the re1*e#tive aware$e"" Ethat i" "ee$ (% /e, that wa" "ee$ (% /eE, Ethi"E, EthatE, the tw' e*e/e$t" th' gh 0ivi0e0 i$t' per#eivi$g " (Le#t a$0 per#eive0 '(Le#t are /a$i1e"te0 withi$ the 2tr e3 #'g$iUer (pramtari)" (tr. .'re**a ^&?= 110). 263 6$ Sp? 6 2, the ter/ #'rre"p'$0i$g t' 'nmagna i" nirgata= !atra sthita ida sarva kr!a !asmc ca nirgatam.

notI, for !e is ever %resent also in t!e for" of t!is sentient and insentient (niverse, as !as 'een said: Sin&e -o( are indeed t!e &reator of All, O -o(, $!o %er"eate all, t!erefore, -o( alone are t!is All)6=@ In a&&ordan&e $it! t!is r(le, it "a5es no sense to %osit as an effe&t so"e ot!er (n"anifest 6apra,(amna7 entity t!at is not %art of t!at W"anifestin &a(seY)6<7 A&&ordin to t!e Spanda,ri,: It is t!e WLordY !i"self as t!e en#oyer $!o is, al$ays and every$!ere, esta'lis!ed in and t!ro( ! t!e o'#e&ts of en#oy"ent,6<8 it is t!e Lord !i"self $!o a%%ears 6ca,sti7, no$ one $ay, no$ anot!er)
!1. the apek '1 the gra//aria$" J the 8e7pe#tati'$: 'r 8$ee0: ar' "e0 (% '$e w'r0 1'r a$'ther i$ a tight "%$ta#ti#a* re*ati'$"hip, a" the apek '1 a$ a#tive tra$"itive ver( 1'r a$ a## "ative 0ire#t '(Le#t. 265 .hi" i" the 1ir"t "tate/e$t, i$ CD:" #'//e$tar%, '1 a /aL'r the"i" '1 the aivi"/ '1 ?a"h/ir= '$*% that e7i"t" whi#h "hi$e", i.e., that a*'$e e7i"t" whi#h i" k$'w$. .hi" 1 $0a/e$ta* pri$#ip*e wi** #'/e p agai$ i$ the 0i"# ""i'$ '1 kA. 5, 7 a$0 8, a" we** a" i$ kA. 30 a$0 it" #'//e$tar%, where it wi** (e give$ a" a 1'r/ *a, $1'rt $ate*% tr $#ate0, K 'te0 (% CD= $... npraka prakate, 82...3 .hat whi#h i" $'t * /i$' " #a$$'t /a$i1e"t it"e*1 2*it., 8i** /i$e:3:. J 'r 8the a("e$#e '1 appeara$#e 0'e" $'t appear:. !1. Sp) 6 2= iha !at ki&cit $... tad !adi na prakate na ki&cit, 8Rhatever i" here, i$ thi" w'r*0, 2...3 i1 it 0'e" $'t "hi$e 1'rth 2viU., appear3, it i" $'thi$g 2i.e., it 0'e" $'t e7i"t3:> agai$ i$ &S 49> a*"' ^&? 6 5, 3( (K 'te0 i$ Sp) 6 5)= praktm prak!o (rtho npraka ca siddh!ati 00, 8.he '(Le#t that i" /a0e /a$i1e"t 2*it., 8that i" i** /i$e0:3 ha" Night[#'$"#i' "$e"" 1'r it" e""e$#e. .hat whi#h i" $'t Night 0'e" $'t e7i"t 2*it., 8#a$$'t (e e"ta(*i"he0:3:> a*"' +%aapramtsiddhi 2B&S3 13, K 'te0 i$ Sp) 6 5 a$0 ^&; 6 1, 5 (part '1 the "e#'$0 he/i"ti#h) a$0 6 5, 3 (e$tire ver"e)= evam tman! asatkalp prakas!aiva"sant! am, 0 %a praka evsti svtmana svapartmabhi 00, 8.h'"e '(Le#t", i$"e$tie$t, are treate0 a" ('r E"ee/ t' (eE) i$e7i"te$t vi",a,vi" the Se*1> $everthe*e"", the% 0' e7i"t a" (e*'$gi$g t' Night> the Night '1 '$e:" 'w$ Se*1 a*'$e e7i"t", 2whether it #'/e"3 1r'/ the "e*ve" '1 'ther" 'r '$e:" 'w$:. .he #'$te7t i$ whi#h ^&; 6 1, 5 K 'te" thi" ver"e ("e#'$0 he/i"ti#h) /a% ai0 i$ it" $0er"ta$0i$g= paratva kevalam 'pdher dehde sa cpi vicrito !van nn!a iti viva pramttvarga paramrthata eka pramt sa eva csti0 tad 'kta praka evsti svtmana svapartmabhir iti0 tata ca bhagavn sadivo %nt,t! atahprabhti krimir api %nt,t!antam eka eva pramt, 8<ther$e"" '$*% 0erive" 1r'/ *i/iti$g #'$0iti'$" " #h a" the ('0%, a$0 the"e 2*i/iti$g #'$0iti'$" the/"e*ve"3, a" "''$ a" the% are i$ve"tigate0, 2t r$ ' t3 $'t 2t' (e3 0i11ere$t 21r'/ the $iver"a* Se*13> there1're the e$tire #r'w0 '1 k$'wer" i", i$ tr th, '$e k$'wer, a$0 thi" 2k$'wer3 a*'$e e7i"t". .hi" ha" (ee$ "ai0 2(% Htpa*a0eva3= E.he Night '1 '$e:" 'w$ Se*1 a*'$e e7i"t", 2whether it #'/e"3 1r'/ the "e*ve" '1 'ther" 'r '$e:" 'w$E. S' there i" L "t '$e k$'wer, whether e7pre""e0 a" EN'r0 Sa0APiva k$'w"E 'r eve$ a" Ethe w'r/ k$'w".E : B$ e#h' '1 that ver"e /a% (e 1' $0 i$ CD:" g*'"" a0 58. .he .rika $'ti'$ a##'r0i$g t' whi#h there i" $' 'ther rea*it% tha$ Night[#'$"#i' "$e"", a$0 the #'rre*ate0 #'$#ept '1 8re1*e#ti'$: (pratibimba) are a$ti#ipate0 i$ 6#hakopaniad 2?AH3 66 2,14, 15= tad etad iti man!ante (nirde!a parama s'kham0 katha n' tad vi%n,! kim ' bhti vibhti v00 na tatra s)r!o bhti na candratraka nem vid!'to bhnti k'to (!am agni0 tam eva bhntam an'bhti sarva tas!a bhs sarvam ida vibhti00, 8.hi" i" that a$0 th " the% re#'g$i"e the i$e11a(*e, S pre/e F*i"". M'w the$ /a% 6 #'/e t' k$'w thi"? -'e" it "hi$e ('1 it"e*1) 'r 0'e" it "hi$e (i$ re1*e#ti'$)? .he " $ "hi$e" $'t there, $'r the /''$ a$0 the "tar", the"e *ight$i$g" "hi$e $'t, where the$ #' *0 thi" 1ire (e? Gver%thi$g "hi$e" '$*% a1ter that "hi$i$g *ight. Mi" "hi$i$g i** /i$e" a** thi" w'r*0:> $'te that ?AH 66 2, 15 S + H 66 2, 10, 2vetvataropaniad 2vH3 ;6 14. 266 prat!avamara. 267 S #h re1*e#ti'$" are a$#ie$t> "ee Bppe$0i7 2, p. 318. !1. CD a0 17. 268 .he K e"ti'$ i" *ike*% i$"pire0 (% the gra//ati#a* $'ti'$ '1 the pr'$' $ (sarvanma) J a ("i$g*e) $' $ #apa(*e '1 repre"e$ti$g a / *tip*i#it% '1 'ther $' $"= 8whe$#e #'/e" thi" / *tip*i#it% t' whi#h we re1er (% a "i$g*e w'r0, the N'r0?: 6$ a "e$"e, the N'r0 i" the pr't't%pe '1 the pr'$' $.


In ot!er $ords, to $ou, $!o are s(&!, t!at is, $!o are (ns(r%assed, $!o ta5e t!e for" of t!at od $!o is t!e Self of everyt!in , and $!o, t!o( ! in essen&e t!e "arvel of s(%re"e i%seity 6parhantcamat,ra7,6<6 !ave yet ass("ed diversityM and, even "ore, to -o( $!o are s(%re"e Li !t, free fro" d(ality 6ad3aya7M to -o( $!o are, as $ell, e,tre"e, infran i'le freedo"M to -o(, O Lord Pa '!(, I come (for refuge)) I a'sor' "yself 6sam3i(mi7 in -o( alone $!o are s(&!, t!at is, $!o are "y o$n Self in t!e "arvelo(s for" of s(%re"e i%seity to 'e e,%erien&ed 'y "a5in (se of t!e adventitio(s e o 6,.timha9,r76<A Wt!at li"its t!e SelfY to t!e 'ody, et&) Oit! t!is s(""ary senten&e,6<; $!i&! tea&!es t!at t!e s(%re"e state to 'e attained is a'sor%tion in W$!at is alreadyY oneIs o$n essen&e 6s3a-s3$h37, t!e tea&!er !as stated in a''reviated for" t!e %(r%ort of t!e te,t in its entirety, via notions of $!at "(st 'e done and $!at "(st not 'e done t!at $ill 'e e,%lained in detail later)6<B #!rik!s *+,
.he "' r#e '1 the K 'tati'$ ha" $'t (ee$ 0i"#'vere0. T'r the rea"'$i$g, "ee Sp) 6 2, K 'te0 $. 265. See a*"' the *'"t #'//e$tar% '1 S'/A$a$0a '$ the Partr,ik 2&.3, K 'te0 i$ Partr,ikvivaraa 2&.;3 4 (Si$gh &.;= 32, Skt. te7t)= ki bah'n sarvam evn'ttaram an'ttaratvt, 8Rh% "a% /'re? B** 2thi" $iver"e3 i" $" rpa""e0, (e#a "e he 2the N'r03 i" $" rpa""e0:. 270 T'r i1 it were a$ e11e#t, it w' *0 ipso 9acto (e /a$i1e"t. CD pre" /e" here a Ew'r*0E that w' *0 $'t (e part '1 the N'r0, whi#h w' *0 (e $'thi$g ( t a$ Ee11e#tE "eparate0 1r'/ hi/ a$0 there1're 0ev'i0 '1 E* /i$'"it%E. F t " #h a " pp'"iti'$ #'$tra0i#t" it"e*1, 1'r h'w w' *0 " #h a Ew'r*0E /ake it"e*1 k$'w$? Si/i*ar phra"e'*'g% a$0 rea"'$i$g i$ CD a0 27= an!as!aitadv!atiriktas!a aprakar)pas!a prakamnatbhvt> a*"' i$ CD a0 5 a$0 10,11. 271 Sp? 66 4(. S; 6 14 '("erve" that thi" ver"e hi$t" at the bhedbheda "tate '1 e7perie$#e. CD K 'te" agai$ Sp? 66 4( i$ hi" g*'"" a0 74. 272 Tir"t '## rre$#e i$ thi" te7t '1 a ke% #'$#ept '1 thi" "#h''*= camatkra i" '$e '1 the $'ti'$" #'//'$ t' ?a"h/iri ae"theti#" a$0 "pe# *ati'$. .he ter/ #hara#teriUe" ('th a$ ae"theti#" (rassvda) a$0 a /%"ti#a* e7perie$#e (brahmsvda) J whi#h are 8a$a*'gi#a**% re*ate0, ( t 0i11ere$tia(*e: (Ier'w 1994= 188) J via a "hare0 a"pe#t= that '1 8w'$0er:, 8w'$0er/e$t:. 6$ the atte/pt t' $0er"ta$0 'r 0e"#ri(e a$0 $a/e thi" e7perie$#e, 'ther #'$#ept" have (ee$ 1'rge0 that e/pha"iUe it" 'ther 0i/e$"i'$", i$v'*vi$g tw' /ai$ "e/a$ti# 1ie*0"= nirvti, 8"ere$it%:, nanda, 8(*i"":, tmavirnti, 8rep'"e i$ the Se*1:, '$ the '$e ha$0, a$0 rasa, 81*av'r:, carva, 80e*e#tati'$: (*it., 8/a"ti#ati'$:), '$ the 'ther. B** the"e ter/" are #'//'$ t' ('th 1ie*0" '1 e7perie$#e, eve$ i1 the% appear t' have greater "#'pe i$ ae"theti#"> "ee BFh a0 ) ;6 31, v'*. 6= 279, whi#h L "ti1ie" " #h te#h$i#a* ter/" '$ the (a"i" '1 their #'//'$ "e= tath hi loke sakalavighnavinirm'kt savittir eva camatkranirvearasansvdanabhogasampattila!avirnt!diabdair abhidh,!ate, 8T'r, i$ 'r0i$ar% *i1e, (% the vari' " w'r0" Ew'$0er/e$tE (camatkra), Ei//er"i'$E (nirvea), Ere*i"hi$gE (rasan), Eta"ti$gE (svdana), Eper1e#t rea*iUati'$ '1 e$L'%/e$tE (bhogasampatti), Ea("'rpti'$E (la!a) 2*it., 80i""'* ti'$:3, Ere"ti$gE (virnti), et#., i" e7pre""e0 that 21'r/ '13 #'$"#i' "$e"" whi#h i" 1ree 1r'/ a$% '("ta#*e:> "ee Bppe$0i7 3, p. 320. 273 .hat i", (% i$"tr /e$ta*iUi$g the a0ve$titi' ", 8/a$i1e"t:, eg' i$ the K e"t 1'r tra$"#e$0e$#e. .he #'$#rete eg' i", a" akara '("erve", the e7i"te$tia* 1'r/ '1 the tra$"#e$0e$t a("'* te. 274 grahaakavk!a. 275 Rhat i" t' (e attai$e0 i" i0e$ti1i#ati'$ with the an'ttara, that i", with '$e:" 'w$ Se*1> what i" t' (e a(a$0'$e0 i" the ktrimhakra, the 8a0ve$titi' " eg':, that #'$"i0er" the Se*1 *i/ite0 t' the ('0%, a$0 i0e$ti1ie" with w'r0*% e7perie$#e. Si/i*ar "tate/e$t i$ DA/aka@ha:" #'//e$tar% '$ Sp?, #'//'$*% k$'w$ a" the ;ivti, EG7te$"ive G7p*a$ati'$E 2Sp;3, a*th' gh e$tit*e0 /pandas)trrthval,, the Becklace o9 8eanings $/tr'ng 5pon the Thread o9 the /panda 2a p $ '$ 8"\tra:3> "ee Sp; 6 1= v!kh!ta ca a!am diloka samastaprakararthopakepagarbha, 8.h " we have "h'w$ that thi" 1ir"t ver"e #'$tai$", i$ a $ t"he**, the /ea$i$g '1 the e$tire w'rk ('r /a$ a*):.


T!(s, t!ro( ! t!e inter"ediary of t!is verse of %raise, t!e a(t!or !as stated t!e essential %(r%ort of t!e "an(al,6<= na"ely, nond(ality) No$, "a5in e,%li&it Was is re9(ired at t!e 'e innin of a treatise of t!is sortY t!e Hdes&ent of t!e J4straI, 6<< !e e,%lains, in t!e follo$in t$o 4ry4s, its s('#e&t "atter, its relation Wto t!at s('#e&t "atter, t!at is, t!e relevan&e t!ereto of t!is $or5 and of t!e entire Paiva do&trine t!ere e,%o(ndedY, et&):6<C 6) -andering at a loss in the cycle of suffering that starts with our residence in the womb and ends with dying, a disciple in%uired of the re"ered .dh!ra concerning ultimate reality)
prakaraa J BI:" ver"e" are a*"' re1erre0 t' a" a prakaraa i$ the avat. a0 &S 105. See ;caspat!a ".v.= strasiddhntapratipdake granthabhede, ($prakaraa /ea$" a #ateg'r% '1 te7t e7p' $0i$g the e"ta(*i"he0 0'#tri$e '1 a "%"te/:, a$0, K 'ti$g ;edntasra 3, re1er" t' it a" a$ e7a/p*e '1 the te7t a* ge$re= as!a vedntaprakaraatvt $... ," 26t i" th " #a**e03 (e#a "e it ha" 1'r it" t'pi# the ;e0A$ta 2...3:. 6$ 1a#t, the pri/ar% "e$"e '1 prakaraa i" 8t'pi#: (asmin prakarae, et#.), ( t the ter/ i" e/p*'%e0, (% "%$e#0'#he, t' 0e"ig$ate a te7t that i$tr'0 #e" a t'pi#, whi#h there1're #'$"tit te" a$ 8i$tr'0 #ti'$: t' it that i" #'$"i0ere0 e*e/e$tar%> the ter/ a*"' 0e"ig$ate" '$e '1 the te$ t%pe" '1 r)paka, whi#h ha" 1'r it" " (Le#t Et'pi#a*E /atter", that i", 0'e" $'t 0ea* with 'therw'r*0*% g'0" 'r her'e". See a*"' the ;idvanmanora&%an, a0 ;edntasra 3, whi#h K 'te" Pararopap'ra 5;666 21,22= straikadeasabandha strakr!ntare sthitam0 h' prakaraa nma granthabhedo vipacita00, 8.he *ear$e0 #a** prakaraa that parti# *ar #ateg'r% '1 te7t" whi#h 0ea*" with '$e part '1 a "%"te/ 'r i" e"ta(*i"he0 i$ 2"ervi#e '1 "'/e3 'ther p rp'"e '1 the "%"te/ 2e.g., a" a /a$ a*3:. )'te that the /pandakrik i" 0e1i$e0 (% DA/aka@ha ("ee $. 275) a" (e*'$gi$g t' the "a/e #*a"" '1 te7t", that '1 prakaraa. 277 strvatra J a PA"tra i$v'*ve" tra$"/i""i'$ thr' gh a tra0iti'$, whi#h tra$"/i""i'$ /a% (e '1 1ive "'rt", whi#h Sp&, avat, p. 2 e7p' $0" i$ 0etai*= tatrm, str sabandhas tvat pa&cavidha0 paro mahn div!o div!etara itaretara ceti, 8.he re*ati'$"hip 2(etwee$ th'"e wh' revea*3 the"e PA"tra" 2a$0 their 0i"#ip*e"3 #a$ (e '1 1ive ki$0", $a/e*%, E" pre/eE, EgreatE, E0ivi$eE, Eh /a$E, 'r E/ t a*E 8. T'r 1 rther 0etai*" '$ thi" #*a""i1i#ati'$, "ee -%#Uk'w"ki Sp?= 360. 278 .he 8et#: #'ver" the tw' re/ai$i$g a"pe#t" '1 the 80e"#e$t:, $a/e*%, the aptit 0e '1 the p pi* (8i" he K a*i1ie0?:) a$0 the g'a* pre" pp'"e0 (% the tea#hi$g (8i" it p'""i(*e '1 rea*iUati'$?:). Mere i" a$ e7a/p*e '1 the /eth'0'*'g% '1 6$0ia$ her/e$e ti#", wh'"e '(Le#tive i" t' e"ta(*i"h, at the thre"h'*0 '1 the te7t t' (e #'//e$te0 p'$, the an'bandhas, that i" the 8pre*i/i$ar% #'$"i0erati'$": 'r 8reK i"ite": a" Miri%a$$a tra$"*ate" the ter/ i$ hi" e0iti'$ '1 the ;edntasra (pp. 20 a$0 45), with' t whi#h $' "t 0% '1 PA"tra "h' *0 (e $0ertake$. .he /ai$ an'bandhas are 1' r= the 0eter/i$ati'$ '1 the 0i"#ip*e:" aptit 0e (adhikra) t' "t 0% the /atter at i"" e (it #'$#er$" a" we** hi" rit a* a$0 "'#ia* K a*i1i#ati'$"), the " (Le#t (via!a), the / t a* re*ati'$ (sabandha), the e$0 t' (e attai$e0 (pra!o%ana). B" the ;edntasra e7p*ai$", sabandha /ea$" 8the re*ati'$ '1 what ha" t' (e /a0e k$'w$ J that i", i$ the ve0A$ti# "%"te/, the i0e$tit% (etwee$ brahman a$0 the i$0ivi0 a* "e*1 J t' the /ea$" '1 /aki$g it k$'w$, $a/e*%, i$ thi" #a"e, the pa$i9a0", whi#h are the 2right3 pr'p' $0er: (sabandhas t' tadaik!aprame!as!a tatpratipdakopaniatpramas!a ca). Mere, &S 2,3 pre"e$t the "a/e 1' r an'bandhas, $a/e*%, the 0e"#ripti'$ '1 the adhikrin (8Ra$0eri$g at a *'"" i$ the #%#*e '1 " 11eri$g that "tart" with ' r re"i0e$#e i$ the w'/( a$0 e$0" with 0%i$g, a 0i"#ip*e i$K ire0 '1 the revere0 40hAra #'$#er$i$g *ti/ate rea*it%:)> the " (Le#t, /atter (via!a, 'r abhidhe!a), $a/e*%, 8 *ti/ate rea*it%:> the re*ati'$"hip (sabandha) the treati"e (ear" t' it" " (Le#t, $a/e*%, that '1 e7p' $0er (pratipdaka) t' e7p' $0e0 (pratipd!a), i$ keepi$g with the aiva $'$0 a*i"ti# 0'#tri$e> the '(Le#tive (pra!o%ana) '1 the treati"e, $a/e*%, attai$i$g the rea*iUati'$ '1 the i0e$tit% '1 iva a$0 pa', # */i$ati$g i$ *i(erati'$ 1r'/ the 8#%#*e '1 " 11eri$g":. B" '("erve0 (% CD, &S 2,3 ha" re#' r"e t' a 1i1th an'bandha= the abhidhna 'r tit*e, $a/e*%, Paramrthasra J hi$te0 at i$ the tw' Ar%A" (% paramrtham (kA. 2) a$0 tatsram (kA. 3). DA/aka@ha:" #'//e$tar% '$ Sp? 6 1 i" a re/arka(*e e7a/p*e '1 the app*i#ati'$ '1 the"e her/e$e ti#a* r *e"> " #h i" the #a"e with the Sp&, avat., p. 2,3, re"pe#tive*%= vc!o (rtha0 vcaka stram0 spandbhidho (rtho (tra vc!a0 tadvcakatvd 'pacrc chstras!p!


A) The Teacher replied to him by (reciting) the dhra ri )6<@ (/ow) Abhina"agupta expounds the essence of that (instruction) , from the point of "iew of the 'ai"a teachings)6C7 A &ertain Wst(dentY, !avin &(ltivated dis%assion6C8 t!ro( ! t!e ra&e 6prasd7 of t!e Lord, and !avin $it!dra$n !is "ind fro" t!e $orld of trans"i ration, 6C6 &a"e to realiLe t!at !e needed to 'e instr(&ted 'y a tea&!er) *avin %ro%itiated %ro%erly 6CA the re"ered .dh!ra, $!o $as for !i" t!e tr(e tea&!er 6sadguru7, na"ely, t!e sa e &alled also PeSa, !e in9(ired of !i" &on&ernin t!e nat(re of (lti"ate reality Wand $!et!er it $as attaina'leY t!ro( ! instr(&tion) T!ere(%on, &onsiderin , in order, Wt!e dis&i%leIsY entitle"ent, !is "at(rity, and !is deter"ination,6C; and !avin t!(s #(d ed him, t!e dis&i%le, to 'e endo$ed $it! a re&e%tive !eart,6CB t!at very Anantan4t!a, $ise in tea&!in all t!e do&trines $it!o(t e,&e%tion,6C= i"%arted instr(&tion, sayin : HW/no$led e ofY t!e trans&endental $rahman 6para$rahman7,6C< "ay 'e attained t!ro( ! t!e te,t entitled
etatsam%&0, 8.he 0e$'te0 2" (Le#t3 i" 2" pre/e3 rea*it%> the 0e$'tat'r i" the stra. .he rea*it% 0e$'te0 here i" #a**e0 spanda, a$0, (% e7te$"i'$ ('pacrt), i$"'1ar a" it 0e$'te" it, spanda i" a*"' the $a/e '1 the PA"tra:> a$0 (p. 6)= 'p!ope!apratipdanam eva stras!a pra!o%anam0 ! tadavabodhd 'pe!asvar)ppata sthir tad eva pra!o%anapra!o%anam iti, 8.he p rp'"e (pra!o%an) '1 the treati"e i" t' e7p*ai$ the /ea$" a$0 g'a* 2'1 "pirit a* rea*iUati'$3. .he p rp'"e '1 the p rp'"e i" t' a#hieve a per/a$e$t rea*iUati'$ '1 '$e:" 'w$ $at re, whi#h i" the 2" pre/e3 g'a* attai$e0 (% a$ e$*ighte$e0 i$"ight 2i$t' the /ea$" a$0 g'a*3: (tr. -%#Uk'w"ki 1994= 142). 279 <$ the a th'r"hip '1 the 1ir"t Paramrthasra a$0 it" 0i11ere$t tit*e", a" we** a" '$ the re*ati'$"hip (etwee$ the tw' Paramrthasra, "ee 6$tr., p. 211. 280 ?ArikA" 2 a$0 3 are i$ the r! /eter, a" i" the re"t '1 the te7t, with the e7#epti'$ '1 the 1ir"t ver"e, whi#h i" a tri#'bh. BI:" &S 2,3 #'rre"p'$0 t' a *'$ger $arrative i$ 4&S 3,9 ('/itte0 i$ the e0iti'$ '1 the 2abdakalpadr'ma, pr'(a(*% (e#a "e it 0'e" $'t 0ire#t*% re*% '$ the #a$'$i#a* e7p'"iti'$ '1 the ;e0A$ta that i" e7pe#te0). Fe"i0e", it "h' *0 (e $'te0 that &S 2a (garbhdhivsap)rvakamarantakad'hkhacakravibhrnta) e#h'e" ('th 4&S 3a (garbhaghavsasabhava%anma%armaraavipra!ogbdha') a$0 54( (%anma%armaraama!e cakra iva bhrm!ate %ant'). 281 vairg!a. !1. .4 5666 98= vairg!a bhogavairas!a, (vairg!a i" 0i"g "t with 2re"pe#t t'3 '(Le#t" '1 e$L'%/e$t: a$0 .4; 5666 100= vairg!a nma bhogebh!o vaim'kh!am 'c!ate iti, 8rep g$a$#e 21e*t3 t'war0 '(Le#t" '1 e$L'%/e$t i" #a**e0 vairg!a". 282 !1. 4&S 4(= sasrravataraaprana pcchm! aha bhagavan, 8.hee, < N'r0, 6 a"k the K e"ti'$ '1 h'w t' #r'"" the '#ea$ '1 tra$"/igrati'$:. 283 B&S 3 "h'w" the p pi* 8/aki$g '(ei"a$#e with hi" ha$0": (pr&%ali) a$0 e *'giUi$g the g r (kA. 4). 284 pari,lana. 285 vigalitntakaraa. <r 8wh'"e heart ha" (ee$ e/ptie0 2'1 it" #are"3:. B pr'(a(*e e7p*a$ati'$ '1 thi" e7pre""i'$ i" give$ 1 rther i$ CD a0 2,3= 8wh'"e heart i" pier#e0 with (viddhahda!a) the e$erg% '1 the S pre/e N'r0:" 1av'r (an'grahaakti)", "ee a*"' CD a0 103= vivekrdrahda!ai, 8(% th'"e wh'"e heart" are "'1te$e0 (% 0i"#ri/i$ati'$ 2that i", wh'"e /i$0" have (ee$ re$0ere0 " "#epti(*e t' thi" 0'#tri$e (% their p'wer" '1 i$"ight3:. 286 )'te the p $= the '$e wh' i" e9a (8re/ai$0er:) k$'w" a** (niea, 8with' t a$% re/$a$t:) the 0'#tri$e". 287 .hi" 8K a*i1i#ati'$:, i$ #'$"ta$t "age, "h' *0 (e take$ /'re 'r *e"" h%per('*i#a**%= it i" $'t there(% " gge"te0 that 8'ther: brahman(s) '1 *'wer K a*it% are t' (e $'ti#e0. Dather the #'/p' $0 i" $0er"t''0 /'re 'r *e"" a" a$ app'"iti'$a* karmadhra!a J the brahman that i" the *ti/ate, 'r the tra$"#e$0e$ta* brahman. 6t i" 1'r thi" rea"'$ that we have ge$era**% av'i0e0 the tra$"*ati'$ 8" pre/e: J " gge"ti$g K a"i,p'*iti#a* 0'/i$a$#e J i$ pre1ere$#e t' 8 *ti/ate:, 'r 8tra$"#e$0e$ta*:, whi#h *''k" '$*% t' the *i/it (e%'$0 whi#h there i" $'thi$g. .he "a/e pri$#ip*e ha" (ee$ app*ie0 t' the tra$"*ati'$ '1 parapramt.

Paramrthasra, also &alled t!e 01erses of .dh!ra0 6'dhra,ri,7, via t!e dis&ri"ination of puru)a fro" pra,.ti, a&&ordin to t!e %rin&i%les of t!e S4 5!ya syste"I)6CC T!e teacher WviL), A'!inava (%taY, "otivated 'y t!e need to s!o$ favor 6anugraha7 to ot!ers, Wno$Y e,%o(nds t!e essence of it, #(st as one e,tra&ts '(tter fro" &(rdsM6C@ t!at is, !e e,%o(nds t!e essen&e of tea&!in s on (lti"ate reality in 5ee%in $it! t!e Paiva %rin&i%le of (lti"ate Wor trans&endentY nond(ality 6paramd3aya7, in order to s!o$ favor to all &reat(res) It is !e $!o realiLed t!at t!e tea&!in s &on&ernin $rahman are s(%%lied $it! irref(ta'le ar ("ents $!en e,%o(nded fro" t!e %oint of vie$ of Wt!e notion ofY oneIs o$n freedo", in t!e for" of (lti"ate nond(ality) W+y !is very na"e,Y $!i&!, even as a se9(en&e of sylla'les, is a(s%i&io(s, t!at tea&!er "ay 'e said to 'e hidden 6gupt7M and is !i"self a se&ret 6guhya7, t!at is, !e is %ossessed of se&ret W$isdo"Y 6sarahasya7, d(e to W!is e,%erien&in Y the e"er new 6a$hina3a7, s(%ra"(ndane,6@7 s(dden '(rst 6sphra7 of t!e state of $onder 6camat,ra7 t!at is &ons&io(sness)6@8 T!(s !ave 'een e,%o(nded t!e o'#e&tive of t!e te,t, its title, s('#e&t "atter, and t!e "(t(al relation Wof t!e s('#e&t "atter to t!e "eans of "a5in it 5no$nY, et&), 6@6 '(t t!ey are not ela'orated !ere for fear of "a5in t!e te,t overly %roli,) No$ !o$ is t!e dis&i%le des&ri'edZ T!e "aster re%lies: HW-andering at a loss in the cycle of suffering that starts with ourY residence in the wombI) -andering, t!at is, at a loss, in the cycle 6ca,ra7 that consists of suffering and ends with dying R a H&y&leI so?&alled 'e&a(se it is li5e a $!eel 6ca,ram i3a7,6@A

CD '11er" here a " //ar% '1 what i" at "take i$ the 0i"#ip*e:" K er%, a1ter the /a$$er '1 BI, wh' give" i$ tw' kArikA" (2,3) the e""e$tia* /ea$i$g '1 the i$tr'0 #t'r% pa""age '1 40iPe9a:" &S= (kA. 3,7= 82...3 e7p*ai$ t' /e prakti a$0 p'r'a:), t' whi#h the g r re"p'$0" (kA. 8,9)= 86 "ha** pr'p' $0 thi" EG""e$#e '1 H*ti/ate Dea*it%E, a1ter /aki$g '(ei"a$#e t' that Hpe$0ra 2;i9@ 3, (% wh'/ thi" $rea* w'r*0 wa" /a0e 1r'/ prakti a" "'/ethi$g "ee/i$g*% rea* (sat!am iva):. !1. a*"' 4&S 70a= eva prakrti p'r'a vi%&!a $... , 8.h " havi$g re#'g$iUe0 prakti a$0 p'r'a a" 0i"ti$#t 2...3:> a$0 4&S 75= b'ddhv vibhakt prakti p'r'a $... , 8Rhe$ the p'r'a ha" $0er"t''0 prakti a" 0i11ere$t 21r'/ hi/"e*1 ...3:. 289 .he a$a*'g% i" a varia$t '1 the t'p'" a##'r0i$g t' whi#h the g''"e (hasa) i" "ai0 t' (e #apa(*e '1 "eparati$g the /i*k 1r'/ a /i7t re '1 /i*k a$0 water> #1. .4 6; 134,136, e"pe#ia**% .4 6; 136(= tatp'na pibati pr,t! haso (ha sa iti sph'ran00, 8.he re"p*e$0e$t g''"e 0ri$k" a** that agai$ 2viU., he rea("'r(" the $iver"e3 with p*ea" re 2OD= pr,ti nanda svtantri!a3, "a%i$g t' hi/"e*1= E (ha sa, viU., 6 a/ that.E: .he " (Le#t, '$#e aware '1 hi" i0e$tit% with the $iver"e, (e#'/e" the " pre/e " (Le#t J the hasa "ervi$g a" a$ i/age '1 the %,vanm'kta. .4; a0 *'#. g*'""e" aha sa a"= aha parapramtr)po (pi savivasphra savivasphro (pi v aham eva0 iti aktrimea stisamhrakri svabhvabh)tena vimarena stat!ena pravttatvd avicchinnata! prasph'ran, 8.he E6E, th' gh the tra$"#e$0e$ta* #'g$iUer, ( r"t" 1'rth i$ the 1'r/ '1 the $iver"e, 'r, th' gh ( r"ti$g 1'rth i$ the 1'r/ '1 the $iver"e, i" the E6E a*'$e> re"p*e$0e$t, $0ivi0e0 2*it., 8i$ it" *a#k '1 i$ter$a* 0i11ere$tiati'$:3, 0 e t' it" #'$"ta$t a#tiviUati'$ thr' gh 2viU., rea*iUe0 i$ the 1'r/ '13 re1*e#tive aware$e"", it" ver% e""e$#e J re1*e#tive aware$e"" 2that i", the #'rre"p'$0i$g a#tiviUati'$3 that i" the $'$,a0ve$titi' " #a "e '1 #reati'$ a$0 rea("'rpti'$:> a*"' .4; a0 *'#= hasa $... parapramt> p'na s#!d!'ttaraklam. 290 ala'kika. 291 ) /er' " are the e"'teri# et%/'*'gie" '1 the $a/e B(hi$avag pta, "'/e give$ i$ hi" 'w$ w'rk", "'/e i$ their #'//e$tarie". See &S 104 a$0 it" g*'"". 292 See $. 278. 293 !1. 4&S 54(= %anma%armaraama!e cakra iva bhrm!ate %ant'.


$!ose Wrevol(tions are t!eY e,isten&es6@; s!a%ed 'y s(&&essive a%%earan&es and disa%%earan&es Wof t!e dis&i%le, viL), !is 'irt!s and deat!sY) One "ay see as its felly t!e si, H"odifi&ations of 'e&o"in I 6@B W$!i&! any li"ited so(l (nder oes $!en %assin Y t!ro( ! t!e variety of states &onse9(ent (%on residen&e in t!e $o"', na"ely, 'irt!, e,isten&e, ro$t!, &!an e, de&ay and deat!)6@= +y t!is des&ri%tion is s( ested t!at t!e dis&i%leIs a$a5enin is 'e&o"in evident, $!i&! i"%lies re"e"'ran&e of !is %revio(s 'irt!s) 6@< Ot!er$ise, !o$ &an t!e &(riosity t!at %ro"%ts !i" to %(rs(e a&9(isition of t!e s(%re"e 'enefit 'e e,%lainedZ6@C And Wit is also !ere s( ested t!atY !e is a $ort!y re&e%ta&le for t!e tea&!erIs instr(&tion in $!o" dis%assion !as develo%ed, $!ose !eart is %ier&ed 'y t!e ener y of t!e S(%re"e LordIs favor 6anugraha(a,ti7, and 'y $!o" &orre&t 5no$led e 6samyag12n7 !as 'een a&9(iredM t!(s, it is s(&! a one alone $!o desires 5no$led e of (lti"ate nond(ality, !avin a%%roa&!ed a s(ita'le tea&!er, an in&arnation of t!e S(%re"e Lord) And t!is !as already 'een said else$!ere: O Goddess, !e is led to$ard t!e tr(e tea&!er 'y t!e LordIs ra&e)6@@ T!is $ill 'e stated later in t!is treatise) #!rik! 2 T!e "aster !as t!(s esta'lis!ed a 'asis Wfor t!e te,tY 'y We,%o(ndin Y t!e %ro&ess of its ori in) No$, !e starts t!e te,t W%ro%erY 'y statin , as re ards t!is $orld, "arvelo(s $it! t!e diversity of everyt!in in it, t!at it is t!e s(%re"e freedo" of t!e S(%re"e
sasaraa. bhvavikra J De$' (FSFh= 12) tra$"*ate" bhvavikra a" 8/'0i1i#ati'$" 0 0eve$ir: (8/'0i1i#ati'$" '1 (e#'/i$g:, Sar p Bir'kta), wherea" .hi(a t (;edntas)tra= 16) re$0er" it a" 81'r/" '1 e7i"te$#e: 'r 8"tage" '1 e7i"te$#e:. De$' (FSFh= 12, $. 7) a00" that, a##'r0i$g t' ;Ar9%A%a@i ('$ Bir'kta 6 2), the the'r% '1 the "i7 bhvavikras i" give$ i$ 'r0er t' 0e1e$0 the the"i" that the ver( ha" a" it" 1 $0a/e$ta* i0ea 8t' (e#'/e:, wherea" the $' $ ha" 1'r it" 1 $0a/e$ta* i0ea 8t' (e (" #h a$0 " #h): 28Ne ver(e a p' r $'ti'$ 1'$0a/e$ta*e *e 0eve$ir (*e $'/ a%a$t p' r $'ti'$ 1'$0a/e$ta*e *:etre):3. +'re'ver, a" 0'e" CD here, the Bir'kta e7pre""e" th'"e 8/'0i1i#ati'$": a" ver(a* 1'r/", with a "*ight a*terati'$ i$ the 'r0er '1 e$ /erati'$. See a*"' ;k!apad,!a 2;&3 6 3 a$0 666 3311.> a0 FhI 2FhIFh3 66 20 (ver"e K 'te0 i$ CD a0 7)> "ee D egg 1959= 24,25, '$ the 0i11i# *t% rai"e0 (% the i$#* "i'$ '1 asti, 8t' (e:, i$ the *i"t '1 /'0i1i#ati'$" '1 a#ti'$. 296 4&S 3a e$ /erate" 1' r '1 the"e bhvavikra" a" #'$"eK e$t p'$ 0we**i$g i$ the w'/( (garbhaghavsa)= sabhava, %anman, %ar, maraa> 4&S 54, three= %anman, %ar, maraa. 297 Ma0 he $'t re/e/(ere0 hi" previ' " (irth", he w' *0 $'t have (ee$ aware '1 thi" $e$0i$g #%#*e, whi#h he #a$ $' *'$ger (ear. 6t i" thi" aware$e"" that "erve" a" hi" awake$i$g, a$0 pr'/pt" the e$K ir% a00re""e0 t' hi" g r . 298 Nit., 8h'w #a$ the # ri'"it% 2that pr'/pt" hi/3 t' p'"e K e"ti'$" a" t' a#K i"iti'$ '1 the " pre/e (e$e1it 2...3:. 299 .he e7a#t "' r#e '1 thi" K 'tati'$ ha" $'t (ee$ 1' $0. !'/pare, h'wever, .4 5666 249(= r'draaktisamvi#o n,!ate sadg'r' prati00, a$0 .4; 5666 248(,249a, whi#h K 'te"= r'draaktisamvi#a sa iveccha!0 bh'ktim'ktiprasiddh!artha n,!ate sadg'r' prati00, a te7t ver% "i/i*ar t' .4 6; 35= r,p)rvastre tenokta sa !i!s' iveccha!0 bh'ktim'ktiprasiddh!artha n,!ate sadg'r' prati, 86t i" "ai0 i$ the B$#ie$t .reati"e 2viU., the 8lin,vi%a!ottaratantra3= EMe wh', tha$k" t' Siva:" wi**, wi"he" t' g' t' the tr e tea#her, i" *e0 t' hi/ "' that he /a% '(tai$ e$L'%/e$t a$0 *i(erati'$.E: .he K e"ti'$ '1 the i$te$"it% '1 aktipta wi** (e take$ p i$ kA. 9 (a$0 CD a0 *'#), CD a0 18, kA. 96,97 (a$0 CD a0 *'#). .he ?S.S i$#* 0e" a "e#'$0 *i$e '1 K 'tati'$ whi#h we have #h'"e$ t' '/it= "ee ' r 8Ni"t '1 varia$t": i$ 8<$ the Sa$"krit te7t:.
294 295


Lord alone t!at &onstit(tes t!e so(r&e of a en&y 6,art.t37,A77 W"ade "anifest inY &on#oinin or dis#oinin Wt!e !ost of !is ener ies, 'rin in a'o(t, on t!e one !and, t!e dissol(tion, on t!e ot!er, t!e &reation of t!e (niverseYA78 R t!(s "a5in 5no$n t!at t!is (niverse is not!in '(t t!e 'losso"in of !is ener ies 6(a,ti3i,sa7 t!ro( ! t!e inter"ediary of t!e fo(r W&on&entri&Y s%!eres 6a0a7:A76 2) 3isplaying the glorious superabundanceA7A of his own energies, the 4ord has brought forth this tetrad of spheres)A7; As di"ided one from another, they are named Energy, Illusion, /ature and Earth)A7B By the 4ord R Lord .a!eJvara, $!o is free Wfro" any &onstraintY, a (nifor" "ass of 'lissf(l &ons&io(sness R
)'te the 0i11ere$#e (etwee$ kart a$0 het' J 0' (t*e"" (a"e0 '$ the "age '1 the gra//aria$" (#1. &. 6 4, 54,55), wh', a/'$g 'ther thi$g", th " 0i"ti$g i"h the 8age$t: '1 the #a "ative ver( 1r'/ the 8age$t: '1 it" e/(e00e0 (a"e ver(. 301 Re have i$terprete0 sa!o%ana a$0 vi!o%ana a" the #'$L $#ti'$ a$0 the 0i"L $#ti'$ '1 the N'r0:" aktis, taki$g i$t' #'$"i0erati'$ the *i$e" '1 the avat. a" we** a" the kArikA it"e*1. +'re'ver, thi" i$terpretati'$ i" " pp'rte0 (% ?9e/arALa:" #'//e$tar% '$ Sp? 6 1 (p. 6)= !as!onmeanimebh! %agata prala!oda!a'0 ta akticakravibhavaprabhava akara st'ma00, 8Re *a 0 that akara (% the 'pe$i$g a$0 "h tti$g '1 wh'"e e%e,*i0" the w'r*0 appear" a$0 0i""'*ve", a$0 wh' i" the "' r#e '1 the g*'ri' " 0i"p*a% '1 the Rhee* '1 e$ergie" (akticakravibhava)". B" 0'e" here the avat., Sp) 6 1 e7p*ai$" akticakravibhava i$ ter/" '1 the sa!o%ana a$0 vi!o%ana '1 the N'r0:" aktis= tas!a akticakras!bhsaparamrthas!a vivas!a !o vibhava parasparasa!o%anvi!o%anvaicitr!am anantaprakra tas!a prabhava kraam0 sa eva hi bhagavn vi%&nadehtmakn svtmaiktm!ena sthitn vivn bhsn an!on!a nnvaicitr!ea sa!o%a!an vi!o%a!a ca vivoda!aprala!ahet'0, 8 EI*'ri' " 0i"p*a%E (vibhava) /ea$" the i$1i$ite variet% '1 the #'$L $#ti'$ a$0 0i"L $#ti'$ '1 the N'r0:" e$ergie" vi",a, vi" ea#h 'ther, whi#h th " appear a" a whee* 2*it., 8the #'$L $#ti'$ a$0 0i"L $#ti'$ with ea#h 'ther '1 the Rhee* '1 e$ergie":3> a Rhee* '1 e$ergie" wh'"e *ti/ate /ea$i$g i" the /a$i1e"tati'$, viU., the $iver"e. 2.he N'r03 i" the "' r#e (prabhav) 2'1 thi" g*'ri' " 0i"p*a%3, it" #a "e. .h ", the N'r0 / t a**% L'i$" a$0 0i"L'i$", i$ a$ i$1i$it% '1 wa%", a** '(Le#tive phe$'/e$a (bhsa) 2*it., 8appeara$#e":, 8/a$i1e"tati'$":3, whi#h are 2i$ rea*it%3 '1 the $at re '1 #'$"#i' "$e"" a$0 e7i"t withi$ hi/ a" i0e$ti#a* with hi/ 21'r the% are $'thi$g ( t hi" aktis3. Me i" 2i$ that wa%3 the #a "e '1 the /a$i1e"tati'$ a$0 0i""'* ti'$ '1 the $iver"e:. B##'r0i$g t' thi" i$terpretati'$, the #'$L $#ti'$, 'r 1 "i'$, '1 the N'r0:" e$ergie" J '1 phe$'/e$a J a/' $t" t' the 0i""'* ti'$ '1 the w'r*0, wherea" their 0i"L $#ti'$, 'r 0i11 "i'$, a/' $t" t' the #reati'$ '1 the w'r*0 i$ a** it" w'$0er1 * 0iver"it%. S #h i" a*"' the e7p*a$ati'$ '1 DA/aka@ha= a##'r0i$g t' the Sp; (p. 3) '$ the "a/e Sp? 6 1, the /a$i1e"tati'$ ('da!a) a$0 the rea("'rpti'$ (prala!a) '1 the w'r*0 take p*a#e, re"pe#tive*%, thr' gh the e7te$"i'$ (prasara) a$0 the rea("'rpti'$ (prala!a) '1 the N'r0:" e$ergie". 6$ keepi$g with '$e '1 the tra0iti'$a* e7ege"e" '1 Sp? 6 1, DA/aka@ha 0e/'$"trate" that the /e/(er" '1 the tw' #'/p' $0" 'nmeanimebh!m a$0 prala!oda!a' are 'rga$iUe0 a" a #hia"/ ", with 'nmea re*ate0 t' 'da!a a$0 nimea t' prala!a= !as!onmeanimebh! aktiprasaraprala!bh! %agato vivas!a prala!oda!a' vinaprd'r bhva'0 atra !athsamkh!a na vivakitam iti vak!ma, 8.he rea("'rpti'$ a$0 the /a$i1e"tati'$, that i", the e$0 a$0 the ge$erati'$, '1 the w'r*0 take p*a#e thr' gh the 'pe$i$g a$0 "h tti$g '1 hi" e%e,*i0", i.e., (% the e7pa$"i'$ a$0 rea("'rpti'$ (Cprasaraprala!a) '1 hi" e$ergie". .he /ea$i$g i$te$0e0 here i$v'*ve" a rever"a* i$ the 'r0er '1 w'r0":. )'te that the ter/ !athsakh!am 0e"ig$ate" a pri$#ip*e '1 'r0eri$g tw' para**e* *i"t" i$ " #h a wa% that the ter/" '1 the "e#'$0 *i"t /i/i# i$ 'r0er th'"e i$ the 1ir"t= BF!- a(#0 ("ee &. 6 3, 10). DA/aka@ha, here, '("erve" that thi" pri$#ip*e i" $'t '("erve0 i$ the pre"e$t #a"e. +'re'ver, CD #'//e$ti$g p'$ ni%aaktivaibhavabhart "e" the "a/e ter/i$'*'g%, vaibhava e7p*ai$e0 a" vicitra prasara. <$ the Rhee* '1 e$ergie" wh'"e #ir# /1ere$#e i" the $iver"e a$0 the h ( the 0ivi$e Meart, "ee ?9e/arALa (/pandasadoha 2SpS3 a0 Sp? 6 1), a$0 BI:" 7ehasthadevatcakrastotra, a*'$g with it" e7te$"ive #'//e$tar% (% Si*( r$ (pp. 89,97). See a*"' &S 65 a$0 CD a0 *'#.


this tetrad of spheres, &onsistin of t!e a re ate of WallY entities 63astupi0a7, is so &alled inas"(&! as it &oversA7= t!e (niverse as does a s!eat! 6,o(a7) As !as 'een said: W)))Y t!e a re ate of entities is &alled an He I 6a07)A7< WT!is tetradY has been brought forth, t!at is, !as 'een "ade "anifest, or rat!er "ade effe&tive, 'y W!is o$n freeY a en&y of 'e&o"in 6$ha3ana,art.ta7)A7C *o$Z T!e "aster says: HBy display of the glorious superabundance of his own energiesI)

.he / *tip*i#it% '1 "phere" p'"e" the pr'(*e/ '1 their re*a"hi'$"hip. aiva 0'#tri$e a"" /e" the/ t' (e #'$#e$tri#, that i" t' "a%, the i$$er #'$tai$e0 withi$ the ' ter. 303 Nit., 8F% the " pera( $0a$#e '1 the g*'ri' " 0i"p*a% 2...3:. < r tra$"*ati'$ '1 Cvaibhava i" ('rr'we0 1r'/ Si*( r$:" 8g*'rie 7 0ep*'ie/e$t: i$ her tra$"*ati'$ '1 Sp? 6 1 (Si*( r$ Sp?= 61). 304 !1. S 666 30 2i$ the te7t a* 'rga$i"ati'$ '1 the S3= svaaktipraca!o (s!a vivam. 305 B" regar0" BI:" rewriti$g 'r a0aptati'$ '1 4&S, it /a% (e '("erve0 that the ter/ aa i" 1' $0 i$ 4&S 10, a*th' gh i$ it" " a* "e$"e '1 #'"/i# 8egg:, a$0 $'t a" a $'ti'$ "pe#i1i# t' the aivi"/ '1 ?a"h/ir. !reati'$, viewe0 a" a tetra0 '1 "phere", i" a $'ve* i0ea pr'per t' 4ga/a" " #h a" +;.. B*th' gh thi" #'$#ept '1 aacat'#a!a /a% (e "ee$ a" i/p*i#it i$ SAkh%a, i$"'1ar a" it i" re*ate0 t' the 0'#tri$e '1 the tattvas that SAkh%a 0'e" 0eve*'p, it '## r" here i$ a$ a*t'gether 0i11ere$t #'$te7t, with a$ a*t'gether 0i11ere$t i/p'rt= the tetra0 '1 "phere" i" a$ '$t'*'gi#a* reK ire/e$t '1 the "%"te/ ("ee Bppe$0i7 5, p. 323). 306 cchdaka. 307 Seg/e$t '1 .4 ;666 169(, whi#h i" a K 'te 1r'/ the Fa'ravgama. .4; a0 *'#. (v'*. 6;= 1474, i$ -wive0i, Da"t'gi .4> a** re1ere$#e" t' .4 a$0 .4; wi** (e /a0e t' thi" e0.) e7p*ai$" vast'pia a" a sam'd!a, 8aggregate:, '1 8e$titie":, $a/e*%, 8('0ie", 1a# *tie", et#: (ao hi nma vast)n tanvakd,n pia sam'd!a 'c!ate, tad as!a lakaam it! artha). .he ter/ vast' i" 1 rther e7p*ai$e0 i$ .4 it"e*1 (;666 176(,177a)= $... vast'abdena tanvakabh'vantmakam00 r)pam 'kta !atas tena tatsam)ho (a 'c!ate0, 8.he w'r0 Ee$tit%E (vast') re1er" t' a 1'r/ (r)pa) '1 ('0ie", 1a# *tie", 'r w'r*0". .h ", (% thi" ter/, their a""e/(*age i" re1erre0 t', #a**e0 aa, Ee$ve*'peE 2*it., EeggE3:. .h ", here, CD K 'te" a part '1 the / #h *'$ger 0e1i$iti'$ that .4 ;666 169,170 ('rr'w" 1r'/ the Fa'rava$gama . .hi" #r%pti# K 'te i" 1 rther g*'""e0 (% .4 56 171,172, whi#h pr'vi0e" the ke% 1'r $0er"ta$0i$g the #'$#ept= vast'pia iti prokta ivaaktisam)habhk0 aa s!d iti tadv!akta' sam'kh,bhva 'c!ate00 tathpi ivamagnn akt,nm aat bhavet0 tadartha vk!am apara t hi na c!'taaktita00, 8Si$#e thi" aa, whi#h i" 2e""e$tia**%3 a$ a""e/(*age '1 iva:" e$ergie", ha" (ee$ 0e"#ri(e0 a" Eaggregate '1 e$titie"E, it i" "p'ke$ '1 a" their 2e$ergie":3 '(Le#ti1i#ati'$, i$ the pr'#e"" '1 /a$i1e"tati'$. Gve$ "' 2'$e /a% '(Le#t3, the #'$0iti'$ '1 (ei$g aa #' *0 (e pre0i#ate0 '1 the e$ergie" that are i//er"e0 i$ 2i.e., that are '$e with3 iva. T'r that rea"'$ 2i.e., i$ 'r0er t' av'i0 the 1a *t '1 a t'' wi0e 0e1i$iti'$3, a$'ther "%$tag/ 2K a*i1%i$g aa, ha" (ee$ give$, $a/e*%, prac!'ta aktir)pata, 1r'/ whi#h it /a% (e i$1erre0 that3 th'"e 2e$ergie"3 have $'t 0eviate0 1r'/ their $at re a" e$ergie" 2viU., (ei$g '$e with iva3:. 6t re" *t" 1r'/ " #h a 0e1i$iti'$ that the aa, a"" /i$g the 1'r/ '1 a$ 8aggregate '1 e$titie":, $a/e*%, ('0ie", 1a# *tie", a$0 w'r*0", i" the 1ir"t e7ter$a*iUati'$, 'r '(Le#ti1i#ati'$, '1 the h'"t '1 Siva:" aktis. T rther/'re, a" the #'$#retiUati'$ '1 the N'r0:" aktis, the aa i" "ee$ a" a 1'r/ give$ t' the 1'r/*e"", he$#e a" a #'ver, vei*i$g the p re Night '1 the Se*1[#'$"#i' "$e"", a$0 1 rther #'veri$g the w'r*0 that it e$#'/pa""e". .h ", the 'ther a"pe#t '1 the 0e1i$iti'$ '1 aa #'$"i"t" i$ it" (ei$g a #'ver (cchdaka), a "heath (koa), a" e7p*ai$e0 here (% CD. .here1're, the 0e1i$iti'$ give$ (% CD "%$the"iUe" the tw' /ai$ 1eat re" '1 aa= it repre"e$t" a #'$"tri#ti'$ per/itti$g #'$#retiUati'$ '1 the N'r0:" aktis> "ee Bppe$0i7 5, p. 323. 308 bhavanakartt, 82the N'r0:" 1ree3 age$#% '1 (e#'/i$g: 2*it., 81a# *t% '1 e7erti$g hi" p'wer '1 (e#'/i$g:3, i" the ke% w'r0 here, e7pre""i$g the para0'7 '1 a$ B("'* te (&ara/aPiva, p re Fei$g, per1e#t p*e$it 0e) wh' #'e7i"t" with hi" 'w$ #reati'$, $e#e""ari*% e7ter$a* t' hi/. .he #'$#ept '1


WT!at is, t!e Lord !as 'ro( !t fort! t!is allY 'y and t!ro( ! t!e abundance,A7@ t!e %rof(sion, of the glorious displays, t!e $onderf(lly varie ated o(tflo$s,A87 of !is innate, in!erent, (ni9(e host of energies, s(&! as Oill, et&) T!(s t!e &onfe&tion of t!e $orld is indeed '(t t!e s(dden '(rstin into 'loo" of t!e LordIs o$n ener ies)A88 As it !as 'een said in t!e Sar3ama9gal(stra: Ener y 6(a,ti7 and t!e Possessor of ener yWiesY 6(a,timat7 are said to 'e t!e WonlyY t$o entities) *is ener ies &onstit(te t!e entire $orld, '(t t!e Possessor of ener ies is t!e Great Lord)A86 Of $!at does t!is tetrad of s%!eresA8A &onsistZ
a$ a#tive (ei$g i" th " a0 /(rate0, " ita(*e 1'r a$ B("'* te that i" ('th #'$"#i' "$e"" (prak) a$0 "e*1,#'$"#i' "$e"" (vimara), "e*1,#'$"#i' "$e"" "ee$ a" spanda, 8vi(rati'$, p *"ati'$:. .he ter/ '## r" i$ ^&vX 6 5, 14 0e1i$i$g citi, 8#'$"#i' "$e"":, 'r 8pri$#ip*e '1 #'$"#i' "$e"":= satt bhavatt bhavanakartt $... , 86t 2viU., #'$"#i' "$e"", citi3 i" (ei$g, (e#'/i$g, a$0 age$#% '1 (e#'/i$g: (#'/pare .'re**a ^&?= 122= 86t i" e7i"ti$g, (ei$g, the " (Le#t '1 the a#ti'$ '1 (ei$g:). Re pre1er t' tra$"*ate bhavanakartt a" 82the N'r0:" 1ree3 age$#% '1 (e#'/i$g:, i$ the *ight '1 ^&; 6 5, 14 (v'*. 6= 258,259)= satt ca bhavanakartt sarvakri!s' svtantr!am, (satt, EFei$gE 2'r rather, E"tate '1 (ei$gE3, /ea$" bhavanakartt, Eage$#% '1 (e#'/i$gE, 2whi#h i" ( t3 1ree0'/ i$ a** a#ti'$":> '$ citi, "ee $. 238 a$0 $. 1049. bhavanakartt 0e"ig$ate" the N'r0:" 1a# *t% '1 e7erti$g hi" p'wer '1 (e#'/i$g J that i", '1 /a$i1e"ti$g hi/"e*1 a" the $iver"e, eter$a**% a$0 per/a$e$t*% pre"e$t i$ hi/. Fei$g 1ree, &ara/ePvara 0e#i0e" t' e/('0% rea*it%, i$ 'ther w'r0", t' (e#'/e Erea*E. See agai$ ^&; 6; 1, 6 (v'*. 66= 289)= satt bhavanakartt sph'rattr)p, 8Mi" "tate '1 (ei$g, i.e., hi" 2'w$ 1ree3 age$#% '1 (e#'/i$g (bhavanakartt), i" ( t 2*it. 8take" the 1'r/ '1:3 hi" /a$i1e"tati'$ 2*it., 81*a"hi$g 1'rth:3:. Tr'/ ('th pa""age" (^&vX 6 5, 14 a$0 ^&; 6; 1, 6), it appear" that bhavanakartt "ta$0" a" a "%$'$%/ 1'r satt a$0 sph'ratt, the *atter ver% #*'"e*% re*ate0 t' spanda. B" " #h it 0e"ig$ate" the highe"t akti '1 the N'r0, 1'r sph'ratt a$0 spanda #'$"i"t '1 $ear*% i/per#epti(*e, 'r e7tre/e*% " (t*e, /'ve/e$t= kiciccalana. .he (kicit" te**" " rather that the 8/'ve/e$t: at i"" e i" $'t 'therwi"e 0i"ti$g i"he0, whi#h i/p*ie" that it w' *0 (e a"#ertai$a(*e '$*% with 0i11i# *t%, 1'r t' per#eive it w' *0 (e t' i/p te t' it "'/e #hara#teri"ti#", a 0ire#ti'$, a$ i$te$"it%, et#. J th " L "ti1%i$g the tra$"*ati'$ ge$era**% a0'pte0, 8i/per#epti(*e: 'r 8" (t*e: (/'ve/e$t). <$ the $'ti'$ '1 spanda, "ee Bppe$0i7 6, p. 327. 309 bhara J *it., 8( r0e$:. 310 prasara. 311 bhagavata kila svaaktiviksasphra eva %agannirmam. )ear*% the "a/e 1'r/ *ati'$ i$ ^&vX 6; 5= vast'ta aktivikso vivam, 86$ rea*it%, the $iver"e i" the (*'""'/i$g '1 the 2N'r0:"3 e$ergie":, a "tate/e$t whi#h, a##'r0i$g t' ^&;; (v'*. 666= 363), 1i$0" it" "' r#e i$ 8a$ 4ga/a " #h a" the 2r,magalstra" (th " #ertai$*% re1erri$g t' the 1a/' " ver"e= akta!o (s!a %agat sarvam whi#h CD K 'te" here). )everthe*e"", a" e/pha"iUe0 (% 2ivad#ivtti 2S-vX3 666 20(, " #h "tate/e$t" are va*i0 '$*% 1r'/ a v!vahrika p'i$t '1 view. )'te CD:" "age '1 aktivikasvarat (a$0 it" "%$'$%/") i$ the #'$te7t '1 *i(erati'$ (a0 &S 56, 60 a$0 61). 312 akti ca aktim caiva padrthadva!am 'c!ate0 akta!o (s!a %agat sarva aktims t' mahevara00. See Bppe$0i7 4, p. 322. 313 B" $0er*i$e0 (% P)ratprat!abhi%& 2&&3 (prakri!vimara 2S 663, 169, p. 21), whi#h re1'r/ *ate" .4 56 12(,13a, the #'$#ept '1 aa i" /ea$t t' e/pha"iUe 0iver"it%= aa ca bh'vann hi vibhgasthitisdhakam0 tad evvaraa prh' akt!anta tac ca sabhavet00, 86t i" "ai0 that aa i" re"p'$"i(*e 1'r the 0i11ere$tiati'$ '1 the bh'vanas, that it i" a$ e$ve*'pe 2"eK e"teri$g a** the pri$#ip*e" (tattva)3 p t' 2( t $'t i$#* 0i$g3 akti". Tr'/ akt!ada t' pthv!aa, the 1' r aas /a% (e "ee$ a" #'$#e$tri# "phere" e$#'/pa""i$g the e$tire #reati'$, it"e*1 $0er"t''0 a" the tria0 '1 e7perie$#er, e7perie$#e a$0 '(Le#t '1 e7perie$#e. Rhe$, at the ' t"et, the te7t ha" re#' r"e t' the #'$#ept '1 the 1' r aas, 0iver"it% i" $'t %et apprehe$0e0 0%$a/i#a**%, i$ the #' r"e '1 it" pr'gre""ive /a$i1e"tati'$ via the thirt%,"i7 tattva", whi#h wi** (e e7p' $0e0 at *e$gth i$ kA. 14,22, ( t "tati#a**%, a" a 1i7e0 '(Le#t 'r e$tit% #'/p'"e0 '1 th'"e thirt%, "i7 pri$#ip*e", gr' pe0 i$t' 1' r "phere" a##'r0i$g t' i$#rea"i$g #'$"tri#ti'$" p t p'$ the N'r0:"

T!e "aster re%lies: HEnergy, Illusion, /ature, EarthI) T!is ener y, $!i&! %ertains to t!e S(%re"e Lord, 'elon s to t!e (niverse for"ed of &o niLers and o'#e&ts of &o nition 6pramt.pramey7, even t!o( ! it is in essen&e not!in '(t t!e "arvel of s(%re"e i%seity) It ta5es t!e for" of an a&tivity of ne ation 6ni)edha3ypr7 'ased on t!e fail(re to dis&ern t!e Self 6tm,hyti7, and is effe&ted 'y denyin 6apohan7 oneIs o$n nat(re)A8; T!is energy is &alled (a,tya0a, t!e Hs%!ere of Ener yI, in virt(e of its veilin f(n&tion, and its role in effe&tin 'onda e 6$andha7)A8B WT!is s%!ereY &onsistin of t!at %art Wof t!e t!irty?si, %rin&i%lesY 'e innin $it! Sad4Jiva and 0Jvara and endin $it! (uddha3idy, f(lly !olds in itself t!e triad of t!e Wre"ainin Y s%!eres, $!i&! !ave yet to 'e e,%lained) T!(s it is t!at t!e Ws(%re"eY ener y Wof t!e LordY !as 'een so desi nated Wi)e), (a,tya0aY, inas"(&! as it ta5es t!e for" of a &over) In t!is s%!ere, A8= Sad4Jiva and 0Jvara are t!e %residin deities) And anot!er s%!ere is &alled my>a0a?, t!e HWs%!ere ofY Ill(sionI, $!ose essen&e is t!e triad of i"%(rities 6malatraya7)A8< It is &o"%osed of del(sion 6moha7M
a("'* te 1ree0'/. T'r a 0etai*e0 e7p'"iti'$ '1 the $'ti'$ '1 aa a$0 a$ atte/pt at their i$terpretati'$, "ee Bppe$0i7 5, p. 323. 314 F% 0e$%i$g, $egati$g the p*e$it 0e '1 the Se*1, apohanaakti give" ri"e t' 0i11ere$#e, ( t thi" 0i11ere$#e e7i"t" '$*% '$ the *eve* '1 p re " (Le#tivit%. .hi" i" wh% akt!aa i" re*ate0 t' the three tattvas J Sa0APiva, ^Pvara a$0 'ddhavid! J 'r0ere0 (e*'w iva[akti, a$0 a('ve m!."akt!aa repre"e$t" the "tate '1 #'$"#i' "$e"" i$ whi#h 0i11ere$#e appear" a" a ver% 0i/ pre"e$#e, a 1ir"t ' t*i$e '1 what wi** a#t a**% take p*a#e i$ m!. <$ apohanaakti, "ee the e7p'"iti'$ '1 && 66 155(,157, whi#h "' $0" *ike a g*'"" '$ thi" ver% pa""age '1 CD:" #'//e$tar%= mtme!tmavivas!a svtmar)pas!a sarvad00 parhantcamatkrasrabh)tata! sata0 svar)ppohantme!am akh!tir !sti tanma!,00 na&arthbhvar)ptmaniedhav!pti ca !0 s akti parameas!a akt!aam iti proc!ate00, E.he S pre/e N'r0 i" that a("'* te rea*it%, eter$a**% re/ai$i$g a" the e""e$#e '1 the /arve* '1 " pre/e ip"eit%, wh'"e 1'r/ a" the $iver"e '1 #'g$iUer" a$0 '(Le#t" '1 #'g$iti'$ i" 2 *ti/ate*%3 that '1 the 2 $itar%3 Se*1. .hi" e$erg% (akti) #a**e0 >akt!aa> J a"" /i$g a 1'r/ '1 $'$,e7i"te$#e 2*it., 8a("e$#e:3 a" 0e$'te0 (% the parti#*e E$aE J 'perate" t' $egate the Se*1, 1'r it #'$"i"t" i$ the 1ai* re t' 0i"#ri/i$ate, the "etti$g a"i0e (apohana), '1 the $at re '1 that Se*1 2$'w "ee$ a" E6E a$0 Ethi"E3:. Rhi*e e7p*ai$i$g thi" $'ti'$ t' ?. -. .ripathi 'ra**%, DA/ePvara OhA "e0 t' a00 that thi" $egati'$ (niedha) wa" a 8p re $egati'$: ('ddhana&artha), 1'r, at thi" "tage, $egati'$ 0'e" $'t reK ire a$% 'pp'"i$g re1ere$#e (prati!ogin)= there i" $'thi$g e*"e tha$ the Se*1 t' (e $egate0. See a*"' CD a0 10,11. 315 .he 1'r/ '1 e7perie$#e that take" p*a#e at the L $#ti'$ '1 the aktitattva a$0 the sadivatattva i" $a/e0 B$APritaPiva, 8iva $re*ate0 2t' the $iver"e3:> "ee Bppe$0i7 7, p. 327. 316 aa i" $'t /ere*% the 8e$ve*'pe:, whi#h, *i/iti$g the *ti/ate rea*it%, 0eter/i$e" 0i11ere$t *eve*" '1 e7perie$#e> it i" a*"' "ee$ a" a 1 **%1*e0ge0 loka, a 8"phere:, a" it i" '1te$ tra$"*ate0 (Si*( r$ &S), i$ha(ite0 (% a / *tit 0e '1 (ei$g" a$0 thi$g", $0er the #'$tr'* '1 pre"i0i$g 0eitie", a$0 re*ate0 t' the hierar#h% '1 the tattvas. .hi" wi** (e eve$ /'re '(vi' " with the three 'ther aas. 317 .he 1ir"t '## rre$#e, i$ ' r #'//e$tar%, '1 thi" ke% #'$#ept. .he three i/p ritie" (malatra!a) are the avamala, the i/p rit% '1 20ee/i$g '$e"e*13 1i$ite, the m!,!amala, the i/p rit% '1 2regar0i$g the w'r*0 a"3 '(Le#tive, a$0 the krmamala, the i/p rit% '1 2" pp'"i$g '$e"e*1 the age$t '13 a#ti'$"> '$ th'"e $'ti'$", "ee CD a0 17,18, 24, 37, 57. <$#e m!akti, the p'wer '1 0i11ere$tiati'$, (egi$" t' 'perate, e$ge$0eri$g the "a"Ari# w'r*0, the 1ive ka&c'kas #'$"tit te the " (Le#tivit% '1 a$ i$0ivi0 a* "' * (a') a$0 a11e#t it with the three i/p ritie". +ight it (e p'""i(*e t' "ee i$ the"e three ter/", 0i"p*a#e0 t' a /'re #'$#rete *eve*, re1ere$#e" t' the three 1'r/" '1 (ei$g $'ti#e0 a('ve (viU., satt, bhavatt, bhavanakartt> "ee $. 308)? .he ava E0e1e#tE re*ate", i$ e11e#t, t' the i$0ivi0 a* " (Le#t> the m!,!a t' the '(Le#tive $iver"e> a$0 the krma t' the #%#*e '1 e7i"te$#e", whi#h, (% the i$ter/e0iar% '1 the $'ti'$ '1 the a#t, e7p*ai$" the 1a"hi'$ i$ whi#h the tw'

its for" is t!e 'onda e t!at affe&ts all varieties of &o niLers in virt(e solely of its %ro%ensity to o&&asion differen&e) It &onsists of t!at %art Wof t!e t!irty?si, %rin&i%les 'e innin $it! my andY endin $it! puru)a) T!at Ws%!ereY in&or%orates $it!in itself t!e t$o s%!eres yet to 'e e,%lained) *ere t!e %residin deity is t!e R(dra na"ed Ga!ana R t!e HA'yssI)A8C Si"ilarly, /ature 6pra,.ti7, $!ose &onstit(ents are satt3a, ra1as and tamas Wori inally in e9(ili'ri("Y, on&e it is transfor"ed WviL), on&e t!is e9(ili'ri(" is lostY into Winternal and e,ternalY fa&(lties, and as $ell into effe&ts Wna"ely, t!e o'#e&ts of t!ose fa&(ltiesY R $!i&! 'e&o"e o'#e&ts of en#oy"ent 6$hogy7 for fettered s('#e&ts, 'indin t!ose s('#e&ts in t!eir (ises of %leas(re, %ain and del(sion R is &alled pra,.tya0a R t!e Hs%!ere of Nat(reI)A8@ In t!is Ws%!ereY also, t!ere is a %residin deity, Lord 1iSK(, $!o is endo$ed $it! reat loryA67 and $!o e"%!asiLes differen&e Wor, $!o %res("es differen&e Din order to f(n&tionEY) Si"ilarly, earth 6p.th3-7 is ter"ed p.th3ya0a, t!e HTerrestrial s%!ereI R t!e Terrestrial s%!ere, &onsistin of t!e ross W&or%orealY s!eat! 6,a2cu,7, for it %rovides an o(ter en&los(reA68 to all t!e s('#e&ts, fro" "an to stationary 'ein s, and is W!en&e also aY 'indin fa&tor) T!is s%!ere also !as its %residin deity, Lord +ra!"a, $!o o&&(%ies t!e %ree"inent %la&e in t!e fo(rteenfold &reation of 'ein s)A66

'ther /'0e" '1 (ei$g e$ter i$t' #'$ta#t, e$twi$e. 318 <r 8the 6/pe$etra(*e:. <$ gahana a$0 the three1'*0 m!, "ee $. 246. <$ Iaha$a, a" the adhipati, the i$te$0a$t 0eit%, '1 the m!a, "ee Bppe$0i7 8, p. 328 319 !1. ^&? 6; 4,6, whi#h "tate" that the N'r0:" e$ergie" J %&na, kri! a$0 m! J #'rre"p'$0, i$ the 1ettere0 " (Le#t (pa'), t' sattva, ra%as a$0 tamas, re"pe#tive*%, a$0 e7p*ai$" h'w th'"e g'as, tra$"1'r/e0 i$t' karaas a$0 kr!as, #a$ $' *'$ger (e ter/e0 8e$ergie": 'r 8p'wer": (akti). 320 mahvibh)ti. 321 pratiprkra J the ter/ i" atte"te0, a##'r0i$g t' F'ht*i$gk, D'th /anskrit Gorterb'ch 2FdD3 (#'$1ir/e0 (% G0gert'$:" FMS-), '$*% i$ the .i(eta$ #a$'$, viU., i$ the 8ahv!'tpatti, i$ the "e$"e '1 8' ter wa**:. Sa/e ter/ i$ CD a0 12,13 (prkra) a$0 a0 23 (pratiprkra). 322 See +;. ; 7,9, where the 1' rtee$ #ateg'rie" '1 (ei$g" i$ha(iti$g the 1' rtee$ w'r*0" (loka 'r bh'vana) i$ brahma are give$ i$ the #'$te7t '1 the 8p ri1i#ati'$ '1 the path": (adhva'ddhi), it"e*1 a part '1 the d,k= cat'rdaavidho !atra bh)tagrma pravartate0 sthvara sarpa%ti ca paki%tis tathpar00 mgasam%&a ca pavkh!a pa&camo (n!a ca man'a0 paico rkaso !ko gndharva caindra eva ca00 sa'm!a ca pr%pat!a ca brh1ma ctra cat'rdaa0 sarvas!aivas!a sa'ddhir brhme saodhite sati00, 82S #h are the 1' rtee$ lokas3 where 0we**" the 1' rtee$1'*0 h'"t '1 (ei$g"= "tati'$ar% (ei$g" a$0 repti*e", (ir0" (ei$g a$'ther variet%, a$0 th'"e ter/e0 wi*0 a$i/a*"> th'"e ter/e0 0'/e"ti# #'$"tit ti$g a 1i1th variet%, a$'ther (ei$g /a$. B$0 &iPA#a", Dak9a", Cak9a", Ia$0harva", 6$0ra, S'/a, &raLApati, Frah/A. .h " the% are 1' rtee$. <$#e thi" brahma2aa3 ha" (ee$ p ri1ie0, the p ri1i#ati'$ '1 a** thi" 21' rtee$1'*0 h'"t '1 (ei$g"3 i" a#hieve0:. Tir"t "ee$ a"
trip*e ("ee S? 53= a!a tridh sarga) J viU., /a$, 8a$i/a*":, g'0" J #reati'$ i" 1 rther "ee$ a" 1' rtee$1'*0, 0i"tri( te0 i$t' '$e variet% '1 /a$, eight varietie" '1 g'0" a$0 1ive varietie" '1 8a$i/a*":, i$#* 0i$g 8"tati'$ar%: (ei$g"= a#avikalpo daivas tair!ag!ona ca pa&cadh bhavati mn'a caikavidha. .'ktid,pik a0 *'#. give" a *i"t '1 the eight ki$0" '1 0ivi$e (ei$g" that i" "*ight*% 0i11ere$t 1r'/ that '1 +;.= Frah/A, &raLApati, 6$0ra, &itX", Ia$0harva", )Aga", Dak9a", &iPA#a". .he 1ive ki$0" '1 8a$i/a*": are the 0'/e"ti# (pa'), the wi*0 (/XgA), (ir0", 'r wi$ge0 a$i/a*" i$ ge$era* (pakin), repti*e" (sar,sarpa) a$0 "tati'$ar% (ei$g" (sthvar), " #h a" p*a$t", et#., that are #'$"i0ere0 t' (e *ivi$g (ei$g", ( t at the *'we"t *eve*, the tair!ag!ona ("ee &S 6, where (pdapa" '1 the kArikA i" g*'""e0 (% sthvara)H D a0 4&S 27a $a/e" %ti 8ge$ ":, th'"e #ateg'rie" '1 (ei$g". B" 1'r /a$, it i" "tate0 that 8h /a$ #reati'$ i" '1 '$e "'rt, 1'r $' 'ther #ateg'r% (%ti) 2*it., 8(irth:, 'r 8#*a"":3 #a$ (e " ita(*% a**ege0: (man'!a caikavidha %t!antarn'papatte). )'te that the a##eptati'$ '1 the ter/ bh'vana a" a /et'$%/ 1'r the $ /(er 81' rtee$: te"ti1ie" t' the reg *ar a""'#iati'$ '1 that $'ti'$ with that $ /(er J #'/pare, 1'r i$"ta$#e, the ter/" aki, 'r na!ane, 8e%e": 20 a*3, whi#h "'/eti/e" are take$ t' /ea$ 8tw':, (% a "i/i*ar /et'$%/%.


T!(s does t!is tetrad of s%!eres, $!i&! is '(t t!e e,%ansion A6A Wi)e), t!e e"anationY of t!e S(%re"e Lord, 'e&o"e a%%arent Wto (sY 6parisphurati7 R "ade "anifest 6pra,(it7 in t!is $ay 'y t!e Soverei n W$!o re"ains i""anent in itY)A6; #arik! 5 *avin t!(s e,%lained t!e tetrad of s%!eres, t!e "aster (tters t!e Wfollo$in Y verse in order to %ortray t!e nat(re of t!e (niverse, $it! a vie$ to e,%lainin it in ter"s of t!e relation of en#oyer to o'#e&t of en#oy"ent: 5) There6 within those spheres lies this uni"erse6 as an uninterrupted continuum of wonderfully "aried bodies6 faculties6 and worlds7 And6 therein6 the en8oyer6 endowed with a body6 is 'i"a himself6 who assumes the condition of a fettered soul7A6B There, in t!ose fo(r s%!eres $ell 5no$n to t!e 2 a"asA6= within those spheres lies this uni"erseM t!at is, it d$ells in t!e "idst of t!e") O!at sort of (niverseZ T!e "aster ans$ers: H(a continuum of) wonderfully "aried (bodies, faculties, and worlds)I) +y bodies, !e "eans s!a%es &!ara&teriLed 'y vario(s arran e"ents of fa&e, !ands, feet, et&), and differin Wfro" ea&! ot!erY a&&ordin to t!e WinfiniteY varieties of W'ein s, fro"Y R(dras to ordinary so(ls,A6< all of $!i&! are "ade $onderf(l 'y t!e "anner of t!eir differentiated &onditions)A6C Si"ilarly, faculties, s(&! as eyes, !ave Wde rees ofY e,&ellen&e d(e to t!e differen&e fro" one to anot!er W'ein Y) For instan&e, endo$ed as t!ey are $it! a !ost of attri'(tes, A6@ s(&! as o"nis&ien&e, t!e fa&(lties of &o niLers on t!e order of R(dras 6rudrapramt.7 are (ns(r%assed) T!is (niverse is indeed instantly and si"(ltaneo(sly 5no$n and &reated 'y s(&! fa&(lties)
323 324

vi%bhita. &ara/ePvara i" the tra$"#e$0e$t 1'r/ '1 the N'r0 a" #reat'r, '$ the #'"/i# *eve*, wherea" Fhagavat i" the 1'r/ he a"" /e" '$ the *eve* '1 i//a$e$#e> whe$ $' *'$ger the #reat'r, he i" "ee$ a" the k$'wer '1 #reati'$. 6$ the *gamaprm!a '1 CA/ $A#Ar%a, bhagavat i" 0e1i$e0 a" 1'**'w" (1976= 26)= %&nam apratigha tas!a vairg!a ca %agatpate0 aivar!a caiva dharma ca sahasiddha cat'#a!am00, 8.here i" a tetra0 2'13 i$$ate 2attri( te"3 (e*'$gi$g t' the N'r0 '1 the w'r*0 2that i", the tetra0 8appear" a*'$g (with hi/): (sahasiddha), a" "''$ a" he /a$i1e"t" hi/"e*13 2'r, *e"" pr'(a(*%, the /e/(er" '1 the tetra0 8appear t'gether: (sahasiddha), $'t i$ "eK e$#e3= i$vi$#i(*e k$'w*e0ge, 0i"pa""i'$, "'vereig$t%, a$0 righte' "$e"": .hi" i" 1 rther #'//e$te0 p'$= %agatkart'r bhagavato niratia!aaktimatvdinir)paam, 86t i" 0e"#ri(e0 h'w the N'r0, #reat'r '1 the w'r*0, i" e$0'we0 with $" rpa""e0 e$erg%, et#: 325 !1. Sp? 66 3,4, K 'te0 $. 452.

.he 0'#tri$e '1 the aa i" e7p' $0e0 i$ +;. 66 49 (K 'te0 i$ .4; 56 8) a$0 +;. 6; 24,25 a$0 i$ the FaIavgama, a" #*ear*% "tate0 (% .B (;666 168() it"e*1= aasvar)pa g'r'bhi cokta r,ra'ravdi', 8.he $at re '1 the aa ha" (ee$ "ai0 (% the g r " i$ the Fa'rava$gama ". .he tw' 1'**'wi$g P*'ka" (.4 ;666 169,170), 0e1i$i$g aa, are a K 'tati'$ 1r'/

the Fa'ravgama ('r 1r'/ it" #'//e$tar% (% Sa0%'L%'ti", a" pr'p'"e0 (% I$'*i .4= 183, $. 4), a" i" /a0e #*ear (% the #'//e$tar%. .he$ #'/e" BI:" 'w$ e7p*a$ati'$, i$ .4 ;666 171,174. 327 See Bppe$0i7 1, p. 317. F'th #ateg'rie" are 8e/('0ie0: (dehin) " (Le#t", %et the 0i11ere$#e (etwee$ the/ i" e"ta(*i"he0 '$ the (a"i" '1 the hierar#h% '1 the 1a# *tie" a$0 k$'w*e0ge. Fei$g '/$i"#ie$t (sarva%&a), D 0ra" wi** $'t (e re('r$ a1ter 0i""'* ti'$, $*ike ketra%&as, wh'"e *i/ite0 ?$'w*e0ge (the% take the ('0% t' (e the Se*1) 0e"ti$e" the/ t' (e re('r$. D 0ra 2'r the D 0ra"3, a" a t%pe '1 (ei$g, "ig$i1ie" th'"e wh' have rea#he0, a1ter the /'0e* '1 D 0ra, a *eve* '1 e7perie$#e where '$e i" a(*e t' rea("'r( withi$ hi/"e*1 a** #'g$iUa(*e rea*it%. Me$#e the% wi** (e 0e"#ri(e0 i$ the 1'**'wi$g *i$e" '1 the #'//e$tar% a" p'""e""e0 '1 $" rpa""e0 k$'w*e0ge a$0 p'wer" ("ee, $. 324, the 0e1i$iti'$ '1 bhagavat), wherea" the k$'w*e0ge a$0 the 1a# *tie" '1 the ketra%&a are *i/ite0. )everthe*e"", the %'gi$ p'""e""e" re*ative*% /'re p'wer". .he "a/e /a% (e "ai0, t' "'/e e7te$t, '1 (ea"t", 1'r the% /a% (e /'re p'wer1 * ph%"i#a**% tha$ /e$, eve$ i1 their k$'w*e0ge i" $'t " peri'r. &S 49 0eve*'p" the the/e '1 the variet% '1 ('0ie". 328 sasthna. 329 g'a.

On t!e &ontrary, t!is (niverse is neit!er 5no$n nor "ade 'y t!e W&orres%ondin Y fa&(lties of ordinary so(ls $!i&! are &a%a'le only of 5no$in and "a5in o'#e&ts s(&! as #ars, for t!ey are restri&ted Win t!eir f(n&tionY 'y t!e %o$er of W&a(salY &onstraint Wt!at is, t!e &onstraint i"%osed 'y &a(sal &onse&(tion, t!e se9(en&e of &a(se and effe&tY 6niyati(a,ti7AA7 'elon in to t!e S(%re"e Lord) And even t!ere WviL), a"on ordinary so(lsY, as&eti&s 6yogin7 are seen to %ossess fa&(lties a'ove t!e nor": even t!at $!i&! is distant Wyet still visi'leY, or is s&reened fro" vie$, or is entirely o(t of si !tAA8 "ay 'e dis&erned 'y t!e", and even t!e %leas(re and %ain e,%erien&ed 'y ot!er &o niLers, for s(&! as&eti&s !ave trans&ended t!e %o$er of &a(sal &onstraint) And li5e$ise, t!ere are ani"als $!o !ave fa&(lties e,&ellin even t!ose of "en, AA6 alt!o( ! Win eneralY t!ey are restri&ted 6sa,ucita7 'y niyati(a,ti) For instan&e, &o$s are a'le to see t!eir !o"es even if t!ey are s&reened fro" vie$M !orses dis&ern t!eir $ay even at ni !tM v(lt(res des&ry "eat even if it lies !(ndreds of yo1anas a$ayM W$in ed &reat(res, fro"Y 'irds to flies and "os9(itoes, are &a%a'le of flyin in t!e s5yM re%tiles "ove on %at!s on t!eir &!est and !ear so(nds 'y t!e %o$er of si !t, and &a"els %(ll a ser%ent o(t of its !ole, even at distan&e, "erely 'y 'reat!in ) T!(s one "ay infer t!at t!ere is every$!ere a $onderf(l variety of fa&(lties) Si"ilarly, t!ere are worlds 6$hu3ana7, $ell 5no$n to t!e 2 a"as, t!at are distin (is!ed Wfro" t!e nor"Y 'y t!eir &ir&(lar, trian (lar, 9(adran (lar, se"il(nar and %arasol?li5e s!a%es)AAA T!(s t!e (niverse is s(&! t!at $it!in it is &ontained an uninterrupted continuum, an (no'str(&ted flo$in strea",AA; of bodies, faculties and worlds R W'odies, fa&(lties and $orlds t!at areY wonderfully "aried, or of a "arvelo(s nat(re, d(e to t!eir varied e,traordinary 9(alities) *ere, in s(&! a (niverse, $!ose nat(re it is to 'e en#oyed, an en#oyer "(st 'e %res("ed) T!erefore, t!e "aster says: HAnd, therein, the en8oyer, endowed with a body (is 'i"a himself)I)
.he Se*1, withi$ the rea*/ '1 m!, i" e$#*'"e0 (% 1ive ka&c'kas, a/'$g whi#h i" ni!ati, the re"tri#ti'$ '1 the 1ree0'/ '1 the N'r0= the <$e (e%'$0 #a "a* re*ati'$"hip i" $'w *i/ite0 (% the *aw '1 #a "a*it%, whi#h i" 8at the r''t '1 the *aw '1 kar/a$: (ni!atir !ata karmao m)labh)mi) (^&;; 666 2, 3, v'*. 666= 312). !1. ^&vX 666 2, 2= m!,!a $... pramt ni!at! karmdh,na sasr,, 8.he /A%i# #'g$iUer 2...3 0epe$0i$g '$ the karma (e#a "e '1 the *aw '1 $e#e""it% i" i$ the p'wer '1 the sasra 2...3: (tr. .'re**a ^&?= 197). Me$#e the tra$"*ati'$" '1 ni!ati a" 80eter/i$i"/: (+iPra 1993= 175), 8#a "a* re"tri#ti'$: (Si*( r$ &S= i$0e7), 8$e#e""it%: (.'re**a ^&?= 197). Cet, '$e #a$ "ee, eve$ "', a 0i11ere$#e (etwee$ ni!ati a$0 ni!atiakti= i$a"/ #h a" ever%thi$g ari"e" 1r'/ the N'r0, ni!ati a" a #ateg'r% i" #a**e0 (tattva", wherea" ni!atiakti i" a p'te$tia*it% '1 the N'r0. See a*"' CD a0 9 a$0 17. 331 !1. S? 7, whi#h e$ /erate" eight #a "e" /aki$g per#epti'$ i/p'""i(*e, a/'$g whi#h are atid)ratva, 8e7#e""ive 0i"ta$#e:, a$0 v!avadhna, 8i$terp'"iti'$ 2'1 a$ '(Le#t (etwee$ a$ 'rga$ a$0 the '(Le#t t' (e per#eive03:. .hi" K e"ti'$ wi** (e take$ p agai$ (% CD a0 17, i$ the #' r"e '1 e7p*ai$i$g vid!tattva. viprak#a i" 'pp'"e0 t' sanik#a, wh'"e phi*'"'phi#a* i/p*i#ati'$ i" the pr'7i/it% '1 a$ 'rga$ '1 "e$"e t' it" '(Le#t. 332 T'r a$ e*a('rate 0i"# ""i'$ '1 thi" p'i$t, "ee Sp& 39 2 S a0 666 7, i$ the te7t a* 'rga$iUati'$ '1 Sp)3. 333 See Sv. 5 99a= chatrkri sarvi te vai bh'vanni ta. <$ the vari' " 0e"#ripti'$" '1 a$0 wa%" '1 #' $ti$g bh'vanas i$ the 4ga/a", "ee Bppe$0i7 5, p. 323, a$0 CD a0 78. 334 M'wever, the 1' r "phere" the/"e*ve", withi$ whi#h the e$tiret% '1 the vari' " w'r*0", a*'$g with their "pe#i1i# ('0ie" a$0 'rga$", i" #reate0 a$0 0i""'*ve0, re/ai$ i//'va(*e.


+ein t!e a'ode $!erein are en#oyed Wt!e res(lts of %ast a&tionsY, t!e 'ody 'elon in to t!e finite so(l 6a0u7AAB is affe&ted 'y t!e t!ree i"%(rities) T!at Wfinite so(l is t!(s said to 'eY embodied 6dehin7, t!at is, is endo$ed $it! a 'ody 6(ar-rin7,AA= $!ose nat(re &onsists in t!e e,%erien&e of %leas(re and %ain, et&) In t!is (niverse &onsistin of %leas(re and %ain, et&), t!at We"'odied so(lY is also &alled t!e Hen8oyerI 6$ho,t.7, t!at is, $!o e,%erien&es 6anu$ha3it.7AA< %leas(re and %ain, et&) R t!e fettered s('#e&t 6pa(upramt.7) No$, one "ay o'#e&t: R inas"(&! as t!ere is Wa&&ordin to yo(Y no differen&e atta&!in even to t!at $!i&! a%%ears infinitesi"al R as far as t!e trans&endental &o niLer 6parapramt.7 is &on&ernedE R AAC !o$ indeed &an t!is $ort!less t!in $e &all He"'odiedI 'e different fro" !i"Z For, as !as 'een said:

Tir"t '## rre$#e '1 thi" #'$#ept i$ the #'//e$tar%. .he "e '1 8a0u: here re#a**" the ter/:" "age i$ ;aiPe9ika, where it 0e"ig$ate" the *ti/ate a$0 i$0ivi0i(*e #'$"tit e$t" '1 a** Ethi$g"E J ipso 9acto there1r'/ #'/p'"e0. F% e7te$"i'$, it 0e"ig$ate" a*"' the 8at'/i#: "' * ('r rather E"' *"E), i$0ivi"i(*e a$0 repr'0 #i(*e i$1i$ite*%, the #'$"tit e$t" '1 the p"%#hi# $iver"e. 61 ' r pre"e$t a th'r" are "i$g the ter/ i$ #'g$iUa$#e '1 it" ;aiPe9ika 'rigi$", it w' *0 i$0i#ate the$ #'$"#i' "$e"" that i" $'t '/$i"#ie$t, whi#h 1 $#ti'$" i$ the i$a0eK a#% '1 a*wa%" partia* aware$e"" J $'t '$*% *i/ite0 ( t a*"' i$#'/pete$t. B##'r0i$g t' I'$0a (1960,1964, v'*. 66= 23511.), the $'ti'$ '1 the `a0u` J whi#h i" #'//'$ t' a** the ver"i'$" '1 aivi"/ J i" $'t "' / #h $0er"t''0 a" a #'$#rete e7i"te$t, a" it /a% we** have (ee$ i$ the ;aiPe9ika, a" a 0e"ig$ati'$ '1 a pri$#ip*e i$ ter/" '1 whi#h i" e7p*ai$e0 a$ a"pe#t J i$ a$% #a"e i**egiti/ate J '1 the "' *:" e7i"te$#e= the "' *, whi#h i" i$ rea*it% $*i/ite0, i0e$ti#a* with brahman, "ee" it"e*1 a" 0eta#he0 there1r'/, e$#*'"e0 i$ a ('0%. 6t i" that ver% "' *, "ee$ i$ thi" wa% a" 8a':, 8at'/i#:, that #'$"tit te" the avamala. 336 B tra0iti'$a* et%/'*'g% 0erive" ar,ra, 8('0%:, 1r'/ = ,r!ata iti ar,ra, 8.hat whi#h 0e#a%", i" the ('0%:. 337 -erive0 1r'/ bh'%, 8t' e$L'%, p'""e"", eat, #'$" /e:, the ter/ bhokt 0e"ig$ate" the 8e$L'%er: '1 a$ '(Le#t, it" p'""e""'r, whether it (e i$ter$a* (a" p*ea" re a$0 pai$) 'r e7ter$a* (a" the #'*'r (* e). .h " he i" the " (Le#t '1 "e$"e e7perie$#e", (' $0 t' e7perie$#e th'"e '(Le#t", whether agreea(*e 'r $'t. 6$ ge$era* "age, an'bhava i" a*"' #'$#eive0 '1 a" a$ e/piri#a* e7perie$#e, eve$ th' gh, whe$ #'$tra"te0 with bhoga, it "ig$i1ie" a$ e7perie$#e /'re re#eptive tha$ a#K i"itive, i$ whi#h the eg' 0'e" $'t a"" /e the 0'/i$a$t r'*e, 'r, at *ea"t, i$ whi#h per"'$a* i$tere"t i" $'t pri/ar%. )everthe*e"", " #h a$ e7perie$#e i" #'$"i0ere0 E/i$eE, that i", 0'e" $'t e7#ee0 the a/(it '1 the 1i$ite " (Le#t. .he .rika "%"te/ appear" t' i$ve"t the $'ti'$ with a /ea$i$g 0i11ere$t 1r'/ 'r0i$ar% "age, t' the e7te$t that it a""'#iate" an'bhava with the *ti/ate pri$#ip*e, whi#h ha" the re" *t '1 0i""'#iati$g thi" t%pe '1 e7perie$#e 1r'/ #'rp'rea* e$L'%/e$t", i$ pri$#ip*e at *ea"t. Me$#e the re# rri$g #'$tra"t (etwee$ bhoga a$0 an'bhava, (etwee$ bhokt a$0 an'bhavit= the an'bhavit i" a*"' a$ e7perie$#er, ( t '1 i0ea* '(Le#t" '$*% J hi" E "eE '1 the/ i" i0eati'$a*, rather tha$ #'rp'rea*. .hi" i" #'$1ir/e0 (% Sp) 6 3 (K 'te0 $. 253), where an'bhavit g*'""e" 'palabdh, wh'"e /ea$i$g, i$ the #'$te7t '1 Sp? 6 3, i" that '1 8p re age$t '1 e7perie$#e:> #1. Sp; 6 5, p. 30= grhako (pi m!,!a pramt atra vivakito na tttvika 'palabdhmtrasvar)pa, 8F% E" (Le#tE (grhaka), what i" /ea$t here i" the e/piri#a* " (Le#t (m!,!a pramt), $'t the rea* '$e, wh' i" the p re age$t '1 e7perie$#e:. 338 .hat i", give$ that the N'r0 i" 2a##'r0i$g t' %' 3 a("'* te*% $0i11ere$tiate0, h'w w' *0 2i$ that #a"e3 '$e (e a(*e t' #'$#eive eve$ the at'/ a" 0i11eri$g 1r'/ hi/? F% the "a/e t'ke$ a" app*%i$g t' E&ara/aPivaE 'r >parabrahman>, the ter/ parapramt i" a*"' h%per('*i#, 1'r, at thi" *ti/ate *eve*, there i" $' 'ther >pramt> p'""i(*e. M'wever, give$ the 'rigi$" '1 the ter/ a$0 it" #'g$ate" i$ 0i"# ""i'$" e*"ewhere '1 #'$#rete a$0 there1're *i/ite0 e7perie$#e, the ter/ parapramt 0'e" have the 1*av'r here '1 a$ '7%/'r'$, p*ai$*% a##epte0 i$ the ?a"h/iri "#h''*" i$ 'r0er t' 0i"ti$g i"h iva:" $*i/ite0 #'g$iti'$ 1r'/ that '1 'r0i$ar% k$'wer" J i$ re1ere$#e t' wh'/ the ter/ >pramt> /a% (e $0er"t''0 *itera**% J a*(eit that the *i/itati'$" '$ their Ek$'w*e0geE, (ei$g "e*1,i/p'"e0, are '$ $' wi"e i$here$t.


Even a %art re%resents t!e (niversality of $rahman WviL), its &a%a&ity to ass("e all for"sY) Neit!er !as it 'een e,&eeded, nor &an it 'e di"inis!ed)AA@ Li5e$ise, a&&ordin to Wyo(r o$nY "a,i": Even ea&! and every %rin&i%le !as ot t!e for" of t!e t!irty?si, %rin&i%les,A;7 t!e sa"e s(%re"e soverei n &o niLer, $!o, endo$ed $it! !is o$n ener ies and for"ed of reat Li !t 6mahpra,(a3apus7 is one only, radiates W$it!in everyt!in Y 6a3a$hsate7, (tterly (ndifferentiated in every res%e&t) No$, even if one %ost(lates t!e e,isten&e of an e"'odied so(l WviL), an individ(al &ons&io(snessY la&5in ill("ination 6apra,(amna7 and $!o is different fro" !i" WviL), t!e s(%re"e &o niLerY, t!at e,isten&e &annot even 'e as&ertained, sin&e it WviL), t!e e"'odied so(lY !as 'een denied Wor, !as 'een %ost(lated as la&5in Y t!e 9(ality of Hill("inationI 6pra,(amnat3a7 WR and assertin t!is $o(ld involve yo( in a &ontradi&tion, for yo( !ave else$!ere "aintained t!at not!in e,ists t!at is 'ereft of ill("ination R or, t!at is not "anifestY) If, on t!e ot!er !and, Wyo( assert t!e e,isten&e of an e"'odied so(l t!atY is %ossessed of ill("ination 6pra,(ate7, t!en in t!at entity, $!i&! Wa&&ordin to yo(Y !as for its essen&e t!e trans&endental $rahman,
avikalp!a J *it., 80i#h't'/iUe0, " (Le#t t' a*ter$ativit%:. .hi" i" a t'p'"= i1 brahman i" rea**% the a**, it #a$$'t (e " rpa""e0 'r 0i/i$i"he0. 6$ ' r i$terpretati'$ '1 the ver"e, we 0i11er 1r'/ Si*( r$, &a0' 7 .4= 148= 8Ne pr'pre 0 (rah/a$, #:e"t 0e pre$0re t' te" *e" 1'r/e", 0:etre i$" rpa""a(*e et "a$" K a*ite": 2J 8Rhat i" pr'per t' brahman i" t' a"" /e a** the 1'r/", t' (e $" rpa""a(*e a$0 0ev'i0 '1 K a*itie":3. T'r/ *ate0 i$ the /a$$er '1 a "\tra, thi" ver"e ('1 $#ertai$ pr've$a$#e) ha" (ee$ vari' "*% #ite0 a$0 i$terprete0. .he *'gi# that "ee/" t' $0er*ie it i" that the 8part: i$ tr th 0'e" $'t e7i"t, 1'r a** 8part": are a*rea0% the N'r0> ea#h 8part: the$, (ei$g i$#ipie$t*% the 8a**: /a% a##ept K a*i1i#ati'$" $'r/a**% re"erve0 t' the 8a**:, " #h a" avikalp!a 8$'t " (Le#t t' /e$ta* #'$"tr #t", 'r t' a*ter$ativit%:. S'/e #itati'$" '1 the ver"e (BI:", i$ hi" #'//e$tar% a0 FhI 5; 7, i$ parti# *ar) 0' $'t i$#* 0e avikalp!a, ( t e$0 with anatikrnta, whi#h " gge"t" that the parti#ip*e /a% have (ee$ $0er"t''0 i$ a#tive v'i#e (with srvar)p!am a" it" 0ire#t '(Le#t)> #ite0 h'wever i$ #'$L $#ti'$ with avikalp!a ("' CD), the pa""ive #'$"tr #ti'$ appear" /'re *ike*%. CD #ite" agai$ the "a/e ver"e i$ hi" g*'"" a0 43. .hi" ver"e '## r", "h'rte$e0 a$0 "*ight*% a*tere0, i$ &.; 5,8, where it i" 1'**'we0 (% the "a/e /a7i/ a" i" here K 'te0 (% the 1a$#ie0 '(Le#t'r= pradeamtram api brahmaa sarvar)pam0ekaikatrpi ca tattve a#triattattvama!atva stre' nir)pitam0, 8Gve$ a part '1 brahman i" e$0'we0 with a** 1'r/" 2here we 0i11er 1r'/ Si$gh wh' tra$"*ate"= 8Gve$ a *i/ite0 "pa#e #'$tai$" the e$tire 1'r/ '1 the Frah/a$:3. .he PA"tra" have "tate0 that ea#h tattva ha" the #hara#teri"ti#" '1 a** thirt%,"i7 tattvas". BI K 'te" it agai$ (pradeo (pi brahmaa srvar)p!am anatikrnta) i$ hi" g*'"" a0 FhI 5; 7, e7p*ai$i$g that re1ere$#e" t' a 8part: (aa, i$ v. 7) '1 the part*e"" brahman are i$te$0e0 1'r he ri"ti# p rp'"e" '$*%. 6$ the 1'r/ i$ whi#h it appear" i$ CD:" #'//e$tar%, the "tate/e$t i" /'re tha$ '$#e re1erre0 t' (% .4; 6 165, 666 45,46, 6; 98, 566 5, 55;666 375 (i$ the #'$te7t '1 ae"theti# e7perie$#e). 6$ .4; 666 45,46, i$ the #' r"e '1 e7p' $0i$g the pratibimbavda, it i" re1erre0 t' i$ the wa% it i" 1' $0 here, i$ CD:" #'//e$tar%, that i", i//e0iate*% 1'**'we0 (% the "e#'$0 /a7i/ (with varia$t= ekaikas!pi tattvas!a 2...3). Re " r/i"e that the "tate/e$t /ight 0erive 1r'/ the ?a"h/iria$ $'$0 a*i"t aiva tra0iti'$, "i$#e .4; 6; 98, whi*e e7p*ai$i$g the &.;:" re1ere$#e t' 8PA"tra":, i$tr'0 #e" it a" 1'**'w"= !ad v pardva!adarane, 8<r, a" i" "ai0 i$ the 0'#tri$e '1 tra$"#e$0e$t $'$0 a*it% 2...3:. M'wever, BI, i$ hi" g*'"" a0 FhI 5; 7, i$tr'0 #e" it a" (e*'$gi$g t' r'ti. 340 T'r 'ther #itati'$" '1 the te7t, "ee previ' " $'te, a$0 &+ 25 whi#h attri( te" it t' .4. B##'r0i$g t' '$e et%/'*'g%, ea#h a$0 ever% tattva i" the 8e7te$"i'$: (tanana J tan) '1 iva ("ee CD a0 10,11 a$0 $. 433). .here1're, 1r'/ iva t' earth, ever% tattva ha" the 1'r/ '1 the thirt%,"i7 tattvas. .he the'r% '1 #a "a*it% e"p' "e0 here i" the satkr!avda, 0eve*'pe0 at *e$gth i$ &.; 5,8 (Si$gh= 45, 48 2Skt. te7t3, 113,118 2tra$"*.3), a##'r0i$g t' whi#h the e11e#t pree7i"t" p'te$tia**% i$ the #a "e. .here1're, ever% tattva i" pre"e$t i$ the 'ther", either a" p'te$#% (pthiv,, the 1i$a* tattva, i" *ate$t i$ iva, the 1ir"t '$e) 'r a" /a$i1e"tati'$ (whe$ /a$i1e"te0, pthiv, i" $'thi$g ( t iva). !1. .4 65 49(,52a, K 'te0 $. 485.


t!ere is #(st one &o niLer, Wfor s(&! a &o niLer &anY not 'e distin (is!ed fro" Hill("inationI 6pra,(a7 itself, Wor fro" $rahman, for t!at "atter, $!i&! !as 'een defined as pra,(a Hill("inationI R and t!is is %lainly &ontradi&ted 'y t!e %let!ora of s('#e&ts attested in sense?e,%erien&e itselfY)A;8 T!en, on $!at 'asisA;6 do yo( affir" t!e e,isten&e of differen&e WviL), t!is (niverseY &!ara&teriLed as it is 'y Wt!e o%%osition 'et$eenY o'#e&t of en#oy"ent and en#oyerZ In ans$er to all t!is t!e "aster says: H'i"a himself assumes the condition of a fettered soulI) T!(s, t!at Lord $!o !as 'een des&ri'ed a'ove as a (nifor" "ass of 'lissf(l &ons&io(sness, and $!ose nat(re is freedo", 'i"a !i"self, $!ose essen&eA;A is no$ t!e veilin of !is o$n tr(e nat(re, ta5es on t!e role 6$h/mi,7 of a &o niLer endo$ed $it! a 'ody 6dehapramt.7, a&&ordin to !is o$n $ill, as t!o( ! !e $ere an a&tor 6na@a7, and, sin&e !e is W!en&efort!Y to 'e "aintained and treated as a do"esti& ani"al Wt!at is, as a tet!ered 'eastY, !e is no$ distin (is!ed 'y !is e,isten&e as a fettered s('#e&t 6pa(u7)A;; In referen&e to t!e o'#e&ts of !is en#oy"ent $!i&! !e !as !i"self &reated, %leas(re and %ain, et&), !e, no$ t!e e"'odied so(l, is &alled t!eir en#oyer) T!ere is, in &onse9(en&e, not!in to $!i&! lan (a e &an refer A;B t!at is ot!er t!an Piva)A;= .oreover, it is t!e Lord !i"self, it is Piva, $!o "a5es "anifest t!e %air of &o niLer and o'#e&t of &o nition Wa ainY &!ara&teriLed as en#oyer and o'#e&t of en#oy"ent, in !is freedo", as if t!ey $ere toys for %layin 6,r-ana,a7) It is in relation to t!is %air t!at all t!ese $orldly %(rs(its 'ased on differen&e ta5e %la&e) T!erefore, t!e very freedo" of t!e S(%re"e Lord is (ns(r%assed: even t!o( ! !e a'andons !is o$n nat(re of %lenit(de 6p/r0as3ar/p7 and ass("es t!e &ondition of a fettered so(l $!i&! &onsists of t!e di&!oto"y of en#oyer and o'#e&t of en#oy"ent, !e re"ains Piva !i"self, a (nifor" "ass of 'lissf(l &ons&io(sness, $!o ever "anifests !i"self 6prasphuran7 as t!e %(re a ent of e,%erien&e %resent in t!e Self of all &o niLers) #!rik! 9
G7a/p*e '1 red'ctio ad abs'rd'm. kiparatvena. 343 satattva. .he -labodhin, '1 ;a/a$a#har%a Da/a(hatta Oha*akikar, a /'0er$ #'//e$tar% '$ 6v!apraka, "tate" (" ( 6; 23 21965= 913) that the satattva '1 +a//aa:" te7t /a% (e $0er"t''0 a" "%$'$%/' " with tattva i$ the "e$"e '1 svar)pa, 8$at re:, a" i" the #a"e with the ter/" gotra a$0 sagotra= satattvena tatsvar)pea0 tattvasatattvaabda' par!!a'0 go1trasagotraabdavat. )'te that +a//aa i" a ?a"h/iria$ a th'r '1 the *ate 11th #e$t., #'$te/p'ra$e' ", /'re 'r *e"", with CD. !1. +R ".v. (sa1tattva)= 8$at ra* pr'pert%, $at re (,ta", i$0. Erea**%, i$ rea*it%E):, atte"te0 i$ Fh&, ;e0A$ta"Ara)> a*"' CD a0 105, wh' g*'""e" Csra, i$ strasra, 8the #'re '1 the tea#hi$g:, with satattva. Sa/e a$a*'g% '1 iva #'/pare0 with a$ a#t'r i$ CD a0 1 a$0 26. See a*"' Sp) 11, K 'te0 i$ Bppe$0i7 10, p. 330. 344 B##'r0i$g t' +a%rh'1er GRB, ".v., pa' i" re*ate0 t' Nat. pec's, 8(0'/e"ti#ate0) a$i/a*:> the w'r0 ha" $'thi$g t' 0', hi"t'ri#a**%, with pa 8"$are: (#1. Ik. efggh 8a""e/(*e:) J #'$trar% t' et%/'*'gie" i$ v'g e i$ 6$0ia (a" here), pa' i$ the "e$"e '1 8(' $0 "' *:, 81ettere0 " (Le#t:, i", i$ a$% #a"e, a /etaph'ri# "age. Si/i*ar e7p*a$ati'$ '1 pa' i$ CD a0 16. 345 padrtha. 346 !1. Sp? 66 4, K 'te0 $. 452.
341 342


WLet (s ad"it t!atY t!e &o niLer, $!ose nat(re is &ons&io(sness, is one) Even so, if !e is desi nated as H"anyI 'e&a(se of t!e diversity i"%lied 'y t!e "arvelo(s varie ation of 5no$ers and t!in s 5no$n, &reated 'y my, et&), !o$ &an !e 'e referred to any lon er in ter"s of a oneness already &ontradi&ted W'y diversityYZ If !e is one, !o$ &an !e 'e "anyZA;< Inas"(&! as t!is is a &ase of &ontradi&tion 63irodh7, li5e t!at of s(nli !t and s!ado$, it entails t!e attri'(tion 6adhysa7 of &ontradi&tory %ro%erties 63iruddhadharma7 Wto one and t!e sa"e t!in YMA;C and it is not t!e &ase t!at a t!in &an 'e at t!e sa"e ti"e one and "any,A;@ as !as 'een stated: T!e attri'(tion of &ontradi&tory %ro%erties Wto one and t!e sa"e t!in Y, WorY differen&e in t!e &a(ses, t!is W%airY only &onstit(tes differen&e, or t!e &a(se of differen&e 'et$een t!in s Wres%e&tivelyY)AB7 WAlle in t!is,Y t!e a(t!or resolves t!e o'#e&tion 'y %ro%osin an e,a"%le ta5en fro" ordinary life, in re ard to t!e "atter to 'e ill(strated WviL), !is o$n %ositionY: 9) As the clear crystal assumes the shades AB8 of "aried colors, so the 4ord himselfAB6 contains the kaleidoscopeABA of forms of gods, men, animalsAB; and plants) WT!e &o"%arison "ay 'e for"(lated as follo$s:YABB Alt!o( ! (nifor", the (clear) crystalAB= s(stains $it!in itself a "arvelo(s diversity 'y virt(e of Wits asso&iation

!1. ^&; 66 1, 1= !ata i!ati p)rvapake i!ad eva %,vitam ekam anekasvabhva katha s!d iti. !1. ^&? 66 2, 1 (.'re**a ^&?= 157, $. 3), ^&? 66 4,19, a$0 ^&; a0 *'#= na t' sa eva svabhvo bhinna cbhinna ca bhavit'm arhati vidhiniedha!or ekatraikad virodht. 349 .he " a* re"p'$"e '1 the Fhe0A(he0avA0i$" t' " #h a$ '(Le#ti'$ i" "it ate0 i$ the rea*/ '1 e7perie$#e J whatever p re *'gi# /a% te** ", 'r0i$ar% e7perie$#e '11er" " #' $t*e"" e7a/p*e" '1 the e""e$tia* #'e7i"te$#e '1 the 8'$e: a$0 the 8/a$%: (i$ &*at':" ter/") J 1'r e7a/p*e, a$% "et '1 Epart"E that /ake a Ewh'*eE, a$ E'rga$i#E wh'*e J a" 'pp'"e0 t' a$ $re*ate0 a""e/(*age '1 0i"parate e$titie". .he .rika:" a$"wer i$v'*ve" the 0'#tri$e '1 the tw' tr th" J 1'r, '$ the #'"/i# *eve*, the E'$eE a$0 the E/a$%E i$0ee0 #'e7i"t, ( t '$ 0i11ere$t *eve*" '1 (ei$g= samvtisat!a, vari' "*% tra$"*ate0 a" 8verite 0:e$ve*'ppe/e$t:, 8" r1a#e,*eve* tr th:, 8re*ative tr th:, 'r 8tr th '1 e/piri#a* 'r0er:, a$0 paramrthasat!a, 80eep,*eve* tr th: ("ee kA. 27) J 'r, i$ &*at':" ter/", the 8/ere*% appare$t: a$0 the 8tr *% rea*:. 350 Pramavrttikasvavtti 2&; svavtti3 a0 /vrthn'mapariccheda 33a. Re are i$0e(te0 t' &r'1. G. Stei$ke**$er 1'r the i0e$ti1i#ati'$ '1 the K 'te. 6$ the view '1 the +SS evi0e$#e a$0 the #itati'$ i$ .4, the ?S.S:" rea0i$g ha" (ee$ kept> "ee ' r 8Ni"t '1 varia$t": i$ 8<$ the Sa$"krit te7t:. .he "e$te$#e i" t' (e #'$"tr e0 !athsakh!am. B*"' K 'te0 i$ .4; 56, avat. t' 98, a*"' i$ the #'$te7t '1 a #'$tr'ver"% a" t' the a(i*it% '1 a$ $0ivi0e0 #'$"#i' "$e"" t' a"" /e e$tire*% the 1'r/ '1 0iver"it%, i.e., t' /a$i1e"t it"e*1 a" /a$%. 351 Nit., 8a"pe#t:. Si*( r$ (p. 64) tra$"*ate" r)pa (% 8appare$#e: (8appeara$#e:). Far$ett tra$"*ate" r)pa a$0 r)patva (% 8"e/(*a$#e:. 352 2...3 a*th' gh (ei$g 1 $0a/e$ta**% '$e. 353 Nit., 8the 1a#t '1 (ei$g 1'r/":, 81'r/$e"":. .he i0i'/ 8the ka*ei0'"#'pe '1 1'r/": i" a$ atte/pt t' re$0er the a("tra#t $' $ r)patva, i$ the "e$"e that a ka*ei0'"#'pe repre"e$t" a #apa#it% h'*0i$g withi$ it a$ i$1i$it% '1 0i"#rete 1'r/". 354 pa', 80'/e"ti# a$i/a*:, "ta$0" i$ the kArikA, (% "%$e#0'#he, 1'r 1' r '1 the 1ive varietie" '1 8a$i/a*": e$ /erate0 i$ +;. ; 7,9 a$0 S? 53, $a/e*%, pa', pakin, sarpa, mga, wherea" pdapa, 8p*a$t:, " a**% ter/e0 sthvara, 8"tati'$ar%:, i" give$ a 1i1th a$0 "eparate e$tr%. See $. 322. 355 6$ 1a#t the #'//e$tar% "tart" with !ath, 8L "t a":, #iti$g the !ath '1 the kArikA. .he #'rre*ative a0ver(, tathaiva, 8*ikewi"e:, eK iva*e$t t' the tadvat '1 the kArikA, #'/e" *ater i$ the #'//e$tar%. 6$ 'r0er t' /ake the tra$"*ati'$ *ighter, we have "eparate0 the tw' #*a "e". 356 spha#ikamai J *it., 8#r%"ta*,Lewe*:.
347 348


$it!Y inn("era'le and varied &ontin ent attri'(tes 6updhi7AB< s(&! as red or 'l(e, and t!(s itself 'e&o"es $onderf(lly diverse) -et, for all t!at, it Wt!e &rystalY is never devoid of &rystal?ness)ABC O!at alone Wdeter"inesY t!e &rystal?ness AB@ of t!e &rystal is t!is: alt!o( ! t!e W&rystalY is %er"eated A=7 'y vario(s &!ara&teristi&s, t!e (nderstandin WviL), Ht!is is a &rystalIY re"ains ever (no'str(&ted to all W$!o %er&eive itY) In ordinary %arlan&e Wor, in everyday %ra&ti&eY, A=8 $e say only t!at t!ese &olors, red, et&), a%%ear 6sphuranti7 !ere WviL), in t!e &rystalY, not t!at t!e &ontin ent attri'(te HredWnessYI, et&), 9(alifies t!e &rystal, as it does a &lot!, s(&! t!at an alteration A=6 of its tr(e nat(re ens(es Wif t!e &olor is "odifiedY)A=A T!erefore t!e %(rity of t!e e" &onsists %re&isely in ass("in vario(s !(es, A=; $!i&! !ave t!e for" of &ontin ent attri'(tes, $!ile at t!e sa"e ti"e %erseverin 6prathate7 in its very essen&e WviL), as &rystalY) Li5e$ise, as t!e &rystal? e" "ay &ontain a variety of &olors, so t!e Lord, free, solely for"ed of &ons&io(sness 6cide,aghana7,A=B &ontains, t!o( ! (nifor", in t!e &lear "irror of !is Self,A== the kaleidoscope of forms of t!ose %arti&(lar WentitiesY !e !as !i"self &reated, $!i&! are not different fro" !i" R t!o( ! t!ey no$ !ave t!e for" of entities s(&! as R(dras or ordinary so(ls, $!o W"ay 'e &lassified asY ods, "en, and ot!ers, fro" do"esti& ani"als and $in ed &reat(res to stationary 'ein s WviL), %lantsY)A=< Nevert!eless, trans&endin all of t!e", !e is ever a$are of !is non?d(al Self R alt!o( ! it !as ass("ed inn("era'le for"s R invi orated A=C 'y t!e state of
'pdhi i" ge$era**% tra$"*ate0 a" 8#'$ti$ge$t #'$0iti'$: 'r 8#'$ti$ge$t attri( te:, a##'r0i$g t' #'$te7t. .he (ir0 i" a$ 'pdhi '1 the (ra$#h J that i", a 8#'$ti$ge$t attri( te: '1 the (ra$#h J i$"'1ar a" it "erve" t' 0i"ti$g i"h that (ra$#h 1r'/ 'ther", L "t a" Ewet 1 e*E i" a$ 'pdhi '1 the 1ire J that i", a 8#'$ti$ge$t #'$0iti'$: '1 the 1ire J i$"'1ar a" it "erve" t' #'rre#t the 'vere7te$"i'$ '1 the pr'p'"iti'$ 8where there:" 1ire there:" "/'ke: (E1 e*E /a% (e a $e#e""ar% #'$0iti'$ '1 1ire, ( t it" Ewet$e""E i" a$ 'pdhi). CD:" "age "ee/" #'$"i"te$t with thi" ge$era* pri$#ip*e i$a"/ #h a", here, the ver% / *tip*i#it% '1 the atte"te0 w'r*0 (i$#* 0i$g a** " ("ta$#e", attri( te", a$0 a#ti'$") i" viewe0 a" 1ree*% (( t $'t $e#e""ari*%) 8#'$0iti'$e0: '$ the N'r0:" wi**. 6$ the #a"e '1 the #'*'r 8re0:, whi#h at 1ir"t "ight appear" t' (e*'$g t' the #r%"ta*, ( t '1 whi#h it i" $'thi$g ( t a$ 'pdhi J 0i"#'vere0 at that /'/e$t whe$ '$e rea*iUe" that the #'*'r (e*'$g" i$ 1a#t t' the 1*'wer J the ter/ ('pdhi" 1i$a**% a#K ire" the va*e$#e '1 81a*"e attri( te:. Tr'/ thi" "ta$0p'i$t it i" ( t a "h'rt "tep t' the #'"/i# "age" we "ee i$ te7t" '1 /'$i"ti# per" a"i'$, *ike the Paramrthasra> '$ 'pdhi, "ee a*"' $. 1278. 358 sphatikat. 359 maitva J *it., 8Lewe*,$e"":. 360 cch'rita J "a/e ter/ i$ ^&vX 6 7, 1> .'re**a (^&?= 136) tra$"*ate" cch'ta (% 8variegate0 (%:. !1. a*"' avat. a0 85,86, p. 167, a$0 S; 666 1, 0e1i$i$g citta, 8e/piri#a* e7perie$#e, 'r #'$"#i' "$e"":, a" via!avsancch'rita, 8#'*'re0 (% 2'r "at rate0 (%3 the 0i"p'"iti'$" 0ep'"ite0 (% the '(Le#t" '1 "e$"e":. 361 v!avah!ate. 362 vipralopa J *it., 8*'"":. 363 61 the re0 #'*'r were rea**% pre"e$t i$ the #r%"ta*, it w' *0 $' *'$ger (e #r%"ta*, 1'r it" $at re, whi#h i" t' (e tra$"pare$t t' a$% #'*'r, w' *0 have #ha$ge0. 364 kra J *it., 81'r/":, 8a"pe#t":, 8"hape":. 365 Nit, 8a /a"" "'*e*% #'$"i"ti$g '1 #'$"#i' "$e"":, whi#h we have tra$"*ate0 "'/ewhat /'re 1ree*% t' av'i0 ( r0e$i$g the rea0er with t'' /a$% E/a""iveE #'$"tr #ti'$". 366 Tir"t '## rre$#e '1 the /irr'r /etaph'r. 367 !reati'$ taki$g p*a#e i$ pthv!aa i" re1erre0 t' here. 368 'pabhita.


(nfra "ented $onder t!at is W%(reY HIIW?nessY 6aham7)A=@ Alt!o( ! Wt!e LordY is as !e !as 'een des&ri'ed Wi)e), one, yet ass("in inn("era'le for"sY, neit!er Hs%a&eI nor Hti"eI "ay 'e W%osited asY different fro" !i", in s(&! "anner as to ne ate A<7 !is oneness, and in referen&e to $!i&! one "i !t raise t!e o'#e&tion t!at Win assertin t!at !e is 'ot! one and "anyY &ontradi&tory %ro%erties, et&), !ave 'een attri'(ted to Wone andY t!e Wsa"eY Great Lord t!at is oneIs o$n Self 6s3tmamahe(3ara7) And even ot!ers WviL), +(dd!istsY a&5no$led e t!at a &o nition W$!ose &ontent isY varia'le, alt!o( ! it is Wt!(sY "odified 'y a variety of distin&t Wfa&torsY, is, 9(a i""edia&y Wof %er&e%tion R s,)tY, one only)A<8 For instan&e, as in t!e Pram0a3rtti,a: T!e &olor 'l(e, et&), is a &ontin ent attri'(te of &o nition as re ards t!e &o nition 63i12na7 W$!ose &ontent is al$aysY varia'le 6citra7M Was s(&!,Y it does not %arta5e of anyt!in else WviL), it is itself, and not t!e &olor yello$, for instan&eYM it &annot 'e %er&eived Wdifferently, viL), as t!e &olor yello$Y) For WevenY $!en W&on&e%t(allyY se%aratin t!is W'l(e fro" yello$Y, Wt!e &o niLerY refers WonlyY to t!e t!in Wi)e), to t!e &on&rete (nit t!at (nderlies $!at !e sees in !is %er&e%tion, na"ely, t!e &olor 'l(eY)A<6
Tir"t '## rre$#e '1 the 86: $'ti'$, i$ re1ere$#e t' the "pe#i1i# #'$#ept '1 ahantcamatkra. CD wi** take it p agai$, with the $'ti'$ '1 ahamprat,ti, whi*e #'//e$ti$g '$ &S 8. 8aha/: a" a 1 **, 1*e0ge0 $'ti'$ i" t' (e 1' $0 i$ CD a0 30 a$0 i$ kA. 47,50. !1. ^&? 15, 11, a##'r0i$g t' whi#h the 0i11ere$#e (etwee$ #'$"#i' "$e"" a$0 the #r%"ta* i" that the *atter, $*ike the 1'r/er, (ei$g *i1e*e"" (%aa), #a$$'t (e aware '1 the re1*e#ti'$" '1 whi#h it i" the " ("trat /. Sa/e rea"'$i$g i$ the /avitpraka K 'te0 i$ Sp& 4 2 S a0 6 43 (-%#Uk'w"ki Sp&= 18)= $... naitvat (sa' sphatika ptha nast! eva ra&%akt0 bhvar)paparit!akt tava v nirmal tan'00, 82...3 the #r%"ta* #a$ $ever (e 1ree '1 the #'*'r 2i/parte0 t' it (% 'ther '(Le#t"3 wherea" C' r p re 1'r/ 20 N'r03 i" a*wa%" 1ree '1 phe$'/e$a: (tr. -%#Uk'w"ki /amvitpraka= 149). B" '("erve0 (% -%#Uk'w"ki (Sp?= 369, $. 95), the ver"e i" $'t 1' $0 i$ the avai*a(*e +SS '1 the /avitpraka, ( t i" a*"' K 'te0 i$ the :akm,tantra 2N.3 (56; 8a) i$ the "a/e 1'r/, a$0 a" a paraphra"e i$ .4 ; 154(,155a. 370 .i/e a$0 "pa#e are 0ee/e0 'pdhis. )'te the p $ '$ khaan, 80ivi0i$g: a$0 8re1 ti$g:. 371 F 00hi"t *'gi#a* the'r% i" i$v'ke0 here, '$#e agai$ repre"e$te0 (% -har/akYrti (Pramavrttika 2&;3, Pra#!akapariccheda 220), thi" ti/e e7p*i#it*%. Si/i*ar rea"'$i$g i" at w'rk i$ .4 6 197 a$0 .4; a0 *'#. (tr. Si*( r$, &a0' 7 .4= 115)= 8-e /e/e K e p' r $ '(,Let 0'$$e, $e #r #he ' a tre #h'"e, *a per#epti'$ g*'(a*e 0e *:'(Let * i,/e/e, ave# t' te" "e" #ara#teri"tiK e", re" *te 0e *:e$"e/(*e, 0e *a re $i'$ 0e t' te" *e" per#epti'$" "eparee" 0e #ha# $e 0e "e" K a*ite" J $e #' *e r r' ge, par e7e/p*e, et#. J 0e /e/e, i#i, #:e"t A partir 0e *a /a$i1e"tati'$ partie**e 0e" e*e/e$t" gr'""ier", et#., 21'r/a$t *a /a$i1e"tati'$3 K :apparait 0a$" "a t'ta*ite *:e$ergie 0e D 0ra: 2J 86$ the "a/e wa% a", 1'r a give$ '(Le#t, a Lar, et#., the g*'(a* per#epti'$ '1 the '(Le#t it"e*1 a*'$g with a** it" #hara#teri"ti#", re" *t" 1r'/ the wh'*e, 1r'/ the #'/(i$ati'$ '1 a** the per#epti'$" parte0 1r'/ ea#h '1 their K a*itie" J the re0 #'*'r 1'r i$"ta$#e J "i/i*ar*%, here, it i" 1r'/ the partia* per#epti'$ '1 the gr'"" e*e/e$t", et#., 2#'$"tit tive '1 the /a$i1e"tati'$3 that appear" the e$erg% '1 D 0ra i$ it" t'ta*it%:3. 372 Pramavrttika, Prat!akapariccheda 220. Bgai$, we are i$0e(te0 t' &r'1. G. Stei$ke**$er 1'r the i0e$ti1i#ati'$ '1 the K 'te. .he ver"e here #ite0 i" t' (e take$ with the 1'**'wi$g ver"e (&; 666 221)= !ad !ath bhsate %&na tat tathaivn'bh)!ate0 iti nmaikabhva s!c citrkras!a cetasa00. .hi" pair '1 ver"e" ha" (ee$ vari' "*% i$terprete0 (% F 00hi"t #'//e$tat'r" the/"e*ve"= a/'$g the/, +a$'ratha$a$0i$ (wh'/ we have 1'**'we0 i$ ' r tra$"*ati'$) a$0 &raLQAkarag pta, 1'**'we0 (% +a"ahir' 6$a/i, i$ a$ arti#*e e$tit*e0 8)'$,0 a* !'g$iti'$: t' appear i$ Proceedings o9 the Ko'rth Lnternational 7harmak,rti <on9erence (;ie$$a, 1'rth#'/i$g), whi#h ha" (ee$ (r' ght t' ' r atte$ti'$ (% &r'1. G*i Tra$#', '$e '1 the e0it'r". 6$a/i tra$"*ate" the ver"e" a" 1'**'w" (#ite0 with the a th'r:" per/i""i'$)= 86$ a variegate0 #'g$iti'$, a #'*'r " #h a" (* e, whi#h i" a K a*i1ier '1 the #'g$iti'$, #a$$'t (e k$'w$ t' (e $a##'/pa$ie0 (% 'ther 2#'*'r"3. <$e wh' 0i"ti$g i"he" it 21r'/ 'ther #'*'r"3 i" 1'# "i$g '$ the 2e7ter$a*3 '(Le#t" 2$'t '$ the #'g$iti'$3 2666


.oreover, s%a&e and ti"e are W!ereY %ost(lated W'y t!e o'#e&torY as diversifyin t!e free, all?en&o"%assin /no$er 612t.7, $!ose nat(re is only &ons&io(sness 6cide,a3apus7) *o$ &o(ld t!ey serve to deli"it WviL), serve as a 9(alifi&ation ofY A<A s(&! a Lord, %ersistin as t!ey do W$it!in !i"Y only as as%e&ts of !is %layf(l eff(l en&e 6samullsa,a7 t!at res(lts in t!e variety of !is for"s and a&tionsZA<; *ere it s!o(ld 'e 5e%t in "ind t!at, !ad s%a&e and ti"e ever e,isted as different fro" Wi)e), inde%endent ofY &ons&io(sness, only t!en, $o(ld Wyo(r o'#e&tionY !ave 'een valid: WviL), t!at o(r assertion, na"ely, t!at t!e Lord is one and "any, entailsY t!e attri'(tion of &ontradi&tory %ro%erties Wto one and t!e sa"e o'#e&tY R an attri'(tion $!i&! is itself a &reation of t!at &ons&io(sness) WRat!er,Y sin&e t!eir o$n e,isten&e WviL), t!e e,isten&e of s%a&e and ti"eY is esta'lis!ed only 'y t!e Li !t of &ons&io(sness 6sa3itpra,(a7, it is t!ere'y esta'lis!ed t!at t!e WLordY, alt!o( ! !avin a "(lti%le nat(re, is t!e sa"e (ni9(e Great Lord, $!ose for" is &ons&io(sness 6cinm/rti7)A<B *ad differen&e WviL), "anifoldnessY 'een a WrealY %ro%erty,A<= it $o(ld !ave 'een diffi&(lt to ref(te Wt!e o'#e&tion ofY t!e attri'(tion of &ontradi&tory %ro%erties Wto one and t!e sa"e o'#e&tY) #!rik! : +(t, Wo'#e&ts t!e p/r3apa,)in,Y t!e notion !as 'een ad"itted W'y yo(Y t!at t!ere is '(t one &o niLer, $!ose essen&e is &ons&io(sness, and also t!at Ws(&! a s('#e&tY, !avin no$ ass("ed Wt!e s!a%e ofY 'odies, fa&(lties and $orlds, 'e&o"es "(lti%le) If t!at is indeed t!e &ase, t!en, t!at one &o niLer s!o(ld %eris! on&e !is 'ody, et&), is destroyed, and !e s!o(ld ori inate on&e !is 'ody, et&), &o"es into 'ein ) Si"ilarly, t!at W(niversal s('#e&tY is vario(sly deli"ited $it! res%e&t to ea&! and every &o niLer in a&&ordan&e $it! t!e si, H"odifi&ations of 'e&o"in I R 'irt!, e,isten&e, et&) And it is t!at W(niversal s('#e&t, in t!e for" of t!eY Lord $!o en#oys !eaven and !ell, a&&ordin to t!e variety of !is a&tions, $!et!er "eritorio(s or (n"eritorio(s) All t!is 'ein so, !o$ &an it 'e said t!at Piva !as an a'sol(te nat(re 6s3as3ar/pa7Z T!e "aster res%onds to t!ese o'#e&tions 'y "eans of an e,a"%le:
2203. .he #'g$iti'$ i" e7perie$#e0 e7a#t*% i$ the /a$$er i$ whi#h it appear". .here1're, the variegate0 i/age i$ #'g$iti'$ "h' *0 (e "i$g *ar 2'r, a" " gge"te0 (% G*i Tra$#'= 8the #'g$iti'$ whi#h ha" a variegate0 1'r/ i" "i$g *ar (viU., it i" the #'g$iti'$ whi#h i" "ai0 t' (e "i$g *ar, $'t the 1'r/):3 2666 2213:. .he /aL'r 0i11ere$#e '1 i$terpretati'$ re*ate" t' the ter/ anan!abhk, whi#h 6$a/i " ('r0i$ate" i$ i0ea t' the 1'**'wi$g #'/p' $0, aak!adarana, $0er"ta$0i$g it (a" it were) a" e7pre""i$g the #'$te$t '1 that 8#'g$iti'$: that i" i/p'""i(*e J 8#a$$'t (e k$'w$ 2d1 here $0er"t''0 a" %&13 t' (e $a##'/pa$ie0 (% 'ther 2#'*'r"3: J wherea" we have re*ate0 it t' the ver"e:" " (Le#t, %&nopdhi, a", appare$t*%, 0'e" +a$'ratha a*"'. M'wever that /a% (e, the $0er"ta$0i$g" '1 ver"e 220 are $'t that 0i11ere$t a" t' the p'i$t that CD wa$t" t' /ake= eve$ the /'"t $'t'ri' " parti"a$" '1 / *tip*i#it% J the F 00hi"t" J a##ept that what appear" t' the /i$0, i$evita(*%, a" / *tip*e / "t (e #'g$iUe0, i$"'1ar a" it i" #'g$iUe0, i$ a #'g$iti'$ that i" i$ "'/e "e$"e '$e, /'/e$tar% th' gh it /a% (e. Rhether that 8 $it%: (e pre0i#ate0 '1 the #'g$iti'$ it"e*1 (a" per &raLQAkarag pta), 'r '1 the 8'(Le#t: '1 #'g$iti'$ J viU., the #'*'r (* e, that #a$$'t (e a$%thi$g ( t it"e*1, i$"'1ar a" it i" $0er"t''0 a" a #'/p'$e$t '1 that '(Le#t J (a" per +a$'ratha$a$0i$), the pri$#ip*e i" e"ta(*i"he0 that the 8'$e: a$0 the 8/a$%: /a%, 'r 0', #'e7i"t. <$ the #'$te7t '1 " #h a "tate/e$t i$ thi" w'rk '1 F 00hi"t *'gi#, "ee a*"' ;etter 1964= 66,71. 373 v!avacchedaka. 374 !1. agai$ ^&? 66 1, 4,5. 375 Si*( r$ tra$"*ate" cinm)rti a" 8p re "pirit a*ite: (8p re "pirit a*it%:). 376 bhedadharme, "#i*. sati.

:7 As when the water mo"es, the moon (reflected there) seems to mo"e, and when the water is still, seems to be still, so it is with this Self, the ;reat 4ord, (when reflected) in the host of bodies, faculties and worlds)A<< N(st as, $!ere a &o(rse of $ater is "ovin , t!e Hcool+rayed orbI, t!at is, t!e %!ysi&al "oon, $!i&!, in reality, is sit(ated in t!e s5y and of itself does not "ove, '(t !as even so des&ended Win a%%earan&eY onto t!e flo$in $ater, mo"es, oes fort!, as it were, so too, at t!e sa"e "o"ent, else$!ere, $!ere t!e %ond of $ater is "otionless, t!at very Hcool+rayed orbI becomes still, as it $ere Wi)e), t!ere refle&ted, a%%ears to 'e stillY) T!(s t!e "oon is i"a ined in 'ot! $ays Was 'ot! "ovin and stillY 'y all &o niLers, t!o( ! it &annot in fa&t 'e so Wt!at is, t!e "oon neit!er "oves nor is still: s(&! %redi&ates 'elon to t!e $ater onlyY) Nor is it t!e &ase t!at ti"e and s%a&e, $!i&! %ertain %ro%erly to t!e $ater, affe&t 6parm.(7 t!e nat(re of t!e "oon, t!at is, its re"ainin in t!e s5y, as differentiatin fa&torsM only $ater as s(&! is so Waffe&ted 'y t!e differentiation 'ro( !t a'o(t 'y ti"e and s%a&eY) .oreover, sin&e differen&e R as e,e"%lified 'y t!e "o'ility or i""o'ility t!at affe&t t!e or' of t!e "oon '(t %ro%erly 'elon to t!e $ater in $!i&! t!e "oon is refle&ted 6prati$im$ita7 R is "erely %!eno"enal,A<C to t!at e,tent, t!e "oon s(ffers no !ar" at all in its essential nat(re, $!et!er it 'e refle&ted in t!e $ater of t!e Gan es or $!et!er it des&ends onto WviL), is refle&ted on t!e s(rfa&e ofY sli"e) So it is with this Self t!at !as t!e nat(re of &ons&io(sness, Wt!o( ! it a%%earsY to 'e 'orn or to %eris! $!en are 'orn or %eris! the host of bodies, faculties and worlds it !as itself &reated) +(t t!is is only t!e %ra&ti&e Wi)e), t!e (nderstandin Y of t!ose $!o are del(ded 63ymohita7 'y my in t!is %!eno"enal $orld,A<@ #(st as !a%%ens $!en t!e "oon Wis refle&tedY in $ater) For it is not %ossi'le t!at t!e Self 'e 'orn or t!at it die) As it !as 'een said in t!e revered "-t:

!1. 4&S 17, evi0e$t*% 1'**'we0 here (% ' r a th'r J a*th' gh it" 1ir"t he/i"ti#h i" "*ight*% 0i11ere$t, a" the " $ i" there /e$ti'$e0 rather tha$ the /''$. B" the /''$ 0'e" $'t 0epe$0 1'r it" e7i"te$#e p'$ the water i$ whi#h it i" re1*e#te0, "' the N'r0 0'e" $'t 0epe$0 p'$ the p*a% '1 0i11ere$tiati'$. 6t i" 0iver"it% that 1* #t ate", $'t the N'r0. Si*( r$ tra$"*ate" bimbo, (% 8re1*et: (8re1*e#ti'$:), a$0 '/it" iva. < r tra$"*ati'$ i" (a"e0 '$ the #'//e$tar%, whi#h 0eve*'p" the /ea$i$g '1 iva, a$0 #*ear*% 0i"ti$g i"he" bimba 1r'/ pratibimba 8re1*e#ti'$:. 6$ 1a#t, the *'gi# '1 the #'/p*ete "i/i*e reK ire" t' $0er"ta$0 himakarabimbam a" the 8'r( '1 the /''$:, i$"tea0 '1 the 8re1*e#ti'$ '1 the /''$:, a" 0'e" Si*( r$, 1'r what ha" t' (e 0e/'$"trate0 i" the a("'* te, eter$a*, $at re '1 the N'r0, 'r Se*1. .h " the #'/p*ete "i/i*e i" t' (e $0er"t''0 a" 1'**'w"= the /''$ "ta$0" 1'r the N'r0, 'r the B("'* te, it" re1*e#ti'$ 1'r the *i/ite0 Se*1, water 1'r the phe$'/e$a* w'r*0. !1. Sp& 3 (p. 13), i$ the #'$te7t '1 the 0i"# ""i'$ '$ avasths= vellats' pratibimbe' %alaspandn'varti'0 !athendor na kri!veas tath (tra paramtmana00, 8B*th' gh it" /'vi$g re1*e#ti'$" 0a$#e i$ #'$"'$a$#e with the vi(rati'$" '1 water, the /''$ 0'e" $'t i$0 *ge i$ a$% a#ti'$. Nikewi"e, here, the " pre/e Se*1 2re/ai$" #'$"ta$t i$ the /i0"t '1 #ha$ge3:. 378 v!avah!ate J 'r 8i" /ere*% a #'$ve$ti'$ '1 *a$g age: J i.e., we "a% 8the /''$ "hi//er" 2'$ the water3:, ( t thi" i" L "t a wa% '1 ta*ki$g. 379 v!avahra J "ee $. 659. )'te that FhIFh 66 20 (FhI 66 20 (ei$g K 'te0 " ("eK e$t*% i$ CD:" #'//e$tar%) re1er" t' thi" #'$ve$ti'$a* ( t err'$e' " $0er"ta$0i$g '1 thi$g"= it! 'c!ate loke ("ee $'te (e*'w).


*e is not 'orn, nor does !e ever dieM] Nor, !avin &o"e to 'e, $ill !e ever "ore &o"e not to 'e)]AC7 Un'orn, eternal, everlastin , t!is an&ient one] Is not slain $!en t!e 'ody is slain)AC8 T!erefore t!is Self, the ;reat 4ord, free Wever a(tono"o(sY, $!ose nat(re is t!e a$areness 6pratya3amar(a7 t!at all t!e (niverse is !is o$n Self, ever %ersistent AC6 as t!e %rin&i%le of e,%erien&e itself Wat t!e !eartY of all &o niLers is in fa&t not!in '(t !is o$n a'sol(te nat(re, $!atever Wli"itin Y &onditionACA "ay a%%ear or disa%%ear) It is %re&isely t!e (niversal "astery 6mahe(nat37 of t!e &ons&io(s %rin&i%le 6sa3ittatt3a7 t!at ena'les a&&o"%lis!"ent of W$!at is ot!er$iseY diffi&(lt to &onstr(e 6durgha@a,rin7M for, alt!o( ! W, in &onfor"ity $it! t!is %rin&i%le, t!e LordY
.he phra"e n!a bh)tv bhavit v na bh)!a ha" (ee$ vari' "*% i$terprete0. See, a/'$g 'ther", Nevi, Sti#k$e% FhI (('rr'we0 (% Si*( r$ &S= 65)= 8$:a%a$t La/ai" ete et $:a**a$t etre e$#'re: 2J 8$either havi$g ever (ee$, $'r (ei$g a(' t t' (e agai$:3, a$0 G0gert'$ FhI= 8)'r, havi$g #'/e t' (e, wi** he ever /'re #'/e $'t t' (e:, wh' tra$"*ate the "e$te$#e a" it i", i$ a *i$ear wa%. :" #'//e$tar% rea0" (with the a/(ig it% '$ bhavit0abhavit a**'we0 (% sandhi)= n!a bh)tv bhavit 2a$0 (bhavit3 v na bh)!a, g*'""e0 a" 1'**'w", i$ ter/" '1 a #'/p*e7 a$a*%"i" '1 the "%$ta7= na a!a bh)tv abhavit bh)!a, na v na bh)tv bhavit bh)!a, 86t i" $'t that, havi$g (ee$, 2the Se*13 wi** #ea"e t' (e therea1ter 2viU., the 'r0i$ar% 0e1i$iti'$ '1 0eath3, $'r that, $'t havi$g (ee$, wi** it (e therea1ter 2viU., the 'r0i$ar% 0e1i$iti'$ '1 (irth3:. .h " n!a bh)tv bhavit v na bh'!a i" a wa% '1 e/pha"iUi$g a$0 $pa#ki$g the 1ir"t "tate/e$t J na %!ate mri!ate v kadcit J (% /aki$g it #*ear that thi" Se*1 i" (e%'$0 te/p'ra*it%, i.e., (e%'$0 the "eK e$tia*it% hi$te0 at here (% the 0' (*e "e '1 the a("'* tive a$0 '1 the periphra"ti# 1 t re J a*th' gh '$e ha" t' (e " "pi#i' " '1 thi" i$terpretati'$, 1'r abhavit #a$$'t (e a periphra"ti# 1 t re, a##'r0i$g t' &A@i$ea$ gra//ar. .he $egative 1'r/ '1 " #h a 1 t re w' *0 (e na bhavit ("ee De$' 1968= i134, 1'r "'/e e7#epti'$"). T'r thi" rea"'$, G0gert'$ 1i$0" :" e7p*a$ati'$ i/p*a "i(*e. :" #'//e$tar% i" the 1'**'wi$g= !asmd a!am tm bh)tv bhavakri!m an'bh)!a pacd abhavit (bhvam gant na bh)!ahp'nas tasmn na mri!ate0 !o hi bh)tv na bhavit sa mri!ate it! 'c!ate loke, 8Si$#e it i" $'t that thi" Se*1, a1ter havi$g #'/e i$t' (ei$g, i.e., a1ter havi$g e7perie$#e0 the pr'#e"" '1 e7i"te$#e, wi** therea1ter #ea"e t' (e, i.e., wi** therea1ter (bh)!a E p'na) (e#'/e $'$e7i"te$t, there1're it 0'e" $'t 0ie. 2T'r3 i$ #'//'$ par*a$#e, the '$e wh' #ea"e" t' (e a1ter #'/i$g i$t' (ei$g i" "ai0 t' 0ie:, vabdn naabdc c!am tmbh)tv v bhavit dehavan na bh)!a p'nas tasmn na %!ate0 !o h! abh)tv bhavit sa%!ata it! 'c!ate0 naivam tm0 ato na %!ate, 8<r, 1r'/ the "e '1 the w'r0" v a$0 na, 2it i" t' (e $0er"t''0 that3 $*ike the ('0%, thi" Se*1 0'e" $'t agai$ #'/e i$t' e7i"te$#e a1ter havi$g (ee$ $'$,e7i"te$t 2th ", '$ thi" "e#'$0 *eve* '1 the /ea$i$g, the "e#'$0 na $egate" bh)tv with the "e$"e '1 abh)tv3. .here1're it i" $'t ('r$. 2T'r3 the '$e wh' #'/e" i$t' e7i"te$#e, a1ter havi$g (ee$ $'$,e7i"te$t, i" "ai0 t' (e ('r$. .he Se*1 i" $'t *ike thi"> there1're it i" $'t ('r$:. !1. BI:" #'//e$tar% '$ the "a/e pa""age, where the e7egete pr've" t' (e a /'re "#r p *' " gra//aria$ tha$ , a*th' gh he '11er" e""e$tia**% the "a/e e7p*a$ati'$= na %!ate mri!ate v kadcit0 etad eva sph'#a!ad @ n!a bh)tveti0 a!am tm na na bh)tv bhavitpi t' bh)tvaiva0 ato na %!ate na ca mri!ate 0 !ato bh)tv na na bhavitpi t' bhavitaiva0, 8 E)either i" thi" 2Se*13 ever ('r$ $'r 0'e" it ever 0ieE. Me e7p*ai$" thi" (% the w'r0" >n!a bh)tv 2et#.3E. .hi" Se*1, $'t havi$g $'t (e#'/e, wi** e7i"t J i$ 'ther w'r0", it ha" ever (ee$> th " it $either i" ('r$ $'r 0'e" it 0ie> (m'tatis m'tandis) "i$#e it ha" (e#'/e, it wi** $'t $'t (e J i$ 'ther w'r0", it wi** ever (e:. 381 FhI 66 20 (tr. G0gert'$ J a" are a** tra$"*ati'$" 1r'/ FhI #ite0 here, $*e"" 'therwi"e "pe#i1ie0). #'//e$t" p'$ the"e attri( te"= "i$#e (irth i" 0e$ie0, the Se*1 i" $('r$ (a%a)> "i$#e peri"ha(i*it%, i.e., 0eath, i" 0e$ie0, it i" eter$a* (nit!a)> "i$#e #ha$ge i$ the 1'r/ '1 0e#a% i" 0e$ie0, it i" ever*a"ti$g (vata)> "i$#e #ha$ge i$ the 1'r/ '1 gr'wth ('pp'"e0 t' 0e#a%) i" 0e$ie0, it i" "ai0 t' (e 8a$#ie$t: (p'r), a$0 a" " #h ever$ew, ever1re"h, 1ree 1r'/ a$% a##reti'$. Net " re#a** the tra0iti'$a* et%/'*'g% '1 p'ra= p'r nava bhavati id p'ram, 8what 1'r/er*% wa" $ew, i" a$#ie$t: a$0= p'r adh'n ca navam eva, (p'ra i" that whi#h 1'r/er*% wa" $ew a$0 i" $ew t', 0a%: ("ee CD a0 1, wh' #'//e$t" p'$ andi (% p'ra). Ti$a**%, i$ the *a"t "tate/e$t= 8thi" Se*1 i" $'t 0e"tr'%e0 2'r 8ki**e0: (han!ate), 8"*ai$e0:, a" G0gert'$ tra$"*ate"3, whe$ the ('0% i"


en#oys in inn("era'le $ays all t!e oods of !eaven and all t!e evils of !ell, !avin a&&e%ted WfreelyY t!e &ondition of fettered s('#e&t, at t!e sa"e ti"e, !e re"ains identi&al $it! !is essen&eAC; $!i&! is &ons&io(sness, 'e&a(se !e is t!e %rin&i%le of e,%erien&e itself in ea&! and every W%er&i%ient s('#e&tY 6sar3nu$ha3it.t7 Wt!at is, t!at "a5es %ossi'le t!e e,%erien&e of anyt!in at allY) Or rat!er, if t!e state of 'ein fettered R deter"ined 'y its &ondition of 'onda e, and e,e"%lified $!en $e e,%erien&e "erit and de"erit, !eaven and !ell, !(n er and t!irst, et&) R is ill("ined 6pra,(ita7 'y t!e self?ill("inatin 6s3tmapra,(7 Lord and re&o niLed 6parm.)@a7 W'y !i"Y, only t!en does it attain its 'ein WviL), e,istY in Wt!e LordIsY o$n Self, as stated a'ove)ACB Ot!er$ise t!is state of 'ein fettered si"%ly doesnIt e,ist)AC= *o$ t!en &an it 'e said t!at t!e Great Lord t!at is oneIs o$n Self s(ffers loss of !is tr(e nat(reZAC< In every $ise, only t!e t!in , s(&! as t!e 'ody, t!at !as 'een &reated W'y t!e LordY &an 'e s('#e&t to destr(&tion or enerationM never &an &reation or destr(&tion 'e attri'(ted to t!e eternal Lord $!o is &ons&io(sness) T!(s, t!e (nitary Self, 'ein at t!e !eart of t!e "(lti%li&ity of for"s t!an5s to t!e distin&tion Wfreely %ro#e&ted 'y t!e SelfY 'et$een $!at is to 'e 5no$n and !i" $!o 5no$s, is at t!e sa"e ti"e $!at t!ere %ersists, as t!e %rin&i%le of (nity Wt!at o'li atorily s('tends t!at very "(lti%li&ityY, inas"(&! as it is t!e %rin&i%le of e,%erien&e itself t!at is at t!e !eart of every %er&i%ient s('#e&t Wt!at is, t!at "a5es %ossi'le t!e e,%erien&e of anyt!in at allY) T!erefore, t!e nond(alisti& do&trine 6ad3aya3da7 re"ains inta&t)ACC #!rik! < Even so, Wt!e follo$in o'#e&tion !as 'een raised:Y R if indeed, as yo( !ave %ro&lai"ed R in 5ee%in $it! 'ot! reasonin and traditional s&ri%t(re R t!is Self of all t!in s, on $!ose nat(re de%ends t!e %!eno"enal dis%lay of t!e (niverse, is (lti"ately not!in '(t (niversal &ons&io(sness 6sa3it7 and if it "anifests
0e"tr'%e0:, han!ate i" t' (e $0er"t''0 a" 8tra$"1'r/e0:, i$ 'r0er t' av'i0 a ta t'*'g% with mri!ate i$ the 1ir"t *i$e. .h " thi" *a"t "tate/e$t w'rk" a" a #'$#* "i'$= i$ thi" ver"e, a** "i7 ki$0" '1 tra$"1'r/ati'$ "ee$ i$ the w'r*0 are 0e$ie0 with re"pe#t t' the Se*1. 382 prathamna J *it., 8e7pa$0i$g:. 383 avasth J th'"e "tate" a$0 pr'#e""e" whi#h 0i11ere$tiate hi/ a" a *i/ite0 "' *= (irth, e7i"te$#e, et#., a$0 (ei$g g'0", /e$, a$i/a*", et#. 384 Nit., 8i" $'t 'ther tha$ hi" e""e$#e:. 385 !1. CD a0 1, 5 a$0 6. 386 nisvabhva eva J *it., 8i" "i/p*% 0ev'i0 '1 a$% pr'per $at re:. .he rati'$a*e here i" that '1 the bhsavda, a$0 i" #hara#teri"ti# '1 the aiva "%"te/= '$*% that e7i"t" whi#h "hi$e", i,e., '$*% that e7i"t" whi#h i" k$'w$ t' " ("ee $. 265). Nikewi"e, the #'$0iti'$ '1 1ettere0 " (Le#t 0'e" $'t e7i"t i$0epe$0e$t*% '1 #'$"#i' "$e""= it e7i"t" '$*% whe$ apprehe$0e0 a" " #h. 387 svar)pavipralopa J "a/e ter/ i$ CD a0 6. .he "a/e rati'$a*e agai$ i" 0eve*'pe0 a" i$ CD a0 6= h'w #a$ that whi#h i" it"e*1 0epe$0e$t a*ter the $at re '1 that '$ whi#h it 0epe$0"? Me$#e ('$0age it"e*1 0'e" $'t pr'vi0e a va*i0 arg /e$t 1'r the p)rvapakin wh'"e p'"iti'$ i" that iva, a" pa' i$ ('$0age, #a$$'t (e '1 a$ a("'* te $at re. Rhatever i" ('$0age i" k$'w$ t' (e ('$0age, it" e7i"te$#e 0epe$0" p'$ the Se*1 a" k$'wer. .here1're, whatever 0epe$0" p'$ the Se*1, that #a$$'t 0e*i/it the N'r0 a" " pre/e ?$'wer, 'r 1' $0ati'$a* #'$"#i' "$e"", whi#h i" e""e$tia**% '$e. 388 .he a("'* te$e"" '1 the $iver"a* Se*1 #a$$'t (e 0e$ie0. .he i$1i$ite variet% '1 *i/ite0 "e*ve" i" ( t it" re1*e#ti'$ i$ the water J 1*'wi$g 'r "ti** J '1 the phe$'/e$a* w'r*0.

6a3$hs7 all t!in s in &onse9(en&e of t!e fa&t t!at &ons&io(sness is every$!ere,AC@ $!y t!en is Wt!at (niversal &ons&io(snessY not o'served even in t!e l("% of &lay, for W, a&&ordin to yo(, t!e l("%Y is not t!erefro" to 'e differentiated, as far as its essen&e is &on&ernedZ And if yo( a&&e%t Weven t!e nonsensi&al vie$ t!at it is %resent even in a l("% of &layY, t!en t!e W&onventionalY re%artition Wof entitiesY A@7 a&&ordin to sentien&y and insentien&e, $!i&! is so evident, &annot 'e e,%lained, inas"(&! as $orldly %ra&ti&e is 'ased on t!e distin&tion 'et$een sentient and insentient) *o$ &an t!at Wdiffi&(ltyY 'e Wover&o"eYZ Ans$erin t!at o'#e&tion, t!e "aster says: <) =ust as >!hu, although in"isible, becomes manifest when interposed upon the orb of the moon,A@8 so too this Self, although (in"isibly) present in all things, becomes manifest in the mirror of the intellect,A@6 by securing (similarly) a basis in external ob8ects7A@A Alt!o( ! $anderin every$!ere in t!e s5y,A@; Wt!e de"on of t!e e&li%seY >!hu is not %er&eived) Nevert!eless, at t!e ti"e of a Wl(narY e&li%se, !e is &learly visi'le, a%%earin to (s as if sit(ated (%on t!e for" WviL), t!e or'Y of t!e "oon, Ws(&! t!at %eo%le say:Y HT!is is R4!(I) Ot!er$ise, alt!o( ! %resent Win t!e s5yY, it is as if WR4!(Y $ere not %resent a"on t!e !ost of %lanets) Li5e$ise Wi)e), as in t!e e,a"%leY, !ere also Wi)e), in t!e t!esis to 'e e,e"%lifiedY, this Self, alt!o( ! intrinsi&ally %ersistin as t!e in"ost &ore of all 'ein s, is not o'served as s(&! 'y anyone, for $!at is a%%re!ended is a%%re!ended only in
See &S 44 a$0 49, a$0 CD a0 58. v!avasth. 391 B##'r0i$g t' the te$et" '1 6$0ia$ a"tr'$'/%, DAh , the "',#a**e0 p*a$et (graha) #a "i$g * $ar e#*ip"e", i" vi"i(*e '$*% whe$ he #r'""e" the /''$> 'therwi"e, he i" i$vi"i(*e. .' (e#'/e vi"i(*e, DAh , *ike #'$"#i' "$e"", reK ire" the$ a #'$#rete " ("trat /. Si$#e e#*ip"e" are har/1 *, DAh i" #'$"i0ere0 a 0e/'$, th " #'/p*eti$g the i/age. 392 dh,m'k'ra i" g*'""e0 a" b'ddhidarpaa, whi#h it"e*1 i" g*'""e0 a" pratibhm'k'ra> "a/e ter/ i$ CD a0 77. .he vi"i(*e 8re1*e#ti'$: '1 the $iver"a* #'$"#i' "$e"" i$ the 8/irr'r '1 the i$te**e#t: i" #'//'$*% #'$"i0ere0 (% a** the ;e0A$ta" t' (e the 86,$'ti'$: 'r per"'$i1ie0 8eg': (ahakra)> '$ pratibh, "ee $. 557. 393 via!ra!aena i" g*'""e0 (% abddivia!asv,krea, 8(% apprehe$0i$g '(Le#t" '1 "e$"e " #h a" "' $0:. .he Se*1 i" apprehe$0e0 '$*% i$ #' r"e '1 the #'g$itive pr'#e"", that i", whe$ it i" re1*e#te0 i$ the /irr'r '1 the i$te**e#t, 1'r, i$ "tate/e$t" " #h a" 86: hear a "' $0:, 86: "ta$0" 1'r the Se*1[#'$"#i' "$e"", eve$ th' gh thi" 86: repre"e$t" ( t the *i/ite0 "e*1. .hi" a/' $t" t' "a%i$g that $iver"a* #'$"#i' "$e"", a*th' gh a**,perva"ive, (e#'/e" /a$i1e"t i$ the p'r!a#akapramt '$*%, i.e., i$ the 1i$ite (ei$g e$0'we0 with " (t*e ('0%, a" wi** (e 1 rther e7p*ai$e0 (% CD. .hi" p'r!a#aka i" the aggregate '1 the 1ive tanmtras, here ter/e0 via!as, a$0 the three #'$"tit e$t" '1 the antakaraa (b'ddhi, manas, ahakra) @ th " /eriti$g it" $a/e, 8'#ta0 i$ the 1'rtre"":, viU., the eight1'*0, 'r eight,1a#t're0, " (t*e ('0% withi$ the gr'"" ('0%, it"e*1 "ee$ a" the 81'rtre"": '1 the p'r'a. .he *i"t '1 eight #'$"tit e$t" '1 the p'r!a#aka 0i11er" 1r'/ te7t t' te7t, #1. FdD, ".v. (whi#h K 'te" a /e0i#a* te7t)= bh)tendri!a0mano0b'ddhi0vsan0karma0v!', a$0, a" the eighth, avid!> "ee a*"' .'re**a ^&?= 204,205. .he p'r!a#aka i" re"p'$"i(*e 1'r the pa'"s e7perie$#e, 'r #'g$iti'$, 1'r/e0 '1 the #'/p*e7 '1 '(Le#t" (via!a) a$0 their #'rre"p'$0i$g 1a# *tie" '1 #'g$iti'$ (%&nendri!a), thr' gh whi#h the *i/ite0 #'g$iUer #'/e" t' k$'w hi/"e*1 a" 86: i$ virt e '1 the e7perie$#e= 86: hear a "' $0:. <$ tanmtras a$0 %&nendri!as, "ee $. 399> '$ p'r!a#aka, "ee &S 92, 93 a$0 $. 1316> a*"' Sp? 666 17,18, a$0 ?9e/arALa a0 *'#, wh' e7p*ai$" the pr'#e"" '1 tra$"/igrati'$ wh'"e /ai$ i/pet " are the saskras 0ep'"ite0 i$ the p'r!a#aka. 394 kadea.
389 390


i""ediate %er&e%tion, $!ere it ta5es a for" indistin (is!a'le fro" oneIs o$n e,%erien&e)A@B .oreover, $!en Wt!is SelfY 'e&o"es a "atter of a$areness A@= in t!e W&o nitiveY e,%erien&e of t!e Hfirst %ersonI 6ahaprat-ti7, na"ely, Win t!e HII t!at s('tends t!e %redi&ate in e,%ressionsY s(&! as HII !ear Wso(ndsYI A@< R an e,%erien&e t!at o&&(rs to every &o niLer endo$ed $it! a s('tle 'ody 6purya)@a,apramt.7A@C $!enever o'#e&ts of sense s(&! as so(nd,A@@ vie$ed as;77 o'#e&ts to 'e 5no$n;78 are a%%re!ended in t!e "irror of intelle&t 6$uddhidarpa0a7, or, in t!e "irror of int(ition 6prati$hmu,ura7 D t!en, t!at sa"e Self, its for" no$ f(lly "anifest, ;76 is a%%re!ended also in Wt!e o'#e&t 'efore (sY t!e l("% of &lay, et&), as t!at $!ose nat(re it is to a%%re!end Wt!at l("%Y: t!ere also t!e in!erent Self becomes manifest 6pra,(ate7, t!at is, is %er&eived 'y all as one and t!e sa"e as t!eir o$n %arti&(lar e,%erien&e) WNevert!eless,Y even t!o( ! W&ons&io(snessY is t!ere in t!e l("% of &lay, et&), it is $idely ta5en 6prathate7 as not 'ein t!ere, in virt(e of Wt!e &layIsY a'o(ndin in tamas, #(st li5e R4!( in t!e s5y);7A T!(s, a"on t!e !ost of entities t!at are not!in '(t se"'lan&es of !i"self ;7; WviL), as%e&ts of (niversal &ons&io(snessY, t!e Lord, 'y !is %o$er of differentiation 6my(a,ti7,;7B t(rns so"e into &o niLers, $!o, anointed $it! t!e (n&tion of

CD perhap" wi"he" " t' $0er"ta$0 here that the Se*1 i" $'t apprehe$0e0 (th' gh pre"e$t) (e#a "e it ha" #*'the0 it"e*1 i$ the / *tip*e 1'r/" '1 #'//'$ e7perie$#e> it i" i$0ee0 the Se*1 that '$e apprehe$0" (what e*"e #' *0 '$e apprehe$0W), ( t '$e i" $aware that thi" i" the #a"e i$a"/ #h a" / $0a$e #'$"#i' "$e"" ha" re$0ere0 the Se*1 Ei$vi"i(*eE (ehi$0 the / *tip*i#it% that #hara#teriUe" ever% a#t '1 'r0i$ar% aware$e"". 396 via!o bhavati. 397 Se#'$0 '## rre$#e '1 the 6,$'ti'$ i$ CD:" #'//e$tar%. 398 .hi" i" a 0e1i$iti'$ '1 the pa'pramt, "i$#e it i" the p'r!a#aka, 'r 8" (t*e ('0%:, that #arrie" the Se*1 'r the S' * 1r'/ '$e (irth t' a$'ther, that i", 1r'/ '$e ('0% t' a$'ther. B" " #h it i" a*"' #a**e0 tivhika> "ee $. 738. 399 6$ SAkh%a a" we** a" i$ the aivi"/ '1 ?a"h/ir, the 1ive tanmtras (0e1i$e0 i$ &S 21) J "' $0, et#. J are the " (t*e '(Le#t" (via!a) '1 the %&nendri!as re"pe#tive*% J heari$g, et#. J (&S 20). F'th the %&nendri!as a$0 the tanmtras pr'#ee0 1r'/ the antakaraa, a$0 e"pe#ia**% 1r'/ the ahakra, 1'r the %&nendri!as, rea*iUe0 i$ the 1'r/ 86 hear:, $e#e""ari*% re1er t' a$ 86: (CD a0 20). .he tanmtras 0' the "a/e 80 e t' the i$evita(*e i$terre*ati'$ '1 the '(Le#t with the " (Le#t: (CD a0 21). 400 v!avasth J "ee $. 406. 401 Starti$g with the #'$L $#ti'$ '1 '(Le#t" a$0 "e$"e,'rga$", thi" pr'#e"" '1 #'g$iti'$ ai/" at e"ta(*i"hi$g a 0eter/i$ate #'g$iti'$ (nica!a) J whi#h i" the 1 $#ti'$ '1 b'ddhi (&S 19) J whi#h *ea0" '$e t' (e#'/e aware '1 '$e:" "e*1 a" the " (Le#t '1 the e7perie$#e= '(Le#tivit% (e#'/e" the prete7t 1'r a$ aware$e"" '1 '$e:" 'w$ " (Le#tivit%, a*th' gh it i" %et ( t *i/ite0, 0e"ervi$g t' (e ter/e0 eg'ti"ti#a* 8#'$#eit: (abhimna), a$ a0 *terati'$ '1 e""e$tia* 6,$e"", 'r ip"eit% (ahant). <$ "pe# *ati'$" a(' t thi" pr'#e"", a$0 the 1 $#ti'$" whi#h it i/p*ie", "ee &S 19> a*"' CD a0 94,95, whi#h, thr' gh a "triki$g 0e"#ripti'$ '1 the 0%"1 $#ti'$ '1 antakaraa a$0 bh!akaraas at the /'/e$t '1 0eath, i" ver% "e1 * 1'r $0er"ta$0i$g their r'*e i$ the #'g$itive pr'#e"". 402 sthita san sph'#ar)pa. 403 tamas i" 0ark$e"", *etharg%, a" we** a" /etaph'ri#a* 0ark$e"", ig$'ra$#e. !*a% i" $'t a #'g$iUer, i$ the a("e$#e '1 a " (t*e ('0%. !'$"#i' "$e"" /a% (e there, ( t i" $'t e7perie$#e0, a$0 there1're $'t e7perie$#e0 (% 'ther", e7#ept (% a %&nin, '$e e$*ighte$e0. 404 svtmakalpa. 405 Tir"t '## rre$#e '1 thi" $'ti'$, a" " #h (a$0 $'t a" tattva, 'r a" aa), that i", a" the p'wer '1 the N'r0 t' /a$i1e"t hi/"e*1 a" the e$tiret% '1 0iver"it%.


&onditional Wor te"%oraryY i%seity 6ahant7,;7= ta5e on t!e for" of s('tle 'odies t!o( ! t!ey are Wto !i"Y '(t ele"ents to 'e 5no$n) And Wmutatis mutandisY !e t(rns so"e into o'#e&ts fit to 'e &o niLed R in referen&e to $!i&!, t!e $ell?esta'lis!ed %ra&ti&e of differentiation ;7< $!ere'y, on t!e one !and, sentient entities are sti%(lated and, on t!e ot!er, insentient, is 9(ite $ell fo(nded) T!(s, 'e&a(se it is a "ere o'#e&t of &o nition, t!e l("% of &lay, et&), is insentient, $!ereas t!e &o niLer endo$ed $it! a s('tle 'ody, 'e&a(se !e is a &o niLer, is sentient) +(t, (lti"ately, fro" t!e %oint of vie$ of t!e S(%re"e Lord, no (sa e distin (is!es t!e sentient fro" t!e insentient);7C #!rik! ? No$, one "ay o'#e&t: R if in t!e intelle&t 6$uddhi7 of all &o niLers t!ere e,ists t!is vi'ration 6prasphura0a7 of t!eir %ro%er Self $it!o(t any distin&tion, t!en $!y "ay not all of t!e" 'e&o"e 5no$ers of t!eir %ro%er Selves 6s3tma3id7Z Or let (s s(%%ose t!e" not endo$ed $it! s(&! 5no$led e WviL), t!at of t!e SelfY, t!ere 'ein no 'asis for any distin&tion Wa"on 5no$ersY);7@ -et, even at t!e level of %!eno"enal e,isten&e, t!ere are so"e $!o, !avin attained t!e 5no$led e of t!eir %ro%er Self 6s3tma12n7 are li'erated $!ile still livin Win a %!ysi&al 'odyY 61-3anmu,ta7, and are endo$ed $it! o"nis&ien&e and o"ni%oten&eM;87 and t!ere are so"e $!o are $ort!y of attainin t!e 5no$led e of t!eir %ro%er Self and are desiro(s of "a5in t!e as&ent, ;88 $!ereas ot!ers, la&5in t!e 5no$led e of t!eir o$n Self, are ti !tly fettered 'y t!e &!ains ;86 of a&tions ood and
ahantv!avasthrasbhiikta. T'r v!avasth a" a te#h$i#a* ter/ i$ tra0iti'$a* "age, "ee De$' 1942, ".v. .he ter/ i" "e0 i$ re*ati'$ t' #ertai$ r *e" wh'"e E'pti'$a*it%E i" $'t ge$era*, ( t i" rather 0eter/i$e0 (% a##'/pa$%i$g #ir# /"ta$#e (#1. &. 6 1, 34). T'r i$"ta$#e, the 0i11ere$#e (etwee$ 8'$e /a% " ("tit te "a##hari$e 1'r " gar at a$% ti/e: a$0 8whe$ taki$g #'11ee, %' /a% "e " gar> 'therwi"e, "a##hari$e:. 6$ ' r pre"e$t "age, the ter/ perhap" "ig$i1ie" that what i" at i"" e i" #'$0iti'$e0 J (% E1a#t"E, (% 'r0i$ar% "age J a$0 i" i$ $' wi"e pre0eter/i$e0> a" " #h, it i" " (Le#t t' the #'/p*e7 '1 "pati',te/p'ra* #'$0iti'$". .he "a/e i/age '1 r'%a* #'$"e#rati'$ J *it., a$ 8a"per"i'$:, a 8"pri$k*i$g: (abhieka) '1 water /i7e0 with a 1ew i$gre0ie$t" J '## r" i$ CD a0 31. !'$"e#rati'$ (abhieka), th " "e0 a$a*'gi#a**%, i" a t'p'"> #1. Sp) 6 8, i$ the #'$te7t '1 a 0i"# ""i'$ '$ the "e$"e,'rga$"= ahantrasavipr'abhiekd acetano (pi cetanatm sda!at!eva, 8.he i$"e$tie$t 2gr' p '1 the "e$"e"3 it"e*1 /a% a#K ire "e$tie$#% pr'vi0e0 it i" #'$"e#rate0 (% the 0r'p" '1 the $#ti'$ '1 ip"eit%:. B$0 S; 66 8= sarvair !at pramttvenbhiikta sth)las)kmdisvar)pa ar,ra tat $... havi, 8.he ('0%, whether gr'"" 'r " (t*e, et#., that a** (ei$g" #'$"e#rate (abhiikta) ES (Le#tE, i" the '(*ati'$ 2...3:. 407 bhedav!avahra. 408 .he pa""age #'$#er$" tw' i"" e"= it L "ti1ie" 'r0i$ar% "age (v!avahra), whi#h g'e" agai$"t that '1 the 0'#tri$e, a$0 "et" it a"i0e, 1'r, a" it i" the #a"e with the 'ther B0vaita", 'r0i$ar% "age #a$$'t app*% t' the B("'* te. 409 .he tw' (ra$#he" '1 the 0i*e//a are= "i$#e the Se*1[#'$"#i' "$e"" i" a**,perva"ive, either ever% pramt / "t i//e0iate*% k$'w that Se*1, 'r $' pramt #a$ p'""i(*% e7i"t, 1'r $' 0i"ti$#ti'$ #a$ (e i/agi$e0 that w' *0 0i"ti$g i"h that pramt 1r'/ a$% 'ther. B** are %&nins, 'r $'$e are. M'w the$ #a$ '$e L "ti1% a hierar#h% '1 pramts? 410 See &S 96. 411 r'r'k' J "ee &S 97,102. 412 .he ter/ nigaa re1er" t' the hee* #hai$" '1 a$ e*epha$t 'r t' a $''"e that "$are" the 1eet '1 a$ a$i/a*, thr'wi$g hi/ 0'w$. .he pa', 'r 1ettere0 "' *, i", a$a*'gi#a**%, " #h a$ a$i/a*.


evil t!at o&&asion "erit and de"erit, and are 'o(nd to trans"i rate) *o$ &an t!is 'e &onsistentZ So, 5ee%in all t!ese o'#e&tions in "ind, t!e "aster e,%lains in res%onse t!at t!e ra&e 6(a,tipta7;8A of t!e S(%re"e Lord is $it!o(t restri&tion ;8; Wt!at is, is not 'esto$ed in virt(e of any 9(alifi&ation, "oral or i""oral, on t!e %art of t!e doneeY: ?) As a face is reflected clearly in a mirror free of dirt , so does this (Self) become manifest, being nothing but radiance, in the Hintellect+principleI, made pure by 'i"aIs grace) WT!e &o"%arison "ay 'e develo%ed t!ro( ! t!e follo$in e,a"%le:Y In a "irror free of dirt, a fa&e a%%ears;8B W&learlyY, is endo$ed $it! its vario(s 9(alities of for", et&), t!at are not different Wfro" t!ose of t!e fa&e itselfY, for t!ere is no area Wof t!e fa&eY t!at t!e "irror free of dirt doesnIt &a%t(re) ;8= On t!e &ontrary, in a dirty "irror, t!e fa&e, even t!o( ! it "ay !ave an e,traordinary e,&ellen&e, a%%ears 6pra,(ate7 altered d(e to t!e tarnis!in for&e Wof t!e "irrorY) .oreover, t!e dirty "irror is not a'le to &a%t(re t!ose 9(alities, s(&! as t!ey are) Rat!er, t!e "an $!ose fa&e is refle&ted t!ere feels as!a"ed of !i"self $!ile &onte"%latin !is altered fa&e, affe&ted as it is 'y t!e tarnis!in for&e Wof t!e "irrorY, et&), and !e t!in5s: H"y fa&e is defor"edI) In t!e sa"e $ay, t!e Self of so"e fe$ &o niLers $!ose %resent 'irt! is t!e last is refle&ted Da3$hsate, lit), His res%lendentIE in t!e "irror of int(ition, in %ro%ortion to t!e s(" of attri'(tes, s(&! as o"nis&ien&e, $it! $!i&! it is endo$ed R for t!at "irror !as 'een &leansed 'y PivaIs ra&e R WPiva 'ein none ot!er t!anY oneIs o$n Self, for that WSelfY is radiance 6$hr/pa7 R $!ose "ery form is radiance, na"ely, Li !t itself)
Nit., 8the E1a**E, that i", the #'$ve%a$#e 21r'/ a('ve3 '1 e$erg%, it" 0e"#e$t:> 1ir"t '## rre$#e '1 the $'ti'$ i$ the kArikA"> "ee CD a0 18, &S 64,66, a$0 96. iva i" "ee$ a" pa&cakt!avidh!in (#1. &M magalcaraa), e$0'we0 with 1ive #'"/i# 1 $#ti'$" (kt!a)= #reati'$ (s#i), " "te$a$#e (sthiti), 0i""'* ti'$ (sahti, 'r dhvasa) J three 1 $#ti'$" a##epte0 (% a** 6$0ia$ phi*'"'phi#a* "%"te/" that p'"t *ate the w'r*0 a" #reate0 J a" we** a" '("# rati'$ (tirodhna, 'r nigraha), a$0 gra#e (an'graha, 'r aktipta) J tw' a00iti'$a* 1 $#ti'$" that are p'"t *ate0 (% B0vaita "%"te/" i$ ge$era*. .he"e tw' 1 $#ti'$", 'r e$ergie"[p'wer" ("p'ke$ '1 a" tirodhnaakti a$0 an'grahaakti) re"pe#tive*% e7p*ai$ ('$0age J the /a$i1e"tati'$ '1 iva a" the h'"t '1 the "e$tie$t *i/ite0 "' *" a$0 the i$"e$tie$t '(Le#t" '1 the w'r*0 J a$0 *i(erati'$. !1. .4 56; 24, where the pa&cakt!as are e$ /erate0. 414 vikhala J "ee CD a0 96. )'te the p*a% '$ the w'r0"= nigada0vikhala. vikhala, wh'"e *itera* /ea$i$g i" 8*a#ki$g a #hai$:, viU., 8 $1ettere0:, 8 $(' $0:, 8 $re"trai$e0:, ha" here the 0erive0 /ea$i$g '1 8 $#'$0iti'$e0: ("ee, i$1ra, the "e#'$0 K 'tati'$ i$ CD a0 *'#). .he K e"ti'$ wi** (e take$ p agai$ i$ kA. 82, where the $'ti'$ '1 rit a* adhikra i" K e"ti'$e0, a" we** a" i$ kArikA" 96,102. B$a*'g' " 1'r/ *ati'$ i$ .4 6 185= nairmal!a savida ceda p)rvbh!savad atho0 ani!antrevarecchta it! etac carca!i!ate00, 8!'$"#i' "$e"": a("e$#e '1 0e1e#t i" 0 e either t' pri'r pra#ti#e 2i$ 1'r/er *ive", a00" OD3, 'r t' the $re"trai$e0 wi** '1 the N'r0> thi" wi** (e e7a/i$e0 2i$ the thirtee$th #hapter, a00" OD3:. Rherea" the %,vanm'kta i" 0e"#ri(e0 i$ kA. 96, kA. 97 ev'ke" the videham'kta wh' i" *i(erate0 i//e0iate*% a1ter the e7i"te$#e i$ whi#h he ha" "trive$ 1'r *i(erati'$. .he 0i11ere$t t%pe" '1 the !ogabhra#a, th'"e 81a**e$ 1r'/ the path '1 %'ga: ('r 81r'/ 0i"#ip*i$e:) are a*"' 0e"#ri(e0= '$e wh' wi** "trive 1'r *i(erati'$ withi$ the "pa$ '1 tw' (irth", "eparate0 (% a "ta% i$ 8w'r*0" '1 e$L'%/e$t: (kA. 98,99)> a$0 '$e wh'"e *i(erati'$ wi** take p*a#e a*"' a1ter tw' (irth", ( t a1ter a / #h *'$ger "ta% i$ 0ivi$e w'r*0" (kA. 100,102). 415 caksti g*'""e" vibhti i$ the kArikA> #1. ?AH 66 2, 14,15, K 'te0 $. 265, whi#h #'$tra"t" vibhti a$0 bhti, vibhti /ea$i$g 8t' "hi$e i$ re1*e#ti'$:. 416 sv,kJ *it., 8/ake it" 'w$:, 8appr'priate:.


WHCleansedI "eansY "ade &lear 'y t!e &o"%lete re"oval of t!e latent dis%ositions 63san7 left 'y t!e i"%(rities of dee"in oneself finite 60a3amala7, of re ardin t!e $orld as o'#e&tive 6my-yamala7, of s(%%osin oneself t!e a ent of a&tions 6,rmamala7);8< +y t!e ter" descent 6!pta7 is !ere evo5ed t!e eff(l en&e of t!e rays of t!e energy 6(a,tiH7, WalsoY ter"ed HfavorI 6anugrah7, t!at e"anate fro" 'i"a !i"self);8C T!ese fe$ alone, t!o( ! des&ended into t!e $orld of trans"i ration, are, for all intents and %(r%oses, li'erated 6mu,ta,alpa7, for t!eir o$n nat(re !as 'e&o"e &o? e,tensive $it! t!eir %ro%er Wor H(niversalIY Self);8@ T!ey are t!(s %ossessed of e,&ellen&e) T!e Self of so"e ot!ers, t!o( ! endo$ed $it! radian&e, t!at is, t!o( ! Win realityY ill("ined 6$hta7, re"ains, for all intents and %(r%oses, as if (nill("ined 6a$ht7, d(e to its i"%(rity, inas"(&! as t!e intelle&t?%rin&i%le 6$uddhitatt3a7 !as 'een veiled 'y t!e i"%(rities of dee"in oneself finite, of re ardin t!e $orld as o'#e&tive, of s(%%osin oneself t!e a ent of a&tions derivin fro" t!e S(%re"e LordIs ener y of o's&(ration 6tirodhna(a,ti7) On t!is a&&o(nt, t!ese Wot!ersY are &alled Htet!eredI Wani"als, pa(uY and H'o(nd to trans"i rateI 6ssri,a7) And still ot!ers are &o niLers desiro(s of as&endin , 'e&a(se of t!e &on#(n&tion of 'ot! ener ies Wt!at of o's&(ration and t!at of ra&e, 'esto$ed on t!e" 'y t!e LordY) T!(s, in all s(&! &ases, t!e variation in Wt!e LordIsY ra&e "ay 'e %res("ed as one of t!e follo$in ty%es: so"eti"es intense 6t-3ra7, so"eti"es fee'le 6manda7, so"eti"es even "ore fee'le 6mandamandatar7, et&);67
.he tra$"*ati'$ re1*e#t", 1'r the"e three $'ti'$", the "a/e p'i$t '1 view, whi#h i" that '1 the 1ettere0 " (Le#t> the three 8"tai$": are #ertai$*% err'$e' " ( t at the "a/e ti/e are v'* $tar%, i/p'"e0 '$ ' r"e*ve" (% ' r"e*ve", a$0 (% $' 'ther, '1 whatever "'rt> "ee $. 317, a$ h%p'the"i" '$ the #'rre"p'$0e$#e '1 the three malas with three 1'r/" '1 (ei$g= satt, bhavatt, bhavanakartt. See &S 24 1'r a #'/p*ete e7p'"iti'$ '1 the /ate. 418 !1. a$'ther 0e1i$iti'$ '1 aktipta i$ CD a0 96. 419 Nit., 80 e t' the e7te$"i'$ '1 their 'w$ $at re i$t' their pr'per Se*1 (svtmasvar)pa1prathant). .he"e are the %,vanm'ktas 1 rther 0e"#ri(e0 i$ &S 96 a$0 CD a0 *'#. Sa/e "tate/e$t, ( t i$ $egative 1'r/, at the e$0 '1 the pa""age, whi#h 0ea*" with the 'pp'"ite 1ig re '1 the pa'= 8'$ a##' $t '1 thi" 2p'wer3, the% wa$0er (sasaranti) thr' gh thi" 2#%#*e3 agai$ a$0 agai$, e$gage0 i$ g''0 a$0 (a0 a#ti'$", e$L'%i$g p*ea" re a$0 pai$, et#., 1'r their 'w$ $at re ha" $'t (e#'/e #', e7te$"ive with their 2 $iver"a*3 Se*1 (svasvar)pprathant):. 420 8;ariati'$ i$ 2the N'r0:"3 gra#e: here re1er", $'t t' t' 0i11eri$g i$te$"itie" '1 the N'r0:" gra#e, ( t t' the *eve*" '1 re#eptivit% '1 the a0ept. Si/i*ar*%, the "a/e 1ire wi** have K ite 0i11ere$t e11e#t" '$ 0r% a$0 wet paper. Re have here, a0/itte0*%, a$ e7p*a$ati'$ '1 the i$e7p*i#a(*e= '$ '$e ha$0, 0ivi$e gra#e i" the "a/e 1'r a**, $#'$0iti'$e0 (vikhala)> '$ the 'ther, $everthe*e"", i" '("erve0 i$ the Erea*E w'r*0 a hierar#h% '1 " (Le#t", whi#h i" a 1 $#ti'$ '1 ea#h " (Le#t:" 0egree '1 aptit 0e i$ re#eivi$g that gra#e. .h " CD 0i"ti$g i"he" three *arge #ateg'rie"= '$ '$e e7tre/e, the %,vanm'kta, '$ the 'ther, the pa' 'r sasrin, wh'"e " (/i""i'$ t' w'r*0*% #'$#er$" /ake" hi/ i$"e$"i(*e t' the a#ti'$" '1 gra#e, a$0 (etwee$ the"e tw' e7tre/e", the r'r'k' ('r m'm'k'), wh'"e e11'rt" t'war0 0e*ivra$#e 'pe$ hi/ p t' the N'r0:" gra#e, ( t wh'/ 0iver"e 1a#t'r" J hi" $ative i$te**ige$#e, 'r #ha$#e i$terr pti'$" i$ hi" pra#ti#e ("ee kA. 98,102) J 0eter 1r'/ a$ e11i#a#i' " a$0 i//e0iate re#epti'$ '1 gra#e. Re have here a$'ther ver"i'$ '1 the Etw' tr th"E= the paramrthasat!a a$0 the savtisat!a, tra$"#e$0e$t tr th, a$0 e/piri#a* tr th. .he 0i"ti$#ti'$ (etwee$ the " (Le#t 0e"ti$e0 t' *i(erati'$ a$0 the " (Le#t #'$0e/$e0 t' (e re('r$ i" $'t a 1 $#ti'$ '1 the i$te$ti'$ '1 the g'0 J "' "a%" the te7t #ite0 (e*'w (% CD hi/"e*1= 8B" 1ar a" the N'r0:" gra#e i" #'$#er$e0, hi" i$te$ti'$ (dh,) reK ire" $'thi$g 2a" a pre#'$0iti'$3, 1'r it pr'#*ai/" hi" i$0epe$0e$#e (svatantrat) 2...3:. .here re/ai$" the K e"ti'$ '1 the 0i"ti$#ti'$ (etwee$ an'grahaakti a$0 tirodhnaakti. .he 1'r/er i" /a$i1e"te0 i$ the 1'r/ '1 the 80e"#e$t '1 e$erg%:


A&&ordin ly, t!ere is no a&tion R $!et!er it 'e "editation 6dhyn7, silent Dor $!is%eredE re&itation 61apa7, et&), or sa&rifi&es s(&! as !orse sa&rifi&e, or anyt!in else, all of $!i&! arise fro" t!e %o$er of &a(sal &onstraint Wof t!e LordY t!at is in&l(ded in !is %o$er of differentiation R $!i&! "ay &a(se t!e li'eration 6mocana7 of t!e Self) For not!in t!at is 'ased on differen&e is s(ited to serve as "eans to t!at Wli'eration, viL), identity $it! t!e SelfY, sin&e t!e Self !as %assed 'eyond my);68 As it !as 'een s(n : Not 'y t!e 1edas, nor 'y a(sterity,] Nor 'y ifts or a&ts of $ors!i%,] Can I W'e seen in s(&! a (ise,] As t!o( !ast seen .eY);66 T!erefore, a&&ordin ly, t!e favor of t!e S(%re"e Lord is t!e only en(ine 6a,.trim7 &a(se Wof li'eration forY t!ose $!ose intelle&ts are $ort!y of it) As !as 'een said: As far as t!e LordIs ra&e is &on&erned, !is intention re9(ires not!in Was a %re&onditionY, for it %ro&lai"s !is inde%enden&eM it is not affe&ted 'y a tra&e of &a(se;6A Wasso&iated $it! it R t!at is, it &annot 'e &onstr(ed as t!e effe&t of any &a(se, s(&! as t!e 'e!avior of t!e $ors!i%erY);6; On t!e ot!er !and, t!e S(%re"e LordIs ener y of o's&(ration is t!e very &a(se of fettered s('#e&tsI $anderin fro" 'irt! to 'irt!: on a&&o(nt of t!is ener y, t!ey $ander t!ro( ! t!is W&y&leY a ain and a ain, en a ed in ood and 'ad a&tions, en#oyin %leas(re and %ain, et&), for t!eir o$n nat(re !as not 'e&o"e &o?e,tensive $it! t!eir W(niversalY Self) T!erefore, alt!o( ! t!e Wa'sol(teY Self is &o""on to all &o niLers, t!ere are nevert!eless t$o ener ies, t!at of favor and t!at of o's&(ration, of t!e nat(re of Li !t and of non?Li !t 6apra,(7 Wres%e&tivelyY, t!at are &a(ses of t!e di&!oto"y 'et$een li'eration 6mo,)a7 and 'onda e) As !as 'een said W'y Avad!_tasidd!aY: T!e (no'str(&ted ener y Wof o's&(rationY of t!e one endo$ed $it! infinite ener ies 'inds t!e ordinary 'ein $it! t!e net of fetters t!at is t!is e"%iri&al $orld) And !is ot!er Wener y, t!at of ra&eY, after it !as severed all Wt!reeY

(aktipta). .he "e#'$0 i" i$"tr /e$ta* i$ e11e#t ati$g m!, whi#h i" re"p'$"i(*e 1'r the 1i$it 0e '1 the sasrin. F t the pri$#ip*e $0er*%i$g the e7er#i"e '1 either akti i" the "'vereig$ *i(ert% '1 the N'r0. Si/i*ar*%, the ter/ vikhala, app*ie0 t' aktipta i$ the avat., /a% a*"' (e $0er"t''0 i$ thi" "e$"e= the gra#e 0i"pe$"e0 (% the N'r0 i" 81ree:, $'t /ere*% i$ that it i" $#'$0iti'$e0, ( t a*"' i$ that it ha" $' 'ther #a "e tha$ the "'vereig$ *i(ert% '1 the 0ivi$it%. B$ e7p*a$ati'$ that /a% we** (e 'pe$e0 t' the '(Le#ti'$ that it e7p*ai$" $'thi$g, ( t t' whi#h '$e /ight re"p'$0 that the 0'g/a '1 the N'r0:" *i(ert% i" at the ver% heart '1 .rika 0'#tri$e. .he "a/e 0e(ate, e7pre""e0 i$ a*/'"t the "a/e ter/", '## r" i$ the #'//e$tar% '$ kA. 96,102> "ee, e"p., the avat. t' 96 a$0 97. 421 !1. CD a0 18 a$0 96= 8the a#K i"iti'$ '1 the k$'w*e0ge '1 '$e:" 'w$ Se*1 ha" 1'r it" $iK e /ea$" the 1av'r '1 the S pre/e N'r0:. 422 FhI 56 53. -ev'ti'$ (bhakti) i" the $iK e /ea$", a" ta ght i$ the 1'**'wi$g ver"e= bhakt! tv anan!a! ak!a aham evavidho (r%'na0 %&t' dra#' ca tattvena prave#' ca paratapa00, 8F t (% $"wervi$g 0ev'ti'$ #a$[ 6 i$ " #h a g i"e, BrL $a,[ Fe k$'w$ a$0 "ee$ i$ ver% tr th,[ B$0 e$tere0 i$t', "#'r#her '1 the 1'e: (FhI 56 54). .here i" $' 0ire#t #'//e$tar% '1 BI '$ thi" ver"e '1 the 4,t. 423 Dea0 kranakal1aghrt. 424 .he "' r#e '1 the K 'tati'$ ha" $'t (ee$ 1' $0. .he 0'#tri$e '1 the N'r0:" 8 $#'$0iti'$e0: wi** " it" ver% we** 'ther i0ea" #'$#er$i$g the 0i"pe$"i$g '1 gra#e i$ the aivi"/ '1 ?a"h/ir.

strands $it! t!e s$ord of 5no$led e,;6B leads "an fa&e to fa&e W$it! PivaY so t!at !e rea&!es t!e state of li'eration 63imu,ti7);6= #!rik!s @+ *avin t!(s a&&o(nted for t!is entirety 6ida sar3am7 WviL), t!e (niverse in eneralY, in a&&ordan&e $it! s&ri%t(re, e,%erien&e and reasonin , ;6< t!e "aster ne,t ta5es (% t!e $orld 61agat7 t!at is internal to t!e tetrad of t!e s%!eres of Ener y, et&), earlier %ro%o(nded, $!i&! !as as its 'asis t!e t!irty?si, %rin&i%les Wt!at $ill 'e e,%lainedY in t!e order of t!eir arisin );6C +(t, in anti&i%ation of t!at, in t$o 54ri54s, !e %ro%o(nds t!e &a(se of t!e &a(se, na"ely, t!e S(%re"e Piva DPara"aJivaE, s(s%ended fro" $!o" t!at $orld a%%ears:;6@

.he 8"w'r0 '1 k$'w*e0ge: i" a #'//'$ i/age. !1. +Fh 5 47, 12,15, K 'te0 i$ FhIFh 5; 1= etac chittv ca bhittv ca %&nena paramsin0 tata ctmarati prp!a tasmn nvartate p'na00, 8Mavi$g 1e**e0 a$0 "p*it thi" 2.ree '1 /ateria* e7i"te$#e3 with the great "w'r0 '1 k$'w*e0ge, a$0 th " attai$i$g the (*i"" '1 the Se*1, '$e 0'e" $'t ret r$ 1r'/ that 2(*i""3:. 8B7e '1 k$'w*e0ge: (%&nak'#hra) i" a varia$t> #1. CD a0 87,88. 426 -hagavadbhaktistotra 17. .he ver"e i" a*"' K 'te0 i$ rYk /Ara:" #'//e$tar% '$ the Tattvapraka (115) '1 Fh'La. B" '("erve0 (% I$'*i (i(i0.= 215), 8thi" stotra, a" i" "h'w$ (% the re*ative*% $ /er' " K 'tati'$", / "t have e$L'%e0 at 'ther ti/e" a #ertai$ rep tati'$:, e"pe#ia**% i$ ?a"h/iria$ aiva #ir#*e". 6$ e11e#t B(hi$avag pta K 'te" it (v. 29) i$ the -hadvimarin, a$0 the :agh'vimarin,, a$0 CD, '$#e /'re, #ite" it (v. 21) whe$ #'//e$ti$g '$ &S 27 ("ee I$'*i, i(i0.). B##'r0i$g t' I$'*i, Bva0h\ta"i00ha /ight have (ee$ a $ative '1 ?a"h/ir, a$0, havi$g (e#'/e a$ a th'rit% a/'$g aiva" a" ear*% a" BI:" ti/e, /ight have *ive0 there i$ the 10th 'r eve$ i$ the 9th #e$t. 427 .hat the 0'#tri$e #a$ (e L "ti1ie0 *'gi#a**% i" a #*ai/ /a0e (% a** the e7p'$e$t" '1 $'$,0 a* Saivi"/ '1 ?a"h/ir> "ee, 1'r i$"ta$#e, the 1ir"t a$0 *a"t kArikA" '1 the ^&?, viU., ^&? 6 1, 1= tat prat!abhi%&m 'papda!mi, 86 wi** /ake " ita(*e 2t' /% a 0ie$#e (% /% e7p'"iti'$3 2viU., /ake a " ita(*e e7p'"iti'$ '13 the 20'#tri$e '13 re#'g$iti'$:, a$0 ^&? 6; 18= ,varaprat!abhi%&e!am 'tpalenopapdit, E.hi" 20'#tri$e '13 the N'r0:" re#'g$iti'$ ha" (ee$ /a0e " ita(*e 2t' the "t 0e$t3 2viU., e7p*ai$e0 " ita(*%3 (% Htpa*a:, a" we** a" ^&vX 6; 16= ma! !'ktinibandhanena hda!agamikta, 82.hi" $ew path ta ght (% S'/A$a$0a3 6 have /a0e it attra#tive 2*it., 86 have #a "e0 it t' e$ter the heart":3 (% a11i7i$g it with arg /e$t" (!'kti)". B*"' thir0 magala ver"e '1 the Sp)= sam!aks)trasamanva!a $... t,k !'ktikathm $.., %&t'm v&chatha cet $... , 861 %' wa$t t' k$'w the e7a#t i$ter,#'$$e7i'$ '1 the "\tra" 2...3, a## rate e7p'"iti'$ '1 the rea"'$i$g 2at w'rk, there3, et#.:. De# rre$t*%, i$ a** the te7t" '1 the .rika, arg /e$t (% rea"'$i$g i" #'$tra"te0 with L "ti1i#ati'$ (% 4ga/a" 'r appea* t' per"'$a* e7perie$#e (an'bhava), '1te$ i$ the 1'r/ '1 the tria0= !'kt!an'bhavgamasiddhena, !'kt!an'bhavgama!'ktam, 'r 'ther varia$t> "ee, 1'r i$"ta$#e, CD a0 8 (whi#h '/it" an'bhava)> avat. a0 104> CD a0 79,80, whi#h a00" a 1' rth ter/ (pari,lana, 8" "tai$e0 #'$#e$trati'$:), a" reK ire0 (% #'$te7t= !'kt!gamn'bhavapari,lanena. Gve$ /'re e7p*i#it*%, ?9e/arALa:" ge$era* avat. a0 Sp? pre"e$t" the w'rk a" 8"h'wi$g the agree/e$t '1 4ga/a", e7perie$#e a$0 rea"'$i$g:= gamn'bhavopapattaik,kra pradara!an. 428 !1. CD a0 1, 14 (avat.), 22, 46 (avat.). )'te that the w'r0 8Lagat: ((% /'"t a##' $t", 0erive0 1r'/ the i$te$"ive 1'r/ '1 gam) " gge"t" the 8w'r*0: $#ea"i$g*% /'vi$g, 1i$ite, a$0 1 ** '1 #'$tra"t, a" apprehe$0e0 (% ' r "e$"e,'rga$"> there1're, the Erea*E w'r*0, #'$tra"ti$g with the Evirt a*E w'r*0 previ' "*% 0e"#ri(e0> "ee $. 465. 429 Sa/e phra"e'*'g% a$0 "a/e #'$te7t i$ ^&; 6 7, 1= apit' savedanam eva tat tath caksti m prati bhti iti pramtlagnatvt, 8+'re'ver, that 2'(Le#t3 i" #'$"#i' "$e"" it"e*1, 1'r that 2'(Le#t3 i" i$"epara(*e 1r'/ (lagna, *it., 8atta#he0 t':, 8h $g p'$:, 8" "pe$0e0 1r'/:) the e7perie$#i$g " (Le#t 2wh'"e e7perie$#e ha" a*wa%" the 1'r/3= Eth " it appear" (e1're /e.E: Mere, pramt repre"e$t" the " (Le#t par e7#e**e$#e, a" 0'e" &ara/aPiva i$ CD:" #'//e$tar%.


@+ ) This world of thirty+six principles is reflected within the ultimate principle,;A7 which, formed of light, is complete, and is supremely blissful on account of reposing in itselfM it is suffused with the energies of -ill , #nowledge and Action,;A8 and replete with an infinity of (other) energies M it is de"oid of all mental constructs, de"oid of dissolution and creation6 is pure and is at peace);A6 T!e (niverse, $!i&! $ill 'e des&ri'ed as startin fro" Piva Wt!e first a"on t!e t!irty?si, %rin&i%lesY and endin $it! eart! Wt!e lastY, a%%ears 6pra,a(ate7 as re%osin in !i" R t!at is, in !i" $!ose nat(re is s(&! as !as 'een des&ri'ed R t!e ultimate, all?en&o"%assin , Piva?%rin&i%le 6(i3atatt3a7) T!at is to say, t!o( ! "anifestin itself 6ca,sat7, it is s!o$n 'y reasonin not to 'e different fro" t!at W%rin&i%leY) No$, as to t!is vie$, Wt!e follo$in o'#e&tion "ay 'e raised:Y R WT!e $ord tatt3a is t!(s derived:Y Ht!at $!ere t!e $!ole 6sar37 &onsistin of 'odies, et&) Ws&il), fa&(lties and $orldsY, is s%read o(t 6tanyate7 Wis &alled QtattvaQYIM;AA alternatively, 'e&a(se of its He,tensionI 6tanant7, it is $!at He,tendsI 6tat7 (% (ntil Wt!e $orldIsY dissol(tionM Itat-t3aI is t!en Ht!e state or &ondition of t!at We,tended t!in , viL), t!e (lti"ate %rin&i%ieYI);A;

B "i/i*ar atte/pt i" /a0e i$ kA. 43 a$0 64,66 t' $0er"ta$0 &ara/aPiva ('r, what a/' $t" t' the "a/e thi$g, brahman), thr' gh the e$ /erati'$ '1 hi" K a*i1i#ati'$". )'te that the i/age '1 the #it% i$ the /irr'r 0eve*'pe0 i$ 12,13 i" a*rea0% pre"e$t here= !at paratattva tasmin vibhti $... %agat, 8.hi" w'r*0 appear" i$ the *ti/ate pri$#ip*e:. 431 Si*( r$ tra$"*ate" *itera**%= 8a('$0a//e$t p' rv 0e v'*'$te (icch), 0e !'$"#ie$#e (savit) et 0:i$"tr /e$t (karaa)". 432 !'/pare &S 11 with 4&S 25= sarvavikalpanah,na 'ddho b'ddho (%armara nta0 amala sakd vibhta cetana tm khavad v!p,00. 433 F'th 0erivati'$" '1 the w'r0 tattva re1erre0 t' here (% the p)rvapakin are 1r'/ the r''t tan, 8t' "prea0, e7te$0, e7pa$0:. .he 1ir"t, i$ pa""ive v'i#e, /ake" tattva a$ '(Le#t, a$ e11e#t '1 the N'r0:" a#tivit%. M'wever, the w'r0 0'e" $'t 0e"ig$ate #'$#rete 0iver"it% per se, ( t rather 8where the e$tire /a$i1e"tati'$ i" e7te$0e0: J the #ateg'rie" where(% the i$1i$ite varietie" '1 phe$'/e$a are 'r0ere0> tattva i" th " a 1a#t'r '1 #*a""i1i#ati'$ (varg,karaanimitta), a$ e*e/e$t $i1%i$g a #'**e#ti'$ '1 0i"ti$#t e$titie", a" "tate0 i$ ^&; 666 1, 2, v'*. 66= 219= !ath girivkap'raprabht,n nad,sarasgard,n ca pthiv,r)patvam abr)patva ceti, 8T'r i$"ta$#e, /' $tai$, tree, #it%, et#., are earth (% e""e$#e, wherea" river, *ake, '#ea$, et#., are water (% e""e$#e:. 434 ?9e/arALa:" 0e1i$iti'$ '1 tattva i$ hi" /vacchandatantrodd!ota 2Sv.H3 a0 Sv. 6; 241,242 (v'*. 66= 74) J the ter/i$'*'g% i" a*/'"t the "a/e J /ake" CD:" #'//e$tar% /'re i$te**igi(*e (% a0'pti$g the e7egeti# /eth'0 a""'#iate0 with nir'kti= tas!a bhvas tanant tattvam iti v!'tpatt! nir'kt! ca, (tattva i" "' #a**e0 1'r it i" Ee7te$"i'$E (tanana), a##'r0i$g t' et%/'*'g% (nir'kt!)> a$0 1r'/ the p'i$t '1 view '1 /'rph'*'gi#a* 0erivati'$ (v!'tpatt!), it /ea$" the "tate 'r #'$0iti'$ '1 that 2whi#h Ee7te$0"E (tat)3: J that i", tattva i" 0erive0 1r'/ the r''t tan. 6t i" ((are*%) p'""i(*e that thi" tat #' *0 have (ee$ $0er"t''0 a" the r''t $' $ '1 the r''t tan (tanoti), i$ weak gra0e (a$0 "' "h'r$ '1 it" $a"a*, #1. ga1ta), with t'ggama (that i" J the "te/,e7te$"i'$ t$'k ), a" w' *0 (e $'r/a* a1ter a "h'rt v'we* (#1. viva1k1t). See a*"' .4; 65 1, v'*. 6;= 1637= tanoti sarvam iti tat para r)pa tas!a bhvas tattvam it! artha, 82.he ter/3 tattva i" th " e7p*ai$e0= 2the e*e/e$t3 tat /ea$" 8that whi#h e7te$0" t' ever%thi$g:, 2$a/e*%3 the *ti/ate 1'r/ 2'1 the $iver"e3> 2(% a11i7i$g theret' the a("tra#t " 11i7 1tva, '$e '(tai$" the "e$"e=3 8the "tate ('r #'$0iti'$) '1 that 2e7te$0e0 e$tit% ('r " pre/e 1'r/) J that i", the pri$#ip*e '1 e7pa$"i'$ it"e*13:. .h ", tattva re1er" either t' #*a""i1ie0 '(Le#tivit%, 'r t' tra$"#e$0e$ta* " (Le#tivit%, a*th' gh, *ti/ate*%, a** tattvas are a("'r(e0 i$t' that where1r'/ the% pr'#ee0, the S pre/e N'r0, 'r *ti/ate pri$#ip*e (paratattva), 0e1i$e0 a" 8that whi#h e7pa$0":. See a*"' $. 506. Mi"t'ri#a* *i$g i"ti#" '1 the /'0er$ "'rt '1 #' r"e 0'e" $'t appr've " #h et%/'*'gie", pre1erri$g the "traight1'rwar0 0erivati'$ tat1tva 8thi",$e"":.


In eit!er &ase, t!e $ord tatt3a &onveys so"et!in insentient);AB *o$, t!erefore, &an it 'e a%%lied to t!e Lord, to t!e S(%re"e Piva, $!ose for" is &ons&io(sness 6cidr/pa7Z To t!is o'#e&tion it "ay 'e said in res%onse: R T!e $ord tatt3a, H%rin&i%leI, is e"%loyed W'y (sY only to t!e e,tent t!at a ver'al e,%osition is re9(ired, for t!ose $!o need instr(&tion,;A= '(t tr(ly t!is $ord does not a%%ly to Wt!e S(%re"e PivaY) Of $!at sort is t!is (lti"ate %rin&i%le 6paratatt3a7 t!enZ It is t!at $!ose for", $!ose %ro%er nat(re, is radiance, is Li !t: of it t!e for" is t!at of reat Li !t: t!at is t!e "eanin ) And, it is complete Wor all+encompassingY 6parip/r0a7, t!at is, it $ants not!in Wto &o"%lete itself, is free of de%enden&yY 6nir,9,)a7);A< WIn t!is res%e&t, it "i !t 'e alle ed:Y R '(t also are free of de%enden&y s(&! t!in s as &rystal? e"s, "irrors, et&), $!i&! are insentient) T!erefore, t!e "aster says: Hsupremely blissful 6mahnanda7 on account of reposing in itself, t!at is, it is endo$ed $it! reat 'liss, $it! s(%re"e feli&ity, ;AC d(e to t!e fa&t t!at it re%oses in its o$n tr(e nat(re Winfor"ed 'yY t!e deli !t 6rasa7 t!at arises fro" t!e state of (nfra "ented $onder t!at is Ws(%re"eY i%seity 6a,ha0hantcamat,ra7);A@ T!(s, 'e&a(se its essen&e is s(%re"e, 'eatifi& s%lendor 6sphuratt7, W$!i&! needs no ot!er so(r&e of li !tY, its differen&e is Ws(ffi&ientlyY stated in res%e&t of inani"ate entities s(&! as &rystal, $!i&! "(st 'e ill("ined Wfro" $it!o(tY) T!erefore t!e "aster says f(rt!er: Hsuffused with the Wenergies ofY -ill6 #nowledge and ActionI)

Rhether phe$'/e$a* #ateg'r% 'r *ti/ate pri$#ip*e, tattva i" a*wa%" $0er"t''0 a" e7i"ti$g i$ "pa#e a$0 ti/e (a" paratattva, it 8e7pa$0" ti** 0i""'* ti'$:). B" 0e/'$"trate0 e*"ewhere (CD a0 6 a$0 10,11), "patia*it% a$0 te/p'ra*it% are i$"e$tie$t, $*e"" take$ a" the ver% p'wer" '1 the N'r0. S' gr' $0e0 i" the '(Le#ti'$ '1 the p)rvapakin. .hi" 8e7te$0i$g: /a$i1e"tati'$, (ei$g $'thi$g ( t phe$'/e$a* p* ra*it%, i/p*ie" that the N'r0 ha" a(a$0'$e0 hi" 'w$ e""e$tia* $at re, p re #'$"#i' "$e"". 6$ thi" wa%, p* ra*it% i/p*ie" i$"e$tie$#e. 436 Sa/e ter/ a$0 0i"# ""i'$ i$ CD a0 14. 437 Far$ett a$0 Si*( r$ tra$"*ate parip)ra a" 8per1e#t:. F t 8#'/p*ete: appear" /'re appr'priate here, i$ the *ight '1 the #'//e$tar% whi#h e7p*ai$" it a" nirkka, 80e"ire*e"", wa$ti$g $'thi$g 2t' 1i** it p, viU., #'/p*ete3:. .he ter/ kk, 8e7pe#tati'$:, ('rr'we0 1r'/ gra//ar, 0e"ig$ate" that whi#h J *ike a tra$"itive ver( J Ee7pe#t"E a #'/p*e/e$t J it" E0ire#t '(Le#tE J a$0 i" there1're i$ it"e*1 i$#'/p*ete. !'//e$ti$g p'$ ('th icchsavitkaraair nirbharitam a$0 anantaaktiparip)ram, CD agai$ $0er"ta$0" the ter/ t' /ea$ 8#'/p*ete*% 1i**e0 with i$$ /era(*e e$ergie":. Sa/e "eK e$#e i$ CD a0 65. 438 Mi" 1ree0'/ 1r'/ 0epe$0e$#% i" $'t L "t a $egative #'$0iti'$. Me i" a*"' #hara#teriUe0 a" " pre/e (*i"" it"e*1> "ee 6$tr., p. 29, a$0 p. 46. 439 Si/i*ar*% ^&? 6 5, 11 /ake" re1*e#tive aware$e"" (vimara0prat!avamara), e7perie$#e0 a" w'$0er (camatkra), the 1a#t'r 0i"ti$g i"hi$g the N'r0 'r $iver"a* #'$"#i' "$e"" 1r'/ i$"e$tie$t '(Le#t" " #h a" #r%"ta*. B*th' gh the *atter are #'*'re0 (% '(Le#t" L "t a" #'$"#i' "$e"" i", the% are $'t aware '1 it.


T!e ener ies of Oill, /no$led e, and A&tion;;7 &onstit(te its nat(reM it is not t!e &ase t!at it is devoid of ener y, and is, as it $ere, insentient, as is "aintained 'y t!e P4nta'ra!"av4dins) .oreover, it is replete with an infinity of WotherY energies 6ananta(a,ti7M;;8 replete with 6paripur07 R entirely, &o"%letely, filled with 6p/r0a7, or %er"eated 'y 63ypta7 R infinite, (n&o(nta'le, energies, as "anifested in Wt!e infinity ofY for"s t!at !ave na"es, s(&! as H#arI, H&lot!I, et&) And t!ese ener ies ta5e t!e for" of +r4!"F, et&),;;6 as offs!oots of t!e ener ies of Oill, /no$led e and A&tion,;;A and Was denotationY arise fro" t!e "ass Wor totalityY of so(nds

&ara/aPiva i" i$"epara(*e 1r'/ hi" " pre/e e$erg% (parakti), whi#h i" a*"' $a/e0 svtantr!aakti, e$erg% '1 a("'* te 1ree0'/. Si$#e thi" svtantr!aakti tra$"1'r/" it"e*1 i$t' icchakti, %&naakti a$0 kri!akti, i$ " ##e""i'$, &ara/aPiva /a% (e "ai0 t' (e 8'1 the $at re '1 the e$ergie" '1 Ri** (icch), ?$'w*e0ge (%&na), a$0 B#ti'$ (kri!):. Sp) 666 13 a$0 S; 666 19, ('th K 'ti$g +;. 666 5,13, 0e"#ri(e i$ 0etai* the e$tire pr'#e"" ("ee Bppe$0i7 9, p. 329). 441 )'te that anantaakti wa" the ter/ "e0 (% Bva0h\ta"i00ha i$ the pa""age K 'te0 at the e$0 '1 the #'//e$tar% '$ &S 9. !1. a*"' Sp? 6 1, K 'te0 $. 301, i$ whi#h iva i" #e*e(rate0 a" the /a"ter '1 the Rhee* '1 e$ergie". .he"e 8i$$ /era(*e (ananta 'r aea) e$ergie": are a*"' ter/e0 the 8Rhee* '1 e$ergie": (akticakra), whi#h Sp) 666 13, whi*e 0e1i$i$g parvc, 0e"#ri(e" a" 8#'/p'"e0 '1 e$*arge/e$t" '1 the E"i7 path"E J 2e$*arge03 (% /ea$" '1 i$$ /era(*e w'r0" a$0 '(Le#t" t' whi#h the% re1er 2appeari$g a$0 0i"appeari$g t' the rh%th/3 '1 $i$terr pte0 "erie" '1 /a$i1e"tati'$ a$0 0i""'* ti'$ 2...3: ($... sv,ktnantavc!avcakar)paaadhvasphrama!eaakticakrakro,krntaktanieasarga prala!diparapar$... ). See a*"' &S 47 (a$0 CD a0 *'#.) a$0 the i/age '1 the water,whee*. 442 +;. 666 14 /e$ti'$" eight g'00e""e", 'r 0ivi$iUe0 e$ergie" (akti), pre"i0i$g 'ver the eight gr' p" '1 ph'$e/e" (varga)= +AhePY (S +AhePvarY), FrAh/a@Y (S FrAh/Y), ?a /ArY, ;ai9@avY, Bi$0rY, CA/%A, !A/ @A a$0 C'gYPY> '$ the mtks, "ee a*"' Sp& 1 (pp. 11,12). F t the *i"t" 0i11er a##'r0i$g t' 0i11ere$t te7t" ("ee &a0' 7 1992= 155). Sp? 666 13 e/pha"iUe", a" e7p*ai$e0 (% the Bira!a, the 0e* 0i$g p'wer '1 th'"e ver(a* aktis, re"p'$"i(*e 1'r the "ervit 0e '1 the pa', 80eprive0 '1 hi" /ight (% *i/ite0 w'r0" a$0 i0ea": (sak'citai abdair %&nai ca vil'ptavibhava). !1. S; 666 19= $... prptatattvo (pi pramd!an mhe!dibhi pa'%andhi#htbh)tbhir api abdn'vedhadvrea moh!ate, 8Gve$ he wh' ha" attai$e0 2" pre/e3 rea*it%, i1 i$atte$tive, i" #'$1' $0e0 (moh!ate) (% +AhePY a$0 a** the 'ther pre"i0i$g 0eitie" '1 1ettere0 " (Le#t", thr' gh the /e0i / '1 w'r0" that #'$1' $0 2*it., 8pier#e: ("#i*. 80e"tr'%:), an'v!adh3:. 443 CD:" e7p'"iti'$ re1er" here t' the 0'#tri$e '1 ph'$e/i# e/a$ati'$, a" 0eve*'pe0 (% S; 666 19. .he N'r0:" svtantr!aakti, "ee$ a" parvc, " pre/e Spee#h, havi$g 0ivi0e0 it"e*1 i$t' the three e$ergie" '1 Ri**, ?$'w*e0ge a$0 B#ti'$, a"" /e" the 1'r/" '1 v'we*" a$0 #'$"'$a$t". .h " it (e#'/e" +AtXkA, the 8+'ther: '1 ph'$e/e", whether ttere0 'r $'t, a$0 pre"i0e" 'ver the 0eitie", " #h a" +AhePvarY, et#., wh' reig$ 'ver the eight gr' p" '1 ph'$e/e", a*"' #a**e0 mtks. .he $a/e mtk, whether app*ie0 t' a "i$g*e e$tit% 'r t' /a$%, #'$$'te" $'t '$*% the 8/'ther: '1 the w'r0", ( t a*"' '1 the w'r*0", i$a"/ #h a" the / *tit 0e '1 w'r0" e$tai*" the / *tit 0e '1 '(Le#t" (% the/ 0e$'te0. B" "h'w$ (% +;. 666 5,13 ("ee Bppe$0i7 9, p. 329), FrAh/Y, et#., "ee$ a" e$ergie", "pri$g 1'rth 1r'/ the tria0 '1 icch, %&na a$0 kri!. Si/i*ar 0eve*'p/e$t i$ CD a0 64,66> a*"' S; 666 19, .4 666 198,200a.


6(a$dar(i7);;; T!ese ener ies 'ea" fort! 6ullasat7 fro" it Wt!e (lti"ate %rin&i%leY, and also a&!ieve rest in it);;B And, t!(s, it "i !t also 'e said t!at, in t!e Lord, W!is ener y of a'sol(teY freedo" ta5es t!e for" of s(%re"e S%ee&! 6par3c7);;= *ere, so"eone "ay o'#e&t: R If t!e (lti"ate %rin&i%le Wor entityY is of t!e nat(re of S%ee&! 63c7, t!en, it is &onstr(&ted "entally inas"(&! as it is differentiated 'y "eans of so(nds Wor %!one"esY W$!i&! are vol(ntaryY) *o$ &an a "ental &onstr(&t 6,alpan7 'e attri'(ted to !i" $!o is %(re Li !tZ Oit! t!e intention of ans$erin t!is o'#e&tion, t!e "aster says: Hde"oid of all mental constructsI) WT!at is,Y alt!o( ! of t!e nat(re of S%ee&!, t!e $ondro(s e,%erien&e, in t!e s(%re"e &o niLer, of s(%re"e i%seity is free fro" "ental &onstr(&ts 6nir3i,alpa7) For a "ental &onstr(&t 63i,alp7 is &!ara&teriLed 'y t!e differentiation 6apoha7 Wof a Ht!isIY fro" an Hot!erI WviL), a Hnon?t!isIY R t!at is, 'y t!e %ost(lation of a d(ality R t!e #ar and t!e non?#ar R $!i&! deter"ines t!e #ar as distin (is!ed fro" all t!at is non?#ar);;< +(t not!in ot!er t!an Li !t, $!i&! $o(ld Wne&essarilyY !ave t!e for" of non? Li !t, is attested t!at &o(ld serve as a &o(nter?reality ;;C to t!at Li !t R $!ose very essen&e is t!e "arvel of s(%re"e i%seity R s(&! t!at, 'y distin (is!in WLi !tY fro" t!at Wot!er entityY, its stat(s as a "ental &onstr(&t WR as !avin an alternative ;;@ RY $o(ld 'e esta'lis!ed);B7
S; 66 13 0e1i$e" the N'r0 a" (abdari, /a"" 2*it., 8heap:, i/p*%i$g a$ $0i11ere$tiate0 t'ta*it%3 '1 "' $0", wh'"e e""e$#e #'$"i"t" '1 a p *"ati$g ra0ia$#e, the $at re '1 whi#h i" the re1*e#tive aware$e"" '1 the 1 **$e"" '1 the 2a("'* te3 E6E, i$"epara(*e 1r'/ the t'ta*it% '1 the $iver"e: (bhagavn abdari tas!a ! satt aeavivbhedama!ap)rhamvimarantm sph'ratt)> tr. &a0' 7 1992= 307. See a*"' CD a0 64,66, "i$g a "i/i*ar phra"e'*'g%. Sp; 6; 21 2S a0 666 19, i$ the te7t a* 'rga$iUati'$ '1 Sp)3 (p. 160) /ake" e7p*i#it the re*ati'$"hip (etwee$ the Rhee* '1 e$ergie" a$0 abdari= sat!tmasvar)paprat!abhi%&lakad heto cakrevaro bhavet cakras!a prkpratipditasthit! carcarabhvapar!antena prapa&cena prastas!a abdarisam'tthas!a svaaktisam)has!a ,varo (dhi#ht, 8F% re#'g$i"i$g hi" tr e e""e$tia* $at re, EMe (e#'/e" the N'r0 '1 the Rhee*E, that i", the N'r0 Rh' pre"i0e" 'ver the Rhee* 'r gr' p '1 Mi" 'w$ p'wer" ('r$ '1 the E+a"" '1 "' $0"E (abdari) a$0 whi#h, i$ the /a$$er previ' "*% 0e"#ri(e0, $1'*0" thr' gh the e7te$0i$g "eK e$#e '1 /a$i1e"tati'$ (prapa&ca) a** the wa% 0'w$ t' the *eve* '1 a$i/ate a$0 i$a$i/ate (ei$g": (tr. -%#Uk'w"ki ^&?= 134)> a*"' Sp? 666 13, whi#h agai$ e"ta(*i"he" the abdari a" the "' r#e '1 the gr' p ('r Rhee*) '1 e$ergie"= abdarisam'tthas!a aktivargas!a bhog!atm0 $... gata san $... , ( t 1r'/ the viewp'i$t '1 the pa' a$0 $'t that '1 the pati, a" 0'e" Sp; 6; 21 2S 666 193 K 'te0 a('ve. 445 !1. Sp) 666 13 K 'te0 $. 441. 446 parvc, " pre/e Spee#h, i" the 1ir"t 1* tter '1 #'$"#i' "$e""= 6 a/, a$0 6 k$'w that 6 a/. <$ the *eve*" '1 Spee#h, 'r '1 the R'r0 (vc), "ee &a0' 7 1992= 166,222. 447 !1. ^&? 6 6, 3, whi#h 0e1i$e" vikalpa i$ a*/'"t the "a/e ter/"= $... atadv!apohant0 tannica!anam 'kto hi vikalpo gha#a it! a!am, 8T'r we #a** vikalpa the a"#ertai$/e$t '1 a #ertai$ thi$g (tannica!anam) 2e.g.3 ELarE arrive0 at thr' gh the e7#* "i'$ '1 it" 'pp'"ite (atadv!apohant) 2...3: (tr. .'re**a ^&?= 131). 448 pratipakata!. 449 vikalpa, here, i" "e0 a*/'"t p $$i$g*%= $'t '$*% 8/e$ta* #'$"tr #t:, ( t a*"' 8a*ter$ative: (a" e/p*'%e0 (% gra//aria$" a$0 "'/e 'ther"). 450 Ma0 there (ee$ "'/ethi$g *ike $'$,Night (apraka), Night (praka) w' *0 have (ee$ a /e$ta* #'$"tr #t. F t apraka (e#'/e" praka a" "''$ a" '$e " pp'"e" it t' (e apraka. B** i" Night, a$0 thi" Night i" *ti/ate*% p re ip"eit%, a" " #h 1ree '1 a** /e$ta* #'$"tr #t". .hi" 0i"# ""i'$ e#h'e", i$ $ear*% the "a/e ter/", that '1 ^&? 6 6 a$0 it" vtti #'$#er$i$g vikalpa, whi*e e7a/i$i$g


If Wyo(, t!e p/r3apa,)in, f(rt!er alle e t!atY t!ere is an o'#e&t to 'e distin (is!ed Wfro" Li !tY t!at is of t!e essen&e of non?Li !t, and $!i&! does a%%ear 'efore !i" $!ose for" is Li !t itself WR na"ely, t!e &ontent or o'#e&t of t!at Li !t]&ons&io(sness RY, t!en, $e re%ly: !o$ &o(ld t!at o'#e&t serve to deli"it ;B8 t!at Li !t, $!i&! is WalsoY t!at o'#e&tIs o$n essential nat(re, inas"(&! as t!at o'#e&t "(st !ave W'y yo(r !y%ot!esisY t!e nat(re of Li !t Win order t!at it "ay 'e HseenIYZ Only in ter"s of s(&! WalternativityY &o(ld t!e stat(s Wof Li !tY as a H"ental &onstr(&tI 'e 'ro( !t o(t[ For t!ere is t!e "a,i": W)))Y sin&e Wt!e e"'odied so(lY %er&eives !is identity W$it! all entitiesY t!ro( ! !is a$areness 6sa3eda7 of t!e", Wt!ere is no state, as re ards $ords, "eanin s or t!o( !ts, $!i&! is not PivaY);B6 And, sin&e not!in a%%ears as &ontrary Wto Li !tY, !o$ t!en "i !t it 'e %ossi'le even to as&ertain;BA t!at t!ere is an o'#e&t !ere $!i&!, not s('#e&t to ill("ination
ahaprat!avamara, the re1*e#tive aware$e"" 86:. See parti# *ar*% ^&? 6 6, 2= bhinna!or avabhso hi s!d gha#gha#a!or dva!o0 prakas!eva nn!as!a bhedinas tv avabhsanam00, 86$ 1a#t, the /a$i1e"tati'$ '1 tw' thi$g" a" 0i11ere$t w' *0 2(e *i/ite0 t', 1'r e7a/p*e,3 the #a"e '1 the ELarE (gha#a) a$0 the E$'$,LarE (agha#a). .here i", h'wever, $' /a$i1e"tati'$, a" i1 it were *ight, '1 "'/ethi$g 'ther 2tha$ *ight3:> a$0 it" vtti= prakd dvit,!as!a bhinnas!a prati!ogino (prakasa%&as!a anavabhsane praketaratva na s!t0 tas!a anavbhse v!apohan!ogd vikalpathni00, 8<ther$e"" with re"pe#t t' *ight (praketaratva) i" $'t p'""i(*e, "i$#e a$ 'pp'"ite rea*it% (prati!ogin), "e#'$0 t' a$0 0i"ti$#t 1r'/ *ight, #a**e0 $'$,*ight, i" $'t /a$i1e"te0. .here (ei$g $' p'""i(i*it% '1 e7#* "i'$ (v!apohan!ogt), "i$#e " #h a$ 'pp'"ite rea*it% 0'e" $'t e7i"t, '$e #a$$'t, there1're, "peak '1 /e$ta* #'$"tr #t (vikalpat) 2with re1ere$#e t' ahaprat!avamara3: (tr. .'re**a ^&?= 129,131). )'te that the $'ti'$ '1 prati!ogin i" (a"e0 '$ a te#h$i#a* "age '1 the )%A%a J where it "ig$i1ie" the ter/ t' (e pre" /e0 a" the 'ther p'*e i$ 0e1i$i$g a give$ re*ati'$. T'r i$"ta$#e, 81ather: i" the prati!ogin '1 8"'$:, i$ the re*ati'$ pitp'trabhva, a" the /ea$i$g '1 thi" *atter ter/ (a*rea0% i/p*i#it*% re*ati'$a*) pre" /e" re1ere$#e t' a pare$t, i$ thi" #a"e, hi" 81ather:. 451 v!avacchedaka J *it., 8"erve a" a K a*i1i#ati'$ '1:. .he /ea$i$g '1 the ter/ v!avacchedaka i" (e"t gra"pe0 i$ the #'$te7t '1 the $'ti'$ '1 the prati!ogin J 1'r it t'' i" a re*ati'$a* ter/, wh'"e prati!ogin i" the v!avacched!a. .he re*ati'$ i" that '1 8K a*i1i#ati'$ t' thi$g K a*i1ie0:, $0er"t''0 i$ a wa% " #h that the e7i"te$#e '1 the '$e i" "'/eh'w 0eter/i$e0 'r *i/ite0 (% the e7i"te$#e '1 the 'ther J 1'r e7a/p*e, the 86$0ia$ #'w: a$0 the 80ew*ap: (wh'"e re*ati'$"hip appear" t' (e with' t e7#epti'$, a$0 there1're /a% "erve i$ a 0e1i$iti'$), 'r the 8(ir0: a$0 the 8(ra$#h: ('$ whi#h it per#he", whi#h re*ati'$"hip i" /ere*% '##a"i'$a*, a$0 there1're "erve" '$*% t' 0i"ti$g i"h the (ir0 1r'/ 'ther (ir0"). .he re*ati'$ i" th " (a" are a** re*ati'$") "hare0 (% the tw' re*ata, a$0 (e*'$g" t' $either '$e e7#* "ive*%, whatever (e the /a$$er '1 their #'e7i"te$#e. 6$ the pre"e$t #'$te7t, thi" *a$g age i" "e0 t' e/pha"iUe that E*ightE (praka) #a$ have $' prati!ogin, a$0 i" there1're E $K a*i1ie0E a("'* te. !1. ;A/a$a, K 'te0 i$ Sp) 66 3,4 ("ee $. 902). 452 Sp? 66 3(. .he e$tire te7t i" a" 1'**'w"= !asmt sarvama!o %,va sarvabhvasam'dbhavt0 tatsavedanar)pea tdtm!apratipattita00 (66 3) tasmc chabdrthacints' na svasth na ! iva0 bhoktaiva bhog!abhvena sad sarvatra sasthita00 (66 4), 8.he *i/ite0 i$0ivi0 a* Se*1[e/('0ie0 "' * (%,va) i" i0e$ti#a* with the wh'*e $iver"e, i$a"/ #h a" a** e$titie" ari"e 1r'/ hi/, a$0 he per#eive" hi" i0e$tit% (tdtm!a) 2with a** e$titie"3 i$"'1ar a" he i" aware (saveda) '1 the/. .here1're, there i" $' "tate, a" regar0" w'r0", /ea$i$g" 'r th' ght", that i" $'t iva. 6t i" the 2N'r03 hi/"e*1 a" the e$L'%er (bhokt) wh' i", a*wa%" a$0 ever%where, e"ta(*i"he0 i$ a$0 thr' gh the '(Le#t" '1 e$L'%/e$t (bhog!a)". .h " the e7perie$#e0 '(Le#t ha" a$ i0e$tit% '1 e""e$#e with the e7perie$#er. Tr'/ the &+ 60, it /a% (e i$1erre0 that the 1a/' " he/i"ti#h (Sp? 66 4a)= tasmc chabdrthacints' na svasth na! iva, i" ('rr'we0 1r'/ "'/e '*0er te7t" (anekmn!a)> "ee $. 1028. !1. .4 6; 275a= sarva ivama!am, a$0 avat. a0 &S 46.

6apra,(amna7, !as t!e for" of its o%%osite Wt!at is, $!i&! is different fro" Li !tY R $!atever t!at o'#e&t "i !t 'eZ T!erefore, t!e (lti"ate %rin&i%le is of an (ndeli"ited nat(re 6aparicchinnas3a$h3a7, inas"(&! as it is free of all mental constructs, $!i&! are t!e"selves deli"itin fa&tors) T!erefore, t!e "aster says: Hit is pureI, free of stain, d(e to t!e a'sen&e of t!e soot?li5e i"%(rity fo(nd in t!o( !t?&onstr(&t) Si"ilarly, Wt!e "aster says: t!at t!e (lti"ate %rin&i%le isY serene "(nta7, re%osin WeverY in its a'sol(te nat(re, in (nison 6smarasya7;B; $it! its Pa5ti, for t!ere is no dist(r'an&e 6,)o$ha7 arisin fro" t!e di&!oto"y 'et$een t!e 5no$er and t!e 5no$n) -et, it does not at all rese"'le a %ie&e of stone Was does t!e (nta$rahman of t!e AdvaitinsY) .oreover, it Wt!e (lti"ate %rin&i%leY is de"oid of dissolution and creation) A&&ordin to t!e "a,i": On&e t!is Self !as a%%eared W, its %ossi'ility of not a%%earin is no$!ere DR is not %ossi'le RE, for it is &o"%leteY,;BB Wt!e SelfY is eternal) T!erefore ti"e, %ast,
!1. ^&; 6 3, 7 (v'*. 6= 143)= !ata ea evaparita chedant pariccheda 'c!ate, tad avabhsanasmarth!am apohanaakti, 8-i11ere$tiati'$ (pariccheda) i" "' #a**e0 (e#a "e it # t" 2the 0i11ere$tiate03 '11 '$ a** "i0e" 21r'/ the re"t3. Me$#e, what i" re"p'$"i(*e 1'r the /a$i1e"tati'$ 2'1 '$e '(Le#t a" 0i"ti$#t 1r'/ the re"t3 i" apohanaakti 2the p'wer '1 0i11ere$tiati$g E6E 1r'/ Ethi"E, i.e., the p'wer '1 $egati$g the N'r0:" e""e$tia* p*e$it 0e3: (' r tra$"*ati'$ ('rr'w" 1r'/ &a$0e% ^&?= 38). <$ apohanaakti, "ee $. 314> a*"' IBS 5; 15= a!a gha#a eva iti sarvtmakabhvakhaansra vikalpa%&ntmakam apohana pavas#ir)pam!1 ma!apramtr'citam, 8-i"ti$#tive apprehe$"i'$ (apohana), " #h a" Ethi" i" $'thi$g ( t a LarE ('r Ethi" i" a Lar 2a$0 $'thi$g e*"e3E) i" e""e$tia**% that k$'w*e0ge #'$"i"ti$g '1 /e$ta* #'$"tr #t", the "' r#e '1 2sra J E1r'/ whi#h 1*'w"E ...3 the 0i"i$tegrati'$ '1 the $'ti'$ that a** thi$g" have the "a/e e""e$#e, whi#h i" " ita(*e t' the 2*i/ite03 k$'wer wh' i" hi/"e*1 a #'$"eK e$#e '1 th'"e i** "'r% p'wer" (m!) that have "hape0 the/"e*ve" i$t' a #reati'$ a11e#te0 t' "' *" i$ ('$0age:. 454 smaras!a J *it., 8the #'$0iti'$ '1 2th'"e thi$g"3 that have '$e a$0 the "a/e "av'r 'r e""e$#e:, 8"a/e$e"" '1 "av'r:> 1ir"t '## rre$#e '1 thi" ke% $'ti'$. Sa/e ter/ i$ -vX 6 48, g*'""i$g sarvapadrthn samaiva ivat sthit= paramaivtprabhti gha#d!antnm api padrthn samaiva $... ivat... ni!at sarve tath smaras!sdant kpi sthiti s!d it! artha0 eva ca sarvas!a ivar)pasmaras!t tadakh!tima!a'ddh!a'ddhir)paparpardi1bhedo bhvnm 'kta, 82Eivah''0 i" the "a/e 1'r a** e$titie"E J .hi" /ea$"=3 1r'/ &ara/aPiva 2'$ high, 0'w$3 t' Lar", a$0 "' 1'rth, ivah''0 2...3 i" e"ta(*i"he0 ... a" the "a/e 1'r a** e$titie". S', "i$#e the% have a#K ire0 " #h $it% '1 e""e$#e, their "tat " w' *0 (e a /atter '1 i$0i11ere$#e. Si$#e ever%thi$g ha" i0e$tit% '1 e""e$#e (smaras!a) with iva, the 0i11ere$#e (etwee$ p re a$0 i/p re, (etwee$ the tra$"#e$0e$t a$0 the i//a$e$t (parpara), a$0 "' 1'rth, #a$ (e attri( te0 t' e$titie" '$*% i$"'1ar a" that 2i0e$tit%3 i" /i"#'$"tr e0[$'t re#'g$iUe0 (akh!ti), 1'r thi" i" the "' r#e 2'1 " #h 0i11ere$#e3 (Cma!aC)". 6$ the ?a"h/iria$ tra0iti'$, the w'r0 rasa *ie" at the heart '1 a$'ther $it%, that '1 p'eti#" a$0 /etaph%"i#". 6$ a$ ae"theti# #'$te7t, the rasa e7pre""e" a*"' a $it% '1 "e$ti/e$t i$ whi#h private 0i"ti$#ti'$" a$0 e/'ti'$a* i$v'*ve/e$t" are #a"t '11. 6t i" the #'r$er"t'$e '1 the 0'#tri$e. <$ the $'ti'$, "ee Da"t'gi 1987= 35,36> Fa$"at,F' 0'$ 1992> &'**'#k 2006. 455 .he #'/p*ete te7t '1 the K 'tati'$ i" give$ (% BI i$ ^&;; 66 1, 6,7 (v'*. 666= 23), whi*e #'//e$ti$g '$ na kvp! apraka '1 the vivtti a0 66 1, 7, attri( ti$g it t' the aiva /rasvatasamgraha= sakd vibhto (!am tm p)ras!s!a na kvp! aprakanasambhava> it i" 1' $0 a*"' i$ the SpS 2p. 253, where it i" attri( te0 t' the 2ivas)tra (pr'(a(*% a part '1 the S whi#h i" *'"t> "ee Si*( r$ S= 2)> $'te that the SpS rea0i$g 0i11er" "*ight*%= p)ro (s!a, aprakasabhava. .he "tate/e$t #a$ a*"' (e re/i$i"#e$t '1 !hH ;666 4, 1,2= atha!a tm sa set'r $.., tasmd v eta set' t,rtvpi naktam ahar evbhinipad!ate0 sakdvibhto h! evaia brahmaloka. 6t /a% (e w'rth $'ti$g that 4&S 25 a*"' 0e1i$e" the tman a" sakd vibhtah, a p'i$t '1 #'$verge$#e with BI:" &S 93> D a0 *'#. K 'te" + H 66 2, 11 ("ee p. 14). .he #'/p' $0


f(t(re, and %resent, "a5es no alteration;B= in it, for fro" it ti"e itself e"er es 6samulls7) T!(s, on&e it is ad"itted t!at t!e (lti"ate %rin&i%le is free of eneration and de&ay, t!e entirety of t!e $!ole "ay 'e lo i&ally esta'lis!ed) And t!is is $!at !as 'een %ro%o(nded !ere) #!rik!s *+ , +(t, interr(%ts an o'#e&tor, if t!e (lti"ate %rin&i%le is s(&! as yo( say Wand yo( alsoY affir" t!at t!e $orld a%%ears W$it!in itY, t!en !o$ &an t!is 'e R inas"(&! as not!in , in res%e&t of t!at (lti"ate %rin&i%le, $o(ld dare to Ha%%earI t!erefro" differentZ W-o( are &a( !t in t!e follo$in dile""a:Y If yo( say t!at t!e (niverse is different fro" it WviL), t!e (lti"ate %rin&i%leY and so a%%ears W$it!in itY, t!is $o(ld 'e tanta"o(nt to denyin t!e nond(alisti& do&trine) +(t if yo( say t!at it is not different, $!at sense t!en &an 'e attri'(ted to t!is ver'al &onstr(&tion of yo(rs, ;B< W$!i&! a%%ears to sayY t!at t!e (niverse a%%ears W$it!in itY Was so"et!in else a ainYZ WIn res%onse to t!isY, ill(stratin t!ro( ! an e,a"%le t!e %rin&i%le at iss(e, viL), Wt!e relation ter"edY Hdifferen&e?and?non?differen&eI 6$hed$hed7, t!e "aster says, in order to s('stantiate Wt!e aforesaid %rin&i%leY: *+ ,) As, in the orb of a mirror, ob8ects such as cities or "illages, themsel"es "arious though not different (from the mirror) ,;BC appear both as different from each other and from the mirror itself , so appears this world (in the mirror of the 4ordIs consciousness), differentiated both internally;B@ and "is+a+"is that
sakdvibhta appear" twi#e i$ Ia 0apA0a:" 4 666 36 a$0 6; 81, i$ the #'$te7t '1 0e1i$i$g brahman a" tman ('r citta). .he ter/ i" g*'""e0 (% a0 *'#= sadaiva vibhta it! etat, a$0, a" he $'te", i" 1 rther e7p*ai$e0 i$ 4 6; 81( it"e*1= sakdvibhto h! evaia dharmo dht' svabhvata (a" F' % rea0")> the "a/e ter/ K a*i1ie" brahman i$ 5padeashasr, 5 1= disvar)pa gaganopama para sakdvibhta $... . 6$ it" a(ri0ge0 1'r/ (viU., sakd vibhto (!am tm, 'r eve$ sakd vibhta), thi" pa""age i" K 'te0 i$ a $ /(er '1 aiva te7t", a/'$g whi#h we are a(*e t' #ite, (e"i0e" ^&;; a$0 SpS, ^&; 66 1, 6,7 (v'* 66= 22), .4; 6 125,126, 6; 179, ;666 169a, 174 a$0 5565 80, a$0, here, CD a0 10,11. 6t i" a*"' 1' $0, i$ the #'$te7t '1 ae"theti#", i$ BFh a0 ) ;6, ntarasaprakaraa, a1ter kA. 82 (v'*. 6= 335). 6$ a** pr'(a(i*it%, thi" *i"t i" $'t e7ha "tive a$0 /a$% 'ther '## rre$#e" /ight (e 0i"#'vere0. 6$ a$% #a"e, it "h' *0 (e e/pha"iUe0 that it" 1reK e$t '## rre$#e /ake" sakd vibhto (!am tm a ke% 1'r/ *a '1 $'$0 a* aivi"/ '1 ?a"h/ir. )'te that CD K 'te" it here i$ the "a/e #'$te7t a" 0'e" ^&? 66 1, 6,7, that '1 the eter$it% '1 the " pre/e S (Le#t, 'r #'$"#i' "$e"", wh'"e (a#kgr' $0 i" the 0e(ate '$ Night a$0 it" #'$trar%. 6$ 1a#t, CD "ee/" here t' re1er, i$0ire#t*%, t' the *itera* 1'r/ '1 ^&? 66 1, 6, wh'"e 1i$a* sakt i" give$ a "pe#ia* treat/e$t= sarvatrbhsabhedo (pi bhavet klakramkara0 vicchinnabhsa )n!der mt'r bhtas!a no sakt00, 86$ a** thi$g" the 0iver"it% '1 the /a$i1e"tati'$" i" the "' r#e '1 te/p'ra* " ##e""i'$ 1'r the k$'wi$g " (Le#t", " #h a" 2th'"e wh' are #'$"#i' " '13 the v'i0 ()n!a) 2viU., the )n!apramt , et#., wh'"e *ight i" 0i"#'$ti$ ' ", ( t $'t 1'r the k$'wi$g " (Le#t wh' "hi$e" '$#e a$0 1'r ever: (tr. .'re**a ^&?= 155, /'0i1ie0). See a*"' &S 93 a$0 $'te" there'$. 6t i" $'tew'rth% that SpS K 'te" sakd vibhto (!am tm, et#., i//e0iate*% a1ter re1erri$g t' Sp? 66 4a= abdrthacints' na svasth na ! iva0, 8.here i" $' "tate, a" regar0" w'r0", /ea$i$g" 'r th' ght", that i" $'t iva:. .he "a/e te7t a* 'rga$iUati'$ i" '("erve0, here, i$ CD:" #'//e$tar%, where the previ' " K 'tati'$ i" 1r'/ Sp? 66 3(. S #h e#h'e" 1r'/ te7t t' te7t "h'w the per"i"te$t i$terre1ere$tia*it% '1 the .rika "%"te/. 456 na kramate J "ee CD a0 6. 457 vco!'kti. 458 .hat i", a" re1*e#ti'$", havi$g $' " ("trat / apart 1r'/ the /irr'r it"e*1. 459 Nit. 8/ t a**%:.

consciousness, although it is not different from consciousness most pure , the supreme Bhaira"a);=7 WT!e &o"%arison "ay 'e develo%ed t!ro( ! t!e follo$in e,a"%le:Y In t!e de%t!s of a &lear "irror, t!e $orld;=8 a%%ears 6$hsate7 as refle&tion 6prati$im$a7 "ariously R $!et!er a &ity, villa e, fortress, en&los(re, "ar5et?%la&e, river, strea", fire, a tree, "o(ntain, ani"al, 'ird, a "an or a $o"an R t!at is, as !avin vario(s for"s, ea&! differentiated 'y "eans of its o$n &!ara&teristi&s 6s3la,)a0yena7, '(t also t!at Wdifferentiated $orldY a%%ears 6$hti7 as undifferentiated, t!at is, as not different fro" t!e "irror itself, ass("in a for" $it!in t!e "irror t!at is in no $ay different fro" t!at "irror) And alt!o( ! it a%%ears t!ere Win t!e "irrorY as (ndifferentiated fro" t!e "irror itself, Wt!at $orldY appears 6$hti7, or %resents itself Wto t!e sensesY 6sphurati7 in relations of mutual dis8unction,;=6 t!at is, a%%ears as differentia'le;=A WinternallyY, in t!e sense t!at t!e &lot! is different fro" t!e #ar and t!e #ar fro" t!e &lot! inas"(&! as ea&! %resents &!ara&teristi&s of its o$n) Only as refle&ted in t!at "irror are o'#e&ts %er&eived 6parm.(yante7 as distin&t fro" ea&! ot!erM and on&e t!ey 9(it t!e "irror, not!in of t!e" Wre"ains 'e!ind to 'eY a%%re!ended se%arately Wt!at is, only t!e "irror re"ainsY) Rat!er, t!o( !
.he tra$"*ati'$ 0i11er" "'/ewhat 1r'/ that '1 Si*( r$= 8.' t #'//e 0e" vi**e" et 0e" vi**age" varie" K i "e re1*ete$t 0a$" *e 0i"K e 0: $ /ir'ir "'$t 0ep' rv " 0e 0i"ti$#ti'$", (ie$ K :i*" "e/(*e$t 0' e" 0e 0i"ti$#ti'$" / t e**e" et "epare" 0 /ir'ir ega*e/e$t, 0e /e/e, pr'#e0a$t 0e *86$te**ige$#e a("'* /e$t i//a# *ee 0 " pre/e Fhairava, #et $iver" t' t e$ eta$t * i a ""i 0e$ e 0e t' te 0i"ti$#ti'$, apparait #'//e 1ait 0e partie" / t e**e/e$t 0i"ti$#te" et 0i"ti$#t ega*e/e$t 0e #ette (6$te**ige$#e): 2J 86$ the "a/e wa% a" varie0 #itie" a$0 vi**age" re1*e#ti$g i$ the 'r( '1 a /irr'r are 0ev'i0 '1 0i"ti$#ti'$", a*th' gh the% appear a" e$0'we0 with / t a* 0i"ti$#ti'$" a$0 "eparate0 a*"' 1r'/ the /irr'r, "', 'rigi$ati$g 1r'/ the a*t'gether i//a# *ate 6$te**ige$#e '1 the " pre/e Fhairava, thi" $iver"e, a*th' gh a*"' 0ev'i0 '1 a$% 0i"ti$#ti'$, appear" a" /a0e '1 part" / t a**% 0i"ti$#t a" we** a" 0i"ti$#t 1r'/ that 26$te**ige$#e3:3. Mere, vimalatamaparamabhairavabodht i" $'t take$ a" a #'/p*e/e$t '1 vibhga)n!am, a" 0'e" the #'//e$tar%, ( t rather a" a #a "a* #'/p*e/e$t '1 the pri$#ipa* ver( bhti (whi#h #reate" a 0i11i# *t%, 1'r, the$, vibhga)n!am i" *e1t with' t #'/p*e/e$t), a$0 bhairavabodha i" $0er"t''0 a" 8the 6$te**ige$#e '1 Fhairava:. )'te that the"e kArikA" "ee/ t' e#h' .4 666 1,4 a$0 .4; a0 *'#= ata eva cnena vivas!a citpratibimbatvam0 $... !ath hi darpada' parasparav!vtttmna pratibimbit kravie tato (natiriktatve (pi atirikt iva bhsante tadvad ihp,ti, 8Ne /'$0e, ai$"i, e"t $ re1*et 0a$" *a #'$"#ie$#e 2...3 66 e$ e"t 0 #'"/'" #'//e 0e" 1'r/e" re1*etee" 0a$" $ /ir'ir ' a tre 2" r1a#e re1*e#hi""a$te3, 1'r/e" 0i"ti$#te" *e" $e" 0e" a tre" et K i, K 'iK e $ **e/e$t "eparee" 20 /ir'ir K i *e" re1*ete3, apparai""e$t #epe$0a$t #'//e 0i11ere$te" 0e * i: (tr. Si*( r$, &a0' 7 .4= 141)> the pratibimbavda i" 0eve*'ppe0 at *e$gth i$ .4 666 1,65, wh'"e #'//e$tar% e$0" with the "a/e ver"e a" that whi#h i" K 'te0 at the e$0 '1 CD:" #'//e$tar% a0 12,13. Si$#e the e7p'"iti'$ '1 the pratibimbavda i" 0ea*t with i$ the .4 i$ the #'$te7t '1 the e7p'"iti'$ '1 the bhvop!a, a$0 i" p*a#e0 there $0er the aegi" '1 Fhairava, it /a% (e i$1erre0 that &S 12,13 a/' $t" t' a #r%pti# e7p'"iti'$ '1 the bhvop!a J i$ 'r0er t' (e *i(erate0 i$ the 8wa% '1 a(h :, '$e / "t rea*iUe /%"ti#a**% that the $iver"e ha" $' $at re apart 1r'/ (ei$g a re1*e#ti'$ i$ the 0ivi$e #'$"#i' "$e"". Me wh' a#K ire" i$ thi" wa% a$ e7perie$#e, i$ hi" 'w$ #'$"#i' "$e"", '1 the appeara$#e a$0 0i"appeara$#e '1 the $iver"e, a$0 #a$ a11ir/= 86 a/ iva: $ivo (ham , i" *i(erate0 (.4 666 268,293). See a*"', BI:" stotra, Paramrthacarc, vv. 4,5. 461 sarva J i$ 'r0er t' appre#iate the 1'r#e '1 the a$a*'g%, it "ee/" i/p'rta$t t' $0er"ta$0 sarvam 8the wh'*e: (S the w'r*0) i$ it" 0i"tri( tive a"pe#t, rather tha$ i$ it" #'/prehe$"ive a"pe#t= sarvam here i/p*ie" 8ever%thi$g that e7i"t", 'r #a$ e7i"t, whatever it /a% (e:> E0i11ere$tiati'$E i" th " i/p*ie0 (% the $'ti'$ '1 Et'ta*it%E it"e*1. 462 vibhgenaiva ca parasparam. 463 vibhaktata! J #1. &S 48 a$0 CD a0 *'#.


re"ainin &ons('stantial $it! t!e "irror;=; Wi)e), alt!o( ! 'ein one $it! it, as refle&tionY, t!e $orld;=B is %er&eived as different in every res%e&t);== No$, if it 'e o'#e&ted t!at, in t!at &ase, t!e "irror $o(ld itself 'e !idden 'y t!e refle&tion of t!e #ar, et&), t!e "aster re%lies, sayin : Hno, (the reflections are different) from the mirror itself as wellI) It is not "erely in and of t!e"selves;=< t!at t!e o'#e&ts, even t!o( ! refle&ted in t!e "irror, a%%ear as different Wfro" ea&! ot!erY, inas"(&! as t!ey are also different fro" t!e "irror);=C For, alt!o( ! t!e "irror is &o"%osed of t!ose vario(s refle&tions, it a%%ears 6ca,sti7 as WdifferentY fro" t!ose refle&tions, for its o$n nat(re trans&ends t!e") And it is not (nderstood as &o"%osed of t!e" in s(&! a $ay as to &onvey t!e idea t!at no "irror e,ists) Everyone !as an (ns('lated %er&e%tion t!at Ht!is is a "irrorI, even as !e a%%re!ends t!e vario(s o'#e&ts t!erein refle&ted) Nor is it t!e &ase t!at t!e Wi"a e of t!eY #ar, et&), 9(alifies t!e "irror in s(&! fas!ion t!at t!e essential nat(re Wof t!e "irrorY $o(ld 'e a'ro ated WR as it $o(ld if one $ere to sayY: Ht!is "irror is s(ita'le for Wrefle&tin Y a #arI Ws&il), H))) and not a &lot!IY, and Ht!is "irror is s(ita'le for Wrefle&tin Y a &lot!I WH))) and not a #arIY) T!e differen&e &onse9(ent (%on ti"e and s%a&e WH&a(sesI of t!e varia'ility of t!e refle&tionsY does not t!(s event(ate in t!e loss of t!e W"irrorIsY essential nat(re);=@ T!erefore, 'ein tolerant of t!ose refle&tions, t!e "irror re"ains not!in '(t a "irror, as re ards itself) ;<7 T!ere is t!(s no defe&t atta&!in to t!e do&trine of refle&tion WviL), of t!e refle&ted i"a eY 6prati$im$a3da7) No$, it "i !t 'e said t!at t!is refle&tion is not!in '(t an error 6$hrnti7) Indeed, $!en an ele%!ant is %er&eived in t!e "irror, it is not t!at an ele%!ant is fo(nd in t!e
darpaasmaras!ena sthitam api J the ter/ smaras!a, 8 $i"'$:, i" i$te$0e0 t' ev'ke the $at re '1 the re*ati'$ (etwee$ the i/age a$0 the /irr'r= 1 $0a/e$ta* i0e$tit%, " per1i#ia* ('r appare$t) 0i11ere$#e. 465 %agat J a*th' gh there are "ti** 0i11ere$#e" '1 'pi$i'$, the w'r0 %agat i" #'//'$*% 0erive0 1r'/ the r''t g (%igti), $0er"t''0 a" a pre"e$t parti#ip*e with E#'rre#te0E re0 p*i#ati'$. .he 6$0ia$ tra0iti'$ /'re 'r *e"" agree", (egi$$i$g 1r'/ the r''t gam1 ((kvip, dvitvam, t'k ca" @ ;caspat!), whi#h e7p*a$ati'$ De$' a*"' 1av'r" (1952a= i248). <$ the 'ther ha$0, '$e '1 the g*'""e" '1 the w'r0 give$ the "a/e 0i#ti'$arie" i" %agama, whi#h " gge"t" that a "e$ti/e$t '1 i$te$"i1i#ati'$ ha" a*"' (ee$ a""'#iate0 with %agat. .h " the w'r0 " gge"t", eve$ /'re "tr'$g*% tha$ sarva, that the Ew'r*0E i" here t' (e $0er"t''0 0i"tri( tive*%, a" the 8i$#e""a$t g'i$g a$0 #'/i$g: '1 0i11ere$tiate0 (ei$g> "ee it" 1reK e$t '## rre$#e i$ the phra"e= a#triatattvtmaka %agat, 1'r i$"ta$#e i$ avat. a0 14, CD a0 1 a$0 46 (avat.). 466 6t i" '$*% i$ the /irr'r that the appeara$#e '1 / *tip*i#it% i" p'""i(*e> with' t the /irr'r, there w' *0 (e $' pre"e$tati'$ '1 / *tip*i#it%. 6$ 'r0er 1'r the #'/pari"'$ t' " pp'rt the the"i" here pr'p' $0e0, a$0 i$ 'r0er t' $0er"ta$0 the ver"e a('ve, '$e / "t 1'rget that a Erea*E /irr'r i/p*ie" '(Le#t" (e%'$0 'r ' t"i0e it. 6$ thi" /irr'r re1*e#ti'$" a*'$e are at i"" e, a$0, K a re1*e#ti'$", their "'*e " pp'rt i" the /irr'r it"e*1> "ee .4 666 21(= $... vast' bhavati tato (p! an!atra np! alam00, 82the re1*e#te0 i/age3 i" a 2rea*3 thi$g, whi#h 0'e" $'t e7i"t apart 1r'/ that 2/irr'r3:. 467 sva!am. 468 .he 0i11ere$#e" (etwee$ '(Le#t" 0' $'t " 11i#e t' e7p*ai$ a** 0i11ere$#e. .he i"" e i" i/p'rta$t 1'r B(hi$avag pta 1'r it e$tai*" that the w'r*0 (e $0er"t''0 a*"' i$ it" re*ati'$ t' the B("'* te, rather tha$ /ere*% i$ a$0 '1 it"e*1, i$0epe$0e$t*%. .h " the i** "trati'$ i" #'/p*ete J the re1*e#ti'$" '1 '(Le#t", h'wever $ /er' " the% are, a*"' $ee0 the /irr'r. 469 Rere it $e#e""ar% t' e/p*'% a "pe#ia* /irr'r t' re1*e#t ea#h 0i11ere$t '(Le#t, the$, '1 #' r"e, it w' *0 have (ee$ *egiti/ate t' "a% that it" 8$at re: ha0 i$0ee0 (ee$ a11e#te0 (% the $at re '1 the '(Le#t. 470 svtmani J 'r 8... it" $at re:.


"irror Wrat!er, t!ere is so"et!in li5e an ele%!ant, in t!e for" of its refle&tionY, for, sin&e no &onse9(en&e $!i&! is fr(itf(l;<8 W&an 'e attri'(ted to t!e ele%!ant in t!e "irrorY s(&! as $o(ld in fa&t W%ertain to an a&t(al ele%!antY, t!e &on&l(sion 6ni(caya7 Wt!at Ht!is is an ele%!antIY $o(ld 'e si"%ly an error) WLet it 'e said !ere only t!atY t!e e,a"%le is valid to t!e e,tent t!at t!e do&trine of refle&tion is valid) As far as error is &on&erned, its nat(re $ill 'e %ro%o(nded later in t!e te,t);<6 4ikewise, in e,a&tly t!e sa"e $ay, na"ely, in &o"%lete a&&ordan&e $it! t!e e,a"%le of t!e refle&tion of a &ity, et&), in a "irror,;<A W$e assert t!atY t!e world "1agat7, t!is (niverse 63i(37, although not different from consciousness most pure, the supreme Bhaira"a, t!at is, alt!o( ! not se%arated fro" Li !t itself, $!i&! a'o(nds in (nfra "ented 'liss and is (tterly free of i"%(rity, W))) t!at t!e $orldY is dis%layed as differentiated WinternallyY, li5e t!e i"a e in t!e "irror R t!at is, as !avin vario(s for"s, ea&! Wdeter"ined as differentY fro" t!e ot!er, in virt(e of t!e di&!oto"y of 5no$er and 5no$n))) ))) and (differentiated) from that as well, t!at is, fro" t!at &ons&io(sness as $ell, appears 6$hu7 Wt!e $orldY as if e"er in fro" it, $!ere'y &ons&io(sness, t!o( ! dis%layin itself in t!e for" of t!at W$orldY, dis%lays itself also as trans&endin it, in t!e $ay t!e "irror trans&ends t!e refle&tions) And so, Li !t]&ons&io(sness, tolerant of t!e refle&tions of all t!e o'#e&ts of t!e (niverse and yet trans&endin all t!ose o'#e&ts, dis%lays itself a&&ordin to its o$n in!erent nat(re as t!e %rin&i%le of e,%erien&e itself in ea&! and every W%er&i%ient s('#e&tY) And even t!e differen&e of ti"e, of %la&e, or of 5ind, $!i&! %ertains to t!e We,ternalY o'#e&t, #(st a%%ears t!ere W'(t not reallyY, as if in a "irror) -et, it is not t!e &ase t!at t!ey serve to differentiate t!e very nat(re Wof &ons&io(snessY) T!erefore, &ons&io(sness, alt!o( ! a%%earin 'ot! one and "(lti%le, is one only, #(st as varie ated &o nitions are ras%ed 'y WoneY &ons&io(sness);<; Nevert!eless, 'et$een t!e Li !t of &ons&io(sness 6citpra,(7 R endo$ed as it is $it! t!e state of $onder Wt!at is s(%re"e i%seityY ;<B R and t!e li !t of t!e "irror, t!ere is t!e follo$in differen&e R viL), t!e &ity, et&), t!at is #(d ed to 'e different Wfro" t!e "irrorY as a refle&tion, a%%ears in t!e %erfe&tly %(re "irror only as e,ternal to it, '(t is in no $ay &reated 'y t!e "irror) T!(s t!e &on&l(sion t!at Ht!is is an ele%!antI Was a%%lyin to $!at is seenY in t!e "irror $o(ld 'e erroneo(s);<=
arthakri!. 6t wi** (e e7p*ai$e0 *ater what i" a$ err'r, a$0 h'w re1*e#ti'$ i" $'t a$ err'r. 473 .he e7a/p*e (d#nta) ha" (ee$ e7p*ai$e0. .he a th'r $'w take" p t' the dr#ntika, the ter/ t' (e e7p*ai$e0 thr' gh the e7a/p*e. 474 B** variet% J the #it% it"e*1 J i" #'/prehe$0e0 i$ a$0 (% #'$"#i' "$e"", "i$g*e a$0 $iK e, whi#h "erve" a" the (a"i" '1 that variet%. !'/pare the e*ega$t arg /e$t '$ thi" i"" e 0eve*'pe0 (% akara i$ hi" 5padeashasr,. 475 6.e., e$0'we0 with vimara, 'r spanda. !'$"#i' "$e"", 'r Night, vi(rate", rea*iUi$g it"e*1 a" #'$"#i' "$e"", wherea" the i$"e$tie$t /irr'r i" $either aware '1 it"e*1 $'r '1 the re1*e#ti'$" it re#eive" 1r'/ ' t"i0e. 476 .hi" re/ark 1'**'w" 1r'/ the 0i"# ""i'$ '1 arthakri!, a('ve. .he Ei/ageE ( " a**% 0e"ig$ate0 (% the ter/ kra) '1 the e*epha$t, whether that '1 the /irr'r 'r a pi#t re, repre"e$t" '$*% it" e7teri'r 1'r/ (a$0 t' that e7te$t i" "hare0 with the Erea*E e*epha$t), ( t *a#k" a** 'ther K a*itie" (whi#h we /a% #a** Erea*E) '1 the a$i/a*= '$e #a$$'t trave* '$ the (a#k '1 a pi#t re (1'r e7a/p*e).
471 472


On t!e ot!er !and, Li !t WviL), &ons&io(snessY, $!ose essen&e is t!e "arvelo(s e,%erien&e of itself, "a5es "anifest 6$hsayati7 on its o$n s(rfa&e 6s3tma$hita7, and o(t of its o$n free $ill, t!e (niverse, $!ose "aterial &a(se is t!at sa"e &ons&io(sness, 'y &onsiderin 6parm.(at7 t!at Wt!e (niverseY is not different Wfro" t!at &ons&io(snessY);<< T!e LordIs &reativity 6nirmt.t37 is not!in '(t t!at "anifestation 6$hsana7 of t!e (niverse) T!erefore, self?a$areness 6parmar(7 is t!e "ain as%e&t of t!at Li !t, "a5in it %ossi'le to distin (is! it fro" t!e li !t of t!e insentient "irror, et&);<C T!is is $!at t!e a(t!or !as stated in !is 8i3.ti3imar(in-: As t!e varie ated &onstr(&tion Wof t!e (niverseY a%%ears $it!in t!e "irror, so does t!e entire (niverse, !ere, $it!in t!e Self W&ons&io(snessY) Nevert!eless, &ons&io(sness 5no$s t!e (niverse 'y "eans of its o$n essential %o$er of a$areness 63imar(a7, $!ereas t!e "irror doesnIt 5no$ it in t!at $ay);<@ T!(s, fro" t!e %oint of vie$ of t!e S(%re"e Lord, sin&e t!e !ost of o'#e&ts ;C7 !as 'een &reated $it!in !is o$n 'ody, t!ere is no ill(sion of differen&e 6$heda$hrnti7 at all Wt!at is, $e &annot lo i&ally &onsider t!e Lord as different fro" t!e (niverseY) *o$ever, fro" t!e %oint of vie$ of t!e &o niLer (nder t!e do"inion of my 6mypramt.7, t!e a%%earan&e of differen&e Wor, differen&e $!i&! itself is '(t an a%%earan&eY 6$hed3a$hs7 is not!in '(t a &onf(sion on !is %art t!at &onsists in !is failin to re&o niLe !is %lenit(de 6p/r0at3,hyti7);C8
Mere, thi" 0i11ere$#e i" e7p*'ite0 i$ 'r0er t' e/pha"iUe that the Erea*it%E '1 the e*epha$t i" e*"ewhere, a$0 0'e" $'t 0erive 1r'/ the /irr'r, whi#h i" $'t tr e '1 E'(Le#t"E #reate0 (% iva. .he /etaph'r #a$, i$ 'ther w'r0", '$*% (e #arrie0 "' 1ar. 477 6$ the e7a/p*e (d#nta), the " ("trat / i" the /irr'r. 6$ the dr#ntika, the " ("trat / i" #'$"#i' "$e"". .here i" a $iK e 0i11ere$#e (etwee$ the d#nta a$0 the dr#ntika. 6$ the d#nta, there i" "'/ethi$g pre"e$t a" a$ ar#het%pe that i" re1*e#te0 i$ the " ("trat /, wherea", i$ the dr#ntika, it i" #'$"#i' "$e"" that appear" ('th a" " ("trat / a$0 ar#het%pe (a" the /a$i1'*0 w'r*0), 1'r the ar#het%pe i" ( t the #reati'$ '1 the " ("trat /. .he w'r*0 th " #reate0 i" #'$"#i' "$e"", he wh' /a$i1e"t" it i" #'$"#i' "$e"", a$0 the " r1a#e, 'r "#ree$ (bhitti), '$ whi#h it i" /a$i1e"te0, 'r pr'Le#te0, i" a*"' #'$"#i' "$e"". .hi" i" the "' r#e '1 w'$0er. T'r a "i/i*ar 1'r/ *ati'$, "ee .4; 666 1,4 (v'*. 66= 354)= svabhittv eva sveccha! sarva praka!ati, a$0 v'*. 66= 355,56= paramevaro h! anargalatvalakaasva1svtantr!amhtm!t svtmabhittv eva anatiriktam ap! atirikt!amnam i!ad vivavaicitr!a pradara!ati iti, 8.he S pre/e N'r0, (% the p'wer '1 hi" 'w$ 1ree0'/ whi#h #a$$'t (e hi$0ere0, /ake" /a$i1e"t '$ hi" 'w$ " r1a#e the w'$0er1 * 0iver"it% '1 the $iver"e a" 0i11ere$t 1r'/ hi/, a*th' gh it i" $'$,0i11ere$t 1r'/ hi/:. 478 8Gt#.: /ea$" i$"e$tie$t /atter, i$ ge$era*. 479 .S 666 (p. 19), K 'te0 (% BI i$ ^&R 6 5, 14 (v'*. 66= 203)= 86 have "ai0 thi" i$ the Tantrasra, et#.:. )'te that .B; 666 65 K 'te" the "a/e ver"e, with a varia$t= ni%avimaranasravtt!, i$"tea0 '1 ni%avimaranasra!'kt!. 480 bhvari. 481 akh!ti, avid!= the"e tw' ter/", whi#h '1te$ "ee/ t' (e "e0 i$ter#ha$gea(*%, /a% $everthe*e"" (e 0i"ti$g i"he0 i$ ter/" '1 their 'rigi$". 6$ pri$#ip*e, akh!ti i" e/p*'%e0 /'re 'r *e"" at the p"%#h'*'gi#a* 'r i$0ivi0 a* *eve*, t' 0e"ig$ate '$e t%pe '1 /i"apprehe$"i'$ 'r /i" $0er"ta$0i$g, a$0 t' #hara#teriUe a #ertai$ the'r% '1 va*i0it% 1'r/ *ate0 i$ ter/" '1 that $'ti'$. .he ter/ i" parti# *ar*% a""'#iate0 with the +Y/A"A '1 &ra(hAkara, wh' 0e$ie" a$% p'"itive parti#ipati'$ '1 the apprehe$0i$g " (Le#t i$ the 1'r/ *ati'$ '1 the err'r t' whi#h he i" " (Le#t, avid!, i$ #'$tra"t, i" a ter/ parti# *ar*% a""'#iate0 with B0vaita i$ it" vari' " 1'r/", whi#h 0e"ig$ate" a 1'r/ '1 err'r at the #'"/'*'gi#a* *eve*. T'r akara, avid! i" the pr'0 #t '1 m!, #reative p'wer par e7#e**e$#e, t' whi#h a** /e$ are " (Le#t at ever% /'/e$t. < r a th'r", it "ee/", ti*iUe the"e ter/" i$ 1 ** #'g$iUa$#e '1 their 'rigi$a* a##eptati'$", a*th' gh, #a"e (% #a"e, their 0'/ai$" /a% ver% we** 'ver*ap. .hi" i" $" rpri"i$g, i$ a /'$i"/ '1 thi" "'rt J it i" avid! that i" re"p'$"i(*e 1'r the 1a#t that we #'$1 "e what i" $'t ' r ('0% with ' r ('0%, whi#h #'$1 "i'$ i$ t r$ i" 1 $0a/e$ta* i$ the

Fail(re to dis&ern 6a,hyna7 "eans !ere Ha'sen&e of dis%layI Wor Hnon?%ersisten&eI Din o(r &ons&io(snessEY 6aprath7 of t!e all?en&o"%assin , t!at is, t!e nond(al nat(re Wof t!e LordY) To say it in anot!er $ay: %lenit(de does not a%%ear Wto t!e li"ited &o niLerY, '(t rat!er non?%lenit(de alone, $!i&! !as d(ality as its for" WviL), t!e d(ality of 5no$er and 5no$nYM t!(s it is t!at only differen&e is 'y !i" %er&eived) T!erefore, t!is do&trine of refle&tion is free fro" fla$) #arik! 2 T!(s, t!e "aster !avin sti%(lated t!at t!e $orld &onsistin of t!irty?si, %rin&i%les Wis to 'e (nderstoodY as (ndifferentiated fro" Li !t WviL), &ons&io(snessY W54ri54s 86? 8AY R t!is in &onse9(en&e of !is !avin stated t!e tr(e nat(re of t!e (lti"ate %rin&i%le W54ri54s 87?88Y R !e oes on no$, in t!e Wfollo$in Y 54ri54s WviL), 54ri54s 8;?66Y, to e,%lain, in t!e order of t!eir arisin , t!e %ro%er for" of ea&! %rin&i%le:;CA 2) Ae (the Supreme 'i"a) makes manifest the (conditional) state of the (uni%ue) principle;C; (8ust mentioned) by realiBing differences among the fi"e energies C which realiBations are 'i"a, 'akti, Sad!Di"a, and ED"ara and #id$);CB WT!e verse is to 'e &onstr(ed as follo$s:Y *e, t!at is, t!e S(%re"e Piva, $!ose essential nat(re !as #(st 'een %ro%o(nded 'y des&ri'in W!i" asY t!e (lti"ate %rin&i%le W54ri54s 87?88Y, makes manifest 6$hsayati7 the (conditional) state of the (uni%ue) principle ( no$Y as 9(alified in five $ays, 'y realiLin differen&es a"on the fi"e energies,;C= t!at is to say, 'y dis&ri"inatin ea&! fro" $!at it is not;C< R the energies t!at are five in n("'er,

vari' " parti# *ar err'r" that g'ver$ ' r 0ai*% *ive" a" e$#hai$e0 (ei$g". Re have ge$era**% tra$"*ate0 akh!ti, whe$ 'therwi"e $0eter/i$e0, a" 81ai* re t' re#'g$iUe 2'$e:" 'w$ Se*13: 'r, with #'$te7t a* varia$t", 81ai* re t' re#'g$iUe 2'$e:" i0e$tit% with the Se*13: 'r 81ai* re t' re#'g$iUe 2the Se*1 a" " #h3: J 'r, i$ th'"e #a"e" where akh!ti i/pi$ge" '$ the 0'/ai$ '1 avid!, K ite "i/p*%, (% 8$e"#ie$#e:, keepi$g i$ /i$0, '1 #' r"e, the #'/p*e7 '1 i0ea" ' t '1 whi#h it e/erge". 482 sthiti vidh!a. 483 !1. the #'$0e$"e0 e7p'"iti'$ '1 the thirt%,"i7 tattvas i$ - 6 29(,33. 484 tattvada. 485 .he $i1'r/ e$erg% ('1 the $iK e N'r0) i" #'$te7t a*iUe0 ('r h%p'"tatiUe0> he$#e the ter/ da) (% 0ivi0i$g it"e*1 i$t' 1ive e$ergie". Si*( r$ tra$"*ate"= 866 /a$i1e"te *e" #ateg'rie"= iva, G$ergie, eter$e* iva, et #e**e 0 Seig$e r et 0 p r Sav'ir, e$ "e "erva$t 0e" #ara#tere" pr'pre" a 7 #i$K e$ergie": 2J 8Me /a$i1e"t" the #ateg'rie"= iva, G$erg%, Gter$a* iva, a" we** a" th'"e '1 the N'r0 a$0 '1 p re ?$'w*e0ge, (% /aki$g "e '1 K a*itie" "pe#i1i# t' the 1ive e$ergie":3. .4; 65 50 (v'*. 6;= 1683) K 'te" thi" kArikA. &S 46 wi** 0ea* agai$ with the /a$i1e"tati'$ '1 the 1ive akti" a" the 1ir"t 1ive tattvas. G/pha"iUi$g the '$t'*'gi#a* K e"ti'$ '1 the 0ivi"i'$ i$t' 1ive tattvas '1 the S pre/e N'r0 wh' i" '$e, CD 1'**'w" the arg /e$t '1 .B 65 49(,52a= iva svatantradgr)pa pa&caaktis'nirbhara00 svtantr!abhsitabhid pa&cad1h pravibha%!ate0 cidnandea%&nak! s'sph'#atvata00 ivaaktisadenavid!kh!a tattvapa&cakam0 ekaikatrpi tattve (smin sarvaaktis'nirbhare00 tattatprdhn!a!ogena sa sa bhedo nir)p!ate0, 8iva, wh' i" (% e""e$#e 1ree vi"i'$ a$0 i" e$0'we0 with 1ive aktis, 1ir"t 0ivi0e" hi/"e*1 i$t' 1ive $tattvas , (% 0i11ere$tiati'$ ('r$ '1 1ree0'/ it"e*1J 2a$0 thi" i" 0'$e3 1'r #*ari1i#ati'$ '1 2the pe$ta0 '1 aktis !'$"#i' "$e"", F*i"", Ri**, a$0 B#ti'$. 2.h "3 #'/e" t' (e the pe$ta0 '1 tattvas J ter/e0 iva, akti, Sa0A2Piva3, ^PA$a a$0 2'ddha3vid!. 2B$03 a*th' gh ea#h '$e '1 the tattvas i" 1i**e0 with a** the aktis, %et ever% 0i"ti$#t e$tit% 2i.e., tattva i" #hara#teriUe0 (% the pre0'/i$a$#e '1 " #h 'r " #h $akti ". See ++ 13,15 a$0 &+ a0 *'#, whi#h 0ea* with the /a$i1e"tati'$ '1 the N'r0:" e$ergie" a" the 1ir"t 1ive tattvas. 486 Nit. 8thr' gh the 0ivi"i'$ '1 the 1ive e$ergie":.

Cons&io(sness, +liss,;CC Oill, /no$led e and A&tion, Wea&! of t!e"Y t!e &a(se of inn("era'le Ws('sidiaryY ener ies, and t!at Wto et!erY &onstit(te t!e WLordIsY o$n real nat(reM t!at is to say, !e "a5es evident ea&! in and t!ro( ! its %ro%er &!ara&teristi&s) T!is is t!e %(r%ort) *o$ des&ri'ed is t!at W&onditional state of t!e (ni9(e %rin&i%leYZ T!e "aster says: H'i"a, etcI WR i)e), !e s%ea5s t!e verse in an effort to e,%lain t!at &onditionY) WIn t!is verse, t!e ter" tatt3ada(, H&onditional state of t!e D(ni9(eE %rin&i%leI, is 9(alified as (i3a(a,tisad(i3atm in $!i&! t!e a'stra&t s(ffi, -tY evo5es t!at eneral &ondition of $!i&! t!e t!ree ter"s HPivaI, HPa5tiI and HSad4JivaI Wa%%ear as instan&esY) Si"ilarly, WH&onditional state of t!e D(ni9(eE %rin&i%leI is 9(alified as -(3ara3idymay-m in $!i&! t!e s(ffi, -may-Y evo5es t!at state $!ose Wd(alY for" &onsists of ED"ara and #id$ Wi)e), evo5es t!at state $!i&! is "ade of 0Jvara and 3idy as a %airY);C@ No$, t!e nat(re of ea&! %rin&i%le is e,%lained) To e,%lain in detail, (i3atatt3a R t!at is, Ht!e %rin&i%le t!at is ter"ed PivaI R is not!in ot!er t!an &ons&io(sness, $!ose "aterial for" is reat Li !t, $!i&! trans&ends all t!e Wot!erY %rin&i%les, and &onsists of t!e state of $onder t!at is %erfe&t i%seity 6p/r0hantcamat,r7 $it!in all &o niLers) *ere, t!e e,%osition Wof t!e LordY as %rin&i%le is done $it! referen&e to %eo%le $!o re9(ire instr(&tion);@7 WUniversalY &ons&io(sness &onsists in t!e LordIs 'e&o"in W%otentiallyY all t!in s, as $!en !e 5no$s 6parm.(at7: HI 'e&o"e allI);@8 It ta5es t!e for" of t!e +liss t!at is %ro%er to t!e Lord $!o is W%(reY &ons&io(snessM it is sli !tly s$ollen

atadv!vtt! J the ter/ /ea$" 8(% e7#* 0i$g what i" $'t that 2$a/e*%, what i" $'t it"e*13:, whi#h ('th g*'""e" a$0 e/pha"iUe" bhinnatvena J YPvara, 1'r i$"ta$#e, (ei$g a("'* te*% 0i11ere$t 1r'/ that whi#h i" $'t YPvara. T'r a "i/i*ar "age '1 v!vtti, "ee Ia apA0a a0 S? 28= mtraabdo viertho (vieav!vtt!artha0 !ath bhikmtra labh!ate nn!o viea iti0, 8.he w'r0 E'$*%E (1mtra) i" /ea$t t' "pe#i1%, t' e7#* 0e what i" $'t 2pr'per*%3 a "pe#i1i#ati'$. 61 it i" "ai0= Ea*/" '$*% are re#eive0E, it /ea$" that 2what i" re#eive03 ha" $' 'ther "pe#i1i#ati'$:. See $. 574 '$ viee. 488 nirvti. 489 Nit, 8Si/i*ar*% 2the #'/p' $0 e$0i$g with 1ma!,m i" t' (e $0er"t''0 a" e7pre""i$g the i0ea that " #h E#'$0iti'$E (jdaa) i"3 that i$ whi#h ^Pvara a$0 vid! #'$"tit te the E" ("ta$tia* $at reE (prakti)". .hi" pa""age i" #a"t a" a gra//ati#a* e7ege"i" '1 the ver"e, e"pe#ia**% '1 the " 11i7e" 1tm (at the e$0 '1 the 1ir"t #'/p' $0) a$0 1ma!,m (at the e$0 '1 the "e#'$0 #'/p' $0) '1 the 1ir"t he/i"ti#h. 490 S #h 0ivi"i'$" a$0 0i"ti$#ti'$" are ( t pr'vi"i'$a* /'0a*itie" that are (' $0 t' 0i"appear at the /'/e$t '$e 0i""'*ve" i$ the B("'* te. 491 viva bhavmi.


6,iciducch/natr/pa7, 'ein at t!is sta e t!e seed of all t!in s) ;@6 T!is W&ondition of &ons&io(snessY is &alled t!e Hstate of Pa5tiI 6(a,tya3asth7) It is s!e WviL), Pa5tiY $!o is &ele'rated in all t!e esoteri& do&trines 6rahasyanaya7 as one only,;@A alt!o( ! so"eti"es in &o"%lete and so"eti"es in e"a&iated for", t!e t$o servin as "eta%!ors of $orld &reation and $orld dissol(tion) F(rt!er, at t!is Wsta e, viL), t!at of Pa5ti, $!i&! isY t!e se"inal level ;@; of t!e (niverseIs eneration and $!i&! is ter"ed Wt!ereforeY t!e H reat 1oid 'eyond t!e 1oidI 6mah(/nyti(/ny7,;@B t!e &ondition of Sad4Jiva is rea&!ed, na"ely, t!e state of $onder t!at is %erfe&t i%seity,;@= a state %ro%er to t!e Great Lord D.a!eJaE, $!o
.he rea"'$i$g, ter/i$'*'g% a$0 i/age appear t' (e ('rr'we0 1r'/ - 6 16,17 0e1i$i$g a'nm'kh!a (*it, 80ire#ti'$ t'war0:, 8'rie$tati'$:), the 0e"ire '1 #reati$g whi#h (egi$" t' 0ep*'% withi$ (*i""1 * #'$"#i' "$e"" it"e*1= kicid'cch)nat saiva mahadbhi kaicid 'c!ate, 8S'/e phi*'"'pher" $a/e thi" 0e"ire 2'1 #reati'$3 kicid'cch)nat, i.e., E"*ight "we**i$gE 8. B##'r0i$g t' Htpa*a0eva (p. 16), it i" Fhaa &ra0% /$a wh' ha" re#' r"e, i$ hi" Tattvagarbhastotra, t' thi" i/age '1 the "*ight*% "w'**e$ "ee0, whi#h i" a(' t t' eLe#t the "h''t it #'$tai$" a" a ger/, i$ atte/pti$g t' e7p*ai$ the /'/e$t whe$, a" "tate0 i$ ++ 14, the N'r0 i" 8rea0% t' 0e"ire, k$'w a$0 #reate the $iver"e:> the &+ a0 *'#. /ake" "e '1 the "a/e i/age= tas!aiva kicid'cch)natvasth! aktiabdav!apadea it! artha. B" Si*( r$ p t" it (++= 100), (e1're K 'ti$g S4 5666 15= 8N:e$ergie #'$"tit e *a pri"e 0e #'$"#ie$#e K e iva a 0e "'i e$ ta$t K e Featit 0e K a$0 i* te$0 A ":e$1*er ' A "e 0i*ater a "'rtir 0e *a p*e$it 0e i$0ivi"e et K :i* "e /et a vi(rer "p'$ta$e/e$t e$ v e 0e ":e7pri/er: 2J 8.he e$erg% #'$"tit te" iva:" aware$e"" '1 hi/"e*1 a" F*i"", whe$ he i$te$0" t' "we** 'r 0i*ate at the /'/e$t he #'/e" ' t '1 $0ivi0e0 p*e$it 0e a$0 "tart" t' "p'$ta$e' "*% vi(rate "' a" he e7pre""e" hi/"e*13. 6t i" w'rth $'ti$g that Fhaa &ra0% /$a, wh' 1'rge0 the i/age '1 the "*ight*% "w'**e$ "ee0 that i" "e0 here i$ 'r0er t' 0e1i$e the "tate '1 akti, wa" a Paivite Akta ('$ Fhaa &ra0% /$a, "ee -%#Uk'w"ki Sp?= 291). 493 !1. &MvX 8 2Si$gh= 703= $... i!a t'r,! savidbha##rik tattats#!dibhedn 'dvaman saharanti ca sad p)r ca k ca 'bha!ar)p ca an'bha!tm ca akramam eva sph'rant, sthit0 'kta ca r,prat!abhi%&t,k!m (tvad arthvalehena 'tti#hati p)r ca bhavati" iti0, 8.hi" ve$era(*e t'r,! #'$"#i' "$e"" 1*a"he" 1'rth #ea"e*e""*%, $'w #reati$g / *ti1ari' " e/a$ati'$", et#., $'w with0rawi$g the/, 2th "3 a*wa%" 1 ** (p)ra) 2"i$#e it i" a(*e t' pr'Le#t thi$g" ' t '1 it"e*13 a$0 %et a*wa%" e/a#iate0 (ka) 2a$0 there1're (' $0 t' rea("'r( what 0eparte0 1r'/ it i$ 'r0er t' /ake p it" *'""3, '1 ('th 1'r/", a$0 a"" /i$g $'$e '1 the/. 6t ha" (ee$ "tate0 i$ the Prat!abhi%&#,k= ERhe$ *i#ki$g 2i.e., rea("'r(i$g3 (avaleha) the '(Le#t", "he 2akti3 ri"e" 2i$ her 'w$ $at re3, a$0 "' "he i" 1 **E> a*"' S; 16, whi#h 0ea*" with the i$#'/prehe$"i(*e $at re '1 " pre/e e$erg% i$ the #'$te7t '1 the akticakra= $... atiriktriktatad'bha!tmata!p! abhidh,!amnp! anetadr)p an'ttar par svtantr!aakti kp! asti, 8.here e7i"t" a$ e$erg% '1 1ree0'/ (svtantr!aakti), $e7#e**e0 (an'ttar), tra$"#e$0e$t (par), $'t havi$g a$% 1'r/ 2*it, 8$'t havi$g the 1'r/ '1 that:, anetadr)p3, a*th' gh it ha" (ee$ 0e"#ri(e0 a" E(ei$g i$ e7#e""E (atirikta) 'r Ei$ $' wi"e 0e1i#ie$tE (arikta), 'r a" /a$i1e"ti$g ('th 2viU., Ee7#e""E a$0 E0e1i#ie$#%E3:. Si$gh a$0 Si*( r$, " pp'rte0 a*"' (% Bpte:" 0i#ti'$ar%, $0er"ta$0 atirikta a" 8(e%'$0 e/pt%:, that i" 8e7tre/e*% e/pt%, K ite e/pt%: 2#1. Si$gh S= Egreat*% e/pt%E> Si*( r$= Ee**e a (ea etre p*ei$e, vi0e, a *a 1'i" p*ei$e et vi0e, ' $i vi0e $i p*ei$eE3, th " apprehe$0i$g here a cat'ko#i '1 the +a0h%a/aka "'rt. CD i$ hi" #'//e$tar% appear" t' 1'**'w thi" *i$e a" we**. M'wever, $either FdD $'r +R *i"t " #h a /ea$i$g 1'r atirikta, whi#h the% take i$ the " a* "e$"e '1 8e7#e""ive:, 80e tr'p:, a$0 "' '$ J whi#h /ea$i$g, i1 retai$e0 here, w' *0 vitiate the cat'ko#i. .he ;caspat!a ha" perhap" the ke% t' thi" p UU*e= (atirikta= >atia!ite, re#he, bhinne, )n!e ca> J a$0, t' L "ti1% thi" *a"t /ea$i$g, 8e/pt%:= (!as!a !vatprama !'kta tato (dhikatve= >h,ng,m atiriktg,m> iti smti", $a/e*%, 8"he wh' i" E/i""i$g a *i/(E ha" g'$e (e%'$0 the $'r/ e"ta(*i"he0 a" pr'per 2i$ the PA"tra" that g'ver$ " #h $i#etie"3, a$0 "', i$ the w'r0" '1 a S/Xti, /a% (e "ai0 t' Ehave a *i/( i$ e7#e""E 2viU., t' have g'$e (e%'$0 the $'r/ i$ the /atter '1 *i/("3:. F% thi" t'rt ' " arg /e$t, 8e7#e"" '1 *i/(": (e#'/e" 80e1i#ie$#% '1 *i/(":W F t, '1 #' r"e, thi" w' *0 $'t (e the 1ir"t #a"e '1 a$ 'pp'rt $e re/'rphe/i#iUati'$ i$ the i$tere"t" '1 E#*arit%E> "ee, 1'r i$"ta$#e, s'ra i"" e0 1r'/


realiLes: HI a" t!isI,;@< $it!o(t differentiatin Wone fro" t!e ot!erY, for Wat t!is levelY t!e se "ent of Wt!e ener y ofY A&tion Wi"%lied 'y t!e Ht!isI, viL), t!e LordIs &reationY still re%oses in i%seity 6ahant3i(rnti7 Wi)e), is still latent in t!e HIIY, 'e&a(se Wt!e ener y ofY /no$led e is yet %redo"inant);@C *ere reside t!e &lass of &o niLers &alled t!e .antra"a!eJvaras, t!e HGreat Lords of .antrasI);@@ Li5e$ise, it is at t!is very sta e Wi)e), on t!e level of t!e tatt3a Sad4JivaY, t!an5s to t!e a'sen&e of differen&e e,%ressed in t!e #(d "ent HI a" t!isI, B77 t!at t!e &ondition ter"ed H0JvaraI is rea&!ed, &onsistin in t!e "arvelo(s e,%erien&e of oneIs o$n
as'ra $0er"t''0 a" a1s'ra. 494 b,%abh)mi. 495 &r'(a(*% a ?ra/a te#h$i#a* ter/, whi#h i/p*i#it*% re1er" t' the I'00e"" ;%'/avA/ePvarY (8She wh' ;'/it" the 2Tive3 ;'i0":), w'r"hipe0 i$ the 1ir"t pha"e '1 the pe$ta0i# #%#*e '1 the Tive ;'i0", wh' repre"e$t" 8the i$itia* a$0 eter$a* vi(rati'$ '1 th' ght*e"" #'$"#i' "$e"": (Sa$0er"'$ 1988= 696,697). .h " i" ;%'/avA/ePvarY at the *eve* '1 akti. See the ?ra/a te7t, the 8ahna!apraka (39(,40a) '1 Br@a"iha, whi#h 0e"#ri(e" ;%'/avA/ePvarY= mah)n!ti)n!atvt sam!akntatarpi !00 sarvav!omni vmant, v!omavmevar, t' s0, 8She wh', th' gh e7tre/e*% at pea#e 1'r "he i" Egreat ;'i0 (e%'$0 the ;'i0E (mah)n!ti)n!a), v'/it" a** ;'i0" i" ;%'/avA/ePvarY: (/a$ "#ript tra$"#ri(e0 (% +ar# -%#Uk'w"ki, /a0e avai*a(*e (% the + kta('0ha 6$0'*'gi#a* De"ear#h 6$"tit te). .he ter/ mah)n!a appear" i$ Sv.H 66 154 (whi#h #ite" ;Fh 149 a$0 6'b%ikmatatantra 2?+.3 ;6 23), Sv.H 6; 209, a$0 6; 369> "i$#e Sv.H 6; 209 re*ate" mah)n!a with the ntt,takal, whi#h #'rre"p'$0" t' the *eve* '1 iva[akti, the $'ti'$ /ight (e eK ate0 with that '1 mah)n!ti)n!a. 6t i" t' (e 0i"ti$g i"he0 1r'/ the $'ti'$ '1 )n!ti)n!a, the 8;'i0 (e%'$0 the ;'i0:, whi#h, a##'r0i$g t' Sv. 5 707, #'rre"p'$0" t' the akti $a/e0 mahm! ("ee Sv.H ;66 6 (tw' ti/e"), 5 707, 5 1213, 5 1278, 56 16> .4; ;6 10, 56 20, ). ;66 21, 556 61 (tw' ti/e"), 5566 43, 5566 44)> $everthe*e"" &MvX 4 2Si$gh= 553 '11er" a 0i11ere$t #'rre"p'$0e$#e, whi#h /ake" )n!ti)n!a a "%$'$%/ 1'r B$APritaPiva J a *eve* '1 e7perie$#e at the L $#ti'$ '1 akti a$0 Sa0APiva, i.e., at the L $#ti'$ '1 the '$e a$0 the /a$% (Canritaivapar!!a)n!ti)n!aC) J i$a"/ #h a" " #h 8e7perie$#e: (i1 it #a$ (e #a**e0 that) pre#e0e" a** #'$#rete 'r /ateria* #reati'$ ('$ the"e $'ti'$", "ee Bppe$0i7 7, p. 327). 496 p)rhantma!o !a camatkra. 497 aham idam. 498 .rika te7t" 0eve*'p a "'rt '1 $'r/ whi#h #'rre*ate" icchakti with Sa0APiva, %&naakti with ^Pvara a$0 kri!akti with 'ddhavid! ("ee &S 14, .4 65 50(,51a, ^&; 666 1, 7 (avat.) a$0 .'re**a ^&?= 193, $. 13). )everthe*e"", a" e/pha"iUe0 (% .4 65 51(,52a (K 'te0 $. 485), it i" /'re a K e"ti'$ '1 the pre0'/i$a$#e '1 '$e "pe#i1i# akti i$ a "pe#i1i# tattva tha$ a reg *ar #'rre"p'$0e$#e, the 'ther aktis (ei$g a*"' pre"e$t i$ ever% tattva, eve$ th' gh i$ a " ('r0i$ate0 wa%. .hi" pri$#ip*e " 11i#e" t' e7p*ai$ the re*ative 0i"#repa$#ie" (etwee$ the te7t". 6$ e11e#t, a##'r0i$g t' "'/e, it i" %&naakti that 'perate" i$ Sa0APiva, a$0 kri!akti i$ ^Pvara, wherea" a re"i0 a* tra#e '1 kri!akti i" i$ a#ti'$ i$ 'ddhavid!, icchakti (ei$g #'rre*ate0 with akti> "ee - 6 29(,31, .4 ;6 43,44, a$0 the rather e$ig/ati# "tate/e$t '1 the ^&? 666 1, 2, th " e7p*ai$e0 (% the ;imarin,= ntar, %&nar)p ! da tas! 'drekbhsane sdkh!am $... bahirbhvas!a kri!aktima!as!a $... 'drekbhse sati $... ,varatattvam, 8Rhe$ the prep'$0era$#e ('dreka) '1 the i$ter$a* #'$0iti'$ #hara#teriUe0 a" Ek$'w*e0geE (%&na) (e#'/e" evi0e$t, there ari"e" the tattva SA0Akh%a. 2...3 B$0 whe$ the prep'$0era$#e '1 the e7ter$a* "tate, whi#h #'$"i"t" '1 the e$erg% '1 B#ti'$ (kri!akti), (e#'/e" evi0e$t, there #'/e" i$t' (ei$g the ,varatattva" ('$ the et%/'*'g% '1 SA0Akh%a a$0 Sa0APiva, "ee $. 906)> "ee a*"' - 66 1, a$0 &.; 1 (p. 3 2Skt. te7t3)= tatra 'bha!atra %&nakri!aktima!e rape sadivevarasre $... . Mere, CD:" #'//e$tar% appear" t' a##'r0 with " #h #'$#epti'$". 499 <$ the hierar#h% '1 the "eve$ t%pe" '1 " (Le#t (saptapramt) J iva, +a$tra/ahePvara", +a$trePvara", +a$tra" (i$#* 0i$g ;i0%ePvara"), ;iLQA$Aka*a", &ra*a%Aka*a" a$0 Saka*a" J "ee Bppe$0i7 10, p. 330. .h'"e #ateg'rie", t' wh'/ CD wi** re1er i$ #'//e$ti$g '$ thi" kArikA a$0

Self,B78 for no$ t!e t$o "o"ents of i%seity and e&&eity 6idant7 are !eld in %erfe&t e9(ili'ri(", a&&ordin to t!e Qr(le of t!e 'alan&eQ B76 WR $!i&! does not allo$ Ht!isI, viL), t!e Hot!erI, to %resent itself as differentiatedY) *ere reside t!e &lass of &o niLers &alled t!e .antreJvaras, t!e HLords of .antrasI) At t!is %oint, t!an5s to t!e s('ordination of i%seity and t!e %redo"inan&e of e&&eity Wt!at t!ere(%on ens(esY, t!e state of $onder"ent &onsistin in t!e realiLation: HI a" II, WandY Ht!is is t!isI, B7A is attainedM Wt!e %redi&ates in t!ese #(d "entsY "ay 'e indi&ated WonlyY $it! a fin er Wfor t!eir &ontent is as yet indistin (is!a'le fro" t!eir s('#e&tY, #(st as is t!eY !ead of t!e ne$?'orn &!ild) B7; T!is is indeed t!e W&onditionY of
kArikA 23, repre"e$t 0i11ere$t *eve*", 'r /'0e", '1 #'$"#i' "$e"". 500 aham idam. 501 Mere, CD 0'e" $'t re*ate the ,varatattva t' a "pe#i1i# akti, (e it %&naakti, a" i" ge$era**%the #a"e, 'r kri!akti ("ee $. 498). +'re'ver hi" e7p'"iti'$ '1 the ,varatattva 0i11er" 1r'/what appear" t' (e the $'r/. +'"t .rika te7t" e"ta(*i"h "%//etr% (etwee$ the Sa0APiva a$0 the ^Pvara "tate", t' the e7te$t that the% eve$ e7p*ai$ the/ thr' gh the #'$tra"tive /etaph'r '1 "h tti$g a$0 'pe$i$g the e%e" (nimea0'nmea), a" i$ ^&? 666 1, 3. 6$ ('th tattvas, it i" thee7perie$#e '1 aham idam, 86 a/ thi":, with a 0i11ere$#e '1 e/pha"i"= '$ 86: ('r i$ter$a*it%), i$ Sa0APiva> '$ 8thi": ('r e7ter$a*it%), i$ ^Pvara. 6$ Sa0APiva, 86: 'ver#'/e" 8thi":, "i$#e #'$"#i' "$e"" eK ate" the $iver"e with it"e*1, i$ the /'ve/e$t '1 nimea, whi*e #*'"i$g, a" it were, it" e%e". B##'r0i$g t' ^&R, v'*. 666= 264, the w'r0 it"e*1 J Sa0APiva, 8Gter$a* iva: J /ea$" that iva re/ai$" iva, i.e., #'$"#i' "$e"", eve$ i1 the '(Le#t (egi$" t' e/erge withi$ hi/. S%//etri#a**%, i$ ^Pvara, 8thi": 'ver#'/e" 86:, "i$#e $'w #'$"#i' "$e"" eK ate" it"e*1 with the $iver"e, th " /aki$g 0i11ere$tiati'$ /'re evi0e$t, a" the $iver"e i", i$ e11e#t, it" 'w$ $egati'$. <$ the"e rea"'$i$g", "ee ^&; 666 1, 2,3= $... !ad aham it! as!a !adadhikaraacinmtrar)pa tatraiveda sam'llsa!ati tad tas!sph'#atvt sadivat aham idam iti0 idamaham iti t' idamit!ae sph'#ibh)te (dhikarae !adhamaavimara nii&cati tadevarat @iti vibhga, 8Rhe$ the " ("trat / '1 the E6E, $a/e*%, p re #'$"#i' "$e"", /ake" appear i$ that 2E6E3 a EthatE, the$ " #h 2#'$"#i' "3 "tate i" #a**e0 ESa0APivaE, (e#a "e the EthatE2th' gh appeari$g3 i" $'t there /a$i1e"te0 #*ear*% 2i.e., a" 'ther tha$ the E6E3, viU., E6 a/ thi"E> '$ the 'ther ha$0, whe$, a" 2#apti'$e0 i$ the phra"e3 Ethi" i" 6E, the EthatE, a"pe#t ha" a#hieve0 #*ari1i#ati'$ a" the " ("trat /, the$ " #h 2#'$"#i' "3 "tate i" #a**e0 E^PvaraE, 1'r i$ " #h 2aware$e""3 2the EthatE3 i" a$'i$te0 with a$ aware$e"" '1 the E6E,a"pe#t 2that i", theE'(Le#tE i" e$0'we0 with the gra#e '1 #'$"#i' "$e""3 J " #h i" the 0i11ere$#e 2(etwee$ the tw' "tage"3:. See ^&? 666 1, 2,3> a*"' ^&? 666 1, 5 a$0 vtti a0 *'#, wherei$ i" #'i$e0 the #'$#ept '1 8per1e#t, i/per1e#t "tate: (parparada> parparvasth) i$ 'r0er t' a##' $t 1'r the"e tw' a/(ig ' " tattvas, wh'"e per1e#ti'$ '1 #'$"#i' "$e"" (that '1 the 86:) i" "*ight*% a*tere0 (% the /ere pre"e$#e '1 a 8thi":= atredantmater aparatvam ahanta! sarvas!a ved!as!cchdant parateti parparvasthai, 8Mere there i" i/per1e#ti'$ (e#a "e there i" the $'ti'$ '1 8thi":, per1e#ti'$ (e#a "e a** the #'g$iUa(*e i" vei*e0 (% the 86:> thi" i" there1're the per1e#t,i/per1e#t #'$0iti'$: (tr. .'re**a)> #1. &MvX 3, where the #'$#ept '1 a parpara #'$0iti'$ i" app*ie0 t' the sadivatattva. <$ the 'ther ha$0, CD, th' gh a0/itti$g the "i/ *ta$e' " pre"e$#e '1 ip"eit% a$0 '(Le#tivit% at the *eve* '1 ^Pvara, #h''"e" t' e/pha"iUe the per1e#ti'$ '1 the e7perie$#e i$ whi#h there i" $' "e$"e '1 a*terit%. ?9e/arALa:" e7p'"iti'$, i$ &MvX 3, a##'r0" with that i$terpretati'$= ,varatattve sph'#edanthantsmndhikara! !dk viva grh!a, tdk $... , 8.he $iver"e, i$ the ,varatattva, gra"pe0 a" that ki$0 2'1 e$tit%3 i$ whi#h the #',re1ere$tia*it% '1 the E6E a$0 the EthatE ha" (e#'/e /a$i1e"t, i" " #h 2...3:. )'te that the gra//ati#a* #'$#ept '1 smndhikara!a i" app*ie0 t' 'ddhavid! i$ ^&? 666 1, 3.

samadhtat'lp'#an!!ena J "a/e phra"e i$ ^&; 666 1, 3, whi#h i" there app*ie0 t' ,varatattva a*'$e, eve$ th' gh the ;imarin, "ee/" t' $0er"ta$0 the i/age i$ re*ati'$ ('th t' Sa0APiva a$0 t' ^Pvara= $... aham idam iti samadhtat'lp'#an!!ena !o vimaro sa sadivantha ,varabha##arake ca. Cet, a" the -hskar, e7p*ai$", it i" "' 1'r/ *ate0 1'r 1ear '1 pr'*i7it% (vi"tara(hi%A), ( t i$ rea*it% apart 1r'/ thi" pa""age, the pre,e/i$e$#e '1 the 86,pri$#ip*e: i" a""'#iate0 '$*% with the sadivatattva (nan' tarhi sadivatattve samadhtat'lp'#an!!o na !'kta, sat!am, vistarabhi! atraivam 'ktam an!ath t' sadivatattve ahabhvas!a prdhn!am eva vartate it! alam). 503 aham aham0idam idam J "'/e te7t" 1'r/ *ate the e7perie$#e a" (aha ca ida ca" 'r (aham ida ca". 504 .he i** "trati'$ i" /'"t *ike*% i$te$0e0 t' re1*e#t the i$1a$t:" Ep'i$t '1 viewE J whi#h, m'tatis m'tandis, i" that '1 the N'r0= the i$1a$t #'$1' $0" the e7ter$a* w'r*0 with hi/"e*1 ('r hi" 'w$ ('0%), a$0 i" $a(*e t' 0e"ig$ate it 'ther tha$ (% p'i$ti$g t' hi" 'w$ hea0.


t!e Lord Wand is &alledY t!e %rin&i%le of %(re /no$led e 6(uddha3idy7,B7B 'e&a(se Wt!is realiLation isY t!e very essen&e of 5no$led e 6$odhasr7)B7= *ere, o(t of in!erent 'enevolen&e, seventy "illion .antras, re%lete $it! si nifi&ation 63ca,at7, attend, alon $it! t!e 1idyeJvaras, (%on t!e .antra"a!eJvaras, t!e HGreat Lords of .antrasI and (%on t!e .antreJvaras, t!e HLords of .antrasI, in order to free 6uddhartum7 t!e 'o(nd so(ls t!at are t!ere'y si nified 63cya7)B7< *ere, alt!o( ! t!e &ate ory of >(uddha?3idy is not distin (is!a'le fro" t!e state of W%(reY &ons&io(sness 'elon in to t!ose &o niLers &alled 1idyeJvaras, t!e dis%lay of differen&e 6$hedaprath7 Wt!at is !ere o'served in t!e o%%osition 3ca,aB3cyaY is 'ro( !t a'o(t 'y t!e ener y of "4y4)B7C T!erefore, it !as 'een s(n in t!e 2 a"as: T!ere is mahamya a'oveB7@ may W ) ) ) Y

6$ 'ddhavid!, the 8thi":, a*th' gh $'w #*ear*% appare$t, "ti** re/ai$" withi$ the 1'*0 '1 the 86:, i$a"/ #h a" it i" ( t the pr'Le#ti'$ '1 the 86: withi$ it"e*1. .h ", a*th' gh at thi" "tage "'/e 0 a*it% appear", that 0 a*it% 0'e" $'t pre"e$t it"e*1 i$ the 1'r/ '1 a*terit%, t' (e " (Le#t t' whi#h i" the 0e"ti$% '1 the 1i$ite (ei$g" (&ra*a%Aka*a" a$0 Saka*a") *ivi$g i$ the w'r*0 '1 / t a**% e7#* "ive " (Le#t" a$0 '(Le#t". 6$ the 'ddhavid!, eve$ th' gh the " (Le#t regar0" $'w the '(Le#t a" 'ther, he 0'e" $'t 0eviate 1'r a** that 1r'/ hi" per1e#t /erge$#e with p re #'$"#i' "$e"". .h' gh apprehe$0e0, '(Le#t" are k$'w$ a" the% are i$ e""e$#e= a" $'thi$g ( t #'$"#i' "$e"" (cinmtrasra, i$ ^&vX 666 1 , 4 S bodhasra i$ CD a0 14). .hi" i" where the 8p rit%: '1 8p re: ?$'w*e0ge re"i0e", a" e7p*ai$e0 i$ ^&vX 666 1 , 4 . Bt thi" "tage, the 8thi": appear" a" E0i"ti$#tE 1r'/ the 86:, ( t $'t E0i11ere$tE 1r'/ it, i$a"/ #h a" it i" L "t a$ a"pe#t '1 the 86:. 6t i" $'tew'rth% that CD "e" the "a/e ter/ camatkra, 8w'$0er:, i$ 0e"#ri(i$g ea#h '1 the three *eve*" '1 e7perie$#e #'rre"p'$0i$g, re"pe#tive*%, t' Sa0APiva, ^Pvara a$0 'ddhavid!. <$ 'ddhavid! a$0 it" re*ati'$ t' the #'$#ept '1 akticakramahevaratva, "ee $. 942. 506 .he "eK e$tia*it% i/p*ie0 i$ the 'r0eri$g '1 the 'ddhatattvas i" i$te$0e0 t' #*ari1% the pr'#e"" '1 #reati'$, 1ir"t a" a$ i//ateria* e7tr'ver"i'$ '1 vi(rati$g #'$"#i' "$e"", the$, 1r'/ m! '$war0", a" a /ateria* '$e. 6$ thi" 8p re path: ('ddhdhvan), #'$"#i' "$e"" i" the '$*% rea*it%> #reati'$ take" p*a#e withi$ #'$"#i' "$e""= it i" i$ 1a#t a pr'Le#ti'$ '1 #'$"#i' "$e"". 6$ thi" "e$"e, it i" right t' app*% the ter/ tattva t' the 1ive "tage" '1 #'$"#i' "$e"", whi#h are 8pri$#ip*e": 'r 8rea*it%,*eve*":, rather tha$ 81a#t": J a$0 thi" "age i" eK a**% L "ti1ie0 eve$ i1 the ter/ (e $0er"t''0 i$ the et%/'*'gi#a* "e$"e '1 8e7te$"i'$:, 8pr'Le#ti'$:, a" 6$0ia$ #'//e$tat'r" are w'$t t' 0' ("ee CD a0 10,11, $. 433 a$0 434). .he% are "tate" '1 #'$"#i' "$e"" i$ whi#h the / *tip*i#it% '1 the w'r*0 i" at 1ir"t " (/erge0, the$ gra0 a**% revea*e0, th' gh "ti** i$ i//ateria* 1'r/. 507 .he +a$tra", a** varietie" i$#* 0e0, are vcakas, 8e7pre""'r":, a$0 the (' $0 "' *" are vc!as, what i" 8e7pre""e0: thr' gh the/. S' 1'r/ *ate0 i" the 0i"ti$#ti'$ (etwee$ "ig$i1ier a$0 "ig$i1ie0= 8t' what '(Le#t 0' th'"e /a$tra" pertai$, et#.?: 508 .hi" i" a paraphra"e '1 ^&? 666 1, 6= bhedadh,r eva bhve' kart'r bodhtmano (pi !0 m!akt!eva s vid!et! an!e vid!evar !ath00, 8B##'r0i$g t' 'ther", $'ddha vid! i" $'thi$g ( t the $'ti'$ '1 E0i11ere$#eE J "i/i*ar t' that whi#h re" *t" 1r'/ m!akti J that a11e#t" a$ age$t e$0'we0 with #'$"#i' "$e"" i$ regar0 t' e$titie" 2that he per#eive"3 J " #h a" i" e7e/p*i1ie0 (% the ;i0%ePvara":> a view that i" $'t "hare0 (% Htpa*a0eva, wh' pre"e$t" it a" that '1 8'ther":, a$0 whi#h the ^&; a0 *'#. attri( te" t' the Fa'ravgama, i$tr'0 #i$g i$ the "a/e pa""age the a00iti'$a* tattva '1 mahm!. Bt the *eve* '1 'ddhavid!, #'//e$t" BI i$ hi" avat. a0 ^&? 666 1, 6, the /a$i1e"tati'$ '1 0i11ere$#e #a$$'t (e e7p*ai$e0 with' t the i$terve$ti'$ '1 m!. Cet, 0i11ere$#e i" "ti** 8k$'w$: J a$ a"pe#t '1 8k$'w*e0ge: (vid!). .here1're the m! that 'perate" there i", h'wever, 8$'t 1 **% 0eve*'pe0: (aprar)h) m!, 1ee(*e (8Pithi*A:, "' g*'""e0 (% the -hskar,) J a$ atte$ ate0 1'r/ '1 m!, #a**e0 mahm! i$ the Fa'ravaM tata evprar)ham!kalpatvn mahm!e!a r,ra'ravdig'r'bhir 'padi#. CD:" /a$$er '1 e7p'"iti'$ i/p*ie" that the i$#'/p*ete K 'te that 1'**'w" (m!opari mahm!) i" *ike*% ('rr'we0 1r'/ the Fa'ravaH "ee $. (e*'w. B$%h'w, it i" i$ thi" "e$"e, (e#a "e the +a$tra" a$0 the ;i0%ePvara" are 8per/eate0: (a" "tate0 here (% CD) (% the mahm!, that i", are #'$ta/i$ate0 (% it" vi#i$it%, that the% are a11e#te0 (% the m!,!amalaH ( t it 0'e" $'t /ea$ that the% are *'#ate0 i$ the mahm!H rather, it i" the $e7t *eve* '1 " (Le#tivit%, that '1 the ;iLQA$Aka*a", whi#h re"i0e" i$ the mahm!. +'re'ver, it "h' *0 (e $'te0 that CD:" 0i11er" here 1r'/ Htpa*a0eva:" view, a" 1'r/ *ate0 i$ ^&? 666 1, 3, that 86: a$0 8thi": are, i$ the 'ddhavid!, i$ a re*ati'$ '1 #',re1ere$tia*it% (smndhikara!a). 509 m!opari mahm! $... . !1. Fa'ravgama, ;id!pda, 6; 28(= m!opari mahm! sarvakraakraam. 6t / "t (e $'te0 that the ;id!pda part '1 the pri$te0 Fa'ravgama 2D43 i" i$ 1a#t part '1 the Fa'ravas)trasagraha 2DSS3, whi#h pr'(a(*% 0ate" 1r'/ a / #h ear*ier peri'0 tha$ the pri$te0 6ri!pda '1 the Fa'ravgama. .he pri$te0 6ri!pda (e*'$g" t' a 0i11ere$t "trat / '1 #'/p'"iti'$ a$0 wa" tra$"/itte0 e7#* "ive*% i$ S' th 6$0ia (/'re'ver, there i" $' ;id!pda at a** i$ the S' th 6$0ia$ D4). 6$ the DSS, #itati'$" 1r'/ the '*0 Fa'rava are 1' $0, a/'$g the/= m!opari mahm!. T'r /'re i$1'r/ati'$ a$0 a 0i"# ""i'$ '1 the 0ati$g a$0 the re*ati'$ '1 the tw' te7t", "ee I''0a** (6iraavttiM 7*, $. 92, a$0 7*viii,7*i7). B "i/i*ar *i$e i" #ite0 (% BI i$ hi" &.; 5,8 with attri( ti'$ t' the 6'b%ikmata, ( t the ver"e i" $'t 1' $0 i$ the tra$"/i""i'$ '1 the 6'b%ikmata ("ee Sa$0er"'$ 2002= 2)= m!opari mahm! trikonandar)pi,, 8B('ve m! i" mahm!, the e/('0ie/e$t '1 the (*i"" '1 the tria$g*e: (Si$gh &.; 2Skt. te7t= 64> tra$"*.= 1763> I$'*i &.;= 249)> #'/pare CD:" K 'te with that '1 &.; 5,9 (&.; 2Skt. te7t= 40> tra$"*.= 1013) a$0 .4; 65 91a= m!ordhve 'ddhavid!dha santi vi%&nakeval, 8B('ve m! a$0 (e*'w 'ddhavid! are the ;iLQA$akeva*a": ("ee $.

511). B*"' .4 ;666 337(= mahm!ordhvata 'ddh mahvid!tha mtk00vg,var, $... , 8B('ve mahm!, there i" the p re great ?$'w*e0ge ( S 'ddhavid!), the +AtXkA, the g'00e"" '1 Spee#h 2...3:, a$0 .4; a0 *'#. a##'r0i$g t' whi#h 'ddhavid! i" ter/e0 mahvid!, '$ a##' $t '1 it" p rit% ('ddhatvd eva cs! mahattvam it! 'ktam mahvid! iti)> the ter/ appear" (a" mahm!akti) i$ S; 6 2, K 'te0 $. 226. Bt thi" "tage, CD:" e7ege"i" i$tr'0 #e" the #'$#ept '1 mahm!. .he i"" e i" that '1 e7p*ai$i$g the para0'7 '1 a " (Le#tivit% $/'0i1ie0 (% '(Le#tivit%> " #h E'(Le#tivit%E a" there i" re/ai$" $0er the 0'/i$i'$ '1 the E" (Le#tE> it #a$$'t (e the pr'0 #t '1 m!, ( t rather '1 thi" K a"i,m!. .he para0'7 i" (r' ght ' t i$ the #hara#teriUati'$ '1 the +a$tra" a$0 the ;i0%ePvara", wh', th' gh (e*'$gi$g t' the 'ddhdhvan, are $'$ethe*e"" " (Le#t t' the m!,!amala ("ee Bppe$0i7 10, p. 332). <$ mahm!, "ee a*"' $. 495 a$0 ;a" 0eva +;.= 170.

*en&e Wit is only in t!at li"ited sense t!atY t!e .antras residin t!ere are said to 'e finite so(ls, for t!ey are %enetrated 'y mahmy)B87 A'ove t!e my?%rin&i%le and 'elo$ t!e (uddha3idy are t!e &o niLers ter"ed 1i#V4n45alas,B88 $!o retain t!e i"%(rity of dee"in oneself finite Wafter s!a5in off t!e t$o ot!er i"%(ritiesY)B86 T!is for" of Piva, $!o is Win essen&eY one only, is yet s%o5en of in ter"s of a %entad of %rin&i%les, i)e), as t!e Fo(rt! state 6turya7, alt!o( ! !e trans&ends t!e Fo(rt! state 6turyt-ta7)B8A *en&e t!is inde%endent a ent 6,art.7 "anifests !i"self as one only) T!erefore, t!is WPivaY, (ni9(e and a(tono"o(s, a%%ears 6pra,(ate7 as t!e a ent Wof &reationY, t!e
.he i/p*i#ati'$ (ei$g that the% are #'$"i0ere0 a" 1i$ite "' *" (a') i$a"/ #h a" the% are " (Le#t t' the m!,!amala. CD re1er" here i/p*i#it*% t' ^&vX 666 2, 9, whi#h "tate", a" regar0" the ;i0%ePvara"= 2...3 em a'tvam api s!t. B$'ther #hara#teri"ti# '1 the +a$tra" a$0 ;i0%ePvara" (whi#h 0i"ti$g i"he" the/ 1r'/ the ;iLQA$Aka*a") i" that the% are e$0'we0 with age$#% (karttva> ^&? 666 2, 9) J a 1eat re whi#h i" '$*% a** 0e0 t' i$ CD:" e7ege"i", whe$ he pre"e$t" that #ateg'r% '1 " (Le#t" a" 8"ig$i1ier": (vcaka), that i", 8age$t" '1 "ig$i1i#ati'$:, wh' are a(*e 8t' 1ree the (' $0 "' *":. B" 1'r the ;i0%ePvara", the% are a*"' age$t", i$a"/ #h a" "evera* 4ga/a" pre"e$t the/ a" i$"tigat'r" '1 the #'"/i# 1 $#ti'$", *ater ter/e0 pa&cakt!a, the 81ive 1 $#ti'$":, ( t here re"tri#te0 t' 1' r. S#ript re" 0i11er a" t' the a#t the% are e7e/pte0 1r'/> "ee ;imalvat, 6 1a, Parkh!atantra 66 96(, DSS 6 15(, a$0 +;. 6 20(,21= etn a#a' sthitidhvasarakn'grahakaria00 mantramantrevare 'ddhe sani!o%!a tata p'na0 mantrm as%at tadvat saptako#, samaal00, 8Mavi$g a##'r0e0 2the "tat " '13 p re +a$tra/a$trePvara" t' the"e eight 2;i0%ePvara"3 i$ #harge '1 pre"ervati'$[#reati'$ (sthiti), 0e"tr #ti'$ (dhvasa), '("# rati'$[pr'te#ti'$ (rak) a$0 gra#e (an'graha), he the$ #reate0 i$ the "a/e wa% "eve$t% /i**i'$ +a$tra" with their re"pe#tive "phere" '1 i$1* e$#e[maala": (tr. ;a" 0eva, /'0i1ie0> "ee ;a" 0eva +;.= 158,161, 1'r a$ i$terpretati'$ '1 the pa""age). .h ", a" '("erve" ^&vX 666 1, 9, the ;i0%ePvara" are e$0'we0 with a partia* age$#%, " #h that the% are 80i11ere$t 1r'/ the N'r0 a$0 1r'/ '$e a$'ther:, a$0 a" " #h 8the% t'' / "t (e #'$"i0ere0 a" Ear/E: J whi#h i" L "t a$'ther wa% '1 1'r/ *ati$g the rea"'$ L "ti1%i$g the a'tva '1 thi" #ateg'r% '1 " (Le#t", the m!,!amala (ei$g the #a "e '1 their partia* age$#%. <$e '("erve" here CD:" e/pha"i" '$ the *eve* '1 " (Le#tivit% repre"e$te0 (% the +a$tra" a$0 the ;i0%ePvara", wh' re"i0e i$ 'ddhavid!. F% $0er*i$i$g the +a$tra": r'*e a" vcakas a$0 the *i(erati$g v'#ati'$ '1 ('th the +a$tra" a$0 the ;i0%ePvara", CD a$ti#ipate" the a##' $t '1 /a$tri# pra#ti#e he wi** give i$ kA. 41,46, where th'"e pramts $a/e0 +a$tra" are a*"' the per"'$i1i#ati'$" '1 the /a$tra" '1 the ta$tri# pra#ti#e. 511 .hi" "e$te$#e i" t' (e rea0 a" a paraphra"e '1 the K 'te (pr'(a(*% a$ 4ga/a, a*th' gh give$ with' t e7p*i#it attri( ti'$)= m!ordhve 'ddhavid!dha santi vi%&nakeval, whi#h #'/p*ete" the arg /e$t '1 &.; 5,9 (a$0 i$ .4; 65 90(,92a> "ee (e*'w). .he e$tire pa""age (Si$gh 2Skt. te7t= 40> tra$"*.= 1013) i" a" 1'**'w"= m!tattvas!opari vid!tattvdha cva!a tattvntarea bhavitav!a !atra vi%&nkaln sthiti0 !athokta m!ordhve 'ddhavid!dha santi vi%&nakeval iti tath hi mahm!bhve m!pade prala!akevalnm avasthiti vid!pade ca vid!evard,nm iti kim iva tad vi%&nakevalspada s!t0, 8.here / "t e7i"t $e#e""ari*% a$'ther pri$#ip*e a('ve the m!,pri$#ip*e a$0 (e*'w the $'ddha vid! ,pri$#ip*e where a(i0e the ;iLQA$Aka*a". B" ha" (ee$ "ai0= EB('ve m! a$0 (e*'w 'ddhavid!, are the ;iLQA$akeva*a"E. .here1're, i1 mahm! i" $'t 2a##epte0 a" a #ateg'r%3, the$, "i$#e the a('0e '1 the &ra*a%akeva*a" i" i$ the 0'/ai$ '1 m!, a$0 that '1 the ;i0%ePvara", et#., i" i$ the 0'/ai$ '1 $'ddha vid!, i$ whi#h 0'/ai$ w' *0 a(i0e the ;iLQA$akeva*a"?: F% a** 0i$g here t' the &.;, CD re1er" i/p*i#it*% t' the $'ti'$ '1 mahm! he ha" L "t 0ea*t with, th " #'/p*eti$g it" 0e1i$iti'$. .hi" a00iti'$a* *eve*, whi#h ha" $' $a/e '1 it" 'w$ i$ the K 'te0 te7t, i" t' (e i0e$ti1ie0 a" mahm! a$0 i$terprete0, "patia**%, a" a 1 **,1*e0ge0 tattva. .hi" i" a$'ther arg /e$t i$ 1av'r '1 the i$tr'0 #ti'$ '1 mahm! i$ the ge$era* "#he/e '1 tattva" a$0 pram#s= a$ a00iti'$a* tattva ha" t' (e p'"t *ate0 i$ 'r0er t' /ake r''/ 1'r the ;iLQA$Aka*a". .4 65 90(,92a #'$1ir/" that *i$e '1 rea"'$i$g, pr'vi0i$g it with a$ '$t'*'gi#a* 1' $0ati'$= the ;iLQA$Aka*a i" "tati'$e0 /i0,wa% (etwee$ the p re a$0 i/p re path", 1'r, (ei$g a11e#te0 (% avamala, he #a$$'t a"#e$0, whi*e,


Li !t WviL), &ons&io(snessY of $!o", at t!e level of Sad4Jiva and FJvara, &onsists in t!e t!o( !t: HI a" t!isI)B8; It is t!is t!o( !t t!at, &o"%osed of %(re 5no$in , is t!e instr("ent Wof &reationY)B8B T!e effe&t Wt!(s %rod(&edYB8= is t!e ense"'le of W&on&reteY %rin&i%les 'e innin $it! my and endin $it! eart! t!at are yet to 'e e,%lained) T!(s t!at (ni9(e trans&endental &o niLer 6paramapramt.7 na"ed .a!eJvara, t!e Great Lord $!o is t!e Self, e,%ands !i"selfB8< as a ent, instr("ent and a&tion)B8C #!rik! 5 T!e "aster ne,t e,%lains $!at t!e %ro%er for"B8@ of t!e mytatt3a is:

(ei$g 1ree ('th 1r'/ krmamala, i$a"/ #h a" he i" e7e/pt 1r'/ a#ti'$ (nikarma, v. 90(), a$0 1r'/ m!,!amala, i$a"/ #h a" he 8re"i0e" '$*% i$ p re #'$"#i' "$e"": ('ddhacinmtrasasthita, v. 92a), he #a$$'t 0e"#e$0. B" .4; a0 *'#. "a%"= $... asa' (m!ordhve 'ddhavid!dha santi vi%&nakeval" it!d!'kta!'kt! 'ddh'ddhdhvamadh!avart, 'ddhabodhaikasvabhvo (pi svtantr!ahne - avamalaktas!a svar)pasakocas!a sabhavt $... , 82...3 that '$e, a##'r0i$g t' the rea"'$i$g at w'rk i$ the "tate/e$t= EB('ve m! a$0 (e*'w 'ddhavid!, are the ;iLQA$ake,va*a"E, a(i0e" (etwee$ the p re a$0 i/p re path", a*th' gh he i" e""e$tia**% p re k$'w*e0ge , 2a para0'73 0 e t' the *'"" '1 1ree0'/, that i", 0 e t' the pre"e$#e '1 the #'$tra#ti'$ '1 hi" 'w$ e""e$tia* $at re (r' ght a(' t (% a tra#e '1 the avamala". <$ " #h gr' $0", the appare$t*% #'$tra0i#t'r% "tate/e$t" '1 ;a" 0eva (+;.= 170), $a/e*%, 8B(hi$avag pta *'#ate" the ;iLQA$Aka*a" i$ +ahA/A%Atattva 2...3 ( t he i" $a(*e 'r $wi**i$g t' #ite a$ a th'ritative "#ript ra* pa""age " ("ta$tiati$g thi":, a$0 8a$ $i0e$ti1ie0 aiva "#ript re K 'te0 (% B(hi$avag pta a$0 Oa%aratha a*"' p*a#e" the ;iLQA$Aka*a" i$ the i$ter"ti#e (etwee$ the p re a$0 i/p re $iver"e":, /a% (e re#'$#i*e0. T'r 1 rther 0etai*" '$ the ;iLQA$Aka*a", "ee Bppe$0i7 10, p. 330. 512 Mere CD (rie1*% ev'ke" the ;iLQA$Aka*a", wh' 0' $'t (e*'$g t' the 'ddhdhvan, the " (Le#t '1 the kArikA. Cet, he / "t re1er t' the/ at thi" p'i$t '1 hi" e7p'"iti'$, (e#a "e '1 their i$ter/e0iate "tat " a$0 *'#ati'$ (etwee$ 'ddhdhvan a$0 a'ddhdhvan. .h ", CD, 1'**'wi$g BI, re'rga$iUe" the vari' " arra$ge/e$t" '("erve0 i$ previ' " te7t" '1 the aiva tra0iti'$. Me *'#ate" here three #ateg'rie" '1 " (Le#t" $a/(ig ' "*% '$ the "#a*e '1 the tattvas= the +a$tra" (a*'$g with the ;i0%ePvara"), the ;iLQA$Aka*a" a$0 the &ra*a%Aka*a" (ei$g re"pe#tive*% a""ig$e0 t' 'ddhavid!, mahm! a$0 m!. Me wi** take p the 0e"#ripti'$ '1 the *a"t tw' #ateg'rie" '1 " (Le#t", the &ra*a%Aka*a" a$0 the Saka*a", i$ hi" g*'"" '$ &S 23. 513 .he 8T' rth "tate: (t'r!a) i" iva:" e7perie$#e '1 per1e#t, (*i""1 *, #'$"#i' "$e"", tra$"#e$0i$g waki$g (%grat), 0rea/ (svapna) a$0 0eep "*eep (s''pti)> #1. &S 35 a$0 CD a0 *'#> t'r!t,ta, the 8'$e tra$"#e$0i$g the T' rth:, i" a "ti** higher "tate, 1'r t'r!a i" $'t #'/p*ete*% 1ree 1r'/ #'$ti$ge$t #'$0iti'$" ('pdhi) " #h a" the ('0% 'r (reath. Mere the K e"ti'$ '1 the e7i"te$#e '1 a thirt%, "eve$th tattva i" i/p*i#it*% re1erre0 t' (% CD i$ agree/e$t with ^&? 666 a$0 FhA"kara:" #'//e$tar%. B##'r0i$g t' FhA"kara, th' gh iva a$0 &ara/aPiva are $'t 0i11ere$t i$ e""e$#e, iva i" /ea$t t' re1er t' hi" "pe#i1i# $at re (svar)panirdea) whi*e &ara/aPiva i" the a**,i$#* "ive 1'r/, whi#h i/p*ie" hi" perva0i$g (v!paka) the wh'*e "#a*e '1 the tattvas. M'wever, &ara/aPiva i" $'t t' (e #'$"i0ere0 a thirt%,"eve$th tattva= he wh' perva0e" (v!paka) #a$$'t (e *'#ate0 i$ the "a/e "erie" a" th'"e perva0e0 (v!p!a). See .'re**a ^&?= 189,190, $. 2. 514 aham idam. 515 .hi" #e*e(rati'$ '1 iva:" " pre/e age$#% e#h'e" ^&vX 666 2, 5= ahet)nm api karma %anmdihet'bhvavia!avipar!sd abodhtmakakartgata krmam, 8.he i/p rit% '1 2" pp'"i$g '$e"e*1 the age$t '13 a#ti'$", whi#h pertai$" t' the age$t 0ev'i0 '1 the Night '1 #'$"#i' "$e"", ari"e" 1r'/ err'$e' "*% #'$"i0eri$g a#ti'$" t' (e the #a "e '1 (irth", et#., wherea" the% are $'t #a "e" 21'r the "'*e, rea*, #a "e i" the " pre/e age$t, the N'r0 hi/"e*13:. B#ti'$", (ei$g i$"e$tie$t, #a$$'t (e the #a "e '1 a$%thi$g. .he '$*% #a "e i" the "'*e age$t, the N'r0. 516 !1. -vX (p. 27), a##'r0i$g t' whi#h the N'r0 8a"" /e" the 1'r/ '1 the thirt%,"i7 tattvas, a** $0er"t''0 a" Ee11e#t"E (kr!a)" '1 that "'*e #a "e that i" the " pre/e age$t ($... tattvar)pa attriatsakh!a kr!a r)pea bibharti).

5) The supreme freedom of the ;reat 4ord , which accomplishes what is difficult to construe,B67 is indeed nothing but the co"ering of 'i"aIs own Self, (in which phase he appears as) the ;oddess F!y!Dakti C the energy of delusi"e construction)B68 +y supreme is "eant Hre9(irin not!in elseIMB66 'y freedom of t!e S(%re"e Lord 6parame(-t.7, is "eant Ht!e fa&t t!at !e &reates everyt!in IM s(&! freedo" is realiLed in t!e energy, ter"ed m$, of !i" Wt!e LordY $!o %ossesses itE)B6A my is so &alled 'e&a(se 'y it is distri'(ted 6m-yate7, t!at is, deli"ited 6paricchidyate7, t!e %!eno"enal dis%lay of 5no$ers and 5no$ns, &(l"inatin in eart!M or my is so &alled in ter"s of its &a%a&ity to del(de everyone Wand everyt!in Y)B6;
vi%bhate J "ee the #'$#* "i'$ '1 CD:" #'//e$tar% a0 kA. 35. Rith thi" ver( CD a$ti#ipate" the $e7t 0e1i$iti'$ (kA. 15), 1'r ^&; 666 1, 8 (pp. 234,235) "tate"= atid'karavas1 t'sapdanprat,ghtar)p paramevaras!a m!akti0 it! etad vi%bhate it!anena daritam, E.h ", the p'wer '1 the S pre/e N'r0 that i" m! (m!akti) i" #hara#teriUe0 (% 1ree0'/ t' a##'/p*i"h the /'"t 0i11i# *t thi$g". .hi" i" the i0ea #'$ve%e0 (% the w'r0 vi%bhate" (tr. &a$0e% 1986= 197, "*ight*% /'0i1ie0). 518 F% thi" "tate/e$t CD 0e1i$e" 8the a("'* te a t'$'/% '1 a $'$,i$0ivi0 a* #'$"#i' "$e"" whi#h a*'$e e7i"t" #'$tai$i$g the wh'*e '1 rea*it% withi$ the (*i"" '1 a 0%$a/i# 86:,$at re, pr'Le#ti$g "pa#e, ti/e a$0 the i$terre*ati$g 1* 7e" '1 " (Le#tive a$0 '(Le#tive phe$'/e$a a" it" #'$te$t a$0 1'r/, /a$i1e"ti$g it"e*1 i$ thi" "p'$ta$e' " e7tr'ver"i'$ thr' gh pre#'g$itive i/p *"e (icch), #'g$iti'$ (%&nam) a$0 a#ti'$ (kri!) a" the three ra0i#a* /'0e" '1 a$ i$1i$ite p'wer: (Sa$0er"'$ 1986= 170). 519 svar)pa J viU., $at re, e""e$#e. 520 d'rgha#asapdana J that i", the i$ter$a* 0ivi"i'$ '1 the "i$g*e pri$#ip*e i$t' i$$ /era(*e " (Le#t" a$0 '(Le#t". .he #'/p' $0 #a$ (e $0er"t''0 a" a karmadhra!a 2?-3, a tatp'r'a 2.&3 'r a bah'vr,hi 2F;3. 6t a/' $t" t' 1ive p'""i(*e i$terpretati'$", a/'$g whi#h the /ai$ 0i11ere$#e i" whether d'rgha#a K a*i1ie" a" a$ a0Le#tive the pr'#e"" '1 /a$i1e"ti$g '(Le#tivit%, 'r 0e"ig$ate" '(Le#tivit% it"e*1 (8that whi#h i" 0i11i# *t t' #'$"tr e:)> 1) a" a ?- J 8whi#h i" a 0i11i# *t a##'/p*i"hi$g:, a" a$ app'"iti'$ t' svtantr!am> 2) a" a .& J 8whi#h i" the a##'/p*i"hi$g '1 what i" 0i11i# *t t' #'$"tr e:> 3) a" a .& $0er"ta$0i$g sapdana i$ the "e$"e '1 sapdaka ("ee CD= prptiprapkam, a$0 De$' 1968= ii 168, 180) J 8whi#h a##'/p*i"he" what i" 0i11i# *t t' #'$"tr e:> 4) a" a F; (a"e0 '$ a ?- ("ee 1) J 8wh'"e a##'/p*i"hi$g 2a" the 0i#h't'/% '1 " (Le#t" a$0 '(Le#t"3 i" 0i11i# *t:> 5) a" a F;, (a"e0 '$ a .& ("ee 2) J 8whi#h a##'/p*i"he" what i" 0i11i# *t t' #'$"tr e:. .he tra$"*ati'$ 1'**'w" CD:" i$terpretati'$. 521 !1. .4 ;666 332= ata para sthit m! dev, %ant'vimohin,0 devadevas!a s aktir atid'rgha#akrit00. &S 15 a$0 16a are K 'te0 i$ .4; 6 37> &S 16( a$0 17 i$ .4; 6 39,40. 522 anan!peka. 523 6t i" $'tew'rth% that, i$ 0e1i$i$g m!, whi#h i" re"p'$"i(*e 1'r e/piri#a* ('$0age, the e/pha"i" i" *ai0 '$ 1ree0'/. .he the/e '1 the 0ivi$e p*a% (l,l, i$ B0vaita a$0 ;ai9@ava tra0iti'$", kr,d, i$ .rika) # */i$ate" i$ the "'/ewhat para0'7i#a* $'ti'$ that the 1ree0'/ '1 the N'r0 i" $'t #'/p*ete $*e"" he i" a(*e t' '("# re a$0 0e*i/it hi/"e*1 (#1. M *i$ 1978= 306). 6$ S; 6 2, the N'r0:" 1ree0'/ i" 0e1i$e0 a" %&nakri!svtantr!a, 1ree0'/ t' k$'w a$0 t' 0' ever%thi$g. Mere, the kri! a"pe#t '1 the N'r0:" 1ree0'/ i" re1erre0 t', "i$#e the e7p'"iti'$ $'w take" p the a'ddhdhvan, the 8i/p re path:, $a/e*%, a#t a* (a" 'pp'"e0 t' virt a*) #reati'$. 524 CD give" here tw' tra0iti'$a* et%/'*'gi#a* e7p*a$ati'$" '1 the ter/ m!, ('th '1 whi#h "ee/ t' pre" /e the r''t m (pa""ive m,!ate) 8/ea" re ' t:= m! i", '$ the '$e ha$0, the #apa#it% t' 8pr'0 #e: 1'r/", i/age", '(Le#t", a$0 '$ the 'ther, t' 80e#eive: there(%. T'r a " //ar% '1 re#e$t 0i"# ""i'$" '1 the pr'(*e/, "ee +a%rh'1er (GRB 66= 349,350), wh' take" it a" 8wahr"#hei$*i#h: that the ter/ 0erive" 1r'/ the r''t m 8#'$"tr #t:, contra, inter alia, .hie/e (k-+I 95= 112 11., B$/. 1), wh' w' *0 0erive it 1r'/ the r''t m, 8a*ter:. B" +a%rh'1er p'i$t" ' t ("ee a*"' ?GRB 66=625> 666= 777), re#' r"e t' the r''t m, 0'e" $'t appear at a** $e#e""ar%, i$a"/ #h a" the "e$"e 8#apa#it% t' 0e#eive: (mohakat) #a$ ea"i*% (e 0e0 #e0 a" a$ e7te$"i'$ '1 8the #apa#it% t' /ea" re:, that i", t'


/ee%in in "ind t!at s!e is asso&iated $it! t!e od of %layf(l nat(re 6,r-(-la7, >my? is WalsoY &alled t!e HgoddessI 6de3-7,B6B and it is not appropriate to state, as do the
Brahmavdins,526 that there is a my who is distinct.

O!at sort of freedo" is itZ T!e "aster ans$ers: 'which accomplishes what is difficult to construe'. W+y 'difficult to construe'] he means 'able to be effected onl!] with diffic"lt!'# thro"%h this freedom ta&es place] the

accomplishing (sapdana) of that difficult (durghaa) res"lt, consistin% in the totalit! of relations between] co%ni'ers and ob(ects of co%nition ) that is, s"ch freedom effects the attestation of s"ch a "niverse]. 52* my is the covering of iva's own Self ) when, o"t of his free will he ass"mes the state of a bo"nd so"l. '+overin%'] here refers to the triad of imp"rities ) imp"rit! of deemin% oneself finite, etc. ) and is termed 'concealement of his proper form'. 52,


#!rik! 16 Inas"(&! as t!e vario(s o'#e&ts of e,%erien&e, $!i&! are derived fro" %ri"ordial "atter and a%%ear to (s in t!e for" of t!e %leas(ra'l e, etc., are abo"t to be e-plained, the master first]
#'$"tr #t 1'r/" that are i$ the *a"t a$a*%"i" i** "'r%. S #h a##eptati'$" are i$ evi0e$#e i$ the ear*ie"t peri'0, a" indro m!bhi p'r'r)pa ,!ate, 86$0ra a"" /e" /a$% 1'r/" thr' gh hi" p'wer" 2'1 repre"e$tati'$3 (m!bhi) (lS ;6 47, 18> F 56; 5, 5, 19> F4H 66 5, 19> OHF 6 44, 1, 4), K 'te0 (% D a0 B&S 1 (whi*e #'//e$ti$g '$ nivi#a bah'dh g'hs'), (% FhA"kara i$ hi" g*'"" a0 ^&;, magalcaraa N , p. 13, a$0 (% 4 666 24a (thr' gh it" prat,ka), i$ 'r0er t' 0e/'$"trate that #reati'$ take" p*a#e i$ a$ i** "'r% 1a"hi'$> "ee a*"' $. 528, the K 'tati'$ i$ ^&; 66 3, 17 (v'*. 66= 141)= m! vimohin, nma, a$0 .4 ;666 332, K 'te0 $. 521= %ant'vimohin,. See a*"' the phra"e mohan,m m!m 2...3, i$ kArikA 51 a$0 $. 969. 525 Si/i*ar pa""age i$ .4; ;666 333= dev,ti devbhinnatvt. !1. &.; (Skt. te7t= p. 3), whi#h e$ /erate" the /ea$i$g" '1 the r''t div= div' kr,vi%ig,v!avahrad!'ast'tigati', E.he r''t div i" "e0 i$ the "e$"e" Ep*a%E, E0e"ire t' #'$K erE, Ew'r*0*% p r" it"E, E"p*e$0'rE, ma0'rati'$n, E/'ve/e$tE:. 7ht'p#ha 6; 1 give" "'/e /'re /ea$i$g"= div' kr,1vi%ig,1v!avahra1d!'ti1 st'ti1moda-mda-svapna-knti1gati'. Mere, m! i" dev, i$ a *i/ite0 "e$"e, a" p*a%1 * (kr,,la), a$0 "he i" p*a%1 * (e#a "e, a" '$e '1 I'0:" e$ergie"[p'wer", "he (e*'$g" t' hi/, wh' i" hi/"e*1 p*a%1 *, a##'r0i$g t' '$e et%/'*'g% '1 the $a/e deva. See a*"' .4 6 101,103 (where the *i"t '1 the 0ivi$e K a*itie" i" "*ight*% 0i11ere$t)= he!opde!akathvirahe svnandaghanata!occhalana kr,,: 26* e"t 0ie , deva, par#e K :6* L' e3 "a$" "e "' #ier 0e #e K i e"t a re#her#her et a reLeter. 2S'$3 Le e"t Lai**i""e/e$t e$ ta$t K e /a""e i$0ivi"e 0e "a propre felicite' .tr. /ilb"rn, 0ado"- 123 ,$ ) ' 4e is 5od, deva, beca"se
he pla!s] witho"t carin% for what has to be so"%ht and what has to be re(ected. 4is pla! is sprin%in% "p as an "ndivided mass of his own bliss'6. 526 1he Brahmavdins referred to here are those who hold that brahman, "nderstood as free of all activit! (nta/nikriya), is the onl! realit!. 7or 8a9&ara, the ver! lan%"a%e of 'ca"se' and 'effect' is soiled b! my. 1herefore, the relation between the level of my and that of brahman is 'diffic"lt to be e-pressed' (anirvacany). 7"rthermore, since the 'world' is not a 'res"lt' of brahman, it cannot be an!thin% other than an 'appearance', li&e that of a rose in a mirror. 1herefore, the 8aiva e-position %iven here of the :dvaita doctrine sho"ld be treated with circ"mspection3 accordin% to :dvaita, there is nothin% ;different; from brahman; at the same time, what appears as ;different; is s"ch onl! as erroneo"s 'manifestation' .as ;different;, it is not brahman ) and therefore does not e-ist6, my is th"s a principle both independent and false, which cannot belon< to brahman as s"ch. =evertheless, it sho"ld be observed that for the ;>dealists; of the /a9&ara school of ?ednta, the ca"se of error has retroverted to brahman itself, from considerations of lo%ical consistenc!3 for the jva cannot be, as @aA ana maintains, both the res"lt and the so"rce of ill"sion. 20/? 56, p. 2,, e-plains my as a transformation of the Bord who prod"ces it, '("st as snow, foam, etc., are prod"ced from water onl! as its transformations' (yath ja ddhimaphendayas tath tath part!amanasvabhvatvd evajyante). 4owever, the my that is th"s prod"ced is 'not meant for an! p"rpose, beca"se the Bord cannot desire an!thin%, havin% alread! all his desires satisfied' (na kim api pray"janam uddiya, tasyptakmatvena kasmi cid icchsambhavd ity artha). >n contrast, the 1ri&a considers my a power (akti) of the Bord parta&in% of his essence, and defines it as the Bord's desire (icch) of diversit!. CD will ta&e "p a%ain this criticism of the Brahmavda in his commentar! ad 2$, emphasi'in% that this s!stem does not ta&e into consideration the soverei%n freedom of the Bord, which is itself responsible for d"alit!. 52$ /ee 12 E? 2$2b3 atidurghaaghasvatantrecchvad ayam, '1his is d"e to the force of the free desire of the Bord] to constr"e what is diffic"lt to constr"e', and 12? ad loc, which e-plains gha as ghaanam, and refers to 0. >>> F, GHI (#idbhiddibhy" $%)& ghaana ghaeti bhidditvda%. 52* prptiprpaka ) lit.,'brin%s it to discernibilit!'. >n this conte-t, it is invitin% to "nderstand prpti in its '%rammatical' or '.ps!cho6lo%ical' sense of 'the %iven' ) what is presented to the observer as he contemplates his ne-t step, whether it be the provisional sta%e of a word's derivation as it awaits the application of the followin% r"le, or that which presents itself to the or%ans of sense as their immediate content, s"itable or "ns"itable. 1he two possibilities amo"nt to the same thin% here, for all intents and p"rposes, for it is the creative power of the Bord that 'ca"ses to appear' (prpaka) before o"r e!es that which 'appears' there as "nconditioned (prpti). CD implies here that the internal division of the sin%le principle into inn"merable s"b(ects and ob(ects is the problem ) either that s"ch a division is diffic"lt to ("stif! reasonabl!, or that the res"lt is diffic"lt to effect within the "nit!. 1he notion of durghaasapdanam is a leitmotif in 1ri&a literat"re, as shown b! parallel passa%es in which appear s"ch terms as durghaakrin .12? ? G2F6, atidurghaakrin .12 > ,2, 12? >? G$Fa, pp *GIJ*G56, durghaakrit .12 ?>>>FFF6, durghaakritva .12>?GHJGG6, atidurghaakritva .12? > FFH, 12 ?>>> FFF6, atidurghaakrit .12? ?>>> FFF, E?>> 2H6, atidu#kara .K0? >> F, G$6, durgha 'akti( .12 ? G2F6, atidurghaagha .12 E? 2$2b6# see K0? >> F, G$ .vol. >>3 GIG63 ita ca kim atidu#kara bhavi#yatiyatprktmany akha! itatadr)pya evaprakamne prakanani#edhvabhsa prakamna/ tasmt paramevarasyeda tat para svtantrya yat tathvabhsana paurpatvabhsana nma grahakasamutthpana taddvre!a ca grhy" sanam api/ saiva bhagavat" myaktir ucyate/ yath"kta my vim"hin nma '...( iti, 'Lhat is more diffic"lt to accomplish than this3 to manifest, within the Mne who is Bi%ht itself, the ne%ation of Bi%ht, at the ver! time when his l"mino"s essence shines forth "ndividedN 1herefore, it is the s"preme freedom of the /"preme Bord th"s to manifest himself as the bo"nd so"l, ca"sin% that part of the phenomenal world] that is the e-periencer to arise, and, thro"%h that e-periencer], manifestin% the ob(ects of e-perience. 1his is called the power of my of the Bord, accordin% to what has been stated3 *my is that which del"des; '# also 12 >? GHJGG, which places

), '>ll"sion' (my), and 'the accomplishin% of what is diffic"lt to constr"e]' (durghaakritva)& kim tu durghaakritvt svcchandyn nirma d asau/ svtmapracchdanakridpa! ita paramevara// anv+tte svar)pe $pi yad tmcchdana vibh"/ saiva my yat" bheda etvn vivav+ttika//, 'B"t, in virt"e of his capacit! of
on the same level 'pla!' (kr

accomplishin%, o"t of his p"re freedom (svcchandya), what is diffic"lt to constr"e], the /"preme Bord s&illf"ll! pla!s at hidin% his own /elf. :ltho"%h his essence is in no wa! veiled, this hidin% of the /elf b! the Mmnipresent is b"t my, from which proceeds the difference that is seen] to this e-tent at wor& in all activities'# see also 12? >? GH3 grhyagrhakdyu st tathtvenbhsanam saiva krid, '1his pla! is manifestation as s"ch, d"e to the s"r%in% forth of s"b(ect, ob(ect, etc.'# also 12 ? G2F3 the akti 'which accomplishes what is diffic"lt' (durgha akti, in the verse6 is named svtantrya; it accomplishes the parado-ical e-ploit of e-pandin% itself as the "niverse, while artic"latin% itself as endless c!cles of emanation and resorption. CD ad $ has "sed the same form"lation in a similar conte-t. 52, +f. CD ad ,. /"ch is the tir"dhnaakti. Mn the 'concealment of his proper form' (svar)pag"pana), see 00 >> ,, p. F3 guruaktir jayaty ek madr)papravikasik/ svar)pag"panavyagr sivaaktirjityy//, '4ail to this "niO"e power of the %"r" which enables the blossomin% of m! own nat"re. 1han&s to it, the ener%! of 8iva which is intent on concealin% his own nat"re is overcome'. /ee also K0vP >> 2, 53 tanma atrayanirm!e prabh"r icch myaktir ucyate, myakti is the Bord's will to create the three imp"rities'. :ltho"%h myakti is a akti, its stat"s is different from that of the triad of Lill, Qnowled%e and :ction, since myakti is connected with differentiation.


individ(ation 6pu statt3a7 BA7 as s(&!,BA8 $!i&! is "anifested in t!e for" of t!e en#oyer of e,%erien&es: 97 Gnder the influence of all+encompassing m$ , consciousness is defiled6 becoming the indi"idual soul6 the fettered being6 and is bound6 thanks to Wthe limiting factors ofY Time6 Agency6 /ecessity6 Passion and Ignorance)BA6 Cons&io(sness,BAA alt!o( ! o"nis&ient and o"ni%otent, ass("es t!e i"%(rity of dee"in itself finite on a&&o(nt of its loss of freedo" 6pratantrya7 , 'ro( !t a'o(t 'y m$ Is ta5in &ontrol Wor %ossessionY) T!is i"%(rity is not!in '(t t!e fail(re to re&o niLe Wt!e Self as s(&!Y 6a,hyti7 , BA; as $!en one sets aside t!ose 9(alities of o"nis&ien&e, et&) O!erefore, t!at W&ons&io(snessY, Wno$Y li"ited, !avin &(t itself off fro" t!e infiniteBAB s%a&e of &ons&io(sness, #(st as t!e s%a&e &onfined in t!e #ar 6gha@,(a7 Wis &(t off fro" infinite s%a&eY, is &alled pu statt3a , t!e H%ersonI) T!erefore, 'ot! "aintained 6plya7 and 'o(nd 6p(ya7 'y my , it is &alled pau , Wt!e Hdo"esti&ated ani"alI or, fi (ratively, t!e Hfettered s('#e&tIY, BA= 'ein t!e lo&(s of t!ose very fetters 6p(a7 $!i&! are t!e i"%(rities of dee"in oneself finite, of re ardin t!e $orld as o'#e&tive, of s(%%osin oneself t!e a ent of a&tions)BA< .oreover W'y sayin : H'o(nd 6sa $addh7 Y by Time6 Agency6 etc)H6 t!e "aster indi&ates t!at W&ons&io(snessY is bound 6$addh7 &o"%letely 6samya,7 , t!at is to
spea&s of the principle of

p'stattva here "ta$0" 1'r p'mn, 8per"'$:, a$0 i" th " "%$'$%/' " with p'r'atattva. B" "h'w$ (% CD at the e$0 '1 hi" #'//e$tar%, p'stattva i" the #'$0iti'$ '1 the 1ettere0 i$0ivi0 a* " (Le#t, 0e*i/ite0 (% m! a$0 the 1ive ka&c'ka". p'stattva th " repre"e$t" the i$1 "i'$ '1 " pre/e ip"eit% i$t' i$0ivi0 a* "' *" ($'w 8at'/i#:, a'), wh' are the/"e*ve" 1 rther a11e#te0 (% the three malas. !1. ^&vX 666 2, 3, where the ter/ p'stva i" 1' $0 i$ the "a/e "e$"e. .he ter/ 8i$0ivi0 ati'$: "h' *0 $'t (e $0er"t''0 i$ a$% "'#i'*'gi#a* ('r eve$ p"%#h'*'gi#a*) "e$"e, i/p*%i$g what ha" #'/e t' (e 0e"ig$ate0 a" the Ei$0ivi0 a*E '1 /'0er$ "'#ietie" J it ha" rather t' 0' here with the i0ea '1 the a', 'r the avamala, the wh'**% 0e#eit1 * 8at'/iUati'$: '1 $iver"a* #'$"#i' "$e"". B/'$g the /a$% 0i"# ""i'$" '1 the 6$0ia$ Ei$0ivi0 a*E J 'r whether " #h a ter/ i" at a** appr'priate i$ #hara#teriUi$g the pre,/'0er$ Eper"'$E J i" N' i" - /'$t:" ?omo ?ierarchic's, K.v. 531 Nit., 8i$ it" pr'per 1'r/:. 532 .he " a* 0e$'/i$ati'$ '1 thi" tattva i" vid!, /ea$i$g 82*i/ite03 ?$'w*e0ge:. .he 1ir"t he/i"ti#h i" K 'te0, a*'$g with kA. 15, i$ .4; 6 37,38. .he "e#'$0 i" K 'te0 i//e0iate*% therea1ter, a*'$g with &S 17, i$ .4; 6 39,40. .he ter/ kal, here tra$"*ate0 82*i/ite03 Bge$#%:, e7pre""e" /'re *itera**% thi" "e$"e '1 *i/itati'$, it" pri/ar% /ea$i$g (ei$g 8"eg/e$t, pha"e ('1 the /''$), et#.:. 533 bodha i" the $iver"a* 0ivi$e #'$"#i' "$e"", wh'"e #hara#teri"ti#", a##'r0i$g t' &.NvX (p. 2), are avikalpatvam, 8$'t " (Le#t t' th' ght,#'$"tr #t":, a$0 p)ratvam, 8#'/p*ete$e"":, 8*a#k '1 i$ter$a* 0ivi"i'$ 'r e7ter$a* #'$0iti'$:. F% #'$tra"t, abodha i" e/piri#a* #'$"#i' "$e"", #hara#teriUe0 (% vikalpa a$0 ap)ratva. 534 !1. ^&; 66 3, 17 (v'*. 66= 141)= ! m)hat 2...3 p)ratvas!a 2...3 svtantr!as!a 2...3 nit!atdharmas!a ca prakamnas!pi !ad aprakamnata! abhimananam, 8.hat #'$1 "i'$ #'$"i"t" i$ wr'$g*% #'$"i0eri$g per1e#ti'$, 1ree0'/ a$0 eter$a*it% a" $'t "hi$i$g, a*th' gh the% are "hi$i$g 2withi$ '$e:" "e*13:. 535 p)rasvar)pa J *it., 8per1e#t:, 81 **:. 536 T'r a "i/i*ar 0e1i$iti'$ '1 pa', "ee CD a0 5. 537 See CD a0 9.


say, is tied do$n, d(e to its 'ein %er"eatedBAC by Time6 etc)6 $!ose %ro%er for" $ill 'e e,%o(nded ne,t) T!(s t!e pu statt3a &onsists in 'ein envelo%ed 'y t!e !e,ad of %rin&i%les Wna"ely, my and t!e five ,a2cu,as Y) BA@ #!rik! : T!e "aster no$ %ro%o(nds t!e %ro%er nat(re of t!ese %rin&i%les, Ti"e, et&), in t!e order of t!eir envelo%in t!at We"'odied &ons&io(snessY: :7 I know52@ 8ust this thing6 at this "ery moment only6 to some extent only6 by focusing my entire self on it)52 In this way6 the hexad of sheaths6 m$ being the sixth652* is said to be WexistentiallyY included52, in the finite soul)))522 T!(s, #(st as &ons&io(sness, t!o( ! free, ass("es t!e &ondition of a finite so(l t!ro( ! its o$n my , so also its ener ies of /no$led e and A&tion, $!en restri&ted, are said to 'e&o"e res%e&tively t!e Wli"itedY /no$led e 63idy7 and Wli"itedY A en&y 6,al7 of t!e 'o(nd so(l)B;B
otaprotat J *it., 8i$terw've$ with:. !1. CD a0 18, where )ta i" /e$ti'$e0, a$0 ^&; 666 1, 9 (v'*. 66= 238, K 'te0 $. 546), where we 1i$0 otaprota /e$ti'$e0 i$ a #'$te7t "i/i*ar t' thi" '$e, viU., whi*e are (ei$g 0e1i$e0 the 1ive ka&c'kas. 539 T'r m! i" a vei* (varaa, *it., a 8#'veri$g:), a$0 the ka&c'kas are 8"heath":. .he *itera* /ea$i$g '1 the *atter, 8ar/'r:, 8#*'ak:, i" 1' $0 i$ the $a/e '1 a tra0iti'$a* #hara#ter i$ the 6$0ia$ 0ra/a= the ka&c'kin, 'r #ha/(er*ai$, "' ter/e0 (e#a "e '1 hi" #*'"e,1itti$g gar/e$t. 540 .he gra//ati#a* re/ark i$ the #'//e$tar% i$0i#ate" that CD i" privi*egi$g, a/'$g the vari' " 8p'wer":, that i$0i#ate0 (% the ver( %&, 8k$'w:> eve$ th' gh the 'ther 8p'wer": are i/p*ie0, the% are ea"i*% " pp*ie0, a$0 it i" $'t $e#e""ar% t' #ite the/ ea#h ti/e their E*ea0erE i" /e$ti'$e0> #1. the "%//etri# "tate/e$t i$ ^&; 666 1, 9, v'*. 66= 238 ("ee $. 546). 541 )'te that the Sa$"krit 'r0er '1 the "e$te$#e J adh'n, kicit, idam, sarvtman, %nmi, viU., kla, kal, ni!ati, rga, vid! J #'rre"p'$0" t' the 'r0er '1 kArikA 16, whi#h i$ t r$ repr'0 #e" the 'r0er a##'r0i$g t' whi#h the"e ka&c'kas e$ve*'p the pa', a" ta ght (% CD:" avat. a0 17. .h " there i" *'gi# i$ the 8ge$e"i" '1 ('$0age:. Cet, '$e /a% 1i$0 'ther 'r0er" '1 e$ $#iati'$ i$ 'ther te7t", 1'r i$"ta$#e= kla, ni!ati, rga, vid!, kal i$ ^&vX 666 1, 9. .he ;666th #hapter '1 .S (p. 84) "'*ve" the 0i11i# *t%, givi$g the 'r0er '1 e$ /erati'$ a" a #'$ve$ti'$ 0i11eri$g 1r'/ '$e te7t t' a$'ther= atra cai vstavena path kramavandh!aiva s#ir it! 'kta kramvabhso 8pi cst,t! api 'ktam eva0 krama ca vid!rgd,n vicitro 8pi d#a kacid ra%!an vetti ko 8pi vidan ra%!ate it!di0 tena bhinnakramanir)paam api ra'ravdi' stre' avir'ddha mantav!am, 86$ thi" regar0, a" a /atter '1 1a#t, '1 th'"e 2"heath"3 it ha" (ee$ "tate0 that the 'rigi$ati'$ i" 1ree '1 "eK e$#e> ( t it ha" a*"' (ee$ "ai0 that a$ appeara$#e '1 "eK e$#e i" there. 26$ 'r0i$ar% *i1e3 '$e #a$ "ee that vid!, rga, et#., appear i$ a 0i11ere$t 'r0er. T'r i$"ta$#e, '$e k$'w" whe$ he *'ve", wherea" a$'ther *'ve" whe$ he k$'w", et#. .here1're, '$e "h' *0 k$'w that there i" $' #'$tra0i#ti'$ i$ e7p' $0i$g a 0i11ere$t 'r0er 2'1 the ka&c'kas3 a" happe$" i$ PA"tra" a" the Fa'rava: 542 Nit, 8a""'#iate0 with m!:. 543 antaraga J "ee $. 549. 544 .he tw' kArikA" 17 a$0 18 are t' (e rea0 a" a "%$ta#ti# $it. 545 B$0 he e7er#i"e" hi" *i/ite0 p'wer" '1 ?$'w*e0ge a$0 Bge$#% thr' gh #'g$itive 'rga$" (%nnendri!a, 'r b'ddh,ndri!a), a$0 'rga$" '1 a#ti'$ (karmendri!a) a" "tate0 (% the Tantrasadbhva, K 'te0 i$ S; 666 3= kalodvalitacaitan!o vid!daritagocara0 rgea ran%itt msa' b'ddh!dikaraair !'ta00, 8!'$"#i' "$e"" 2'1 the 1i$ite " (Le#t3 i" re0 #e0 t' 2*i/ite0 a#tivit%3 (% kal, the '(Le#t" '1 "e$"e (gocara) are "h'w$ t' hi/ (% vid!, he i" e/'ti'$a** a11e#te0 (% rga, e$0'we0 a" he i" with 'rga$" '1 #'g$iti'$, et#.: See a*"' ^&; 666 1, 10,11, v'*. 66= 242, K 'te0 i$ Bppe$0i7 13, p. 337, a$0 &MvX 9 (pp. 71,72), K 'te0 $. 561, whi#h 0eve*'p" thi" pr'#e"" i$ the #' r"e '1 e7p*ai$i$g h'w the three aktis '1 the N'r0, icch, %&na a$0 kri!, tra$"1'r/ the/"e*ve" re"pe#tive*% i$t' ava, m!,!a a$0 karma malas. <$ %nnendri!a a$0 karmendri!a,


N(st as 'y t!e 5in a s"all 9(antity of "oney is iven, o(t of &o"%assion, to !i" $!ose $ealt! !as #(st 'een a%%ro%riated, so t!at !e "ay s(rvive, li5e$ise, to &ons&io(sness $!i&! !as ass("ed t!e &ondition of finite so(l, its o"nis&ien&e, et&), !avin 'een %(t aside, t!e a'ility to 5no$ Wso"et!in Y is &onferred W'y t!e S(%re"e LordY, $it! t!e (lti"ate ai" of %er"ittin li"ited A en&y Wand res(ltY)B;= +e&a(se t!e %o$er of 5no$in is t!(s %redo"inant, t!e synta, of t!e senten&e s!o$s Wt!e ot!er s!eat!s, ,la , et&) Dof 54ri54 8=EY as s('ordinated to t!e ver' 12 ) This hexad of sheaths6 asso&iated $it! my as des&ri'ed a'ove, veilsB;< t!e %ro%er for" of the finite soul 6au7J t!at is, of t!e %arti&(lar so(l 6pu s7 , $!ose o"nis&ien&e, et&), !as 'een re"oved d(e to t!e i"%(rity of dee"in itself finite)B;C WIn t!is sense, t!e !e,ad of s!eat!sY is said to 'e IWexistentiallyY includedH, t!at is, is innate Win t!e finite so(lY, #(st as t!e fla$ is innate in t!e old)B;@
"ee &S 20. 546 -'i$g a$0 ?$'wi$g are a""'#iate0 with Ri**i$g (icch), a$0 Ri**i$g i" r''te0 i$ F*i"" (nanda). .hi" i" a p'"itive wa% '1 "eei$g the ka&c'kas. .he% are $'t '$*% #'r"et" #'$"trai$i$g 1ree, i$1i$ite " (Le#tivit%, tra$"1'r/i$g it i$t' a 1ettere0 i$0ivi0 a*it%> the% are a*"' gi1t" #'$1erre0 (% the N'r0 a" #'/pe$"ati'$ 1'r thi" '$t'*'gi#a* 0a/age, a" a partia* ret r$ '1 it" 1'r/er p'wer". ^&; 666 1, 9, v'*. 66= 238, "%$the"iUe" the e$tire pr'#e""= eva kalvid!klargani!atibhir otaproto m!a!pahtaivar!asarvasva san p'nar api prativit,ratatsarvasvarimadh!agatabhgamtra evabh)to 8!a mita pramt bhti0 idn,m ida kici% %nna ida k'rvo 8tra rakto 8traiva ca !a so 8ham iti, 8.h ", the " (Le#t, (ei$g per/eate0 (otaprota) with *i/ite0 Bge$#%, *i/ite0 ?$'w*e0ge, .i/e, &a""i'$ a$0 )e#e""it%, a$0 (ei$g 0eprive0 '1 a** "'vereig$t% (% m!, /a$i1e"t" hi/"e*1 a" *i/ite0, with a part '1 the wh'*e "'vereig$t% that i" give$ (a#k t' hi/ (prativit,ra), 2whe$ #'$"i0eri$g3= E.he '$e wh' k$'w" a$0 $'w 0'e" "'/ethi$g, thi" / #h, a$0 i" atta#he0 t' thi", a$0 t' thi" '$*% that '$e i" /e.E8 Me$#e, #'$#* 0e" ^&;, 8the"e 2kla, et#.3 /a$i1e"t the/"e*ve" '$*% a" a""'#iate0 with the 2*i/ite03 " (Le#t a$0, there1're, #'$"tit te hi" 2*i/ite03 p'wer": (ete ca pramtlagnata!aiva bhnti, iti tas!aiva aktir)p). .here1're, i$ thi" w'r*0 '1 0i11ere$#e i$ha(ite0 (% i$0ivi0 a*", 8the% 0i11er i$ the #a"e '1 ea#h " (Le#t: (pratipramtbhinn eva). .hi" i" h'w the 1'r/ *ati'$"= 8hi" .i/e:, 8hi" )e#e""it%:, et#., whi#h are "ee$ 1reK e$t*% i$ CD:" g*'"", are a*"' t' (e $0er"t''0 J i$ whi#h the ge$itive re1er" t' the a1're/e$ti'$e0 8a@ :. <$ the ka&c'kas #'$"i0ere0 a" the 0egra0ati'$ '1 the attri( te" '1 the N'r0 J '/$ip'te$#e, et#. J "ee ++ 18. 547 cchdaka. 548 .he 1 $#ti'$ #'//'$ t' the 1ive ka&c'kas i" that '1 0e*i/iti$g, parti# *ariUi$g, the $iver"a* e7perie$#e #hara#teri"ti# '1 the 'ddhdhvan. B$0 thi" 0e*i/itati'$ #a$$'t ari"e with' t rep*a#i$g the 1ree vi"i'$ (svatantrad) #hara#teri"ti# '1 #'/p*ete$e"" with the #*' 0e0 vi"i'$ (r' ght a(' t (% m!, the p'wer '1 0i11ere$tiati'$> #1. .4 65 49(,52a (K 'te0 $. 485) where iva i" "ai0 t' (e svatantradgr)pa. .here1're, i$ 'r0er t' give a 1 ** a##' $t '1 the pr'#e"", m! i" t' (e a00e0 t' the pe$ta0 '1 the ka&c'kas. 549 I'*0, *ike the "' *, i" i$ e""e$#e 1ree 1r'/ 1*aw. 6$ the w'r*0 '1 $at re, h'wever, g'*0, *ike the "' *, i" a""'#iate0 with 1*aw" that, h'wever, #a$ (e re/'ve0 J the g'*0 (% 1ire (the te#h$iK e #'$"i"te0 i$ /e*ti$g the g'*0 "' that a$% i/p ritie", a*wa%" *ighter tha$ g'*0, /ight 1*'at t' the " r1a#e), the "' * (% the rea*iUati'$ that 6 a/ iva. S #h 1*aw" are 8antaraga: J a ter/ "e0 here with 'vert'$e" '1 it" gra//ati#a* /ea$i$g J i$ the "e$"e that the% 1i$0 their 8e7i"te$tia*: '##a"i'$" (e1're a$'ther 8r *e: i" app*ie0 'r wh'"e #a "e" are 1' $0 withi$ the 0'/ai$ '1 a$'ther r *e J 1'r i$"ta$#e, the r *e here pr'/ *gate0, tha$k" t' whi#h we /a% (e *i(erate0 1r'/ " #h 1*aw". .he gra//ati#a* antaragatva ha" t' 0' with pri'rit% '1 app*i#ati'$ 1' $0e0 '$ the pri$#ip*e that r *e" wh'"e 0'/ai$ i" i$#* 0e0 take pre#e0e$#e 'ver th'"e '1 the i$#* 0i$g 0'/ai$ J whi#h i" #'$"i"te$t with the pre"e$t $'$,gra//ati#a* app*i#ati'$, i$a"/ #h a" the i$here$t EpartE '1 the ri#e grai$ i" antaraga with re"pe#t t' the grai$ a" a $at ra* wh'*e, 'r the 1*aw with re"pe#t t' the $ gget. )'te that the *itera* "e$"e '1 antaraga i" 8i$$er e*e/e$t: 'r 8e*e/e$t withi$:. Sa/e i/age '1 the 1*aw withi$ the g'*0 i$ CD a0 24 a$0 87,88. 6$ kArikA 18, we wi** /eet a$'ther i/age= that '1 the kamb'ka, the 8(ra$:.

O!at does t!e !e,ad &onsist ofZ T!e "aster re%lies: IW8ustY now6 etc)H) I know at this "ery moment only BB7 si nifies t!at t!is finite so(l deli"its itself in ter"s of %resent ti"e Wi)e), 9(alifies itself as %resent only, as e,%ressed t!ro( ! t!e ver'al endin s of t!e %resent tense R as s(&! e,&l(din %ast and f(t(reYM Wand mutatis mutandis , in ter"s of %ast or f(t(re ti"e, as $!en it says:Y HI 5ne$ it %revio(sly, I 5no$, I $ill 5no$IM si"ilarly Wfor t!e ver' HdoI:Y HI did, I do, I $ill doI)BB8 In so doin ,BB6 Wt!e finite so(lY deli"its even its "odes of 'ein in a&&ordan&e $it! t!e %ro%er nat(re of 5no$led e and a&tion) T!(s does Ti"e 6,la7 , so Wdeli"itedY, W'e&o"e a fetterY of t!e finite so(l) And WI knowY to some extent only6BBA t!at is, Wone 5no$s andY one a&&o"%lis!es deli"ited t!in s only,BB; for one is not &a%a'le of a&&o"%lis!in everyt!in ) WT!e %otterY (nderta5es to "a5e a #ar only, not a %ie&e of &lot!, et&) S(&! is t!e li"ited A en&y of t!e finite so(l)BBB WI knowY 8ust this6BB= i)e), t!at one e,%e&ts a deter"inate effe&t to follo$ fro" a deter"inate &a(se R s(&! as s"o5e fro" fire, or en#oy"ent of !eaven, et&), fro" %erfor"an&e of sa&rifi&es li5e t!e !orse sa&rifi&e, et&)M one does not e,%e&t Wt!e res(ltY to arise fro" any W&a(seY $!atsoever)BB<
Nit, 86 k$'w $'w '$*%: (adh'naiva %nmi). .he a#ti'$ e7pre""e0 (% the 1i$ite ver( i" a*wa%" 0e*i/ite0 (% a te/p'ra* " 11i7, "' that the te$"e" appear a" e7#* "ive a*ter$ative"> '$e #a$$'t e7pre"" the three te$"e" "i/ *ta$e' "*%. .h " i" the "' * 8K a*i1ie0: (% the ver(a* # / te/p'ra* #'$te7t. 552 tath kala!an J '$ r''t kal, "ee $. 623. 553 Nit, 8L "t "'/ethi$g: (kicid eva). 554 !1. ^&; 666 1, 9, v'*. 66= 238 K 'te0 $. 546= ida kici% %nna ida k'rva 2...3. 555 6/p*ie0 here i" $'t "' / #h that ' r ta*e$t" are *i/ite0 t' '$e 'r a$'ther /etier, ( t that, at a$% give$ ti/e, we are re"tri#te0 a" t' what we 0', (% what we 0'. B$0 the "a/e g'e" 1'r 8k$'wi$g:. <$*% the N'r0 i" 8sarvakart:, that i", #a$ 0' 'r k$'w ever%thi$g at '$#e J the $iver"e that we e7perie$#e '$*% i$ *i/ite0 wa%". 556 Nit, 8thi" a*'$e: (idam eva). 557 T'r the aiva", the %'gi$ a$0 the p'et repre"e$t, i$ thi" w'r*0, the '/$ip'te$#e '1 the 1ree N'r0, wh' #reate" whatever he 0e"ire" with' t re1ere$#e t' a$% /ateria* #a "e> #1. ^&? 6 5, 7 (K 'te0 $. 666) a$0 ^&vX a" we** a" Sp) 6 2, K 'te0 $. 265. Si/i*ar*%, +a//aa "a%" i$ the magalcaraa '1 hi" 6v!apraka= ni!atiktani!amarahit hldaikama!,m anan!aparatantrm0 navarasar)cir nirmitim dadhati bhrat, kaver %a!ati00, 8;i#t'r% t' the p'et:" Spee#h, whi#h pr'Le#t" a #reati'$, 1ree 1r'/ the *aw" '1 )e#e""it% (ni!ati), #'$"tit te0 (% p re 0e*ight, i$0epe$0e$t '1 a$%thi$g e*"e, a$0 #har/i$g '$ a##' $t '1 $i$e ('r $'ve*) "e$ti/e$t" ('r 1*av' r"= rasa): (tr. -wive0i 6v!apraka= 3, /'0i1ie0). .he #'//e$tar% /aprad!aprakin, (% rYvi0%A#akravarti$ #'$tra"t" thi" #reati'$ '1 the p'et with that '1 the !reat'r (brahman), attri( ti$g t' the 1'r/er a$ e/i$e$#e #'/para(*e t' the *atter:"= ni!atiakt! ni!atar)p s'khad'khamohasvabhv aramvd!'pdnakarmdisahakrikraaparatantr aras na ca hd!aiva tai td, brahmao nirmitir nirmam, 8T'r/e0 i$t' a 0e1i$ite "hape (% the p'wer '1 ni!ati, #hara#teriUe0 (% p*ea" re, pai$ a$0 0e* "i'$, 0epe$0e$t '$ /ateria* #a "e" " #h a" at'/" a$0 a 7i*iar% #a "e" " #h a" a#ti'$ (karman), p'""e""e0 '1 2'$*%3 "i7 1*av' r" a$0 $'t i$varia(*% p*ea"a$t (% the"e J " #h i" the #reati'$ 'r pr'0 #ti'$ '1 the !reat'r: (tr. -wive0i 6v!apraka= 3). B##'r0i$g t' BI:" magalcaraa t' the :ocana, the p'et J the /etaph'r '1 the S pre/e N'r0 J #a$ #reate a$%thi$g he wi"he", " #h a" a #e*e"tia* 1*'wer, with' t a(i0i$g (% the 'r0i$ar% *aw '1 #a "a*it%, i.e., with' t reK iri$g a$% 'ther #a "e tha$ hi" 'w$ ge$i " (pratibh), whi#h /a% (e "ee$ a" the t'ta*it% '1 the #a "e"= ap)rva !ad vast' pratha!ati vin kraakalm 2...3, 82.he p'et3 /a$i1e"t" e$tire*% $ew '(Le#t" with' t reK iri$g the *ea"t #a "e 2...3:. Rhi#h a11'r0" %et a$'ther e7a/p*e i$ ?a"h/iria$ aiva th' ght '1 the #*'"e para**e* (etwee$ the N'r0:" p'wer" a$0 the p'et:" J a$0 i$0ee0 (etwee$ mokastra a$0 kv!astra. )'te that, i$ the .rika, pratibh,


T!(s t!e niyatitatt3a of t!e Wli"ited selfY is t!at W tatt3a Y a&&ordin to $!i&! t!e self Wd(rin t!e &o(rse of its lifeY is ne&essarily deter"ined BBC 'y t!e "erits and de"erits arisin fro" t!e !ost of a&tions done 'y reason of its o$n resol(tion)BB@ And Wfinally, I knowY by focusing my entire self on it59@ "eans t!at t!e 'o(nd so(l is ro(nded in rgatatt3a , t!e %rin&i%le of %assion, $!i&! is a dee"in of oneself as in&o"%lete, as $!en one t!in5s: Hall s(&! t!in s are of (se to "eI, or HI $o(ld 'e Ws(&! and s(&!M for instan&e: ri&!YI, or H"ay I never &ease to 'eI)B=8 WConte,t(aliLedY %assion 6rga7 is an attri'(te of t!e intelle&t)B=6 It is not!in '(t WH&or%orealIY atta&!"ent as $!en one t!in5s: H!ere is "y %assionI, !avin set aside all else for t!e sa5e of t!e t!in desi nated as H'elovedI, Wno$ lo&atedY in one %la&e, $!erever it "ay 'e R and it is not t!e &ase t!at t!e W$ord rga isY &oe,tensive
'1te$ tra$"*ate0 a" 8ge$i ": i$ a p'eti# #'$te7t, i" ('th "e*1,* /i$' " #'$"#i' "$e"" (svapraka) a$0 "e*1,#'$"#i' "$e"" (vimara). 558 ni!amena 2...3 ni!am!ate J 1'r a "i/i*ar "age, a*"' i$ a #'$te7t '1 ph%"i#a* 0eter/i$i"/, $a/e*%, the " ##e""ive ri"i$g a$0 "etti$g '1 the /''$ a$0 " $, " gge"tive '1 h /a$ 0e"ti$ie", "ee 2ak'ntal, 6;, "t. 2. 559 sakalpa J the *aw '1 kar/a$ i" '$e a"pe#t '1 thi" ge$era* *aw '1 #a "ati'$. Sa$0er"'$ (1986= 179) tra$"*ate" ni!ati a" 8#a "a*it% '1 karma:. 560 sarvtman. 561 6.e., 8*et /e $'t *'"e the #apa#it% '1 (ei$g a$ e$L'%er:. .he 1ee*i$g that /% p'""e""i'$" are $'t %et #'/p*ete a$0 a 0e"ire 1'r #'$ti$ e0 e7i"te$#e #'$"tit te the pri$#ip*e '1 0e"ire 2'r &a""i'$3. .he 1i$ite " (Le#t, 1'rgetti$g hi" $iver"a* $at re, i0e$ti1ie" hi/"e*1 with "'/ethi$g 'r "'/e'$e e*"e. 6$ thi" "e$"e, rga i" the 0egra0ati'$ '1 p*e$it 0e (p)ratva). .hi" reg *ar #'rre"p'$0e$#e (etwee$ the N'r0:" aktis J '/$ip'te$#e, '/$i"#ie$#e, p*e$it 0e, eter$it%, a$0 i$#* "ivit% 2*it., 8perva"i'$:3 J a$0 the 1ive ka&c'kas i" *ai0 0'w$ i$ &MvX 9, pp. 72,73= tath sarvakarttvasarva%&atvap)ratvanit!atvav!pakatvaakta!a sakoca ghn !athkrama kalvid!rgaklani!atir)pata! bhnti, 8.h ", (% a##epti$g *i/itati'$, the 2N'r0:"3 e$ergie" J '/$ip'te$#e, '/$i"#ie$#e, p*e$it 0e, eter$it%, a$0 i$#* "ivit% J appear re"pe#tive*% a" kal, vid!, rga, kla a$0 ni!ati:. .he *'gi#a* # / #a "a* $ a$#e '1 the"e ter/" "h' *0 (e kept i$ /i$0= the 1i1th 1etter t' whi#h the " (Le#t i" pr'$e i" here ter/e0 ni!ati> the $1ettere0 N'r0 vi",a,vi" the " (Le#t "' 1ettere0 i" 0e"#ri(e0 a" v!paka. .he ter/ ni!ati here i$te$0" "pe#i1i#a**% the t%pe '1 #'$$e#ti'$ that i" #a**e0 E#a "a*E= 1r'/ E"/'keE we are '(*ige0 t' #'$#* 0e E1ireE, a$0 the rea"'$ 1'r thi" i" that the 0'/ai$ '1 E"/'k% thi$g"E i" with' t e7#epti'$ i$#* 0e0 (v!p!a) i$ the 0'/ai$ '1 E1ier% thi$g"E (v!paka)> " #h re*ati'$ '1 i$#* "i'$ i" ter/e0 v!pti, '1te$ tra$"*ate0 a" 8perva"i'$:. Mere the N'r0 i" the *ti/ate v!paka, 1'r he i$#* 0e" ever%thi$g p'""i(*e, a$0 there1're ever%thi$g #a$ i$0i11ere$t*% (e ter/e0 a v!p!a. .he re*ati'$ '1 v!pti i" there1're Etr i"ti#a*E 1'r the N'r0, a$0 $' ni!ati #a$ (e "ai0 t' #hara#teriUe hi" re*ati'$ t' a$% e11e#t J whi#h re*ati'$ 0'e" /'"t 0e1i$ite*% app*% t' hi" E1ettere0E " (Le#t". !1. a*"' ?9e/arALa:" Parprveik (p. 8)= as!a sarvakarttva sarva%natva p)ratva nit!atva v!pakatva ca akta!o 8sak'cit api sakocagrahaena kalvid!rgaklani!atir)pata! bhavanti, 8</$ip'te$#e, '/$i"#ie$#e, p*e$it 0e, eter$it%, a$0 i$#* "ivit%= th'"e p'wer" '1 hi/, a*th' gh $'t #'$tra#te0, (e#'/e kal, vid!, rga, kla a$0 ni!ati re"pe#tive*%, whe$ the% a"" /e #'$tra#ti'$:. 562 .here are eight b'ddhidharmas= righte' "$e"" (dharma), g$'"i"[k$'w*e0ge (%&na), 0eta#h/e$t[0i"pa""i'$ (vairg!a), "'vereig$t% (aivar!a) a$0 their 'pp'"ite" (#1. S? 23, a$0 IFh). !1. ^&; 666 1, 9 (v'*. 66= 238)= ca na tad b'ddhigatam avairg!am eva, taddhi 2avairg!a3 sth)la vddhas!a pramad!m na bhaved api, rgas t' bhavat! eva, 8.hat 2rgatattva3 i" $'t "i/p*% the 2"pe#i1i#3 atta#h/e$t 2'r pa""i'$3 (avairg!a) that i" a""'#iate0 with the i$te**e#t[v'*iti'$ (b'ddhi) 2that i", it i" $'t t' (e $0er"t''0 a" the SAkh%a $'ti'$ '1 avairg!a, that (e*'$g" t' the #ateg'r% '1 b'ddhidharma3, 21'r3 2that "pe#i1i# atta#h/e$t3, i$ it" gr'"" 1'r/, i" $'t '("erve0 i$ a$ '*0 /a$ i$ regar0" t' a %' $g w'/a$, wherea" the 2pri$#ip*e '13 pa""i'$ (rgaErgatattva) 2it"e*1, 'r 8i$ it" ge$era* 1'r/:3 ver% / #h i"W: !1. DA/aka@ha a0 6iraatantra 6 16#,17 (I''0a** 6iraavtti= 201,208).

$it!B=A t!e W eneralY %rin&i%le of %assion 6rgatatt3a7 $!i&! overns any e,%e&tation at all Wfor instan&e, t!e !o%e of final release, $!i&! ill(strates rat!er t!e ,a2cu,a itselfY)B=; .oreover, I know "eans t!at I 5no$ so"et!in t!at is 'efore "y eyes s(&! as t!is #ar, et&), '(t not t!at distant o'#e&t s&reened fro" vie$: B=B s(&! is t!e %rin&i%le of 3idy 63idytatt37 , or li"ited /no$led e) In Wt!e %revio(sY 54ri54 W8=Y, t!e ter" a3idy , Ha'sen&e of 5no$led eI Hnes&ien&eI, !as 'een (sed $it! a vie$ to Wdistin (is!in t!is li"ited 3idy fro"Y %erfe&t /no$led e 6(uddha3idy7 , and not 'e&a(se Wit i"%lies a &o"%leteY a'sen&e of 5no$led eMB== associated with m$ Wt!at is, my 'ein t!e si,t!Y "eans t!at t!e !e,ad of s!eat!s is, for t!e 'o(nd so(l, &on#oined $it! t!e dis%lay of differen&e W'ro( !t a'o(t 'y my Y) #!rik! < *o$ is t!is !e,ad of s!eat!s e,istentially in&l(ded in t!e finite so(lZ T!e "aster says:

samna J that i", 8e7pre""ive '1:. Bt i"" e are tw' 1'r/" '1 8atta#h/e$t:, '$e (rga 'r avairg!a, a" it i" re1erre0 t' i$ ^&; 666 1, 9, K 'te0 $. 562) "pe#i1i#, e7#* "ive, #'$te7t a*iUe0> the 'ther (rgatattva) ge$era*, i$here$t i$ the h /a$ #'$0iti'$, whi#h 0i11 "e*% e"ta(*i"he" a$% '(Le#t a" 8$'t /i$e:. )'te a*"' that the ter/ avairg!a i$v'*ve" a 0' (*e $egati'$= 8a("e$#e '1 0i",pa""i'$:= ' r a th'r /a% (e pr'1iti$g here 1r'/ that re"'$a$#e a" we**, 1'r a 8#'$te7t a*iUe0: pa""i'$ i" $'thi$g /'re tha$ the *a#k '1 a #ertai$ ki$0 '1 0i"#ip*i$e, it"e*1 a""'#iate0 with th'"e '(Le#t" '1 "e$"e '$e wi"he" t' a(L re. .he *%ri#a* #r% '1 !her (i$' 2!her (i$3, i$ The 8arriage o9 Kigaro 2:e 8ariage de Kigaro3 (% Fea /ar#hai" (6, 7), /a% i** "trate thi" #'$#ept '1 rgatattva, #ravi$g 1'r a** '(Le#t" '1 e$L'%/e$t= 82...3 *e (e"'i$ 0e 0ire a K e*K : $ %e vo's aime, e"t 0eve$ p' r /'i "i pre""a$t, K e Le *e 0i" t' t "e *, e$ #' ra$t 0a$" *e par#, a ta /aitre""e, a t'i, a 7 ar(re", a 7 $ age", a ve$t K i *e" e/p'rte ave# /e" par'*e" per0 e". , Mier, Le re$#'$trai +ar#e*i$e ...E 2J 82...3 the $ee0 t' "a% t' "'/e'$e E6 *'ve %' E ha" (e#'/e "' #'/pe**i$g that 6 "a% it t' /%"e*1 whe$ 6 r $ a#r'"" the park, 6 "a% it t' ' r *a0% a$0 t' %' , t' the #*' 0" a$0 the wi$0 that #arrie" the/ awa% a*'$g with /% "e*e"" w'r0". Ce"ter0a%, 6 ra$ i$t' +ar#e*i$e ...:3. .he "a/e 0i"ti$#ti'$ i" /a0e i$ Sa$"krit ae"theti#" (etwee$ the ae"theti# 1ee*i$g that i" the rasa, gra 1'r e7a/p*e, a$0 the e/piri#a* a11e#t (sth!ibhva) that i" it" #'rre"p'$0i$g kma> the 1'r/er e7perie$#e0 (% the a 0ie$#e at *arge, a" a 0i"e/('0ie0 'r Ege$era*iUe0E pa""i'$, the *atter e7perie$#e0 (% the per"'$ '$*% '$ #'$0iti'$ that the a11e#t #ea"e" t' (e ge$era*iUe0 a$0 i" e/('0ie0 e*"ewhere tha$ i$ the i/agi$ati'$. <$ the a""'#iati'$ '1 rga a$0 ni!ati, #1. .4 6; 17,18a, 28> 5666 28 565 T'r the "a/e ter/i$'*'g% a$0 i"" e, "ee CD a0 5. 566 6$ "pite '1 the et%/'*'g%, avid! "h' *0 $'t (e take$ a" #'/p*ete a("e$#e '1 k$'w*e0ge (vedanbhva), ( t rather a" i/per1e#t k$'w*e0ge, whether take$ i$ the ge$era* "e$"e '1 8$e"#ie$#e:, 'r a" re1erri$g t' a "pe#i1i# ka&c'ka. 6$0ee0, the " a* $a/e '1 the ka&c'ka i" vid!, 1'r a*th' gh i/per1e#t, it i" %et k$'w*e0ge.
563 564


<) ))) =ust as the bran59: is tightly attached to the grain of rice6 in a relation of non+separability6 although it is different from it )59< /e"ertheless6 it is open to purification through the discipline of ardent engagement in the path of 'i"a)59? WT!e &o"%arison "ay 'e for"(lated as follo$s:Y In %ra&ti&al ter"s, B<7 the bran6 though different6 is attached to the rice+grain in a relation of non+separability6 to t!e %oint of a%%earin 6$hsate7 inter$oven $it! t!e rain of ri&e, $it! no differen&e Win eviden&e 'et$een t!e"Y, s(&! t!at it is re"oved B<8 even 'y t!e s5illed WonlyY $it! "(&! effortM 'ein e,istentially in&l(ded in t!e rain of ri&e, it does not %resent itself se%arately Wto t!e %erson %olis!in Y) In si"ilar fas!ion, t!e Wsi,foldY s!eat! of my , et&) Wi)e), of my to et!er $it! t!e five ,a2cu,as Y, $!i&! is fi (ratively re%resented 'y t!e 'ran Win t!e ill(stration a'oveY, t!o( ! WreallyY se%arate fro" t!e finite so(l, $!i&! is fi (ratively re%resented 'y t!e ri&e? rain, a%%ears as if inse%ara'le fro" t!at so(l, d(e to its 'ein e,istentially in&l(ded in it, t!(s &on&ealin t!e (nfra "ented essen&e of &ons&io(sness) T!is "(&! is to 'e s(%%lied)B<6 If t!is 'e so, !o$ does t!at s!eat!, so diffi&(lt to deta&!, disa%%earZ T!e "aster says: Hit is open to W%(rifi&ationY, et&)I)B<A T!e %arti&le Ht(I, Hne"erthelessI, is !ere (sed in t!e sense of s%e&ifi&ation Wi)e), restri&tionYB<; for no ot!er "eans is availa'le in t!is &ase) WT!ere no$ follo$s a $ord?'y?$ord e,e esis of t!e se&ond !alf of t!e verse:Y of 'i"a6 t!at is, of t!e Great Lord t!at is oneIs o$n SelfM the path6 t!at is, t!e "et!od $!ere'y one arrives at B<B t!e a$areness t!at oneIs o$n essen&e is res%lenden&e 63i$h/ti7 , $!i&! ta5es t!e for": HI a" a (nifor" "ass of 'lissf(l &ons&io(sness, s(%re"e and nond(alI,B<= or Ht!is entire (niverse is "ine alone R is not!in '(t t!e e,%ansion of "y o$n ener yIMB<< ))) ardent engagement in that WpathY 6aunmu,hya7 , t!at is, dire&tin oneself $it! %erseveran&e to$ard "editation on t!at W"et!odYM s(&! W"editationY is discipline 6yoga7 , t!at is, a ro(ndin B<C of t!e finite so(l in its o$n Self seen as &onstit(tin its essential nat(re, t!at is, seen as %lenit(de)

kamb'ka J 1ir"t '## rre$#e '1 the ter/, " a**% atte"te0 a" kamb)ka. ?ArikA 23 #'$tra"t" the ter/ with t'a, 8h "k:. B##'r0i$g t' +a%rh'1er, kamb)ka i" -ravi0ia$ i$ 'rigi$, wherea" t'a i" 6$0',ar%a$ 2'r 6$0i#3. 568 .he "tre"" i" *ai0 '$ the i$"epara(i*it% '1 the (ra$["heath" a$0 the ri#e,grai$[1i$ite "' *, whi#h i$"epara(i*it% i" appare$t '$*%, a" CD e/pha"iUe", whi*e #'//e$ti$g '$ 8t':. De*%i$g '$ the #'//e$tar%, we 0i11er 1r'/ N. Si*( r$, wh' $0er"ta$0" kamb'ka a" "%$'$%/' " with t'a, 8h "k: (Tr. 8(a**e:)= 8Na (a**e 1i7ee a grai$ 0e riU ("e/(*e) i$"epara(*e 0e * i, (ie$ (K :e$ rea*ite) e**e e$ "'it 0i"ti$#te. +ai" #e*a e"t par1aite/e$t p ri1ie *'r"K :'$ "e t' r$e ar0e//e$t ver" *a v'ie 0e iva:. B" we**, the 1 ** "e$"e '1 8!oga: i" $'t hi$te0 at. 569 .h " a "'teri'*'gi#a* pare$the"i" i" 1'r/ *ate0 i$ the e7p'"iti'$ '1 the tattvas, 1a#t'r" '1 1i$it 0e. 570 vstavena vttena. 571 prakip!ama J *it., 8thr'w$ awa%:. 572 Sa/e rea"'$i$g i$ CD a0 24. 573 bha%ate J *it., 8"hare", partake" '1:. 574 viee J "ee $. 487. 575 Nit., 8wh'"e 1'r/ i":. 576 paramdva!acidnandaikaghano 8smi. 577 mamaiva ida viva svaak'vi%bhaamtram. 578 sabandha J *it., 8#'$$e#ti'$ with:.


In t!is $ay, it6 t!at is, t!e Wsi,foldY s!eat!, $!ose essen&e !as 'een e,%lained, is open to purification6 and t!is in an e,e"%lary fas!ion, B<@ t!at is, attends s%ontaneo(sly (%on its o$n dissol(tion $it!o(t re"ainder) And t!is s!o(ld 'e said as $ell: $!en t!e 'o(nd so(l 'e&o"es of %(rified !eart, d(e to t!e S(%re"e LordIs ra&e, t!en t!e veil 63ara07 of s!eat!s t!at affli&t (s $it! finit(de s%ontaneo(sly disa%%ears, on a&&o(nt of t!e &o"in into 'ein of t!e 5no$led e of oneIs o$n Self &onsistin in t!e insi !t: HI a" "yself t!e Great LordI)BC7 And, a%art fro" s(&! 5no$led e of t!e Self W$on t!ro( ! t!is ard(o(s "et!odY, no "ere a&t ro(nded on $orldly &a(salities BC8 and 'elon in to t!e real" of my $o(ld !ave t!e sli !test &!an&e of s(&&eedin )BC6 #!rik! ? For s(&! a finite so(l, $!i&! is, as $ell, an en#oyer, an o'#e&t of en#oy"ent "(st 'e %osited)BCA T!is 'ein t!e &ase, t!e "aster ne,t e,%o(nds t!e %rin&i%les t!at !ave ori inated fro" %ri"al "atter WR t!at is, fro" pradhna , or pra,.ti Y: BC; ?) Pleasure6 pain and delusion: these alone constitute primal matter ) /ext comes the inner organ differentiating itself6 in order6 into "olition6 mind and ego6 in accordance with Wthe functions ofY decision6 ratiocination and conceit of self Wthat each6 respecti"ely6 assumesY)5<5

vieena E vi i$ the 8viP 00hi: '1 the karikA. aham eva mahevara. 581 Nit., 8ari"i$g thr' gh the p'wer '1 #a "a* #'$"trai$t (ni!atiakti):. 582 Nit., 8w' *0 0are pre"e$t it"e*1 2"' a" t' e11e#t " #h a rever"a*, that i", the 0i""'* ti'$ '1 the ka&c'kas3:. !1. a para**e* "tate/e$t i$ the #'//e$tar% a0 9. )'t '$*% are rit a*" hi$te0 at here, ( t a*"' a$% a#ti'$ pre" /i$g t' e11e#t a re" *t. 583 evavidhas!or bhokt' ca bhog!ena bhv!am J the "tate/e$t i" "%//etri#a* with CD a0 5= evavidhe ctra bhog!asvabhve vivasmin bhoktr bhv!am. 584 B1ter the e7p'"iti'$ '1 pradhna, 'r prakti, (egi$" that '1 me!a, #'g$iUa(*e rea*it%, whi#h i" 0e1i$e0 a" 1'**'w" (^&? 666 1, 10,11)= tra!oviatidh me!a !at kr!akaratmakam0 tas!vibhgar)p! eka pradhna m)lakraam00 tra!odaavidh ctra bh!ntakaraval,0 kr!avarga ca daadh sth)las)kmatvabheda00, 8+a0e '1 twe$t%,three #ateg'rie", #'g$iUa(*e rea*it% #'$"i"t" '1 e11e#t" a$0 i$"tr /e$t". B" a$ $0ivi0e0 2#ateg'r%3 (eka), pradhna i" that "tate i$ whi#h 2a** #'g$iUa(*e rea*it%3 i" $i1ie0 (avibhgar)pin). 6t i" the pri/a* #a "e 2i.e., the /ateria* #a "e3 (m)lakraa). .he "erie" '1 e7ter$a* a$0 i$ter$a* i$"tr /e$t" ha" thirtee$ a"pe#t" a$0 the e11e#t" are '1 te$ ki$0", (ei$g 0ivi0e0 i$t' gr'"" a$0 " (t*e: ('$ avibhgar)pin, #1. &a$0e%, ^&?, v'*. 666= 199). .he e7p'"iti'$ '1 the me!a e$0" with kA. 22. 585 !1. S? 33. 8a$takara@a: i" a ter/ 1' $0 a*"' i$ B0vaita, where it repre"e$t" the 8" (Le#tive: "i0e '1 the pr'vi"i'$a**% rea*, #'rre"p'$0i$g t' the 8'(Le#tive: m!. H$0er it" aegi" are gr' pe0 t'gether, a" i$ SA/kh%a, the i$te**e#tive 1 $#ti'$" '1 b'ddhi, ahakra, a$0 manas. .he "eK e$#e 1' $0 i$ the kArikA 0'e" $'t i/p*% that the .rika pre" /e" 1'r the E'rga$"E a$ 'r0er '1 ev'* ti'$ 0i11ere$t 1r'/ that '1 the SAkh%a. F% it i" /ere*% "ig$i1ie0 that the three E'rga$"E #'rre"p'$0 t' a$0 are e7p*ai$e0 (% the three 1 $#ti'$"= nica!a, sakalpa, abhimna. .he tra$"*ati'$ 0i11er" "'/ewhat 1r'/ N. Si*( r$:" i$terpretati'$= 8Bi$"i *a $at re #'$"i"ta$t $iK e/e$t e$ p*ai"ir, e$ "' 11ra$#e et e$ egare/e$t #'$"tit e *:'rga$e i$ter$e 1ait 0e 0e#i"i'$, 0e v'*iti'$ et 0e pre"'/pti'$ K i appartie$$e$t 0a$" *:'r0re a *:i$te**e#t, a "e$" i$ter$e et a *:age$t 0:i$0ivi0 ati'$:.
579 580


T!at state of indifferentiationBC= R referred to !ere as consisting of pleasure6 pain and delusion R of Wt!e t!ree H9(alitiesIY satt3a , ra1as and tamas $!ere no do"inan&e or de%enden&eBC< Wof any of t!e t!reeY is a%%re!ended, is ter"ed pra %ti , t!e %ri"al &a(se 6m/la,ra0a7 ) BCC T!e "aster says, 'e innin $it! t!e $ords H decision, etc)I,BC@ t!at fro" pra,.ti %ro&eeds t!e inner or an 6anta ,ara0a7 R $!i&! !as t!e for" of its WviL), of pra,.ti Y effe&t) +y decision 6ni(caya7 B@7 t!e "aster "eans t!e notion t!at Ht!is is s(&! and s(&!I)B@8

smn!a r)pam J the "a/e $'ti'$ i" #'$ve%e0 (% sm!vasth i$ IFh 16= tat ki 'kta bhavati sattvara%astamas sm!vasth pradhnam, a$0 IFh 23= i!a prakti sattvara%astamas sm!vasth. B##'r0i$g t' the SAkh%a, whe$ the eK i*i(ri / '1 the g'as J (% whi#h eK i*i(ri / prakti a" " #h i" 0e1i$e0 J i" 0i"t r(e0 (% the /ere pr'7i/it% '1 p'r'a, the pr'#e"" '1 #reati'$ take" p*a#e. M'wever, the .rika 0eve*'p" it" 'w$ $'ti'$" '$ the "eK e$#e '1 tattvas that "tart" 1r'/ prakti, p'"t *ati$g, $'ta(*%, a$ a00iti'$a* pri$#ip*e, the g'atattva> "ee Bppe$0i7 11, p. 334. 587 aggibhva. 588 .hi" $'ti'$ '1 m)lakraa i" #'//'$ t' ('th SAkh%a (S? 3) a$0 .rika ("ee $. 584). M'wever, i$ the .rika, prakti i" m)lakraa i$ a "e#'$0ar% "e$"e, 1'r prakti i" $'t the " pre/e pri$#ip*e, a" it i" i$ the SAkh%a, ( t a /a$i1e"tati'$ '1 the N'r0:" " pre/e e$erg%. 589 Mere (egi$" the 0e1i$iti'$ '1 the "evera* 81 $#ti'$": (vtti) '1 b'ddhi, manas a$0 ahakra. !1. IFh 27= tatra manasa k vttir iti0 sakalpo vtti. S; 666 1 "e" a*"' the ter/ v!pra, 8a#tivit%:= 2...3 adh!avas!div!prab'ddh!ahaknmanor)pa cittam, 8citta #'$"i"t" '1 b'ddhi, manas a$0 ahakra> it" a#tivit% #'$"i"t" i$ a"#ertai$i$g, et#.:. 590 !1. the SAkh%a 0e1i$iti'$ (S? 23), where adh!avas!a i" a "%$'$%/ '1 nica!a ("ee a*"' S; 666 1, K 'te0 $. 589). <$ adh!avas!a0nica!a a" the 1 $#ti'$ '1 the b'ddhi, "ee $. 401, $. 591, a$0 p. 294> a*"', .4 6 38(,40 a$0 .4; a0 *'#. (p. 76)= adh!avas!o b'ddhi> .4 6 215, 65 238. M'wever, there i" a 0e1i$iti'$ '1 b'ddhi "pe#i1i# t' the .rika, whi#h i" e7p' $0e0 i$ .S ;666, pp. 85,86= tato g'atattvd b'ddhitattva !atra p'prako via!a ca pratibimbam arpa!ata, 8.herea1ter, 1r'/ g'atattva, b'ddhitattva e/erge", i$ whi#h the *ight '1 p'r'a 2i.e., #'$"#i' "$e""3 re1*e#t" it"e*1, a" we** a" '(Le#t":. <$ nica!a, "ee a*"' CD a0 32 a$0 63. 591 .hat i", it i" 8L "t thi": a$0 $'t 8"'/ethi$g e*"e:. 6t i" the 1a# *t% '1 0i"ti$g i"hi$g (etwee$ '(Le#t" a$0 a"#ertai$i$g their "pe#i1i# $at re. .he b'ddhi eva* ate" a" we** a" 0i"#er$"> it rea#t" i$ re*ati'$ t' the 86:= wh% i$0ee0 0i"#ri/i$ate '(Le#t"? .he b'ddhi #'/e" i$t' p*a% whe$ a re"p'$"e '1 the " (Le#t i" #a**e0 1'r. )'te that the b'ddhi i" the i$itia* ev'* te '1 prakti, where the $'ti'$ '1 8a#tivit%: i" *'0ge0. .h " the b'ddhi i" $'t "'*e*% a$ i$te**e#tive 1 $#ti'$, ( t a*"' a v'*iti'$, a 0e"ire t' a#t, (e it "i/p*% the 8a#t: '1 pre1erri$g '$e '(Le#t t' a$'ther. IFh 23 give" a$ e7a/p*e "i/i*ar t' that '1 CD= a!a ghato 8!a pa#a it! eva sati ! s b'ddhir iti lak!ate, 8Rhe$ '$e "a%"= E.hi" i" a Lar, thi" i" a pie#e '1 #*'thE, thi" i" what i" 0e1i$e0 a" v'*iti'$ (b'ddhi):. 6$ the SAkh%a, it i" t' the manas that i" give$ the ta"k '1 repre"e$ti$g t' " the w'r*0 '1 the "e$"e", whi#h appear" ('th a" e7ter$a* a$0 i$ter$a*, pr'vi0i$g th " the gr' $0w'rk 1'r i$v'*vi$g the i$0ivi0 a* (the 8aham:) i$ a#ti'$". .h " i" e7p*ai$e0 the #hara#teri"ti# 1 $#ti'$ '1 the b'ddhi, adh!avas!a, that i", #h''"i$g, eve$ wi**i$g (#1. the $'ti'$ '1 aivar!a, 8"'vereig$t%, p'wer:, a" a pr'pert% '1 b'ddhi @ b'ddhidharma J i$ S? 23 a$0 ;A#a"pati:" .? there'$, eve$ th' gh the w'r0 ha" a#K ire0 a " pra,h /a$ re1ere$#e), '$ the (a"i" '1 the 0ata that are give$ t' it (% the manas. .he b'ddhi /ake" it" 'w$ the #'$te$t 0e*ivere0 t' it (% the manas, th " a$ti#ipati$g the i$0ivi0 ati'$" repre"e$te0 (% the ahakra a$0 the h'"t '1 the "e$"e,'rga$", a$0 t' whi#h the *atter are i$"tr /e$ta*> #1. .? 23= sarvo v!avahartloc!a matv 8ham atrdhikta it! abhimat!a kartav!am etan ma!et! adh!avas!ati ata ca pravartata iti lokasiddham, 86t i" we** k$'w$ that a /a$ wh' i" t' a#t, #'$"i0er" 2the "it ati'$3, p'$0er" 'ver it, agree" that he i" e$tit*e0 t' 0' it, 0eter/i$e" that he "h' *0 0' it a$0 the$ 0'e" it:.


+y ratiocination 6sa ,alpana7 B@6 !e "eans Hor aniLational t!in5in I 6manana7 ) B@A +y conceit of self Wor self+referentialityY 6a$himna7 t!e "aster "eans H%ossessive 'e!aviorI 6mamat7 ) B@; In t!e order t!(s des&ri'ed, W!ave 'een en("eratedY t!e triad of "olition6 mind and ego 6$uddhi mano H ha ,ra 7 , ter"ed W&olle&tivelyY t!e inner organ6B@B $!i&! a%%ears as an effe&t of t!e 9(alities, Winas"(&! as t!eir e9(ili'ri(" !as 'een dist(r'ed 'y notions ofY do"inan&e and de%enden&e)B@= And it a%%ears also as a

<r 8pr'Le#ti'$: J '1 a$ e$tit% where there e7i"t '$*% the 0i"L'i$te0 0ata '1 the 1ive "e$"e". !1. S? 27, where manas i" 0e1i$e0 a" sakalpaka. 593 B" i" '(vi' ", BI 1'**'w" here verbatim the Eev'* ti'$E '1 the #ateg'rie" a" e7p' $0e0 i$ ^PvarakX9@a:" SAkh%a> there, the 1 $#ti'$ '1 manas i" #*ear*% that '1 #'**e#ti$g the "e$"e": 0ata J "#attere0 a" " #h $0er the 1ive 0'/ai$" '1 the i$0ivi0 a* 'rga$" J "' that $iK e E'(Le#t"E appear #*ear*% (e1're ", ea#h '1 the/ e$0'we0 with the pr'pertie" '1 the 1ive "e$"e" J *e$gth, '0'r, #'*'r, et#. .h " i" manas the #'//'$ EtheaterE where a** the 1ive gather J / #h aki$ t' the E#'//'$ "e$"eE '1 the G$g*i"h phi*'"'pher", whi#h it"e*1 ha" a$te#e0e$t" i$ Bri"t't*e:" opqrs tugvfgqw. B0vaiti$", '$ the 'ther ha$0, "e the ter/ manana i$ a$'ther "e$"e. Mere, a" we**, it (e*'$g" t' a tria0, ravaa, manana, nididh!sana, whi#h ev'ke the wa% '$e appr'priate" the tr th" '1 the "%"te/ J 1ir"t, the% are 8hear0: $0er the g i0a$#e '1 a$ e$*ighte$e0 tea#her> the$, '$e "trive" t' #'$vi$#e '$e"e*1 '1 their va*i0it% (% e11i#ie$t 8arg /e$t":, th " "etti$g a"i0e 'pp'"i$g the"e" a" we** a" 0' (t" 'rigi$ati$g i$ the Erea*E w'r*0> 1i$a**%, the% are i$#'rp'rate0 i$ a $ew apprehe$"i'$ '1 the Erea*E, whi#h i" $'w i$t itive. )'te that manana p*a%" here a" we** the part '1 a$ i$ter/e0iar% (etwee$ Ee7ter$a*E a$0 Ei$ter$a*E th' ght. .S ;666 (p. 87) e7p*ai$" h'w manas pr'#ee0" 1r'/ the sttvikhakra, a*'$g with the b'ddh,ndri!as a$0 karmendri!as= tatra sttviko !asmd manas ca b'ddh,ndri!apa&caka ca, 8Tr'/ the sttvika2ahakra3 manas a$0 the pe$ta0 '1 the b'ddh,ndri!as pr'#ee0:, a$0 (p. 88)= sttvikd eva ahakrt karmendri!apa&cakam. )everthe*e"", .S ;666 (p. 89) /e$ti'$" 'ther view"= a##'r0i$g t' "'/e, manas pr'#ee0" 1r'/ the r%ashakra (an!e t' r%asn mana it! h')> a##'r0i$g t' 'ther", manas pr'#ee0" 1r'/ the sttvikhakra, wherea" indri!as pr'#ee0 1r'/ the r%ashakra (an!e t' sttvikd mano r%asc ca indri!,ti)> "ee $. 605 a$0 613. 6$ a "i/i*ar 1a"hi'$, ;A#a"pati #'$"i0er" the b'ddhi t' (e p'*%va*e$t J i$ "'/e, it i" sttvikapradhna, i$ 'ther", tmasapradhna (.? 23). 594 Nit., 8the i0ea that Ea** thi" i" /i$e, 'r 1'r /e.E: Si/i*ar 0e1i$iti'$ i$ CD a0 70. !1. .? 24= abhimno 8hakra0 !at khalv locita mata ca tatra 8aham adhikta:, 8akta khalv aham atra:, >madrth evam m, via!:, 8matto nn!o 8trdhikta kacid asti:, 8ato 8ham asmi: iti !o 8bhimna so 8sdhraav!pratvd ahakra0 tam 'pa%,v!a hi b'ddhir adh!avas!ati 8kartav!am etan ma!: iti nica!a karoti, 8E.he 6,pri$#ip*e (ahakra) i" eg'ti"/ (abhimna)> a$0 thi" E6,pri$#ip*eE i" per#epti(*e i$ " #h i0ea" a" J E.' what 6 have '("erve0 a$0 th' ght '1 6 a/ e$tit*e0E J E6 a/ a(*e t' 0' thi"E J Ea** the"e thi$g" are 1'r /% "eE J Ethere i" $' '$e e*"e e$tit*e0 t' itE J Ehe$#e 6 a/E J the eg'ti"/ i$v'*ve0 i$ a** " #h $'ti'$" 1'r/" the #hara#teri"ti# 1 $#ti'$ '1 the E6,pri$#ip*eE J it i" thr' gh thi" pri$#ip*e that the Ri** (S b'ddhi) per1'r/" it" 0eter/i$ative 1 $#ti'$ appeari$g i$ " #h 0e#i"i'$" a" Ethi" i" t' (e 0'$e (% /e.E8 (tr. I. Oha). .he $'ti'$ '1 abhimna i/p*ie" 8#'$#eit '1 "e*1:, 8pri0e:, 8eg'ti"/: ("ee I. Oha), i$ " /, 8pre" /pti'$: J (eari$g i$ /i$0 that it i" the 86: it"e*1 that i" #hie1*% 8pre" /e0: (a" we** a" the e$tiret% '1 the eg':" re*ati'$" t' it" " rr' $0i$g") J 'r, i$ "'/e #'$te7t" a" .? 30, K 'te0 $e7t $'te, 8"e*1, re1ere$tia*it%:. .S ;666 (p. 86) give" a 0e1i$iti'$ '1 ahakra a$0 e/pha"iUe" the wa% i$ whi#h the .rika 0i"ti$g i"he" it"e*1 1r'/ the SAkh%a= b'ddhitattvd ahakro !ena b'ddhipratibimbite ved!asaparke kal'e p'prake 8ntman! atmbhimna 'kta' ra%atbhimnavat0 ata eva kra it! anena ktakatvam as!a 'kta skh!as!a t' tad na !'%!ate sa hi ntmano 8havimarama!atm icchati va!a t' karttvam api tas!ecchma0 tac ca 'ddha vimara evprati!ogisvtmacamatkrar)po 8ham iti, 8Tr'/ b'ddhitattva e/erge" the eg' (ahakra). 6t i" re"p'$"i(*e 1'r /i"take$*% pre" /i$g the $'$,Se*1 2i.e., the ('0%, the i$te**e#t, the 1a# *tie", et#.3 t'


&a(se, $it! re ard to t!e ross ele"ents 6$h/ta7 , t!e We,ternalY or ans 6indriya7 , et&)B@< #!rik! *@ T!e "aster no$ s%ea5s of t!e e,ternal or ans:B@C *@) The ear6 skin6 eye6 tongue and nose5?? are the cogniti"e organs9@@ in respect of sound6 etc)9@ And "oice6 hand6 foot6 anus and genitals are the organs of action7=76 In respect of sound6 etc7, t!at is, in res%e&t of t!e do"ain W$!erein ea&! o%eratesY t!at is to 'e des&ri'ed Win 54ri54 68Y, t!ere are five or ans 6indriya7 , t!e ear6 etc7,
(e the Se*1, a" happe$" whe$ "i*ver i" /i"take$*% "ee$ i$ the #'$#h "he** 2i$ *ie '1 /'ther,'1, pear*3. .hi" 2e7perie$#e3 take" p*a#e whe$ the *ight '1 the p'r'a 2viU., #'$"#i' "$e""3 i" tar$i"he0 (% it" #'$$e7i'$ with the '(Le#t re1*e#te0 i$ the i$te**e#t[v'*iti'$ (b'ddhi). .here1're, Ckra 2i$ ahakra3 0e$'te" the 1a#titi' " #hara#ter (ktakatva) 2'1 the eg'3. .hi" p'"iti'$ i" $'t that '1 the 1'**'wer '1 the SAkh%a, wh' 0'e" $'t a0/it that the Se*1 i" e$0'we0 with the aware$e"" '1 it"e*1 a" a$ E6E 2J i$a"/ #h a", a##'r0i$g t' hi/, the #'$"#i' " pri$#ip*e (the p'r'a) i" i$a#tive, a$0 #a$$'t there1're re1er t' it"e*1> " #h "e*1,re1ere$#e wi** $'t '(tai$ $ti* the ahakra /ake" it" appeara$#e, vi",a,vi" the b'ddhi, 8p re 'r a#tive #'$"#i' "$e"":3, wherea" we a0/it a*"' the age$#% 2'1 thi" E6E3. B$0 that 2age$#%3 i" p re, 1'r 2a##'r0i$g t' "3 the E6E (aham)J (ei$g $'thi$g ( t "e*1,aware$e"" J ha" the 1'r/ '1 the /arve* 2' " e7perie$#e3 '1 '$e:" 'w$ Se*1 (svtmacamatkra), i$ re1ere$#e t' whi#h there i" $' p'""i(*e a*ter$ative (aprati!ogin):. )'te, h'wever, that thi" 1kra i" '1te$ e7p*ai$e0 t'0a% (% eK ati$g it with the 1kra '1 the gra//aria$"= a" i$ akra, the 8v'#a(*e: a. .h ", ahakra, viU., the 8v'#a(*e: aham, w' *0 repre"e$t the irr pti'$ '1 re1*e7ivit% withi$ #'$"#i' "$e"", i$ the 1'r/ '1 8aham: ("ee va$ F ite$e$ 1957= 1711.). !1. a*"' ?9e/arALa:" Parprveik (p. 10)= ahakro nma mameda na mamedam it! abhimnasdhanam, 8F% ahakra we /ea$ that 2*'# "3 wherei$ i" rea*iUe0 the #'$#eit 2'1 eg'i"/3 (abhimna), a" i$"ta$#e0 (% the a""erti'$", Ethi" i" /i$eE, Ethi" i" $'t /i$e.E 8 595 <$ the 1 $#ti'$i$g '1 th'"e three tattvas, "ee the e7a/p*e give$ i$ .? 30= !ad mandloke prathaman tvad vast'mtra samm'gdham loca!ati atha praihitaman karntk#asaarasi&%i,maal,ktakodaa pracaatara p#accaro 8!am iti nicinoti atha ca m prat!et,t! abhiman!ate, athdh!avas!at! apasarm,ta sthnd iti, 86$ 0i/,*ight, a per"'$ ha" at 1ir"t '$*% a vag e per#epti'$ '1 a #ertai$ '(Le#t> the$, 1i7i$g hi" /i$0 i$te$t*%, he '("erve" that it i" a r'((er with hi" 0raw$ ('w a$0 arr'w *eve*e0 at hi/> the$ 1'**'w" the "e*1,#'$"#i' "$e"" that Ethe r'((er i" a0va$#i$g agai$"t /eE> a$0 *a"t*% 1'**'w" the 0eter/i$ati'$ t' r $ awa% 1r'/ the p*a#e: (tr. I. Oha). 596 B##'r0i$g t' .S ;666, '$e "h' *0 $0er"ta$0 that the i$$er 'rga$ (antakaraa) i" a$ e11e#t '1 the g'atattva, the a00iti'$a* tattva p'"t *ate0 (% the .rika (etwee$ prakti a$0 b'ddhi i$ 'r0er t' e7p*ai$ wh% a#t a* #reati'$ take" p*a#e, i.e., i$ what /a$$er the eK i*i(ri / '1 the three g'as ha" (ee$ 0i"r pte0. See, i$ Bppe$0i7 11, p. 334, the 0eve*'p/e$t '$ kobha. 597 .he SAkh%a a$0 the .rika 0i11er regar0i$g the /a$$er i$ whi#h the ev'* ti'$ '1 the phe$'/e$a* w'r*0 i" t' (e #'$#eive0> "ee Bppe$0i7 12, p. 335. 598 .he %2nendri!as a$0 the karmendri!as are #'**e#tive*% ter/e0 bh!akaraas. See ^&; 666 1, 11 (v'*. 66= 241), whi#h e/pha"iUe" the i$"tr /e$ta* #hara#ter '1 the three1'*0 antakaraa a$0 the te$ bh!akaraas= e ca kr!atve 8p! asdhraena karaatvena v!apadea, 8.h' gh the% are the e11e#t" 2b'ddhi pr'#ee0i$g 1r'/ g'atattva, ahakra 1r'/ b'ddhi, the te$ indri!as a$0 manas 1r'/ ahakra3, %et, i$"tr /e$ta*it% (ei$g their pe# *iarit%, the% are "p'ke$ '1 a" " #h 2i.e., a" i$"tr /e$t"3: ("ee a*"' CD a0 94,95). 599 )'te that the S? 0i"ti$g i"he" #*ear*% (etwee$ the 'rga$ (indri!a, e.g., the ear) a$0 the 81a# *t%: (vtti), whi#h i" $'thi$g ( t the 'rga$:" /a$$er '1 1 $#ti'$i$g> "ee ;A#a"pati a0 *'#= tatra r)pagrahaaliga cak', et#., 8.he e%e i" the 'rga$ 1'r per#eivi$g #'*'r: (tr. I. Oha), et#. 6$ tr th, the 81 $#ti'$: 'r 81a# *t%: e$ter" i$t' #'$"i0erati'$ '$*% a" a "e#'$0ar% phe$'/e$'$, ( t it i" a*rea0% i/p*ie0 (% the "tri#t re*ati'$ that e7i"t" (etwee$ the 'rga$ J the ear J a$0 it" 8" (t*e: '(Le#t, that i", the tanmtra that i" pr'per t' it J i$ thi" #a"e, "' $0. See a*"' ^&; 666 1, 11, K 'te0

$!i&! are %redo"inantly &o nitive W!en&e t!ey are ter"ed $uddh-ndriyas , or 1 , nendriyas Y) And t!e five or ans t!at are %redo"inantly a&tive W!en&e t!ey are ter"ed ,armendriyas Y are t!e "oice, etc) T!e do"ains=7A W$!erein o%erateY t!e or ans of a&tion 6,armendriy7 are s%ea5in , ras%in , "ovin , e,&retin and 'liss)=7; And in 'ot! &ases, sin&e 'ot! are a&&o"%anied 'y t!e e o in e,%ressions s(&! as HI !ear aI WviL), $uddh-ndriya Y or HI tell aI WviL), ,armendriya Y, 'ot! are ta5en to 'e effe&ts of t!e e o)=7B #!rik! * No$, t!e "aster des&ri'es t!e %ro%er for" of t!e do"ains of t!ose or ans: so(nd, et&): * 7 The subtle domain6 de"oid of WinternalY differentiation6 which the Wcogniti"e organsY are Wse"erallyY to apprehend consists of the pentad of abstract entities 6 tanmtra& : 9@9 sound6 touch6 Wform asY light69@: sa"or and odor)
$'te (e*'w. 600 b'ddh,ndri!a 'r %,nendri!a> I. Oha (.? 26) tra$"*ate"= 8'rga$" '1 "e$"ati'$:, 8"e$"'r% 'rga$":. ^&; 666 1, 11 (v'*. 66= 241) 0e1i$e" the/ a" 8 "e1 * i$ a#K iri$g the 0eter/i$ate #'g$iti'$ '1 "' $0, et#., withi$ b'ddhi: (b'ddha' abdd!adh!avas!ar)p!m 'pa!og,ni). 601 Mere the 1ive tanmtras are re1erre0 t'> "ee kA. 21. 602 !1. IFh 26= karma k'rvant,ti karmendri!i0 tatra vg vadati 2...3, 8.he% are #a**e0 'rga$" '1 a#ti'$ (e#a "e the% per1'r/ a#ti'$". .h ", the v'i#e "peak" 2...3:. !1. ^&; 666 1, 11 (v'*. 66= 241)= t!go grahaam iti dva!am @ bahirvia!a !at tatra pi p!' pda @ iti karani0 etad evnta pre !ena kri!ate tad vg indri!am0 tat prakobhaprant! virntikri!opa!og! 'pastha, 82B#ti'$3 i" '1 tw' t%pe"= givi$g p a$0 gra"pi$g. 6$ 2a#ti'$" re*ate0 t'3 e7ter$a* '(Le#t", ha$0, a$ " a$0 1''t are the i$"tr /e$t" (karaa). Fei$g i$ re*ati'$ t' vita* air, whi#h i" i$ter$a*, v'i#e i" the 'rga$ (indri!a) that i" a(*e t' per1'r/ the tw' ki$0" '1 a#ti'$ 2viU., givi$g p a$0 gra"pi$g, i$ the "e$"e '1 e7ha*i$g a$0 i$ha*i$g3. Me$#e 2a##'r0i$g t' thi" *'gi#3, the ge$ita*" are that whi#h i" "e1 * i$ the a#t '1 re"ti$g (virnti) whi#h 1'**'w" the #e""ati'$ '1 the agitati'$ 2'1 vita* (reath3: (tr. &a$0e%, /'0i1ie0) J a$ a""erti'$ that 1 $#ti'$" a" a$ e7p*a$ati'$ 1'r the via!a a""ig$e0 t' 'pastha, that i", nanda, 8(*i"":, nanda (ei$g $'thi$g ( t 8the a#t '1 re"ti$g (virnti) whi#h 1'**'w" the #e""ati'$ '1 the agitati'$ '1 vita* (reath:. B$0 the te7t #'$#* 0e"= sarvadehav!pakni ca karmendri!! ahakravietmakni0 tena cchinnahasto bh'bh!m dadana pinaivdatta evam an!at0 kevala tattatsph'#ap)ravttilabhasthnatvt pa&cg'lir)pam adhi#hnam as!oc!ate, 8.he 'rga$" '1 a#ti'$ perva0e the wh'*e ('0% a$0 are parti# *ar 1'r/" '1 the eg'. .here1're, the per"'$ wh'"e ha$0" have (ee$ # t '11 a$0 wh' re#eive" 2a*/", et#.3 (% /ea$" '1 hi" ar/" rea**% re#eive" (% /ea$" '1 hi" ha$0". .he "a/e /a% (e "ai0 '1 'ther 2'rga$"3 a*"'. 2.he ha$0,3 with it" 1ive 1i$ger", i" "p'ke$ '1 a" the 8a('0e: 2'1 the 1 $#ti'$3 '$*% (e#a "e it i" the "eat wherei$ i" /a$i1e"te0 /'"t #*ear*% the 1 ** a$0 #'/p*ete 1 $#ti'$ (vtti), viewe0 i$ re*ati'$ t' vari' " 2 "e"3: (tr. &a$0e%, /'0i1ie0). 603 Rhat i" ter/e0 here 8'(Le#t: 2'r 81ie*0:, 'r 80'/ai$:3 (via!a) '1 the karmendri!a i" ter/e0 it" 81 $#ti'$: (vtti) i$ SAkh%a. !1. S? 28 a$0 IFh a0 *'#. 604 nanda J I. Oha tra$"*ate"= 8grati1i#ati'$:. <$ nanda, '(Le#t '1 the 'pastha, "ee $. 616> #1. F4H 66 4, 11= 2...3 eva sarvem nandnm 'pastha ek!anam 2...3, 82...3 a" the 'rga$ '1 ge$erati'$ i" the '$e g'a* '1 a** ki$0" '1 e$L'%/e$t 2...3:. 605 !1. .S ;666 (p. 87), with #'rre#ti'$ '1 bha'tikam i$ bha'tikatvam= bha'tikatvam api na !'ktam aha om! it!d! an'gamc ca sph'#am ahakrikatvam, karaatvena cva!a kartraasparitvam, 86t i" $'t pr'per t' #'$"i0er the/ 2viU., the 'rga$"3 a" /ateria*. Dather, "i$#e the% are a##'/pa$ie0 2(% the eg'3 i$ 2" #h "tate/e$t" a"3 E6 hearE, it i" '(vi' " that the% pr'#ee0 1r'/ the ahakra. Si$#e the% are 'rga$" (karaa), the% are $e#e""ari*% Et' #he0E (% the age$tive part 2'1 the ahakra3:.

As regards the domain6 t!at is, t!e field, to be grasped by Wea&! ofY these or ans as so"et!in to 'e 5no$n or done,=7C t!e "aster as5s: R HO!at 5ind of t!in is itZI WFirst of all,Y it is de"oid of WinternalY differentiation: its essen&e is t!e (niversal fro" $!i&! t!e %arti&(lar !as 'een e,%elledM =7@ it is Wt!ereforeY subtle) S(&! an entity is t!e tanmtra ' sound Was suchY6 etc)6 W ras%ed in itsY (niversal for") So(nd in its (niversal Wfor"Y 6(a$dasmnya7 is t!(s &alled (a$datanmtra , Hso(nd as s(&!I Wt!at is, devoid of referen&e to t!e ot!er tanmtras , and t!erefore, as $ell, to %arti&(lar so(ndsY) And as for t!e ot!ers Wna"ely, t!e ,armendriyas , t!eir do"ains !ave 'een already dealt $it! Dad 67EY)=87 D(e to t!e re&i%ro&al i"%li&ation =88 of W&o nitiveY field and W&o nitiveY $itness, =86 the pentad of abstract entities derives, as do t!e or ans Wof &o nition and a&tionY, fro" t!e W%rin&i%le ofY e o)=8A
<r 8 $/i7e0 e$titie":. O 0gi$g (% the ter/ tanmtra 8L "t that:, we "h' *0 #'$#eive '1 the"e 8e$titie": $'t '$*% a" 8ar#het%pa*: 'r 8ge$eri#: (.'re**a ^&?> "ee the ter/ smn!a i$ .S ;666, K 'te0 $. 613), ( t a*"' a" 8p re:, #'$"i0ere0 i$ a$0 '1 the/"e*ve", with' t a0/i7t re '1 the 'ther 1' r, that t'gether /ake p the #'/p*e7 that #'$"tit te the $'r/a* #'$0iti'$ '1 per#epti'$ J a$ 8i$te**e#tive: '(Le#t, ( t a$ 8'(Le#t: $'$ethe*e"". .he tanmtra i" the$ the '(ver"e 'r the gr' $0 '1 the Erea*E, reK ire0 (% the ver% h%p'the"i" that p'"t *ate" i$ the gr'"" e*e/e$t" vari' " 0egree" '1 e*e/e$ta* E/i7t reE. .hi" view, whi#h "ee/" 'rigi$a**% t' have (ee$ 0eve*'pe0 i$ the ;aiPe9ika (Tra wa**$er 1973= 280), i" $'t, '1 #' r"e, $iver"a**% a##epte0 ("ee $. 616). 607 Mere, *ight (mahas) rep*a#e" the " a* r)pa, pr'(a(*% i$ 'r0er t' e/pha"iUe the re*ati'$"hip, whi#h wi** (e "et 1'rth i$ the 1'**'wi$g kArikA, (etwee$ r)pa a" tanmtra, a$0 te%as a" mahbh)ta. 608 See CD a0 79,80. 609 S? 38 0e1i$e" the tanmtras a" aviea, 8$'$,"pe#i1i#:, #'$tra"ti$g the/ with the bh)tas 0e1i$e0 a" viea, 8"pe#i1i#:= tanmtr! avies tebh!o bh)tni pa&ca pa&cabh!a0 ete smtvie nt ghor ca m)h ca00, 8.he D 0i/e$tar% G*e/e$t" are E$'$,"pe#i1i#E. Tr'/ the"e 1ive pr'#ee0 the 1ive gr'"" e*e/e$t"> the"e *atter are "ai0 t' (e E"pe#i1i#E, (e#a "e the% are #a*/, t r( *e$t a$0 0e* 0i$g: (tr. I. Oha). B##'r0i$g t' ;A#a"pati a0 *'#. (tanmtri tvasmaddibhi parasparav!vttni nn'bh)!ante it! avie s)km iti coc!ante) the #riteri'$ 1'r 0i"ti$g i"hi$g the bh)tas 1r'/ the tanmtras i" the #apa#it% '1 ea#h '1 the 1'r/er t' "et a"i0e i$"ta$#e" '1 the 'ther" (parasparav!vtt!) J wherea", evi0e$t*%, 8"' $0 a" " #h:(abdatanmtra) #a$$'t "et a"i0e 'r #a$#e* 81'r/ a" " #h: (r)patanmtra). .he bh)tas are #apa(*e '1 e$teri$g i$t' the 1ie*0 '1 ' r e7perie$#e a" 0i"ti$#t 1r'/ '$e a$'ther, i$a"/ #h a" the% are #a*/, t r( *e$t a$0 0e* 0i$g:, that i", i$a"/ #h a" the% a(' $0 i$ vari' " 0egree" '1 sattva 'r ra%as 'r tamas. .he% are there1're #'$"i0ere0 a" ('th 8"pe#i1i#: (viea) a$0 8gr'"": (sth)la). .hat i" $'t t' "a% that '$e #a$$'t e7perie$#e the 8" (t*e: '(Le#t J 1'r i1 '$e 0i0 $'t, '$e w' *0 $'t e7perie$#e a$%thi$g at a**> a** that #a$ (e "ai0 i" that the 8" (t*e: '(Le#t" (tanmtra) are $'t e7perie$#e0 i$ their 8p re: "tate J e7#ept perhap" (% %'gi$" J ( t '$*% whe$ the% are e7e/p*i1ie0 thr' gh the 8gr'"": e*e/e$t" (mahbh)ta). B" " #h, the tanmtras are t' (e $'$,"pe#i1i# (aviea) a$0 " (t*e (s)kma). 610 .he ter/" 8%&e!a1kr!ata!: a$0 8evam an!ni: " gge"t that the #'//e$tar% i$te$0" here the 0'/ai$" ('th '1 the b'ddh,ndri!as a$0 the karmendri!as, a*th' gh the e/pha"i" i" p t '$ the tanmtras, the 0'/ai$ pr'per t' the b'ddh,ndri!as. 611 parasparpekitva J *it., 8/ t a* e7pe#ta$#%:. 612 via!avia!in. 613 !1. S? 25, whi#h 0i"ti$g i"he" the indri!as that pre" /e (a*'$g with the manas) a sttvika, 'r 8* /i$' ":, 1'r/ '1 the eg' 1r'/ the tanmtras, that pre" /e a tmasa, 'r 80ark:, 1'r/ '1 the eg', with the re" *t that manas a$0 the indri!as are 8apt t' 1 *1i* their "pe#i1i# 1 $#ti'$: (svavia!asamartha). +'re'ver, a##'r0i$g t' IFh 25, the eg' 8i" "ai0 t' (e tmasa t' the e7te$t that it i" the 'rigi$ a*"' '1 the bh)tas, whi#h a(' $0 i$ tamas: (bh)tnm dibh)tas tamobah'las tenokta sa tmasa iti). 6$ 1a#t the eg' i" the 8'rigi$ '1 the bh)tas a(' $0i$g i$ tamas: '$*% i$ a$ i$0ire#t wa%= i$ the SAkh%a 0'#tri$e '1 ev'* ti'$, the bh)tas pr'#ee0 1r'/ the tanmtras, whi#h are the ev'* te" '1 the tmasa eg'. !1. .S ;666 (pp. 89,90)= abdavie hi kobhtman !ad ekam akobhtmaka prgbhvi smn!am avietmaka tat abdatanmtram0 eva


#!rik! ** Eart!, et&), are t!e res(lt arrived at 'y a "(t(al &o""in lin of t!ose Wsensi'leY do"ains WviL), t!e tanmtras Y) T!is t!e "aster says: **) The domain Wthus describedY6 now gross=8; due to the mingling of the Wsubtle tanmtras Y, manifests itself as the pentad of gross elements 6(h)ta& : = 8 B ether6 air6 fire6 water and earth) It is t!e %arti&(lar, t!at is, t!e Wno$Y gross domain t!at a&9(ires t!e for" of a &on&rete ele"ent, due to the mingling of those Ws('tle Hfields as s(&!I 6tanmtra7 Y, t!at is, d(e to t!eir a'ility to &o"e into &onta&t $it! ea&! ot!er)=8= For instan&e, fro" Hso(nd as s(&!I 6(a$datanmtra7 %ro&eeds H%arti&(lar so(ndI 6(a$da3i(e)a7 , na"ely, Wt!e ross ele"entY et!er Win t!e sense t!at et!er is t!e lo&(s of tonal variety, as $ell as of Hso(ndI as distin (is!ed fro" ot!er Ho'#e&tsIY) Fro" so(nd and to(&! %ro&eeds airM fro" t!ose t$o &o"'ined $it! for" %ro&eeds fireM fro" t!ose Wt!reeY &o"'ined $it! savor %ro&eeds $aterM and fro" t!ose Wfo(rY to $!i&! odor !as 'een added %ro&eeds eart!)=8< S(&! are t!e five H reatI Wt!at is, ross, %!ysi&alY ele"ents 6mah$h/ta7 ) =8C In &onsideration of t!e "a,i", Ht!e effe&t !as t!e 9(alities of t!e &a(seI, =8@ Wit follo$s t!at t!e mah$h/tas Y !ave 9(alities t!at in&rease Win &o"%le,ityY one?'y? one WR ea&! "ore &o"%le, ele"ent, in ot!er $ords, !as one "ore 9(ality t!an t!e %re&edin si"%ler ele"entY) T!(s is pra,.ti , $!ose nat(re is t!at of &a(se and effe&t, =67 transfor"ed into so"et!in t!at &an 'e en#oyed 'y t!e "(ndane "an 6puru)a7 , t!ro( ! t!e Oill of

gandhnte 8pi vc!am, 8.hat whi#h i" the $0i"t r(e0, $iK e, 2pri$#ip*e3 '1 "pe#i1i# "' $0" wh'"e $at re ha" (ee$ 0i"t r(e0, " #h a $iver"a* (smn!a) '1 a $'$,"pe#i1i# $at re, whi#h i" pri'r t' the/, i" #a**e0 abdatanmtra, E"' $0 a" " #hE. .hi" /a% (e "ai0 a*"' '1 the 'ther tanmtras 0'w$ t' '0'r:. 614 !1. S? 38, K 'te0 $. 609. 615 bh)tas, 'r mahbh)tas J *it., 8great ('r gr'"") e$titie"[(ei$g":. 616 B##'r0i$g t' IFh 38, '$e bh)ta pr'#ee0" 1r'/ '$e tanmtra= ether 1r'/ "' $0, air 1r'/ t' #h, water 1r'/ "av'r, 1ire 1r'/ 1'r/, earth 1r'/ '0'r. M'wever, thi" 0'e" $'t #'$tra0i#t the 0e1i$iti'$ '1 &S 22, whi#h agree", a" 0'e" the the'reti#a* "e#ti'$ (vid!pda) '1 the 4ga/a" (e.g. 6lottara, Pa'kara, et#.), with the #*a""i#a* SAkh%a the"i" ("ee .'ktid,pik a0 S? 38) '1 the tanmtras: pr'gre""ive a## / *ati'$, that i", that the ph%"i#a* e*e/e$t" are #ateg'riUe0 (% the a0L $#ti'$ '$e, (%,'$e '1 "e$"i(*e K a*itie", 1'r it re/ai$" the #a"e that ea#h bh)ta ha" '$e tanmtra a" it" pri/ar% K a*it% ("ee .'re**a ^&?= 196)> "ee Bppe$0i7 13, p. 337. 617 Tr'/ #*a% t' /a$, a** earth*% e*e/e$t" are 1ragra$t. 618 <$ the re*ati'$"hip '1 the tanmtras a$0 the bh)tas, "ee Tra wa**$er 1973= 27911. 619 .he "tate/e$t K 'te0 here i" a$ a0aptati'$ '1 S? 14, e7p' $0i$g the the'r% '1 satkr!avda= kraag'tmakatvt kr!as!a 2...3, 8Fe#a "e the e11e#t ha" a" it" e""e$#e the K a*itie" '1 the #a "e:, #'//e$te0 p'$ (% Ia apA0a a"= loke !adtmaka kraa tadtmaka kr!am api0 tath kebh!as tant'bh!a ka eva pa#o bhavati, 86$ / $0a$e /atter", '1 whatever $at re i" the #a "e, '1 the "a/e $at re i" the e11e#t. T'r i$"ta$#e, 1r'/ (*a#k threa0" '$*% a (*a#k pie#e '1 #*'th #'/e" i$t' (ei$g:. .he "a/e *'gi# $0er*ie" the the'r% '1 the pr'gre""ive a## / *ati'$ '1 tanmtras withi$ the bh)tas a" the% i$#rea"e i$ gr'""$e"" ("ee ^&; 666 1, 10,11, i$ Bppe$0i7 13, p. 337). 620 See Tra wa**$er 1973= 30411. Tr'/ the .rika p'i$t '1 view, prakti i" a*"' a$ e11e#t, i$a"/ #h a" it" pr'#ee0" 1r'/ m!, whi#h i", i$ t r$, $'thi$g ( t the N'r0:" e$erg% '1 1ree0'/.

t!e S(%re"e Lord) And so !as t!is $orld of t!irty?si, %rin&i%les 'een des&ri'ed, tatt3a 'y tatt3a , 'y distin (is!in Wea&! %rin&i%le fro" t!e restY)=68 #!rik! *, As t!e "aster e,%lained %revio(sly !o$ my f(n&tioned as s!eat! 6my,a2cu,a7 W54ri54s 8B?8CY, so Wno$Y !e e,%lains !o$ pra,.ti serves as s!eat! $it! res%e&t to t!e "(ndane "an: *,) As the husk en"elops the rice+grain6 so does this creation6 beginning with pra %ti and ending with earth6 en"elop consciousness in the manner of a body) As the husk6 t!e s5in of t!e rain, en"elops6 or veils, the rice+grain6 so does this creation too, startin $it! pradhna and endin $it! eart!, envelo% on&e a ain consciousness R WalreadyY envelo%ed 'y t!e s!eat! of my , fi (ratively re%resented 'y t!e 'ran R in the manner of a body, fi (ratively re%resented 'y t!e !(s5, t!at is, it veils W&ons&io(snessY as its o(ter en&los(re) *ere W, at t!is levelY, are &alled Sa5alas =66 t!ose &o niLers $!o are of a 'odily nat(re 'e&a(se of t!e fa&tors of fra "entation 6,al7 , =6A 'e innin $it! t!e or ans in t!eir b%(rec state Wt!at is, $it!o(t ad#(n&tion of an o'#e&tY =6; and endin $it! %arti&(lar Wo'#e&tsY Wi)e), $it! t!e mah$h/tas Y)
Mere e$0" the 0e"#ripti'$ '1 the thirt%,"i7 tattvas. <$ the *a"t twe$t%,three, whi#h, 1r'/ b'ddhi '$war0, #'$"tit te #'g$iUa(*e rea*it% (me!a), "ee ^&? 6 1, 10,11, a$0 ;tti (.'re**a ^&?= 195,196). .hi" p'rtra%a* '1 the pr'#e"" '1 /a$i1e"tati'$ i" *ti/ate*% /ea$t t' "h'w the wa% the pr'#e"" /a% (e rever"e0 pr'gre""ive*% a$0 the w'r*0 Erea("'r(e0E, a" '$e "trive" 1'r *i(erati'$> "ee &.NvX 21,24 (whi#h e#h'e" !hH ;6 1, 411.)= !ath gha#aarvaprabhtiprapa&cavar%ane mmtram eva sat!a mdr)ptmakaprapancavar%ane 8pi gandha it! eva sat!a gandhar)patvieparamare 8ham it! eva sat!a tath, 8B", whe$ the phe$'/e$a that are the Lar, the 0i"h, et#., are "et a"i0e, what re/ai$" tr *% i" #*a% it"e*1, a$0 a", whe$ the phe$'/e$'$ '1 #*a% i" "et a"i0e, what re/ai$" tr *% i" '0'r it"e*1, a$0 a", whe$ '$e i" $' *'$ger aware '1 a$% "pe#i1i# '0'r, what re/ai$" tr *% i" the 2a("'* te3 86: (aham) it"e*1, *ikewi"e 2...3: (' r tra$"*ati'$). 622 .he Saka*a", *it., 8th'"e e$0'we0 with kal:, are a11e#te0 (% the three i/p ritie", a$0 their #'$0iti'$ i" that '1 *i1e i$ thi" w'r*0. .he% are there1're a*"' #a**e0 m!pramts, i$a"/ #h a" the% are 0e#eive0 (% m! 1r'/ whi#h the 0i#h't'/% '1 " (Le#t a$0 '(Le#t (egi$". <$ Saka*a", "ee Bppe$0i7 10, p. 330. 623 !'//e$ti$g '$ kalvil'ptavibhava 2...3 sa pa', 8the 1ettere0 " (Le#t, 0eprive0 '1 hi" /ight (% kal:, Sp) 666 13 "et" 1'rth the /ea$i$g" '1 kal= kala!ati bahi kipati primit!ena paricchinatt,ti kal m!akti 2...3 atha ca kala! ki&citkarttvopodbalantman akt! tad'palakitena kalvid!klani!atirgtman ka&c'kena vil'ptavibhava sthagitap)ratvakartt!didharma0 2...3 kala! akh!t!tmanena vil'ptavibhava sak'cita iva, 8.he ter/ kal 2*it., 8(the ver() kala!ati:3 0e"ig$ate" that whi#h, pr'Le#ti$g ' t"i0e, # t" '11 a$0 0e*i/it", $a/e*%, the e$erg% '1 0e* "i'$ (m!akti) 2...3. B##'r0i$g t' a$'ther i$terpretati'$, kal /ea$" the e$erg%[p'wer (akti) givi$g "tre$gth t' *i/ite0 age$#% (ki&citkarttva). 2.hi" p'wer $a/e0 kal3 i/p*ie" the 2K i$t p*e3 "heath (ka&c'ka) '1 kal, vid!, kla, ni!ati a$0 rg. .here1're, Ethe 1ettere0 " (Le#t 0eprive0 '1 hi" /ight (% kalE 0e"ig$ate" the '$e wh'"e attri( te" '1 per1e#ti'$, 2 $re"trai$e03 age$#%, et#., are vei*e0 (% that 2K i$t p*e "heath3. 2...3 2B$0 kal /a% (e take$ i$ the "e$"e '1 a part (aa). .here1're,3 (ei$g 0eprive0 '1 hi" g*'r% (% a part, i.e., (% the part2ia* k$'w*e0ge3 that i" akh!ti 2the /etaph%"i#a* ig$'ra$#e '1 hi" 'w$ p*e$ar% $at re3, he i" #'$tra#te0 2i.e., *i/ite03 a" it were:. !1. ^&; 666 2, 13 (v'*. 66= 263), 0e1i$i$g b'ddh,ndri!as a$0 karmendri!as a" the e7pa$"i'$ (prapa&ca) '1 vid! a$0 kal, viU., '1 *i/ite0 ?$'w*e0ge a$0 *i/ite0 Bge$#% (vid!kala!o prapa&cabh)ta' !a' kramea b'ddh,ndri!akarmendri!avarga'). B*"' ^&; 666 2, 8 (v'*. 66= 252), K 'te0 $. 625. 624 indri!amtra J i/p*ie0 here i" the 6$0ia$ $'ti'$ a##'r0i$g t' whi#h the 'rga$", 1ar 1r'/ (ei$g /ere re#ept'r", p*a% a$ a#tive part i$ the a#t '1 per#epti'$. 6$ thi" vei$, the ter/ grha i" t' (e take$ *itera**%.


And t!ose $!o are freed fro" t!e %arti&(lar Wt!at is, fro" ross "aterialityY and fro" t!e 'ody are Pralay45alas Was !a%%ens, for instan&e, in dee% slee%Y)=6B S(&! is t!is $orld: overned 'y t!e R(dras and 'y ordinary so(ls, =6= in t!e &o"%any of t!e seven &ate ories of s('#e&ts 6pramt.sapta,a7 , fro" Piva to t!e Sa5alas) #!rik! *2 T!e "aster no$ e,%lains t!e triad of s!eat!s R t!e s(%re"e, t!e s('tle, and t!e ross: *2) In this world6 the supreme co"ering is the impurity Walso termed *a#ama+a YM the subtle one consists of the WsixfoldY sheath6 beginning with m$ =6< Wthus constituting the m$,$ama+a YM the gross co"ering is external6 and has the form of the body Wthus constituting the rmama+a Y) Indeed the Self is enwrapped in a triad of co"erings) In"ost impurity6 t!e 0a3a W mala Y WviL), t!e i"%(rity of dee"in oneself finiteY,=6C "eans !ere t!e W pa(u= sY fail(re to re&o niLe t!at !e is &ons&io(sness R $!i&! fail(re, in t(rn, &onsists essentially in &astin aside oneIs o$n real nat(re) +y supreme is "eant He,istentially in&l(ded Win t!e finite so(lYI for it re"ains as &oe,istent W$it! &ons&io(snessY=6@ in t!e "anner of t!e fla$ $it!in t!e old)=A7
^&; 666 2, 8 (v'*. 66= 252) 0e1i$e" the &ra*a%Aka*a" a" 1'**'w"= 2Z3 kt akal kaltattvopalakitakaraakr!arahit, 8.he% have (ee$ /a0e Ewith' t a#tivit% (kal)E (akala), i.e., 0ev'i0 '1 the karaas 2the i$ter$a* a$0 e7ter$a* 'rga$"3 a$0 kr!as 2the '(Le#t" '1 th'"e 'rga$"3 whi#h are i/p*ie0 (% kaltattva 2*i/ite0 Bge$#%3:. .hi" i" wh% the ter/ &ra*a%Aka*a ha" t' (e $0er"t''0 a" 86$ert i$ -i""'* ti'$: 2*it., 8th'"e 0ev'i0 '1 *i/ite0 Bge$#% (akala), (e#a "e '1 0i""'* ti'$ (prala!a):3 J a #'$0iti'$ e7perie$#e0, 1'r i$"ta$#e, i$ 0eep "*eep, whe$ '$e rea#he" that "tate '1 t'ta* a("'rpti'$ ("ig$i1ie0 (% the w'r0 80i""'* ti'$:) where $either "e$"e,'rga$", $'r '(Le#t" '1 "e$"e appear t' (e i$ p*a%. 6t i" th " a 0egree '1 #'$"#i' "$e"" higher tha$ that '1 the Saka*a". D 0ra i" the /'0e* 1'r " #h " (Le#t". See Bppe$0i7 1, p. 317 a$0 Bppe$0i7 10, p. 330. 626 CD th " i$te$0" t' p*a#e the D 0ra" a$0 the 81ettere0 "' *": '$ the "a/e *eve* '1 re"p'$"i(i*it% ('r '1 0e1i#ie$#%). 627 ... a$0 e$0i$g with vid!. 628 .he avamala i" the 1 $0a/e$ta*, '$t'*'gi#a* i/p rit%, that 8#'$#er$i$g the a': (#1. the 8at'/: '1 the ;aiPe9ika J the "/a**e"t parti#*e 1' $0 i$ E$at reE). 6t repre"e$t" the re0 #ti'$ '1 i$1i$ite 1ree #'$"#i' "$e"" t' a /i$i/a*, 8at'/i#:, "tate. 6$ the rea*/ '1 e7perie$#e, a" "tate0 i$ S; 6 4, the avamala i" the 8pre" /pti'$ ('r i$t iti'$) '1 *i/ite0$e"": (ap)raman!at), whi#h /ake" the *i/ite0 "' * thi$k= ap)ro 8smi, 86 a/ $'t 1 ** 2viU., 86 a/ i/per1e#t:3: (i(i0.). Sa/e 0e1i$iti'$ i$ &MvX 9 (p. 72). )'te that mala '1te$ "ig$i1ie", (% "%$e#0'#he, avamala, parti# *ar*% i$ Si00hA$ta. 629 .he ter/ tdtm!a i" "e0 (% B0vaiti$" a" a wa% '1 rati'$a*iUi$g their i$a(i*it% t' 0e"#ri(e i$ #'$ve$ti'$a* ter/" the re*ati'$"hip (etwee$ brahman a$0 m! J $either i0e$tit%, $'r 0i11ere$#e, $'r ('th (viU., the $'ti'$ '1 bhedbheda, 0ear t' the parimavda, ( t a(L re0 (% B0vaita). 6t /ight (e "ai0 that the B0vaiti$ "peak" '1 tdtm!a i$ a wa% re"e/(*i$g )AgArL $a:" "e '1 the cat'ko#i J viU., i$ 'r0er t' a""ert that the B("'* te i" i$e11a(*e. 6$ the "a/e 1a"hi'$, here, eve$ th' gh it #a$$'t (e "ai0 wh% the 1*aw i" withi$ the g'*0, it" pre"e$#e therei$ i" ('th irre1 ta(*e a$0 Egive$E (ni%a). Mere, tdtm!ena g*'""e" the epithet antaraga, g*'""e0 previ' "*% a" ni%a, 8i$$ate: (CD a0 17). 630 <$e /ight a**ege here a #ertai$ i$#'$"i"te$#% i$ CD:" "e '1 /etaph'r". 6$ BI:" te7t, i$ e11e#t, the a$a*'g% '1 the i$e0i(*e (ra$ (kamb'ka) '1 the grai$ i" a11e#te0 t' the m!,!amala (kA. 17,18). Cet, #'//e$ti$g (a0 kA. 17) '$ the 8a$taragatva: '1 the he7a0 '1 "heath" that #'$"tit te" the m!,!amala, CD i$tr'0 #e" the a$a*'g% '1 the 1*aw withi$ the g'*0 (klik) J a$ a$a*'g% whi#h, i$ hi" #'//e$tar% a0 24, i" a11e#te0 t' the avamala, wherea" that '1 the (ra$ i" a11e#te0 t' the


+y co"ering 63ara0a7 is "eant HveilI 6chdana7 ) The si,fold sheath beginning with m$ , and endin $it! li"ited /no$led e, &onstit(tes the subtle &overin of t!e Self) S(&! a &over %ertains to Wt!e so(l]&ons&io(snessY in s(&! a $ay t!at it leans 'a&5 a ainst it,=A8 as does t!e 'ran $it! res%e&t to t!e ri&e? rain R t!an5s to $!i&! t!e dis%lay of t!e Wli"itedY a'ility to 5no$, a&t, et&), &onstit(tive of differen&e, =A6 dis%lays itself W'efore (s R in referen&e to t!e b$orldc e,tendin 'efore (s in a%%arent "(lti%li&ityY) It &onstit(tes t!e i"%(rity of re ardin t!e $orld as o'#e&tive)=AA External6 $it! res%e&t to it, is t!e &overin R fi (ratively re%resented 'y t!e !(s5 R $!i&! is &!ara&teriLed as e"'odied e,isten&e 6(ar-rasatt7 derived fro" pradhna , and $!i&! is gross6 for it &onsists of s5in, fles!, et&) T!is is t!e t!ird i"%(rity Wna"ely, t!e i"%(rity of s(%%osin oneself t!e a entY of a&tions, d(e to $!i&! t!e s('#e&t 'e&o"es a re&e%ta&le for t!e a&&("(lation of ood and 'ad Wres(lts ofY a&tions)=A; T!(s the Self6 alt!o( ! f(lly o%en 63i,as3ara7 'e&o"es &ontra&ted 6sa ,ucit-,.ta7 Wi)e), is red(&ed to finit(deY, =AB li5e s%a&e 'y t!e #ar, and is enwrapped in this triad of co"erings R t!e s(%re"e, t!e s('tle and t!e ross)=A= In t!is &ondition, it is dee"ed Hato"i&I D a u , viL), finite so(lE, and it is ter"ed t!e fettered so(l 6pa(u7 ) #!rik! *5
m!,!amala. .he 1'**'wi$g i$terpretati'$ /a% "'*ve the 0i11i# *t%= i$ CD a0 17, the a$a*'g% '1 the 1*aw withi$ the g'*0 i" a11e#te0 t' the m!,!amala '$*% "e#'$0ari*%, i$a"/ #h a" the m!,!amala pre" pp'"e" the avamala, whi#h i" i$0ee0 i/p*ie0 (% the ter/ 8a@ :, i$ the ge$itive= m!sahita ka&c'kaa#kam aor antaragam idam 'ktam (17()> "ee CD ad loc. 6$ CD a0 87,88, the a$a*'g% '1 the 1*aw withi$ the g'*0 i" agai$ a11e#te0 t' the avamala. 631 ;iU., that it i" tight*% atta#he0 t' it. 632 Mere, the 1ive ka&c'kas are re1erre0 t', a" 0e1i$e0 i$ kA. 17. 633 S; 6 4 0e1i$e" the m!,!amala a" the 80i"p*a% '1 0i11ere$tiate0 '(Le#tivit%: (bhinnaved!aprath), whi#h /ake" the *i/ite0 "' * #'$"i0er hi" ('0% a" i1 it were hi" Se*1, " #h that he thi$k"= kma sth)lo vsmi, 86 a/ "*i/ 'r 1at: (i(i0.). Sa/e 0e1i$iti'$ i$ &MvX 9. See a*"' CD a0 31. 634 S; 6 4 0e1i$e" the krmamala a" the 8i/preg$ati$g 2'1 #'$"#i' "$e""3 with the 0i"p'"iti'$" that re" *t 1r'/ '$e:" g''0 a$0 (a0 2a#ti'$"3: ('bh'bhavsan), whi#h /ake" the *i/ite0 "' * thi$k= agni#oma!%! asmi, 86 a/ a per1'r/er '1 the agni#oma "a#ri1i#e: (i(i0.). Si/i*ar 0e1i$iti'$ i$ &MvX 9. 635 .he #'$tra"t sakocaviksa i" "pe#i1i# t' .rika, ev'ki$g the #*'"i$g a$0 'pe$i$g '1 a 1*'wer, sakoca i" a /etaph'r '1 1i$it 0e, viksa '1 *i(erati'$. .he i/age wi** (e take$ p agai$ i$ CD a0 56, 60, 61, i$ the #' r"e '1 0i"# ""i$g moka. 636 ?9e/arALa, #'//e$ti$g '$ hi" &M 9 (pp. 71,72), g'e" eve$ 1 rther, pre"e$ti$g the three malas a" *i/itati'$" (sakoca, 'r parimitat) '1 the icch, %&na a$0 kri! aktis, re"pe#tive*%= icchakti sak'cit sat, ap)raman!atr)pam ava malam> %&naakti 2...3 antakaraab'ddh,ndri!atpattip)rvam at!anta sakocagrahaena bhinnaved!aprathr)pa m!,!am malam> kri!akti 2...3 karmendri!ar)pasakocagrahaap)rvam at!anta parimitat prpt 'bh'bhn'#hnama!a krma malam0, 8icchakti, '$#e #'$tra#te0, (e#'/e" avamala, whi#h #'$"i"t" i$ #'$"i0eri$g '$e"e*1 i/per1e#t> %&naakti, a"" /i$g the e7tre/e #'$tra#ti'$ that (egi$" with the a#K i"iti'$ '1 the i$$er 'rga$ a$0 #'g$itive 'rga$", (e#'/e" m!,!amala, whi#h #'$"i"t" '1 the apprehe$"i'$ '1 '(Le#t" a" 0i11ere$t 21r'/ '$e a$'ther a$0 1r'/ the Se*13> kri!akti, '$#e #'$tra#te0 i$ the 1'r/ '1 'rga$" '1 a#ti'$, (e#'/e" e7tre/e*% *i/ite0, a"" /i$g the 1'r/ '1 krmamala, whi#h #'$"i"t" i$ 0'i$g g''0 a$0 evi*:.

D(e to its relations!i% $it! t!ose Wt!ree &overin s, or i"%(ritiesY, Wt!e SelfY is !ar"ed,=A< as it $ere) T!e "aster says: *5) 3ue to the darkness of ignorance Wwhich is akin to the disease of double+ "isionY69,< the WSelfY9,? concei"es its own essential nature 92@ as a multifarious di"ersity of ob8ects and sub8ects6 whereas it is one and nondual) T!e Wafore"entionedY Self, 'o(nd (% $it! t!e triad of &overin s, 'e&a(se it !as 'een 'ro( !t into &onta&t $it! t!e dar5ness t!at is t!e fail(re to dis&ern t!e Self, =;8 5no$s its own R t!at is, its in!erent, viL), not 'orro$ed fro" anot!er R essential nature 6tmas3a$h3am X s#a(h#am tmnani 7 R na"ely, &ons&io(sness, t!at essen&e $!ose distin (is!in "ar5 is t!e W%(reY %resen&e of t!e Self R although one R t!at is, alt!o( ! of a nond(al nat(re R WonlyY in ter"s of t!e %!eno"enal dis%lay R a dis%lay t!at &onsists of "(ltifario(s &onstr(&ts Wor Dartifi&ialE arran e"ents, dis%ositionsY, s(&! as 5no$er, "eans of 5no$led e and 5no$nM or, in ot!er $ords, it t!in5s of itself in ter"s of differen&e, t!e o'verse of Wori inalY non?differen&e) For instan&e, t!e %erson affli&ted $it! t!e Wo&(lar disorder &alledY re,htimira , t!o( ! !e is loo5in at #(st one "oon, asserts t!at t!ere are t$o "oons in t!e s5y and
'pahata J 8har/e0: /ea$" here 81'rg'tte$:. Sa/e i/age i$ CD a0 31= !ad 2antman! api3 ... tmamhitvam ... etad ativaiasam. 638 a%&natimira J the ter/ timira i" here "e0 ('th i$ it" ge$era* "e$"e (80ark$e"":) a$0 i$ a "pe#ia*iUe0 /e0i#a* "e$"e, 0e"ig$ati$g a #ertai$ 0i"ea"e '1 the e%e ("ee a*"' the g*'"", here, '1 a%&natimira (% 8tmkh!t!andhakra: a" we** a" kA. 31 a$0 CD a0 *'#). Rhat i" at "take here i" the "pe#i1i# '# *ar 0i"'r0er that #a "e" 0' (*e,vi"i'$, whi#h /a% (e tra$"*ate0 (% the te#h$i#a* ter/ 80ip*'pia:. .hi" 0ip*'pia, a$0 it" e11e#t, the apprehe$"i'$ '1 a 0' (*e /''$, "erve" a" a #*a""i# e7a/p*e '1 err'$e' " per#epti'$ (bhrnti) a$0 '1 /etaph%"i#a* ig$'ra$#e, 'r $e"#ie$#e (akh!ti), "i$#e (% thi" 0e1e#t '1 vi"i'$ '$e per#eive" 0 a*it% where there i" '$*% $it%. .he /'ti1 '1 0ip*'pia i" re# rre$t i$ .rika *iterat re> "ee, 1'r i$"ta$#e, .4 6 331, ^&vX 666 2, 17 (dvicandrdibhrnti), ^&vX 66 3, 13> a*"' /tavacintmai 24= a%&natimiras!aikam a'adha sasmtis tava0, 8C' r #'$"ta$t /e/'r% i" the '$*% re/e0% 1'r the 0ark$e"" '1 ig$'ra$#e:, a$0 ?9e/arALa a0 *'#= timira pratibhcak'rvrakatvena dvaitapradarako doa, 8timira, whi#h i" a$ i/per1e#ti'$ 2'1 vi"i'$3 0 e t' whi#h '$e "ee" 2rea* '(Le#t" a"3 0' (*e, i" 2t' (e $0er"t''03 a" what '("tr #t" the vi"i'$ '1 the " pre/e #'$"#i' "$e"" (pratibha):. DA/A$ La:" 2r,bh!a 6 1, 1 (pp. 99,100) e7p*ai$" the apprehe$"i'$ '1 a 0' (*e /''$ (% the "p*it '1 the vi" a* ra%" that i" pr'0 #e0 either thr' gh pre"" re '1 the 1i$ger p'$ the e%e, 'r 'wi$g t' timira, $0er"t''0 i$ the te#h$i#a* "e$"e '1 a$ 8'# *ar 0i"'r0er:= dvicandra%nndv ap! ag'l!ava#ambhatimirdibhir n!anate%ogatibhedena smagr,bhedt smagr,dva!am an!on!anirapeka candragrahaadva!ahet'r bhavati, 8Si/i*ar i" the #a"e '1 the 0' (*e /''$. Mere, either thr' gh pre"" re '1 the 1i$ger p'$ the e%e, 'r 'wi$g t' "'/e a($'r/a* a11e#ti'$ '1 the e%e, the vi" a* ra%" are 0ivi0e0 ("p*it), a$0 the 0' (*e, / t a**% i$0epe$0e$t apparat " '1 vi"i'$ th " 'rigi$ati$g, (e#'/e" the #a "e '1 a 0' (*e apprehe$"i'$ '1 the /''$: (tr. .hi(a t, ;edntas)tra= 123). .he ter/ rekhtimira i" i$ it"e*1 a te#h$i#a* 0e"#ripti'$ '1 the tr' (*e, "i$#e it /ea$" the 8timira #'$"i"ti$g i$ 2#'$1 "i$g the3 *i$e" (rekh):. See CD a0 31. 639 -e"pite the "eparate avat. a0 25, kArikA" 24 a$0 25 /ake '$e gra//ati#a* $it, wh'"e " (Le#t i" the tman ('## rri$g at the ver% e$0 '1 kA. 24) a$0 wh'"e pre0i#ate i" the ver( avab'dh!eta. 640 sva svabhvam tmnam J agreei$g with Far$ett, Si*( r$ tra$"*ate"= 8a*'r" K :i* e"t 2...3 80e$tiK e a "'i: 2J 8wherea" it i" "e*1,i0e$ti#a*:3, whi#h appear" t' re$0er sva svabhvam. See CD:" #'//e$tar% '$ sva svabhvam tmnam, rephra"e0 a" svam tmasvabhvam. 641 tmkht!andhakra J #1. the 0e1i$iti'$ '1 the avamala a" caitan!as!a ... akh!ti, i$ CD a0 24.


even %oints t!e" o(t to %eo%le, sayin : HLoo5 at t!e t$o "oons[I Inas"(&! as t!e "oon is really sin le, it is d(e to !is di%lo%ia 6timira7 t!at it so a%%ears) And t!(s, t!e %erson affli&ted $it! di%lo%ia e,%erien&es a %ra&ti&al res(lt, 'e it an,iety or deli !t)=;6 Si"ilarly, !e ta5es as !is oal t!e fr(its of a&tions, as different Wfro" !i"selfY, treatin everyt!in as different t!o( ! it is not different fro" !is o$n self R !e 'y $!o" t!e dis%lay of differen&e !as 'een ta5en for ranted t!an5s to t!e dar5ness of i noran&e WviL), of non?re&o nition of t!e SelfY)=;A And t!(s !e 'e&o"es a ain and a ain t!e en#oyer of !eaven and !ell Was a res(lt of !is a&tionsY) In t!is $ay, di%lo%ia is to 'e ta5en !ere as a "eta%!or =;; for i noran&e 6a12na7 , =;B for t!ere'y t!in s a%%ear &ontrary Wto realityY) #!rik! *9 T!e "aster s!o$s t!e nond(ality of t!e Self t!ro( ! an ill(stration:=;= *9) =ust as 8uice6 skimmed froth6 granular sugar6 brown sugar6 candy6 etc)6 are in essence nothing but sugar cane692: so are all forms only different states of the supreme Self6 'abhu)92< As one and the same essence of sugar cane 6i,)urasa7 is Wrevealed inY t!e different for"s ta5en on 'y t!e s( ar &ane, s(&! as 8uice 6rasa7 , etc), on a&&o(nt of t!e Wsa"eY (lti"ate s$eetness fo(nd in all of t!e", so, li5e$ise, all %arti&(lars t!at a%%ear $it!in %!eno"enal dis%lay t!ro( ! t!e relation of o'#e&t to s('#e&t are R Wli5eY $a5in , et&) R "erely different states of the supreme Self 6paramtman7 , oneIs o$n essential nat(re, W$!i&! $e ter"Y 'abhu, t!e Great Lord, &ons&io(sness itself) For it is t!at very Lord, t!e inner self 6s3tma$h/ta7 of ea&! and every one, $!o ass("es t!ose different roles=;@ o(t of !is o$n freedo", and t!(s dis%lays !i"self as
arthakri! prpnoti J *it., 8Me a#K ire" 2viU., reap" the (e$e1it '13 it" #a "a* e11i#ie$#% whi#h pr'0 #e" either a$7iet% 'r 0e*ight:. Seei$g th'"e tw' /''$", he wat#he" the/ 'r "h'w" the/ t' 'ther", 0erivi$g either a$7iet% 'r 0e*ight 1r'/ thi" e7perie$#e, 'r wi"hi$g 'ther" t' e7perie$#e the "a/e 1ee*i$g". 643 .h " are re1erre0 t', re"pe#tive*%, the avamala (the 0ark$e"" '1 ig$'ra$#e), the m!,!amala (the 0i"p*a% '1 0i11ere$#e), a$0 the krmamala (the a#ti$g i$ the w'r*0 '1 0i11ere$tiati'$). 644 r)pa. 645 Sa/e phra"e'*'g% i$ CD a0 30, whi#h re1'r/ *ate" &S 25. 646 6t "h' *0 (e $'te0 that BI:" &S 26,28 agree" here a" t' #'$te$t a$0 "eK e$#e with 4&S 26,28. 647 !1. ++ 25, whi#h "e" the "a/e a$a*'g% i$ a 0i11ere$t #'$te7t. .he &+ a0 *'#. e7p*ai$"= !advad ik'rasas!a svapka!'ktikramt st!n,bh)tas!a mdh'r!a g'lapiair na parit!a%!ate, 82...3 a" "weet$e"" i" $'t a*ie$ t' 2viU., i" "ti** retai$e0 (%3 the * /p" '1 g)r ("'*i0i1ie0 /'*a""e"), 2that re" *t3 1r'/ the pr'#e"" '1 #''ki$g the L i#e '1 the " gar #a$e $ti* it (e#'/e" "'*i0i1ie0:. !1. !hH ;6 1, 4= !ath sa'm!a ekena mtpiena sarva mnma!a vi%nta s!t vcrambhaa vikro nmadhe!a mttiket! eva sat!am, 8O "t a", /% 0ear, (% '$e #*'0 '1 #*a% a** that i" /a0e '1 #*a% (e#'/e" k$'w$, the /'0i1i#ati'$ (ei$g '$*% a $a/e ari"i$g 1r'/ "pee#h whi*e the tr th i" that it i" L "t #*a%:. 648 ;er"e K 'te0 i$ &+ 25. 649 bh)mik J "a/e i/age i$ CD a0 1 a$0 5. !'/pare CD a0 5= na p'na ivav!atirikta kicit padrtha%tam asti, 8.here i", i$ #'$"eK e$#e, $'thi$g t' whi#h *a$g age #a$ re1er that i" 'ther tha$ iva:, a$0 what i" 1'r/ *ate0 here= na p'na svtmana tasmd bhinna kicid asti, 8+'re'ver, it i" $'t that there i" a$%thi$g 0i11ere$t 1r'/ that Se*1. <$ bh)mik i$ the "e$"e '1 8*eve* 2'1 " (Le#tivit%3:, "ee CD a0 41,46 (ge$era* avat.) a$0 45.


&!ara&teriLed 'y t!e states of o'#e&t and s('#e&t, et&), in t!e sa"e $ay as does t!e #(i&e of t!e s( ar &ane Wass("e vario(s for"sY) =B7 .oreover, it is not t!at t!ere is anyt!in different fro" t!at Self) T!erefore, it is one and nond(al, for &ons&io(sness %ervades all t!e states) T!(s, vis(aliLin every$!ere t!e (nity Wof t!e SelfY, t!e &o niLer 'e&o"es t!e 5no$er of all)=B8 As t!e revered Pa'!(Wn4t!aY !as stated:=B6 One o'#e&t !as t!e nat(re of all o'#e&ts) All o'#e&ts !ave t!e nat(re of one o'#e&t) T!erefore, !e $!o !as seen one o'#e&t in its essen&e !as seen all o'#e&ts in t!eir essen&e) And in Bhaga3adg-t : O!ere'y in all 'ein s one] Un&!an in =BA &ondition "en %er&eive,] Un"anifold in t!e "anifold,] /no$ t!at t!at 5no$led e is of oodness)=B; #!rik! *: T!o( ! t!e variety Wof reasonin sY for"(lated 'y t!e ot!er s&!ools is a&&e%ted 'y (s for %(r%oses of %rovisional dis&(ssion,=B= t!at variety is not 'e&o"in ly

.he "e '1 the w'r0 rasa here i$ it" tw' "e$"e" (*it., 8L i#e: a$0 1ig. 8e""e$#e:) #'$1ir/" the w'r0:" et%/'*'g%. .he #'$$e#ti'$ '1 the tw' i" "' #*'"e that it /a% (e 0' (te0 whether eve$ a p $ i" i$te$0e0. 651 sarvadvan. 652 <$e '1 the tea#her" '1 BI wh' 0e"erve" "pe#i1i# /e$ti'$ i$ .4 (6 12,13, 6 16), a(h $Atha (#e*e(rate0 a" Fhaa$Atha, 8revere0 tea#her:, i$ P*. 16) pr'(a(*% i$itiate0 BI i$ ?a *a ta$tri# pra#ti#e". 653 < r te7t agree" with the ?S.S i$ rea0i$g aka!a ]i/peri"ha(*e] here. M'wever, the re#eive0 te7t '1 thi" *i$e '1 the 4,t rea0" av!a!a ]#ha$ge*e""], whi#h i" 1'**'we0 (% akara (wh' g*'""e" it with k)#astha) a" we** a" (% 'ther #'//e$tat'r" (whe$ thi" #a$ (e a"#ertai$e0)> a$0 thi" rea0i$g wa" a*"' a0'pte0 i$ the #riti#a* e0iti'$ '1 the 8ahbhrata (;6 40, 20) a$0 i$ G0gert'$]" tra$"*ati'$. T'r the rea"'$" wh% we have retai$e0 the ?S.S]" varia$t, "ee ' r ]Ni"t '1 varia$t"] i$ ]<$ the Sa$"krit te7t]. 654 FhI 5;666 20. .hi" ver"e #'$tra"t" the k$'w*e0ge pr'#ee0i$g 1r'/ sattva with that (a"e0 '$ ra%as (P*. 21) a$0 tamas (P*. 22). .hi" sttvika k$'w*e0ge #'$"i"t" i$ rea*iUi$g the Se*1 (here bhva, 8G$tit%[Dea*it%:) a" $'$0 a*, h'wever / *ti1ari' " e/piri#a* 0iver"it% /a% (e. FhIFh 5;666, 20 #'$#* 0e"= tadtmavast' v!omavan nirantaram it! artha, 8.hat Dea*it% whi#h i" the Se*1 re/ai$", *ike "pa#e, $0ivi0e0 J thi" i" the p rp'rt:. B$0 a00" i$ hi" avat. t' 21= !ni dvaitadaranni tni asam!agbh)thi r%asni tmasni ceti na skt sasrocchitta!e bhavanti, 8Fei$g (a"e0 '$ ra%as a$0 tamas, th'"e 0'#tri$e" that are 0 a*i"ti# are i$#'/p*ete> there1're, the% are $'t (% the/"e*ve" a0eK ate 1'r the era0i#ati'$ '1 2the pai$" '13 w'r*0*% e7i"te$#e:. 655 )'te that bheda i" rephra"e0 a" ete bhed (p* ra*) at the e$0 '1 the "a/e #'//e$tar%. 656 savt!artham J 81'r p rp'"e" '1 pr'vi"i'$a* 20i"# ""i'$3: i" a #'$te7t a**% 0eter/i$e0 Etra$"*ati'$E '1 savt!artham, here appare$t*% $0er"t''0 (% CD a" a "%$'$%/ '1 the kArikA:" v!avahramtram. 6$ a$% #a"e savti appear" t' (e "e0 here i$ a wa% #'$"i"te$t with it" F 00hi"t "e$"e> CD hi/"e*1, whi*e #'//e$ti$g '$ thi" ver% kArikA, "e" the ter/ savtisat!a, vari' "*% tra$"*ate0 a" 8verite 0:e$ve*'ppe/e$t:, 8" r1a#e,*eve* tr th:, 8re*ative tr th:, 'r 8tr th '1 e/piri#a* 'r0er:, a$0 #'$tra"te0 with paramrthasat!a, 80eep,*eve* tr th:. <$ thi" 'pp'"iti'$, "ee, inter alia, G0gert'$ FSM-, ".v., wh' tra$"*ate" 8#'//'$,"e$"e tr th:> Spr $g 1973= 40,53> Farea 1966, v'*. 666= 179, 184, 196. !1. -hmat, '$ sat!nte mith'n,kt!a (FSFh 6 1, 1, +dh!saprakaraa= 17)= na ca savtiparamrthasato pramrthika mith'nam ast,t! abh)tatadbhvrthas!a cve pra!oga.


e"%loyed=B< in t!e arena of Wt!ose reasonin s t!at !ave to do $it!Y t!e tr(t!) T!e "aster no$ says: *:) WThe many differing conceptions of the Gltimate C that it is Y Consciousness6 or the Inner Controller6 or Breath6 or the So"ereign Body695< or the ;enus6 or6 finally6 that it is the Particular C all these are for purposes of disputation onlyM95? in ultimate terms6 none of them99@ exist Was characteriBations of the GltimateY)99 +y consciousness 63i12na7KKL is "eant Hnot!in '(t &ons&io(snessI 6$odhamtra7 , in isolation 6,e3ala7 , devoid of li"itin attri'(tes)==A Allt!o( !
avakalpate. virdeha J the #'"/i# +a$ wh'"e ('0% i" the e$tire #'"/'". Si*( r$ 0i"ti$g i"he" (etwee$ vir%, tra$"*ate0 a" 8#'rp" #'"/iK e: 28#'"/i# ('0%:3, a$0 deha, tra$"*ate0 a" 8#'rp" 'r0i$aire: 28'r0i$ar% ('0%:3. S' 0'e" &a$0it &S= 37. Re have 1'**'we0 CD:" g*'"", whi#h take" virdeha a" a $it. )'te that D a0 4&S 27 i$terpret" a*"' virdeha a" a "i$g*e "%$tag/, a$0 $0er"ta$0" it a" 8the Frah/A Ggg, "tret#hi$g 1'r 500 /i**i'$ !o%anas: (pacatko#i!o%anavist,ra brahmam). !1. F4HFh 6 4, 1, wh' i0e$ti1ie" the tman with ;irAL 'r Mira@%agar(ha. 659 Rhatever tra$"*ati'$ we a0'pt, v!avahra (i$ v!avahramtram etat) "h' *0 (e take$ a" re1erri$g t' thi" w'r*0 '1 pra#ti#a* a$0 pr'vi"i'$a* tr th". !1. a*"' CD a0 37= 8+'re'ver, i$ $'$e '1 the 'ther "#h''*" '1 phi*'"'ph% 0' the ter/" %,va, p'r'a, tman, a', app*% (v!avahri!ate) t' the S pre/e N'r0, a $i1'r/ a$0 $K a*i1ie0 /a"" '1 (*i""1 * #'$"#i' "$e"":. !1. a*"' +AH 7 a$0 12, i$ whi#h 8the i$e11a(*e 1i$a* 1' rth part '1 the h /a$ "e*1 a$0 the "' $0*e"" 1' rth part '1 o 2...3 are 0e"#ri(e0 a" av!avahra, E$'t " "#epti(*e '1 (ei$g 0ea*t with, i$ *a$g age 'r 'therwi"e.E 8 (Ma#ker 1972= 120). B##'r0i$g t' 4 66 17,19 a$0 a0 *'#. ('$ the a th'r"hip '1 the 4a'apd,!abh!a, 'r *gamastravivaraa 24;3, a$0 it" tra0iti'$a* a"#ripti'$ t' , "ee $'ta(*% F' % 4= 31,33, a$0 $. 140), pra, et#., are a/'$g the i$$ /era(*e '(Le#t" (bhva) i/agi$e0 (vikalpita) a" the tman. B$0 th'"e '(Le#t" are e$0'we0 with sasradharmas, 8phe$'/e$a* attri( te": (4; 66 17,18), 'r sasralakaas, 8phe$'/e$a* #hara#teri"ti#": (4; 66 19), " #h a" #a "e a$0 e11e#t, e7teri'rit%, i$teri'rit%, 0e#a%, 0eath, et#., 1r'/ whi#h, a" e"ta(*i"he0 (% "#ript re (sarvopaniad, i$ 4; 66 17> stra, i$ 4; 66 18) thr' gh the via negationis, the tman i" a*t'gether 0i"ti$#t (4; 66 17 i" K 'te0 $. 667). 660 B$0, ipso 9acto, the 0'#tri$e" that e7p' $0 the/. 661 .hi" e$ /erati'$ '1 0i11ere$t #'$#epti'$" '1 the Dea* i" rather $ " a* i$ .rika *iterat re. .he #a$'$i#a* "#he/e appear" t' (e that '1 &S 32, whi#h e$ /erate" deha, ('0%, pra, (reath, b'ddhi, i$te**e#t 'r v'*iti'$, a$0 nabhas ('r )n!a), the ;'i0. B *i"t that /at#he" that '1 ^&? 6 6, 4, a$0 '1 S; 6 1, whi#h, #'//e$ti$g '$ caitan!am tm, e7p*i#it*% attri( te" the"e 0i11ere$t #'$#epti'$" '1 the Dea* t' their re"pe#tive e7p'$e$t" 'r "#h''*" '1 th' ght= atha ctm ka iti %i%&s)n 'pade!n prati bodha!it' na ar,raprab'ddhi)n!ni la'kikacrvkavaidika!ogcramdh!amikd!abh!'pagatn! tmpi t' !athokta caitan!am eva, 8B$0 "', i$ 'r0er t' e7p*ai$ t' i$K i"itive 0i"#ip*e" what the Se*1 i", the a th'r "a%"= E6t i" $'t the ('0%, a" /ai$tai$e0 (% the +ateria*i"t" (la'kikacrvka), $'t Freath (pra), a" /ai$tai$e0 (% the 1'**'wer" '1 the ;e0a", $'t the i$te**e#t (b'ddhi), a" /ai$tai$e0 (% the C'gA#Ara", $'r the ;'i0 ()n!a), a" /ai$tai$e0 (% the +A0h%a/ika", ( t, a" a*rea0% "ai0, it i" p re #'$"#i' "$e"" (caitan!a): (tr. Si$gh, /'0i1ie0). T'r para**e* pa""age", "ee Bppe$0i7 14, p. 338. .he e$ /erati'$ '1 kA. 27a /a% have (ee$ '##a"i'$e0 (% 4&S 27a, 1ir"t he/i"ti#h, '1 whi#h it i" a$ e7a#t ('rr'wi$g. M'wever, the per"pe#tive" '1 the tw' te7t" are a*t'gether 0i11ere$t. <$ the (a"i" '1 their #'//'$ ter/i$'*'g% a$0 appr'a#h, it appear" that, a" a ;e0A$ti$, 40iPe9a agree" with FhartXprapaQ#a:" #'$#epti'$ '1 brahman, 'r paramtman, pa""i$g thr' gh 0i11ere$t "tate", 'r "tage" (avasth), i$ the pr'#e"" '1 ev'* ti'$, the *ti/ate rea*it% (e#'/i$g 0i11ere$tiate0 i$t' the /a$i1'*0 '(Le#t" '1 e7perie$#e that are ('th i0e$ti#a* t' a$0 0i11ere$t 1r'/ it. .he"e "tage", 'r /'0e", '1 the saprapa&cabrahman, t' whi#h the i$1i$ite variet% '1 the $iver"e i" re0 #e0, are eight i$ $ /(er, a##'r0i$g t' FhartXprapaQ#a. 6$ 0e"#e$0i$g 'r0er, the h%p'"ta"e", 'r 8tra$"1'r/ati'$": (parima) '1 brahman, are ("ee Miri%a$$a 1924= 79,80)= 1) antar!min> 2) skin> 3) av!kta> 4) s)tra> 5)
657 658


devoid of na"e and for", ==; W&ons&io(snessY a%%ears vario(sly, ado%tin t!e "ode of e,ternality, in s!a%es s(&! as b'l(ec and b%leas(rec, et&), ==BR t!an5s to t!e %o$er of 'e innin less latent dis%ositions W&onstantlyY rea$a5ened 63sanpra$odha7 KKK and infinitely vario(s) T!(s say t!e 1i#Vanav4dins)==< T!e +ra!"av4dins,==C &itin t!e te,ts: All t!is W(niverseY is verily P(r(Sa,==@ and: T!ere is not t!e least diversity !ere Win $rahman Y, =<7

vir%> 6) daiva> 7) %ti> 8) pia. .h ", a" Miri%a$$a #'$#* 0e" (p. 80)= 8the wh'*e brahman /a% (e "ai0 t' ev'*ve i$ tw' 0i"ti$#t *i$e" J '$e (1,2) the "pirit a*, a$0 the 'ther (3,8) the /ateria*, whi#h #'$"tit te" either the a0L $#t 'r the e$vir'$/e$t '1 the "pirit a*:. 6$ 4&S 27a, th'"e avasths are "ai0 t' (e 1ive, i1 '$e re*ie" '$ D, wh' take" %tipia a" a $it, g*'""i$g it >v!a#ideh>, 0' (t*e"" t' (e take$ i$ it" SAkh%a a##eptati'$, whi#h 0e"ig$ate" the parti# *ar 8('0%: '$*% i$"'1ar a" it #'$"tit te" a part '1 a *arger wh'*e. .h " 40iPe9a e$ /erate" vi%&na, antar!min, pra, virdeha, a$0 %tipia, eve$ th' gh th'"e "tate" i/p te0 t' the Se*1 are i$ tr th $rea*, 1'r it i" '$*% '$e, a" e"ta(*i"he0 (% !hH ;6 2, 1 K 'te0 (% D a0 4&S 27. -e"pite the "i/i*arit% '1 their 1ir"t he/i"ti#h", ver"e" 26 a$0 27 0i11er a" t' their p rp'rt i$ the tw' Paramrthasra. 6$ 4&S, kA. 26 a$0 27 1'r/ a pair e7p' $0i$g the view #'//'$ t' FhartXprapaQ#a a$0 B0iPe9a '1 the ev'* ti'$ar% re*ati'$"hip (etwee$ paramtman ('r saprapancabrahman) a$0 the /'0e" i$ whi#h the $iver"e appear"= rasaphitaarkarikg'akha vikta!o !athaiveko0 tadvad avasthbhed paramtman! eva bah'r)p00 vi%&nntat!mipravirdeha%tipint0 v!avahrs tas!tman! ete 8vasthvie s!'00. <$ the #'$trar%, BI:" &S 0i"ti$g i"he" 26 1r'/ 27, whi#h #'$tra"t i" "ig$a*e0 a*"' (% the " pp*e/e$tar% 1d!. ;er"e 26 i" i$0ee0 a$ a0aptati'$ '1 4&S 26 ((e"i0e" the a0L $#ti'$ '1 1di, $'te the " ppre""i'$ '1 vikti i$ a> the greater a*terati'$ '1 (). ;er"e 27 the$ (e#'/e" the 0'#tri$a* e7p'"iti'$ '1 0i11ere$t #'$#epti'$" '1 the Se*1, at the #'"t '1 /aki$g a 1ew a*terati'$" i$ the ha*1 ver"e= vi%&nntar!mpravirdeha%tipint0 v!avahramtram etat paramrthena t' na sant! eva00. B##'r0i$g t' CD:" i$terpretati'$, the $a/e" give$ t' the Se*1 'r H*ti/ate 0' $'t 0e$'te the 0i11ere$t "tate" thr' gh whi#h it pa""e", ( t the 0i11ere$t #'$#epti'$" '1 the H*ti/ate that the 0i11ere$t "#h''*" '1 phi*'"'ph% atte/pt t' e"ta(*i"h. .h ", ver"e 27 ai/" t' re1 te " #h 0'#tri$e" i$ 'r0er t' e"ta(*i"h the .rika a" the highe"t a$0 '$*% tr e view. Tr'/ the .rika per"pe#tive, i1 there i" a$ ev'* ti'$, it i" $'t '1 the Se*1, whi#h i" (e%'$0 ev'* ti'$, ( t '1 "pe# *ati'$" a(' t the Se*1. B$0 .rika repre"e$t" the a##'/p*i"h/e$t '1 thi" *'$g "pe# *ative pr'#e"" ("ee $. 689 a$0 946). !1. 4 66 19,28, whi#h e$ /erate" thirt%,1ive #'$#epti'$" '1 the Se*1 'r H*ti/ate, 1a*"e*% repre"e$te0 a" "' /a$% phe$'/e$a. 4 66 30 #'$#* 0e" that the tman, whi#h a"" /e" the 1'r/ '1 the i$$ /era(*e phe$'/e$a it it"e*1 #reate", i" i$ rea*it% a("'* te a$0 1ree 1r'/ a** i0eati'$. S #h phe$'/e$a 0' $'t e7i"t i$0epe$0e$t*% '1 the tman, whi#h i" their " ("trat /, a" "h'w$ (% a0 *'#, wh' K 'te" F4H 66 4, 6 2 S 6; 5, 73= ida sarva !ad a!am tm. B*"', FSFh 6 1. B "eparate /'$'graph wi** (e 0ev'te0 t' a 0etai*e0 i$terpretati'$ '1 thi" kArikA a$0 it" #'//e$tar%. 662 .he K e"ti'$ '1 h'w t' tra$"*ate the ter/ i" take$ p i$ +a% 1971= 305. .he ter/ ('$e '1 wh'"e "%$'$%/" i" citta) i" $0er"t''0 #'$te7t a**% a" 8#'g$iti'$:, 8pe$"ee: (8th' ght:), 'r 8#'$"#ie$#e: (8#'$"#i' "$e"":)> +a% tra$"*ate" cittamtravda, '$e '1 the appe*ati'$" give$ t' the ;iLQA$avA0a, a" 80'#tri$e 0 rie$,K e,pe$"ee:, 80'#tri$e 0e *a pe$"ee "a$" p* ": (G&H 66, ".v. citta). !1. 4 66 25( a$0 FSFh 66 2, 28. 663 an'pdhi. 664 Tr'/ F4H 6 6, 3, the "%$tag/ 8$a/e a$0 1'r/: "ig$i1ie" phe$'/e$a* rea*it% a" vei*i$g the i//'rta* tman, eK ate0 with pra. .here1're, it 0e"ig$ate" the '(Le#tive a"pe#t '1 #'$"#i' "$e"". E)a/eE re1er" t' the E0e"ig$ati$gE " (Le#t, E1'r/E t' the E"ig$i1ie0E '(Le#t> i$ their 'pp'"iti'$, the% re1er t' a w'r*0 #'$#eive0 '1 a" a t'ta*it% ha*1,'(Le#tive a$0 ha*1," (Le#tive. 665 n,la, 8(* e: 2'r %e**'w (p,ta), et#.3, i" the "ta$0ar0 e7a/p*e '1 the e7ter$a* 1'r/ gra"pe0 (% the "e$"e,'rga$", wherea" s'kha, 8p*ea" re:, i" that '1 the i$ter$a*, gra"pe0 (% the antakaraa ("ee CD

!old t!at it is t!e trans&endental $rahman itself, $!i&! t!ey &all t!e IInner Controller 6antarymin7 of allI,=<8 t!at a%%ears as differen&e t!ro( ! t!e for&e of 'e innin less nes&ien&e) WOe, !o$ever, re%ly:Y R In 'ot! t!ese Wdo&trines, t!o( ! t!e &ons&io(s %rin&i%le !as 'een for"(lated as s(%re"eY, $!at !as not 'een re&o niLed is t!e freedo" of t!at &ons&io(s %rin&i%le 63edana7 , $!i&!, endo$ed $it! life,=<6 'e&o"es t!e effi&ient &a(se=<A of t!e &onstr(&tion of t!e (niverse)=<; *o$ever, ot!ers, t!e Pr!Ja'ra!"av4dins WviL), t!e +ra!"av4dins $!o !old t!at $rahman is &os"i& BreathY, "aintain t!at t!e entire (niverse !as &o"e into 'ein in a&&ordan&e $it! t!e a&t of 'reat!in 6pr0ana7 , on&e t!e resolve Wof &reatin t!e
a0 30). .here1're, the "%$tag/ n,las'khdi repre"e$t" the 8k$'wa(*e: (ved!a), 'r 8'(Le#tivit%: i$"'1ar a" it i" a$ '(Le#t '1 #'$"#i' "$e"", whether e7ter$a* 'r i$ter$a*. S #h rea"'$i$g" are #'//'$ t' F 00hi"t i0ea*i"t" a$0 t' the .rika, eve$ th' gh the *atter ("ee Sp? 6 4) rea#he" the 'pp'"ite #'$#* "i'$= the e7i"te$#e '1 a per/a$e$t S (Le#t, a " ("trat / 1'r the i/per/a$e$t, i$#i0e$ta* e7perie$#e" '1 p*ea" re a$0 pai$, et#. <$ the ;iLQA$avA0a, "ee F' % 4= 229,235, 261, 263 (wh' re1er" t' Nevi 1911, Farea 1966, F ga *t 1968, Ca/a0a 1977, -a"g pta 1969, +aha0eva$ 1975)> "ee a*"' +a% 1971= 265,323. 666 CD repr'0 #e" here the ver% ter/" '1 ^&? 6 5, 5, whi#h 1'r/ *ate" the ;iLQA$avA0a 0'#tri$e thr' gh it" re1 tati'$ J t' whi#h .rika a0here" J (% the FAh%ArthA$ /e%avA0i$"= na vsanprabodho 8tra vicitro het'tm i!t0 tas!pi tatprabodhas!a vaicitr!e ki nibandhanam00, 8)'t 2eve$3 a varie0 reawake$i$g '1 the 0i"p'"iti'$" #a$ (e take$ t' (e the #a "e here 2viU., '1 the / *ti1'r/ w'r*0 '1 phe$'/e$a3, 1'r i$ " #h #a"e, what w' *0 (e the #a "e '1 the variet% '1 their reawake$i$g 2i1 $'t the e7i"te$#e '1 /ateria* e$titie" ' t"i0e the p*a$e '1 th' ght3?: (tr. .'re**a, /'0i1ie0)> ^&;15, 5 (v'*. 6= 21211.), re1 te" the ;iLQA$avA0a with tw' arg /e$t"= 1) vsans are a(*e t' #a "e re/e/(ra$#e '$*%= vi%nnavdin !o het'r vaicitr!e vsanprabodhalakaa 'kta sa na 'papad!ate0 8smti%anaka saskro vsan: iti tvat prasiddham, 8Rhat the ;iLQA$avA0i$ h'*0", $a/e*%, that the #a "e '1 phe$'/e$a* 0iver"it% #'$"i"t" i$ the 2re3awake$i$g '1 the vsans (vsanprabodha), #a$$'t (e a##epte0, 1'r it i" we** k$'w$ that Ethe vsan i" the re"i0 a* tra#e (saskra) re"p'$"i(*e 1'r re/e/(ra$#e (smti) 2a$0 $'thi$g e*"e3E 8> 2) *ti/ate*%, the ;iLQA$avA0i$": p'"iti'$ i" ( t 8a ki$0 '1 bh!rthavda $0er the g i"e '1 0i11ere$t w'r0": (tad a!a abdntarapracchanno bh!rthavdaprakra eva)> ^&? 6 5, 6,7 give the .rika p'"iti'$, whi#h agree" with the ;iLQA$avA0a i$ 0e$%i$g the i$0epe$0e$t e7i"te$#e '1 the /ateria* w'r*0, ( t 0i"agree" with it i$a"/ #h a" it rep*a#e" i$ert th' ght (citta) (% 1ree, 0ivi$e a$0 '/$ip'te$t #'$"#i' "$e"", a" the "' r#e '1 the phe$'/e$a* w'r*0= cidtmaiva hi devo 8ntasthitam icchvad bahi0 !og,va nir'pdnam artha%ta praka!et00, 86$0ee0, the N'r0, wh' i" #'$"#i' "$e"", /a$i1e"t" e7ter$a**% the / *tit 0e '1 the '(Le#t" that re"i0e withi$ hi/, with' t havi$g re#' r"e t' /ateria* #a "e", thr' gh hi" "'*e wi**, a" 0'e" a %'gi$: (^&? 6 5, 7)> "ee a*"' FSFh 66 2, 28, p. 395, whi#h repr'0 #e" the 0e(ate (etwee$ a F 00hi"t FAh%ArthavA0i$, wh' h'*0" that the e7ter$a* '(Le#t i" the #a "e '1 per#eptive #'g$iti'$ (pra%&apti), a$0 the ;iLVA$avA0i$, 1'r wh'/ it i" th' ght 'r #'$"#i' "$e"" that tra$"1'r/" it"e*1 i$t' '(Le#t". .' the '(Le#ti'$ '1 the FAh%ArthavA0i$= katha p'nar asati bh!rthe prat!a!avaicitr!am 'papad!ate, 8M'w 0'e" '$e e7p*ai$ the variet% '1 "e$"e e7perie$#e i1 the e7ter$a* '(Le#t 0'e" $'t e7i"t?: the ;iLQA$avA0i$ th " a$"wer"= vsanvaicitr!d iti, 80 e t' the variet% '1 the 2i$herite0, i//e/'ria*3 0i"p'"iti'$":. See a*"' CD:" #'//e$tar% a0 91, whi#h "e" the "a/e ter/"= vsanprabodha. 667 !1. 4&S 26,27, whi#h e7p' $0" a$ ear*% ve0A$ti# 0'#tri$e that agree" e""e$tia**% with the tea#hi$g" '1 the pa$i9a0", '$ the "tate" 'r /'0a*itie" '1 the saprapa&cabrahman i$ the #' r"e '1 it" tra$"1'r/ati'$, $a/e*%, a##'r0i$g t' 40iPe9a= vi%&na, antar!min, pra, virdeha a$0 %tipia. Me$#e, D a0 4&S 26,27 K 'te", i$ 'r0er t' e7p*ai$ vi%&na, F4H 666 9, 28= vi%&nam nanda brahma, 8brahman i" k$'w*e0ge a$0 (*i"":. !1. a*"' 4; 66 17, where the tman i" 0e1i$e0 a" p re #'$"#i' "$e"" a$0 $'thi$g e*"e (vi'ddhavi%&aptimtra)= tadhet'phaldisasradharmnarthavilakaata! svena vti'ddhavi%&aptimtrasattdva!ar)penicitatv% %,vaprd!anantabhvabhedair tm vikalpita it! ea sarvopaniad siddhnta. <$ the #'$trar%, a##'r0i$g t' CD, BI:" i$te$ti'$ i" t' pre"e$t

(niverseY !as 'een for"ed 6g/rya7 Wor, on&e Wt!e $rahman-pr0a Y !as %ro&lai"ed itY)=<B And sin&e, a&&ordin to t!e", $rahman !as no for" ot!er t!an +reat!, $rahman is Oord WitselfY 6(a$da$rahman7 endo$ed $it! self?a$areness 6sa3imar(a7 ) =<= Ot!ers are a reed t!at t!e tr(e for" of $rahman is t!e So"ereign Body 63ir deha7 =<< Wt!at is, t!e &os"i& 'ody 6deha7 , or &reationY t!at !as ass("ed t!e s!a%e of 1ir4# 63air1a7 R in a&&ordan&e $it! s(&! te,ts as: T!e One, of $!o" fire is t!e "o(t!, !eaven t!e !ead, s5y Ws%a&eY t!e navel, eart! t!e feet, t!e s(n t!e eye, dire&tions t!e ears, !o"a e to !i" $!o is in t!e for" of t!e (niverse)=<C
a$0 re1 te the 0'#tri$e" '1 the Se*1 'r H*ti/ate he*0 (% 'ther "%"te/" '1 th' ght, $a/e*%, at thi" p'i$t, the ;iLQA$avA0a, a" 0'e" Sp) 6 5 i$ 0ea*i$g with the A$ta(rah/avA0a. !'//e$ti$g p'$ Sp? 6 5= na csti m)habhvo 8pi tad astiparamrthata, 8.hat e7i"t" i$ a$ *ti/ate "e$"e where there i" $' i$"e$tie$#e:, Sp) e7p*ai$"= m)habhva aivar!tmakavimara)n!aprakamtratattvo brahmar)po 8pi !atra nsti !ac chr't!antavida pratipann vi%&nam brahma iti tas!pi svtantr!tmaka spandaakti vin %aatvt0, 8Gve$ where i$"e$"i(i*it% 0'e" $'t e7i"t, i1 that 2"e$"i(i*it%3 take" the 1'r/ '1 the brahman that i", a*th' gh p re #'$"#i' "$e"" (prakamtra), "ai0 t' (e 0ev'i0 '1 re1*e#ti'$ (vimara), " #h a" have he*0 the parti"a$" '1 ;e0A$ta J wh' "a% >brahman i" #'$"#i' "$e""E (vi%&nam brahma iti) J eve$ t' that brahman i$"e$"i(i*it% 2/a% (e "e#'$0ari*% attri( te03, (e#a "e 2i$ a00iti'$ t' (ei$g 0ev'i0 '1 re1*e#ti'$ whi#h i"3 the "' r#e '1 it" "'vereig$t% (aivar!a), it *a#k" the p'wer '1 vi(rati'$ (spanda) whi#h i" the e""e$#e '1 it" 1ree0'/ (svtantr!a):. 6$ the "a/e wa%, CD (a0 vi%&na a$0 antar!min) treat" a" eK iva*e$t the ;iLQA$avA0a a$0 the A$ta(rah/avA0a, g*'""i$g 'ver their /a$% "i/i*aritie" a$0 0i11ere$#e", i$"'1ar a" he e/pha"iUe" that ('th have erre0 eK a**% i$ $'t re#'g$iUi$g the a("'* te 1ree0'/ '1 the N'r0 a" #a "e '1 #reati'$. .h " perhap" CD e#h'e" the #riti#i"/ '1 the ;iLQA$avA0i$" a" 1'r/ *ate0 (% the +A0h%a/ika". 6$ e11e#t, a##'r0i$g t' the +A0h%a/ika", the ;iLQA$avA0a the'r% '1 #'g$iti'$, i$v'*vi$g the #'$#ept '1 la!avi%&na, 8#'$"#i' "$e"",re#epta#*e:, ha" " rreptiti' "*% rei$tr'0 #e0 the ger/ '1 a " ("ta$tia*it% whi#h the% 2viU., the +A0h%a/ika"3 0e$' $#e0 a" a re" rre#ti'$ '1 the (rah/a$i#a* tman ("ee Farea 1966= 196 a$0 F' % 4= 320) i$t' F 00hi"t "pe# *ati'$" that ha0 (ee$ #hara#teriUe0 (% the 0'#tri$e '1 antman 2&A*i anatta3 (viU., the $'$,e7i"te$#e '1 a$ i/peri"ha(*e tman)> "ee ^&? 6 5, 5, K 'te0 $. 666. 668 F% the ter/ 8Frah/avA0i$: CD /a% re1er here t' akara:" B0vaita 'r t' prePakarite ;e0A$ta, a$0 /'"t pr'(a(*%, t' the ;ai9@ava "trea/ '1 prePakarite ;e0A$ta, a" repre"e$te0 (% FhartXprapaQ#a a$0 40iPe9a J the re1ere$#e /a0e here t' the p'r'as)kta (lS 5 90) R' *0 #'rr'('rate " #h a h%p'the"i"> '$ the i0e$ti1i#ati'$ '1 that Frah/avA0a, "ee $. 41. 669 lS 5 90, 2. Sa/e te7t i$ vH 666 15, K 'te0 i$ Sp) 66 6,7, whi#h revea*" what i" rea**% at "take whe$ #'$1r'$ti$g the pa$i9a0i# 0'#tri$e with the aiva= tm%&tav!a iti tatredam eva sarva%&asarvakartsvatantraivasvar)pata! prat!abhi%&nam tmano %&na na t' p'r'a eveda sarvam iti r't!antavid'ktam, 86$ the "tate/e$t= E.he Se*1 "h' *0 (e k$'w$E, what i" /ea$t i" the re#'g$iti'$ (prat!abhi%&na) '1 the Se*1 a" iva, wh' i" '/$i"#ie$t, '/$ip'te$t a$0 1ree. S #h i" the k$'w*e0ge '1 the Se*1. .hat 2k$'w*e0ge3 i" $'t re1erre0 t' (% the ;e0A$ti$": (r't!antavid) 0i#t /, EB** thi" 2 $iver"e3 i" veri*% & r 9a.E 8 .he$ ?9e/arALa #'$#* 0e" with a K 'tati'$ 1r'/ Sv. 6; 392a= ta tmopsak sarve na gacchanti para padam it! mn!okte, 826t i" $'t "'3 1'r, a" "tate0 (% tra0iti'$ 2viU., Sv. 6; 392a3= EB** th'"e w'r"hiper" '1 the Se*1 0' $'t rea#h the highe"t "tate.E 8 B" e7p*ai$e0 (% Si$gh (Sp?= 125), a##'r0i$g t' the .rika, the rea*iUati'$ '1 2*it., 8/erge$#e i$t':3 the Se*1 (tmav!pti) i" $'t the highe"t i0ea*, rather it i" ivav!pti, the rea*iUati'$ '1 ('th the Se*1 a$0 the $iver"e a" iva. !1. a*"' F4H 6 4, 1= tmaivedam agrs,t p'r'avidha, 86$ the (egi$$i$g, thi" 2w'r*03 wa" the tman a*'$e, i$ the 1'r/ '1 the p'r'a: (#1. Da0hakri"h$a$= 86$ the (egi$$i$g thi" (w'r*0) wa" '$*% the "e*1 i$ the "hape '1 a per"'$:), a$0 the 8aiva 4ga/a: te7t K 'te0 i$ &MvX 8= sthit vedavida p'si, 8.he k$'wer" '1 the ;e0a" re"t 2#'$te$t3 with the & r 9a:.

O!at t!e 1aiJeSi5as and ot!ers=<@ &all HgenusI 61ti7 is Wfor t!e"Y t!e (lti"ately real 6paramrthasat7 =C7 entity, 'ein t!e s('strat(" of all 9(alities 6gu0a7 ) It is &!ara&teriLed Win t!is do&trineY 'y (sin ter"s s(&! as H(niversalI 6smnya7 and H'ein as s(&!I Wor t!e H(niversal per se IY 6mahsatt7 ) =C8 Ot!ers "aintain=C6 t!at particulars 6pi0 a M 3ya,ti7 =CA are (lti"ately real, and t!at no (niversal t!at $o(ld 'e one and Wat t!e sa"e ti"eY t!e s('strat(" of n("ero(s 9(alities=C; ever a%%ears 6pra,(ate7 Wto t!e sensesYM nor "ay it 'e esta'lis!ed 'y ar ("ent t!at s(&! is t!e &ase) T!erefore, ordinary (sa e, $!i&! deals

F4H 6; 4,19. 6t i" evi0e$t*% a K 'tati'$ 1r'/ "'/e '*0er te7t (tad ete lok bhavanti= F4H 6; 4, 8), whi#h i" 1'**'we0 (% thi" #'$#* "i'$= mt!o sa mt!'m pnoti0 !a iha nneva pa!ati, 8Me g'e" 1r'/ 0eath t' 0eath, wh' "ee" i$ it, a" it were, 0iver"it%:. !1. a*"' ?AH 6; 10( a$0 11(> te7t K 'te0, (% /ea$" '1 it" prat,ka, a*'$g with the prat,ka '1 F4H 66 5,19 (S lS ;6 47, 18= indro m!bhi) i$ 4 666 24a (neha nneti cmn!d 2...3), a$0 i$ 4 ;66 31. !1. a*"' !hH ;6 2, 1 K 'te0 $. 893. .he tw' #itati'$" give$ (% CD, repre"e$ti$g Frah/avA0a,;e0A$ta, e"ta(*i"h the the"i" that 0 a*it% i" $rea*= the N'r0 wh'"e /a$i1e"tati'$ i" the 0i11ere$tiate0 $iver"e i" i$war0*% 1ree 1r'/ 0i11ere$tiati'$. Sp& 28,9 2S a0 66 3,4, p. 373 K 'te" the r ti= r'ti ca tmaiveda %agat sarva neha nnsti ki&cana, 8r ti 0e#*are"= EB** thi" $iver"e i" the Se*1 a*'$e, there i" $'t the *ea"t 0iver"it% here.E: 671 D a0 4&S 27 K 'te" F4H 666 7, 3= !a pthiv! ti#han pthiv! antara, !a pthivi na veda, !as!a pthiv, ar,ram, !a pthiv,m antaro !ama!ati, ea ta tmntar!m! amta, 8Me wh' 0we**" i$ the earth, %et i" withi$ the earth, wh'/ the earth 0'e" $'t k$'w, wh'"e ('0% the earth i", wh' #'$tr'*" the earth 1r'/ withi$, he i" %' r "e*1, the i$$er #'$tr'**er, the i//'rta*:. F4H 666 7 (1,23) #'$"i"t", i$ it" e$tiret%, '1 the 0e1i$iti'$, i$ the 1'r/ '1 a *ita$%, '1 the tman a" antar!min, 8the i$$er #'$tr'**er 1r'/ withi$ wh' #'$tr'*" thi" w'r*0 a$0 the $e7t a$0 a** thi$g": (!a ima ca loka para ca loka sarvi ca bh)tn! antaro !ama!ati), wh' i" 8that threa0 (% whi#h thi" w'r*0, the 'ther w'r*0 a$0 a** (ei$g" are he*0 t'gether: (tat s)tra !asminn a!a ca loka para ca loka sarvi ca bh)tni sadbdhm bhavanti) 2F4H 666 7,13. .he *ita$% #'$#* 0e" (v. 23)= nn!o 8to 8sti dra#, nn!o 8to 8stirot, nn!o 8to 8sti mant, nn!o 8to 8sti vi%&t0 ea ta tmntar!m! amta, 8.here i" $' 'ther "eer ( t he, there i" $' 'ther hearer ( t he, there i" $' 'ther per#eiver ( t he, there i" $' 'ther thi$ker ( t he. Me i" %' r "e*1 2tman3, the i$$er #'$tr'**er, the i//'rta*:. !1. a*"' +AH 6, i$ whi#h antar!min 0e1i$e" the pr%&a ('$ thi" $'ti'$, "ee kA. 35 a$0 CD a0 *'#). .h ", the ear*ie"t re1ere$#e" t' the $'ti'$ '1 antar!min are t' (e 1' $0 i$ the 2atapathabrahmaa a$0 the pa$i9a0", e"pe#ia**% i$ the !hH a$0 F4H, 1r'/ whi#h i" K 'te0 8.here i" $'t the *ea"t 0iver"it% here 2i$ brahman3:. 6$ ;ai9@ava ;e0A$ta, the antar!min, whi#h '## r" 1ir"t i$ the e$ /erati'$ '1 the "tate" 'r /'0e" '1 the paramtman, appear" a" a tattva. -i11ere$t i" the *ater ve0A$ti# #'$#epti'$ '1 the antar!min> "ee, 1'r i$"ta$#e, Pa&cad, ;6 236> a*"' FSFh 6 2, 5, 18 (whi#h 0i"# ""e" F4H 666 7), i$ whi#h akara h'*0" that the antar!min i" e11e#tive*% the tman, a$0 i" 0i"ti$g i"he0, at *ea"t pr'vi"i'$a**%, 1r'/ the %,va (thi" (ei$g wh'**% 0eter/i$e0 (% m!), wherea" what '$e ha" #a**e0 the antar!min repre"e$t" the #'re '1 what i" rea* i$ the heart '1 the *ivi$g (ei$g J i/p'""i(*e t' "*' gh '11. Gvi0e$t*%, the antar!min i" 8#'$"i0ere0 1r'/ the v!vahrika p'i$t '1 view:, ( t, at the "a/e ti/e, tra$"#e$0" that p'i$t '1 view J it i" $'t the %,va, a$0 t' it i" $'t attri( te0 a$% 8#reative: r'*e. Si/i*ar*%, DA/A$ La i0e$ti1ie" the antar!min with )ArA%a@a, arg i$g agai$"t a p)rvapaka whi#h w' *0 have it the "a/e a" the %,va. 672 %,vitabh)ta J " #h ter/i$'*'g% i/p*i#it*% #'$te"t" the ve0A$ti#:" view that brahman i" nta. 673 het' J e11i#ie$t 'r 8i/pe**i$g: #a "e (a##'r0i$g t' the gra//ati#a* a##eptati'$ '1 the ter/ J "pe#i1i#a**%, the #a "ative 8age$t: a" #'$tra"te0 with the e/(e00e0 8age$t:= &. 14, 55). !1. ?a**aa:" Tattvavicra K 'te0 i$ Sp& 1, p. 9= aktiprasarasakocanibaddhv 'da!av!a!a'0 !as!tm sa ivo %&e!a sarvabhvapravartaka00, 82B** thi$g"3 ari"e a$0 1a** awa% i$ #'$"'$a$#e with the e7te$"i'$ a$0 with0rawa* '1 2iva:"3 p'wer. ?$'w that their e""e$tia* $at re i" iva, Rh' i/pe*" a** thi$g": (tr. -%#Uk'w"ki Sp?= 145).


e,&l(sively $it! %arti&(lars 63ya,ti7 , is s(ffi&ient Wand $e need not resort to fi&tions s(&! as t!e H(niversalIY)=CB[ O!at t!en is t!e (se of %ositin a (niversalZ T!ey dis%(te Wt!e need to %ositY s(&! a (niversal 'y advan&in s%e&(lations =C= of vario(s sorts) T!ey say, a"on ot!er t!in s, t!at H%arti&(lars do not de%end Won t!at (niversal for t!eir e,isten&eY, and t!at not!in else a%%ears Win o(r ordinary e,%erien&eY t!at is de%endent on itI) T!(s, t!ey are a reed t!at H en(s 61ti7 is not (lti"ately realI) T!e &ate ories W!ere set fort!Y R viL), IWfromY consciousness to particularsH R are s(&! as !ave 'een des&ri'ed) WIn &on&l(sionY $e !old t!at Iall these are for purposes of disputation onlyH) Sin&e, in t!is do&trine of WPivaIs a'sol(teY freedo"
B##'r0i$g t' the .rika, the i$a0eK a#% '1 the A$ta(rah/avA0a #'$"i"t" i$ it" #'$"i0eri$g brahman a" p re praka, i$here$t*% * /i$' " #'$"#i' "$e"", 0ev'i0 '1 "e*1,aware$e"" (vimara), 'r 0%$a/i# 1ree0'/ (svtantr!a)> "ee Sp) a0 6 5. Sa/e arg /e$t i$ CD a0 15. See a*"' Sp) 6 4, K 'te0 i$ Bppe$0i7 16, p. 340. 6t i" .4; 6 33 whi#h, i$ 'r0er t' e"ta(*i"h the svtantr!avda, 0eve*'p" hi" #riti#i"/" '1 the ;iLQA$avA0a. 675 .he e$tire pa""age i" K ite p UU*i$g. B $ /(er '1 te7t" re1er t' th'"e $a/e0 &rA@avi0", 'r &rA@At/avA0i$". T'r i$"ta$#e, a##'r0i$g t' S; 6 1 (K 'te0 $. 661), the% are ;ai0ika". !1. 4 66 20, 0ea*i$g with the 0i11ere$t #'$#epti'$" '1 the tman= 8!'//e eta$t *:G$ergie p$e /atiK e 2*e3 #'$#'ive$t #e 7 K i #'$$ai""e$t *:e$ergie p$e /atiK e: (tr. F' % J 86t i" #'$#eive0 a" p$e /ati# e$erg% (pra) (% th'"e wh' k$'w p$e /ati# e$erg%:). B##'r0i$g t' B$ (h\ti"var\pa, 4$a$0agiri a$0 Sva%aprakAPA$a$0a a0 *'#, the &rA@avi0" are the Maira@%agar(ha", w'r"hiper" '1 the Mira@%agar(ha e *'giUe0 i$ lS 5 121, wh' take the pra t' (e the 8#reat'r '1 the w'r*0: (%agatkart), 'r, i1 pra i" take$ t' (e ^Pvara, the N'r0, th'"e wh', *ike the ;aiPe9ika", #'$"i0er the N'r0 a" the e11i#ie$t #a "e ("ee F' % 4= 127). )everthe*e"", " #h a$ i0e$ti1i#ati'$ #reate" a pr'(*e/= #a$ the"e Maira@%agar(ha", wh'ever the% /a% (e, (e $0er"t''0 a" the savimaraabdabrahmavdins '1 CD:" #'//e$tar%? .here re/ai$" the p'""i(i*it% that the"e Frah/avA0i$" are t' (e i0e$ti1ie0 with FhartXhari a$0 hi" 1'**'wer" J the ke% t' the p UU*e (ei$g the re1ere$#e here t' the w'r0 g)r(!a), a*th' gh the w'r0 i" it"e*1 a" p UU*i$g a" the e$tire pa""age. M'wever that /a% (e, the 0i11ere$t "age" '1 the ter/ agree with the "e$"e, we** atte"te0 i$ the '*0er *a$g age, '1 the r''t g'r0g)r (re*ate0 t' the r''t g, 'r g (% the /aL'rit% '1 phi*'*'gi"t")= at i"" e i" the arti# *ati'$ '1 a 1'r/ *a with rit a* 1 $#ti'$ i$ the #' r"e '1 a rite '1 "'/e "'rt. Nater *e7i#'grapher" a00 the $ a$#e '1 8pr'p'"iti'$:, i$a"/ #h a" the /aL'rit% '1 " #h 1'r/ *ae a/' $t t' i$vitati'$" 'r t' reK e"t" 1'r a#ti'$". 6t "h' *0 $'t the$ (e " rpri"i$g that the ter/ 1ig re" here i$ the 0i""e#ti'$ '1 the"e" attri( te0 t' the &rA@a(rah/avA0i$", wh' w' *0 0erive the #'"/'" 1r'/ a "i/i*ar 8pr'p'"iti'$: arti# *ate0 K a"i,ver(a**% (% E(a(0a)(rah/a$E. 6t i" perhap" 0 e t' that a/(ig it% that ' r te7t 0'e" $'t "pe#i1% the age$t '1 the a#t '1 e*'# ti'$, ( t the 0'#tri$a* #'$te7t a**'w" '$e t' " pp'"e that it i" either brahman 'r the 1'r#e '1 E(reathE that brahman repre"e$t". .h ", it "ee/" that CD e7p' $0" here the view ("hare0 (% FhartXhari a$0 'ther") that w'r0" pre#e0e the thi$g" the% $a/e i$ the 'r0er '1 #reati'$. S #h "pe# *ati'$" e#h' the Pakarite e7ege"i" '1 !hH 6 11, 4,5, wh'"e #'$#* "i'$ i" that 8pra i" brahman" (FSFh 6 1,9, 23). .h' gh FhartXhari:" phi*'"'ph% 0'e" $'t give a" / #h e/pha"i" t' the $'ti'$ a" it re#eive" here, the view e"p' "e0 i" i$ #'$1'r/it% with hi" the'r% '1 1' r "tage" '1 e$ $#iati'$ Jpa!ant,, et#. ("ee, $everthe*e"", ;& 6 117= tas!a pre ca! aktir! ca b'dha' v!avasthit). B##'r0i$g t' FhartXhari, wh'/ CD i" pr'(a(*% 1'**'wi$g here, pra p*a%" a pr'/i$e$t r'*e at the 1' rth a$0 thir0 *eve*" '1 *i$g i"ti# a#tivit%= vaikhar, J where take" p*a#e arti# *ati'$ i$t' ph'$e/e", a" pra, i$ it" gr'"" 'r ph%"i#a* 1'r/, "trike" agai$"t the vari' " 'rga$" '1 arti# *ati'$ (#1. ;& 6 122) J a$0 madh!am J i$ whi#h i$te$ti'$" are 1'r/ *ate0 /e$ta**%. !'$"eK e$t*%, pra repre"e$t" a" / #h the 0i11ere$tiate0 w'r*0 a" the #'"/i# pri$#ip*e 1r'/ whi#h it pr'#ee0" ('$ thi" K e"ti'$, "ee 6%er 1992= 12311., 143,146, 10611.). 6t "ee/", there1're, that the view" attri( te0 (% CD t' the &rA@a(rah/avA0i$" agree with FhartXhari:" the'r% a##'r0i$g t' whi#h thi$g" are pr'0 #e0 (% w'r0= chandobh!a eva prathamam etad viva v!avartata (;& 6 120)> "ee a*"' D egg 1959= 61 ($. 2#), 76,79. +'re'ver, " #h "pe# *ati'$" /a% a*"' i/p*% a tra0iti'$ '1 e7ege"i" i$ whi#h ve0i# "pee#h, repre"e$te0 (% the "%**a(*e o, i" #'$"i0ere0 t' (e at the #'re '1 the #'"/i# pr'#e"" J a tra0iti'$


6s3tantrya3da7 , t!e self?"anifestin 6pra,(amna7 reality &annot 'e =C< &on&ealed, t!ose different &ate ories do a%%ear WalsoY as relative tr(t!s 6sa 3.tisatya7 , '(t, in ultimate terms6 none of them exist Was characteriBations of the GltimateY6 t!at is, t!ey do not e,ist in essen&e Wi)e), in tr(t!YM =CC t!ey do e,ist as &ate ories %ost(lated in ot!er syste"s of t!o( !t) T!erefore, it is t!e one Great Lord R na"ely, WoneIs o$nY &ons&io(sness, t!e s(%re"ely real, t!e (lti"ate Li !t, t!e (tterly free R $!o a%%ears 6ca,ste7 vario(sly Wi)e), $!o a%%ears as "anifoldY, for t!ere is not!in ot!er t!an !e t!at is different fro" !i", and !en&e la&5in in ill("ination, t!at &an "anifest itself)=C@ And it !as 'een stated:
g'i$g (a#k perhap" t' lS 5 121 (+a7 + **er:" h%/$ t' 8-e' ig$'t':), i$ whi#h Mira@%agar(ha, i0e$ti1ie0 with Freath (as'), i" "ai0 t' (e the e11e#tive "' r#e '1 #reati'$, there1're a""'#iate0 (th' gh *ater) with &raLApati. 6$ the "a/e wa%, Freath i" e7t'**e0 a" the #'"/i# pri$#ip*e i$ +tharvaveda 56 4, wh'"e *a"t "ta$Ua (p'""i(*% a *ater a00iti'$) #'/pare" it t' Mira@%agar(ha. .h ", the &rA@a(rah/avA0i$", i$ CD:" #'//e$tar%, are *e"" *ike*% t' (e Maira@%agar(ha" (#'//'$*% re1erre0 t' a" &rA@avi0", 'r &rA@At/avA0i$") tha$ 1'**'wer" '1 FhartXhari, 0e"#ri(e0 i$ ' r te7t a" i0e$ti1%i$g pra a" the "' r#e '1 the e$tire #'"/'". 676 <$ the $'ti'$ '1 abdabrahman, "ee a*"' /mbapa&cik 21 (a*'$g with ?9e/arALa a0 *'#, i$ &a0' 7 /mbapa&cik= 569)= !at tad ved!a kim api parama abdatattva tvam 2...3 tat sad v!akti %igimi' 2...3 av!aktena praavavap' 2...3 sacchabdabrahmaoccarati karaav!an%ita vcaka te00, 8V a$t a .a $at re i$e11a(*e, K :i* 1a t #'$$aYtre, #:e"t K e . e" *a rea*ite i$terie re " pre/e 0e *a &ar'*e (parama abdatattvam) 2...3 v' *a$t 0eve$ir /a$i1e"te a partir 0e *:e""e$#e i//a$i1e"te 0 praava. 2...3 Ne" 'rga$e" 0e *a par'*e eta$t 2i$terie re/e$t3 /a$i1e"te", *e verita(*e Frah/a$,"'$ (abdabrahman), K i e"t #e K i t:e7pri/e, ":e$'$#e: 2J B" 1'r C' r i$e11a(*e $at re, whi#h i" t' (e k$'w$, it i" that C' are the *ti/ate rea*it% '1 Spee#h 2...3, 0e"ir' " '1 (e#'/i$g /a$i1e"t 2...3 1r'/ the $/a$i1e"t e""e$#e '1 the praava. 2...3 <$#e the 'rga$" '1 Spee#h are 2i$ter$a**%3 /a$i1e"te0, the tr e abdabrahman, whi#h i" what e7pre""e" C' , e$ $#iate" it"e*13. 677 .he S'vereig$ F'0% (virdeha) i" the #'"/i# ('0%, "ee$ a" the #reati'$ (deha) '1 ;irAL, the #'"/i# 8S'vereig$:. .he vir% i", a##'r0i$g t' the tra0iti'$a* et%/'*'g%, the 8a** re"p*e$0e$t:, 'r the 8S'vereig$ (per se):= vieena r%ate iti vir%. <$ vir%, #'$"i0ere0 ('th a" a /eter '1 te$ "%**a(*e" a$0 a" a 0e/i rge, "ee !hH 6; 3, 7,8. Se$art '("erve" (!hH= 49) that 8;irAL:, the #'"/i# 8S'vereig$: "ee/" t' #'rre"p'$0 t' the t'ta*it% '1 the "e$"i(*e w'r*0 ($. 2), wherea" the /eter 8virAL: i" t' (e #'$"i0ere0 a" the e7pre""i'$ '1 thi" w'r*0 ($. 4). T'r a 0ia#hr'$i# a##' $t '1 the $'ti'$, "ee De$' 1952= 141,154. 678 8ahbhrata 2+Fh3 566 47, 44, K 'te0 (% a0 FS 6 2, 25. &ara**e* "tate/e$t" are 1' $0 i$ lS 5 90, 13,14 (h%/$ t' & r 9a), lS 5 81, 3 2S 6#hakasahit 5;666 2, a" K 'te0 i$ CD a0 353), ?AH ; 9,12, + H 66 1, 4> !hH ; 18, 2 give" a para**e* 0e"#ripti'$, app*ie0 t' the tman vaivnara, the eK iva*e$t, at the e/piri#a* *eve*, '1 the 0ivi$e a$0 #'"/i# ;irAL. <$ the vaivnara1tman a" a ve0A$ti# $'ti'$, "ee &S 35 a$0 CD a0 *'#, ('th te7t" e7p' $0i$g the +AH 0'#tri$e (0eve*'pe0 (% the 4 a$0 akara:" 4;) a##'r0i$g t' whi#h the 1' r "tate" '1 #'$"#i' "$e"" #'i$#i0e with the 1' r e*e/e$t" 'r i$"ta$t" '1 the "%**a(*e o. B##'r0i$g t' 4S; 3 J whi#h e"ta(*i"he" the #'rre"p'$0e$#e (etwee$ the 0ivi$e ;irAL a$0 the *'we"t *eve* '1 the tman, the vaivnara J t' take brahman t' (e ;irAL "ig$i1ie", eve$ i$ a ve0A$ti# #'$te7t, that '$e:" #' r"e ha" (ee$ i$terr pte0 '$ the wa% t' *i(erati'$. 679 .he 'pp'"iti'$ v!akti0kti, 8parti# *ar 2thi$g3[#'//'$ 21'r/3: ha" (ee$ " (Le#te0 t' / #h "#r ti$% (% ;aiPe9ika", )ai%A%ika", +Y/A"aka" a$0 ;ai%Akara@a", a" have (ee$ the re*ate0 $'ti'$" '1 %ti, smn!a, pia a$0 drav!a. T'r the +Y/A"A, #1. 2barabh!a 13, 30= k p'nar kti k v!aktir iti0 drav!ag'akarma smn!amtram kti0 asdhraavie v!akti, 8V :e"t,#e K e *:akti? V :e"t,#e K e *a v!akti? N:akti, #e $:e"t rie$ 0:a tre K e *e trait #'// $ J smn!a J a 7 " ("ta$#e", a 7 K a*ite" et a 7 a#ti'$". V a$t a *a v!akti, #:e"t *a parti# *arit% i$0ivi0 e**e J asdhraaviea: (tr. Fiar0ea 1964= 167) 2J 8Rhat i" ktiO Rhat i" v!aktiO .he kti i" $'thi$g e*"e tha$ the 1eat re #'//'$ (smn!a) t' " ("ta$#e", K a*itie" a$0 a#ti'$". .he v!akti i" the $#'//'$ parti# *ar J asdhraaviea:3> #1. a*"' 8ahbh!a 6 2 6, 'pp'"i$g

After s%e&(latin ,=@7 t!ose $!o are fond of '(ildin syste"s of t!o( !t o(t of t!eir o$n $isdo" o on sayin t!at t!e essen&e 6tatt3a7 is s(&! and s(&!) T!at essen&e is not!in different fro" yo(, O LordM it is '(t a dis%(te of s&!olars a'o(t t!e na"es Wto 'e iven to yo(Y)=@8 #!rik! *< No$ t!e "aster offers an ill(stration of error in ter"s of its &a%a&ity to %resent (nreal o'#e&ts:

v!aktivdin a$0 ktivdin. Fiar0ea '("erve" 21964= 29211.3 that FhartXhari, i$ 0ea*i$g with the "a/e $'ti'$", tra$"1'r/" the view" '1 &ataQLa*i a$0 '1 the +Y/A"A. <$ the"e K e"ti'$", "ee Fiar0ea 1964= 68,100> 155,203> 229,247> 29211. 680 paramrthasat i" a ter/ $'t we** " ite0 t' a ;aiPe9ika #'$te7t, i/p*%i$g a" it 0'e", 0egree" '1 Erea*it%E. 8H*ti/ate*% rea*: /a% "erve a" a tra$"*ati'$ i1 '$e $0er"ta$0" 8what i" rea* i$ a$0 '1 it"e*1, with' t K a*i1i#ati'$:. .he pr'(*e/ '1 tra$"*ati'$ i" e""e$tia**% $re"'*va(*e (e#a "e '$e #a$$'t "et a"i0e the 1a#t that here a parti"a$ '1 /'$i"/ i" "peaki$g '1 "%"te/" that are i$ $' wi"e /'$i"t. 681 CD:" a##' $t part*% agree" with ;aiPe9ika 0'#tri$e a##'r0i$g t' whi#h 8(ei$g: (satt), a" the *ti/ate 1'r/ '1 #'//'$$e"" (parasmn!a), repre"e$t" the #ateg'r% '1 #'//'$$e"" (smn!a) a" " #h (#1. Tra wa**$er 1973, v'*. 66= 104 a$0 175,177). See Bppe$0i7 15, p. 339. 682 .he pa""age "ee/", i$ K arre*" with the 'ther "#h''*" '$ the 8/ea$i$g '1 the "e$te$#e: (bdabodha), t' e#h' the p'"iti'$ '1 the *ater )%A%a,;aiPe9ika, whi#h ha" i$"i"te0 that the w'r0 re1er" *itera**% '$*% t' the v!akti, a$0 "e#'$0ari*% t' the %ti. 6$ thi" "e$"e, a aiva " #h a" CD /a% have $0er"t''0 that the ;%aktivA0i$" #'$"i0ere0 the v!akti a$ *ti/ate pri$#ip*e. See B!!abh!a 2)Fh3 66 2, 58,69, i$ whi#h the ;%aktivA0i$ i" perhap" a 1'**'wer '1 ;%A i, a$ ear*% gra//aria$, /a$% '1 wh'"e $'ti'$" have (ee$ re1 te0 (% *ater &A@i$Y%a"> ;%Ai tea#he" that the w'r0 re1er" t' drav!a, the 8parti# *ar:, $0er"t''0 a" a #'$#rete thi$g ("ee Tra wa**$er 1973, v'*. 66= 101,102)> '$ ;%Ai, "ee D egg 1959= 32,34> De$' 1940= i$tr., p. 19. B" we**, the p'i$t '1 view e7pre""e0 here i" #'$"'$a$t with that '1 the !ArvAka", a##'r0i$g t' the 1ew a the$ti# re#'r0" '1 that "#h''* J a "i$g*e a the$ti# te7t '1 that E"#h''*E i" th' ght t' " rvive, the Tattvopaplavasiha> 'ther re1ere$#e" are 1' $0 i$ a*wa%" h'"ti*e #'/pe$0ia, " #h a" the /arvadaranasagraha J where a$ atte/pt i" /a0e t' 0e/'$"trate (ir'$i#a**%?) that 8per#epti'$: (prat!aka) a*'$e, whi#h i" a*wa%" re"tri#te0 t' parti# *ar", g ara$tee" a$% "e/(*a$#e '1 va*i0it%, a$0 that $' 8i$1ere$#e: #a$ (e 0ee/e0 #ertai$, i$a"/ #h a" the $iver"a* (v!pti) '$ whi#h it 0epe$0" #a$ $ever e7te$0, give$ ' r *i/ite0 p rview, t' a** p'""i(*e i$"ta$#e". +a% a*"' (e i$te$0e0 here ("' D egg, &rivate #'// $i#ati'$) the F 00hi"t &ra/A@avA0a (-ig$Aga, -har/akYrti, et#.), where the $iver"a* (smn!a, %ti), a" 'pp'"e0 t' svalakaa (the ter/ v!akti $'t (ei$g e/p*'%e0 i$ thi" "#h''*) i" $'t rea*. Tav'ri$g thi" i$terpretati'$ i" CD:" "age '1 *a$g age aki$ t' that '1 the F 00hi"t", " #h a" paramrtha(sat!a)0savtisat!a, v!avahramtra, smn!a0v!akti. 683 v!akti i" a +Y/A"aka $'ti'$, whi#h i" take$ p agai$, with "'/e a*terati'$", (% the )ai%A%ika" (#1. Fiar0ea 1964= 234,235). .he $'ti'$ i" 0i"# ""e0 i$ 2barabh!a 6 3, 10, 30,35 (#1. Fiar0ea 1964= 16811.) T'r the 0i"# ""i'$ '1 pia J *it., 8* /p:, 8#'/pa#t /a"":, 'r 8#'rp'rea* 1ra/e:, there1're 8i$0ivi0 #'$#ret: (8#'$#rete i$0ivi0 a*:), a" tra$"*ate0 (% Fiar0ea (1964= 33) J "%$'$%/ '1 v!akti, "ee 2barabh!a 6 6, 6, 19. 684 !1. )Fh 66 2, 5911.= vara 'kl ga' kapil ga'r iti drav!as!a g'a!ogo na %ter iti, (2.he e7p*a$ati'$ app*ie" t'3 #'*'r= 2Rhe$ '$e "a%"=3 Ea white #'wE, Ea taw$% #'wE, K a*itie" (g'a) are $ite0 t' the i$0ivi0 a* " ("ta$#e (drav!a), $'t t' the ge$ " (%ti):. 685 Nit., 8.here1're, 'r0i$ar% "age (v!avahra) " 11i#e" i$a"/ #h a" it re*ate" t' parti# *ar":. See )Fh 66 2, 5911., 1r'/ whi#h we e7tra#t the e7a/p*e= vaid!!a g dadt,ti drav!as!a t!go na %ter am)rtatvt pratikramn'kramn'papatte ca, 8Rhe$ '$e "a%"= Ehe give" a #'w t' the ph%"i#ia$E, there i" a gi1t '1 a$ i$0ivi0 a* " ("ta$#e (drav!a), $'t '1 a ge$ " (%ti), 1'r the *atter i" 0ev'i0 '1 /ateria* 1'r/ (am)rtatva), a$0 i" i$#apa(*e '1 e7#ha$ge, whether re#eivi$g 'r givi$g:.

*<) There is no serpent at the place occupied by a rope6 and yet that serpent causes dread that may end in death) Truly, the power of error is great and cannot be pinned down)9?* The great power of error cannot 'y anyone be pinned down: in ot!er $ords, Wits tr(e nat(re liesY 'eyond anyoneIs &a%a&ity of investi ation R so reat is its a'ility to "a5e t!e real a%%ear 6prati$hsana7 ot!er t!an it is,=@A $!i&! Win t!e %resent &aseY "eans failin to re&o niLe oneIs o$n %lenit(de) For instan&e, alt!o( ! it is a ro%e t!at in reality is seen, yet, d(e to t!e &onf(sion 6$hrama7 &a(sed 'y its lon and &oiled for", t!e $itnesses 6adhya3ast.7 &on&l(de: Ht!is is a sna5eI R for t!ey a%%re!end 6adhya3asya7 in t!e WrealY o'#e&t, t!e ro%e, a sna5e R itself an (nreal o'#e&t t!at "erely a%%ears 6prati$hs7 to t!e") And it is %re&isely 'e&a(se Wt!e sna5eY a%%ears Wto t!e"Y as a real o'#e&t t!at Wt!eir "ista5eY &a(ses a fear t!at deat! $ill ter"inate Wt!e en&o(nterY)

.h ", CD:" phra"e J 8<r0i$ar% "age (v!avahra) 2whi#h 0ea*" e7#* "ive*%3 with parti# *ar" (v!akti), i" " 11i#ie$t: J #a$ (e "ee$ a" a re" /e '1 )Fh 66 2, 5911., whi#h e$ /erate" the 1'**'wi$g w'r*0*% p r" it" a$0 "age" a$0 /ake" the "a/e p'i$t 1'r ea#h '1 the/= gr' p (sam)ha), gi1t (t!ga), p'""e""i'$ (parigraha), $ /(er (sakh!), i$#rea"e (vddhi), 0i/i$ ti'$ (apaca!a), #'*'r (vara), #'/p' $0 (samsa), *i$eage (an'bandha)> #1. Fiar0ea :" tra$"*ati'$ '1 the pa""age (1964= 230,232). 686 vttivikalpa. 687 Nit., 80e$ie0:. 688 satattvata! J #1. .4 6 33(= ittha samsav!sbh! %&na m'&cati tvata, 8Rhether take$ #'**e#tive*% 'r "eparate*%, the"e 1'r/" '1 k$'w*e0ge *i(erate '$*% 1r'/ the #'rre"p'$0i$g 2a"pe#t '1 the sasra3:. 689 Sa/e phra"e'*'g% i$ CD a0 1. .he p'*e/i# a t',#'//e$tar% '1 &M 8 give" a #'/p*ete pa$'ra/a, arra$ge0 i$ a hierar#h%, '1 the 0i11ere$t #'$#epti'$" '1 the Se*1, i$ 'r0er t' 0e/'$"trate $'t '$*% that the .rika i" a "%$the"i" '1 a** the 6$0ia$ "#h''*" '1 th' ght, ( t a*"' that it " rpa""e" the/. .he"e "%"te/" are #*a""i1ie0 i$t' te$ t%pe" a##'r0i$g t' the *eve* '1 rea*it% the% have (ee$ a(*e t' rea#h, a *eve* agai$ r' gh*% re*ate0 t' the aiva "#a*e '1 the tattvas. .he"e *eve*" (sthiti), whi#h 'ther "%"te/" have 1ai*e0 t' g' (e%'$0, are t' (e $0er"t''0 a" 0i11ere$t /'0e" '1 i0e$ti1i#ati'$ with the i$$er, *ti/ate rea*it%. +'re'ver, i$ a##'r0a$#e with the re# rre$t /etaph'r '1 the N'r0,a#t'r, the% are take$ t' (e the 0i11ere$t r'*e" thr' gh whi#h the 0ivi$e B#t'r /a$i1e"t" hi" e""e$#e. B" the "eve$ #ateg'rie" '1 " (Le#t" are "ee$ a" r'*e" (bh)mika) a"" /e0 (% the N'r0 i$ Sp) 6 1 ("ee Bppe$0i7 10, p. 330), "' it i" with the 1'r/" '1 the Se*1 pre" /e0 (% the 0i11ere$t "#h''*" '1 th' ght, a" "tate0 (% &MvX 8= evam ekas!aiva cidtmano bhagavata svtantr!vabhsit sarv im bh)mik svtantr!apracchdanonm,lanatratam!abhedit0 ata eka eva etvad v!ptika tm, 8.h ", the 0ivi$e '$e, wh'"e e""e$#e i" #'$"#i' "$e"", i$ hi" a("'* te 1ree0'/ 0i"p*a%" a** the"e r'*e". B$0 it i" thi" 1ree0'/ that, (% 'pti$g 1'r re*ative 0egree" '1 #'$#ea*/e$t 'r $vei*i$g, /ake" the"e r'*e" 0i11er 1r'/ '$e a$'ther 2#h''"i$g i$ var%i$g 0egree" t' $vei* 'r #'$#ea* it"e*13. .here1're, there i" '$*% '$e Se*1 perva0i$g a** the"e r'*e":. .here1're, '$e ha" t' g' (e%'$0 appeara$#e", 'r r'*e", t' rea#h the *ti/ate rea*it%, the 0ivi$e B#t'r. S #h i" the e*eve$th a$0 highe"t sthiti, that '1 the .rika phi*'"'pher" wh' /ai$tai$ that the Se*1 i" ('th i//a$e$t i$ the $iver"e a$0 tra$"#e$0e$t ("ee $. 59). !1. ^&vX 6 6, 4,5, 1'r whi#h the err'$e' " i0e$ti1i#ati'$ '1 the Se*1 with vari' " e$titie" " #h a" the ('0%, et#., #'$"tit te" a vikalpa, a /e$ta* #'$"tr #t. 690 'tprek!a. 691 -hagavadbhaktistotra 21. <$ Bva0h\ta"i00ha:" -hagavadbhaktistotra, "ee CD a0 9 a$0 $. 426. 692 Sa/e the/e a" 4&S 28. .he "eK e$#e '1 i0ea" i" thi"= "i$#e the a1're"ai0 0'#tri$e" are err'$e' " t' "'/e 0egree, (ei$g '$*% re*ative*% tr e, it i" $'w appr'priate t' e7p*ai$ h'w err'r i" p'""i(*e. 693 atdr)p!a.

T!is Wsort of t!in Y is even $ell attested in e,%erien&e: $!o !as not (nder one Wa se"'lan&e ofY !eart?fail(re, t!in5in t!at a %ost is a livin 'ein , =@; or !avin 'e&o"e &onf(sed, after &on#(rin (%=@B on !is o$n so"e Ws(%%osedlyY terrifyin for"Z=@= T!(s it is del(sion 63i$hrama7 itself Wdefined, in t!is syste", as t!e i noran&e of oneIs o$n %lenit(deY t!at is t!e &a(se of t!e dis%lay of finit(de)=@< #!rik! *? No$, t!e "aster s!o$s t!e relevan&e Wof t!is e,a"%leY to t!e "atter (nder dis&(ssion:=@C *?) 4ikewise6 merit and demerit6 hea"en and hell6 birth and death6 pleasure and pain6 as well as social class and the stage of life6 etc)6 although Win realityY not existing in the Self6 come into being through the force of delusion) N(st as a ro%e, really e,istin , '(t erroneo(sly a%%re!ended 63im.)@a7 as a sna5e, 'rin s a'o(t t!e sa"e Wdreadf(lY effe&t as t!at &reated 'y a WrealY sna5e, =@@ so li5e$ise, do merit6 et&), although unreal6 t!at is, not e,istin really, take place6 t!at is, &o"e into e,isten&e, in t!e "inds of t!ose $!o ta5e t!e 'ody to 'e t!e Self 6dehtmamnin7 , 'e&a(se of t!e &onf(sion: Ht!is WviL), t!e 'odyY alone is realI, $!i&! &onf(sion &o"es into 'ein through t!e for&e of delusion6 t!at is, t!e ill(sory 63ymoha7 infl(en&e of my ) +y merit is intended HWa sa&rifi&e s(&! as t!eY a(3amedha IM 'y demerit is intended t!e Hslayin of 'ra!"insI, et&)M
Re take 8iti: a" re1erri$g t' 8bh)tam: a*'$e, $'t t' 8sth' bh)tam: a" i$ the ?S.S e0. +'re'ver, a** the +SS "h'w a pa "e a1ter etat J "'/e have a "i$g*e daa, "'/e a 0' (*e, 'ther" a $'ti#ea(*e "pa#e> i$ a** #a"e", the 1i$a* 1t '1 etat i" "ig$a*e0 with a virma, i$0i#ati$g a #'/p*ete phra"e. )'te a*"' that '$e +S give" iva i$ the p*a#e '1 iti. 695 sam'llikh!a J a "e$"e " gge"te0 (% #ertai$ 1ig rative "age" '1 the r''t 'l1likh, a/'$g the/ the *ate 1ig re '1 "pee#h 'llekha, "ig$i1%i$g a rapi0 "erie" '1 i/age" ev'ki$g a "i$g*e " (Le#t ('pame!a)> "ee Ier'w 1971, ".v. 696 Mere, sth' a$0 the kra are e$vi"age0 a" a*ter$ative" (i$0i#ate0 (% the v). .he p'"t "ee$ i$ the 0i"ta$#e at 0 "k "erve", parti# *ar*% i$ ve0A$ti# *iterat re, a" a 1a/i*iar i** "trati'$ '1 8(hrA$ti: J 1'r e7a/p*e, 5padeashasr,= avid! nma an!asminn an!adharmdh!ropa, !ath prasiddha ra%ata prasiddh! 'ktik!m, !ath prasiddha p'r'a sthv adh!ropa!ati, prasiddha v sth' p'r'e... (51,55, et#.)> a*"' FSFh 6 1, 4= !ath mandndhakre sthn'r a!am it! agh!amaviee p'r'aabdaprat!a!a' sthn'via!a', 8B" i$ *ight 0ark$e"", the w'r0 a$0 the i0ea '1 /a$ i" app*ie0 t' a p'"t whe$ it i" $'t 0i"ti$#t*% #'g$iUe0 a" E.hi" i" a p'"t.E: B" we**, FdD #ite a pa""age 0raw$ 1r'/ akara:" #'//e$tar% '$ F4H= kisvin naro v sth'r v= 8+ight thi" (e a /a$ 'r a p'"t?: G*"ewhere, the i/p*i#ati'$ i" "i/p*% that, i$ it" i$0i"ti$#ti'$, the 0i/*% "ee$ p'"t '##a"i'$" 0' (t a$0 there1're 1ear> "ee a*"' .4 6 250a= sth'r v p'r'o veti na m'kh!o 8st! ea saa!a0. 697 ap)ratva J *it., 8i$#'/p*ete$e"":, 8a("e$#e 'r *'"" '1 p*e$it 0e:. 6$ B0vaita ;e0A$ta, err'r i" $0er"t''0 a" a tw'1'*0 pr'#e"" wh'"e 1ir"t "tage i" the vei*i$g (varaa) '1 the rea* $at re '1 the r'pe, a$0 the "e#'$0, the pr'Le#ti'$ (vikepa), 'r " peri/p'"iti'$ (adh!sa), '1 a "$ake '$ the r'pe it"e*1. .h ", the 0e* "ive p'wer '1 m!, $0er"t''0 a" a$ e7ter$a* 1'r#e, i" (ehi$0 err'r. .he epi"te/'*'gi#a* viewp'i$t '1 .rika i" 0i11ere$t= i1 err'r i" the pr'0 #t '1 m! (whi#h i" $'t e7ter$a*, i$a"/ #h a" it i" a akti), a$0 i/p*ie" a " peri/p'"iti'$ '1 a$ $rea* '(Le#t '$ the rea* '$e ("ee CD a0 30), %et, i$ *ti/ate ter/", err'r i" t' (e 0e1i$e0 a" the ig$'ra$#e '1 '$e:" 'w$ p*e$it 0e, a" i/per1e#t k$'w*e0ge, whi#h the N'r0:" 1ree0'/ ha" /a0e p'""i(*e, (% /ea$" '1 hi" m!akti. 698 prakta J *it., 8he app*ie" thi" e7a/p*e t' the /atter $0er 0i"# ""i'$:. 699 Nit., 8(ri$g" a(' t the #a "a* e11i#ie$#% (arthakri!) (e*'$gi$g pr'per*% t' the "$ake 2viU., terr'r3:.


'y hea"en is intended Hs(%re"e !a%%inessIM 'y hell is intended Htor"entsIM 'y coming into existence is intended H'irt!IM 'y death is intended H&essation of e,isten&e Wlit), Hof 'irt!IYIM 'y pleasure is intended Hdeli !tIM 'y pain is intended t!e Ha itation arisin fro" ra1as IM and 'y social class is intended t!e H'elief: bI a" a 'ra!"incI, et&)M 'y stage of life is intended: HI a" a &eli'ateI, et&)M t!e "ention of t!e $ord HetcI !ere intends %enan&e, $ors!i%, vo$s, et&) All t!at, $!ose essen&e is not!in '(t "ental &onstr(&ts, $!i&! e"er es fro" t!e a%in W"o(t! ofY<77 del(sion is dee"ed to 'e s(&! on a&&o(nt of t!e %o$er of differentiation, 'y $!i&! t!e Self is ta5en to 'e t!e 'ody, et&) 6dehdytmat7 ) All t!is %ro&eeds fro" error WviL), fro" ta5in t!e 'ody, et&), to 'e t!e SelfY, d(e to $!i&! fettered so(ls e,%erien&e in&essantly t!e 'onda e of !eaven, !ell, 'irt! and deat! WviL), t!e inevita'le res(lts of dharma and adharma Y) *o$ever, "erit and de"erit, et&), do not e,ist (lti"ately for t!e Self, $!i&! is a (nifor" and (n9(alified "ass of 'lissf(l &ons&io(sness <78 6ana3acchinnacidnandai,aghana7 ) #!rik! ,@ T!(s, !avin e,a"ined t!e &a%a&ity of error to "a5e (nreal o'#e&ts a%%ear, t!e "aster no$ e,%lains its ori in: ,@7 That darkness Wof errorY:@* is such that this wellknown conceit de"elops6 in regard to entities6 that they are other than the Self6 though Win truthY they are not separate from the Self6 owing to the fact that they appear to it) In sayin HThat darkness 6andha,ra7 is such t!e "aster refers to t!e all? del(din 63i(3amohin-7 error t!at &onsists in o(r failin to re&o niLe o(r o$n %lenit(de, as %revio(sly e,%lainedM in sayin Hthat))) in regard to entitiesI, !e refers to t!ose ('i9(ito(s o'#e&ts, $!ose for" %res("es t!e o%%osition of &o niLer and o'#e&t of &o nition, $!i&! are t!e very s('stan&e of Li !t, owing to the fact that they appear to it 6pra,(amnatay7 , t!at is, t!ey &annot 'e a&&o(nted for e,&e%t in ter"s of t!eir !avin a%%eared, in a&&ordan&e $it! t!e "a,i": T!at $!i&! is not l("ino(s &annot "anifest itself,<7A
vi%bhita. anavacchinna i" here take$ i$ it" "#h'*a"ti# "e$"e '1 8$'t 0i"#ri/i$ate0, $K a*i1ie0: J the avacchedaka 0e"ig$ati$g the K a*it% 'r parti# *arit% that "erve" t' 0i"ti$g i"h '$e thi$g ('r t%pe) 1r'/ a$'ther (a" it" 0ew*ap 0i"ti$g i"he" the 6$0ia$ #'w 1r'/ 'ther (ea"t"). .he "age '1 the ter/ here i$0i#ate" that the ter/" cit a$0 nanda are i$ thi" "e$"e $K a*i1ie0, i$a"/ #h a" the% are $iver"a* a$0 #a$$'t (e *i/ite0 (% a$%thi$g what"'ever (whi#h, i1 it were " pp'"e0, w' *0 #'$tra0i#t their #'/prehe$"ive$e"")> "ee the "e '1 the p'"itive avacchinna i$ CD a0 58. 702 .hat i", the 1ir"t *eve* '1 err'r #'$"i"ti$g i$ taki$g the Se*1 a" $'$,Se*1> i$ 'ther w'r0", $'t re#'g$iUi$g '$e:" 'w$ e""e$tia* p*e$it 0e, givi$g there1're ri"e t' the (e*ie1 i$ 'ther$e"". .h ", kArikA 30 e#h'e", 'r re1'r/ *ate", kArikA 25 J whi#h 0e"#ri(e" a%&natimira, the 80ark$e"" '1 ig$'ra$#e 2whi#h i" aki$ t' the 0i"ea"e '1 0' (*e,vi"i'$3:, agai$ #'//e$te0 p'$ a" tmkh!t!andhakra, 8the 0ark$e"" that i" Se*1,ig$'ra$#e: J a" we** a" kArikA 28. 703 npraka prakate J *it., 8.hat whi#h i" $'t * /i$' " #a$$'t i** /i$e:. &erhap" the 1' rth pada 1r'/ ;A/a$a0atta:" /avitpraka 6 12= tvadtmakatva bhvn vivadante na kecana0 !at prak!adaa!to 2v.l. prak!ada !to3 npraka prakate00, 8)' '$e 0i"agree" that



W))) and t!ey a%%ear s(&!Y even t!o( ! not se%arate from the Self6 t!at is, fro" &ons&io(sness, t!e Great Lord) F(rt!er"ore, this conceit that Wthese entitiesY are other than the Self 6ayam antm$himna 7 Wo'li es "e to t!in5:Y Ht!ose entities are to 'e ras%ed W'y "eY 6grhya7 , are e,ternal to and different fro" "e, We,istY inde%endently Wof "e, as t!eir grha,a YI) All t!is 'ein t!e &ase 6yat7 , Ws(&! &on&eit is not!in '(tY t!e (nreal i"%osition<7; of insentien&e on t!e",<7B 'y denyin t!eir real for", $!i&! is &ons&io(sness) *ere is t!e %(r%ort of $!at !as 'een said: <7= as re ards t!e a%%earan&e 6pra,(ana7 of entities WviL), t!eir "anifestation as s(&! to t!e s('#e&tY, it is t!e Li !t of t!e Self t!at alone is inde%endent, or, in ot!er $ords, <7< t!at "anifests itself as b'l(ec or b%leas(rec, et&) Wi)e), as o'#e&ts a%%arently e,ternal or internalY <7C R for it $o(ld 'e (nintelli i'le to alle e as t!e &a(se Wof t!eir a%%earan&eY so"et!in ot!er Wt!an &ons&io(snessY, s(&! as, for e,a"%le, latent dis%ositions, et&), &onsidered as e,ternal Wto &ons&io(snessY, and !avin t!e for" of non?Li !t)<7@
e$titie" have a" their e""e$#e %' , i$ ter/" '1 their #'$0iti'$ '1 $ee0i$g i** /i$ati'$. .here1're, that whi#h i" $'t * /i$' " i" $'t /a$i1e"t:. .he ver"e i" K 'te0 i$ Sp& 28,29 2S a0 66 3,43> #1. -%#Uk'w"ki:" tra$"*. (Sp?= 162)= 8)'$e 0i"p te that C' (< N'r0) are the e""e$tia* $at re '1 (a**) thi$g"> it i" $'t 0ark$e"" (apraka) that "hi$e" whe$ (the *ight '1 #'$"#i' "$e"") (e#'/e" the '(Le#t '1 i** /i$ati'$:, a$0 hi" e0iti'$ '1 the /avitpraka, 1'r varia$t". 704 pdana J akara "peak" here '1 adh!sa. 705 !1. .4 6 332, whi#h 1'r/ *ate" *%ri#a**% thi" i/p'"iti'$ '1 $tr e i$"e$tie$#e '$ '(Le#t"> "ee a*"' CD a0 31. 706 .he "%$tag/ a!am a!a '1te$ 1*ag" a #'$tra"ti$g p'rti'$ '1 the #'//e$tar% i$ whi#h e/pha"i" i" p*a#e0 '$ arg /e$tati'$, rather tha$ '$ "%$ta7 'r v'#a( *ar% J (% i$tr'0 #i$g para**e* #'$"i0erati'$", '11eri$g a$a*'gie", et#. Me$#e, it /a% (e tra$"*ate0 a"= 8)'w 2*et " t r$ t'3 the arg /e$t 2'1 the ver"e3:, 'r 8Mere i" the p rp'rt 2'1 what ha" (ee$ "ai03:. 707 artht. 708 !1. .4 66 16, a##'r0i$g t' whi#h ever%thi$g i" Night, Night i" the "'*e rea*it%= n,la p,ta s'kha iti praka kevala iva0 am'min paramdvaite praktmani ko para00, 8iva i" the '$*% Night 2"hi$i$g3 a" (* e, %e**'w a$0 L'%. 6$ thi" a("'* te, $'$0 a* "tate, wh'"e $at re i" that '1 Night, wh' i" there 'ther 2tha$ he3?: 709 .hi" e7tre/e*% #'$0e$"e0 "tate/e$t i$#* 0e" a$ '(Le#ti'$, whi#h i" $'t e7p*i#it*% i$0i#ate0 a" " #h, a$0 it" a$"wer. .he p'"iti'$ '1 the .raika siddhntin i" that $' e$tit% #a$ e7i"t, a("e$t it" #'g$iti'$, a$0 that there #a$ (e $' #'g$iti'$ with' t a per"i"ti$g 1a#t'r, whi#h i" #'$"#i' "$e""= whatever e7i"t", i.e., whatever i" k$'w$, i" $'thi$g ( t Night[#'$"#i' "$e"", 'r, t' p t it 0i11ere$t*%, Night[#'$"#i' "$e"" i" the $iK e #a "e '1 the appeara$#e '1 a$ e$tit%. .he siddhntin a$"wer" here the '(Le#ti'$ '1 a p)rvapakin a##'r0i$g t' wh'/ "'/e 'ther #a "e i$0epe$0e$t '1 Night[#'$"#i' "$e"", " #h a" the *ate$t 0i"p'"iti'$" (vsan), /a% e7p*ai$ thi" "hi$i$g, 'r #'g$iti'$, whether tr e 'r err'$e' ". T'r, i1 we tr% t' re#'$"tr #t the '(Le#t'r:" arg /e$t, wh% 0'e" '$e "ee a "$ake, a$0 $'t a gar*a$0, i$ a r'pe? 6$ 'ther w'r0", wh% are thi$g" k$'w$ i$ a parti# *ar wa%, "'/eti/e" 0i11eri$g 1r'/ '$e i$0ivi0 a* t' a$'ther? .he '(Le#t'r w' *0 a$"wer that '$e:" 'w$ vsans pr'0 #e the err'$e' " #'g$iti'$ a" we** a" the 1ear it i$v'*ve"= the *ate$t i/pre""i'$ '1 a "$ake *ie" i$ ", a*'$g with the 0i"p'"iti'$ '1 1ear> whe$ #'$0iti'$" are (r' ght t'gether, thi" *ate$t i/pre""i'$ /ake" the "$ake appear i$ ' r #'$"#i' "$e"", i$"tea0 '1 the r'pe, a$0 thi" i/p*ie" the #'rre*ate0 terr'r. .he siddhntins re1 tati'$ 1'**'w" the "a/e 1 $0a/e$ta* a"" /pti'$= the #'g$iti'$ (he$#e the e7i"te$#e) '1 a$ '(Le#t $e#e""ari*% 0epe$0" '$ #'$"#i' "$e"". 6$ 'ther w'r0", #'$"#i' "$e"" i" ('th * /i$' " i$ a$0 '1 it"e*1 (svapraka) a$0 '(Le#t,i** /i$ati$g (arthapraka) (#1. 6&; 6 3, 6,7). .he 'pp'$e$t wh' w' *0 have re#' r"e t' vsans (pre" /a(*% re/'ve0 1r'/ pre"e$t "e$tie$#e) a" the #a "e '1 thi" #'g$iti'$ w' *0 have t' a0/it that vsans the/"e*ve" are *ti/ate*% $'t 0i11ere$t 1r'/ #'$"#i' "$e"". .he re1ere$#e i" pr'(a(*% t' F 00hi"t" (parti# *ar*% the ;iLQA$avA0i$"> "ee $. 666) a$0 ;e0A$ti$", wh' take (egi$$i$g*e"" avid!, 'r, what i" the "a/e

T!(s, it is only HII 6aham7 R $!o a" essentially &ons&io(sness 6cit-s3ar/pa7 R $!o a%%ear Win fa&tY t!ro( ! t!e o%%osition of &o niLer and o'#e&t of &o nitionM <87 '(t t!is real for" WviL), t!e a'sol(te HIIY does not a%%ear Wto t!e 'o(nd so(lYM it is "erely (nreal differen&e t!at dis%lays itself) Sin&e WLi !t asY t!e tr(e essen&e 6ttt3i,a7 Wof t!in sY is not t!(s dis%layed, error !as !ere 'een re%resented t!ro( ! t!e "eta%!or of dar5ness)<88 #!rik! , On&e t!e &on&eit t!at lo&ates t!e non?Self in t!e Self <86 !as arisen, t!ere arises t!e &on&eit t!at lo&ates t!e Self 6tm$himna7 in t!e non?Self)<8A In e,%lainin t!is, t!e a(t!or affir"s t!e do('ly del(sive for" of error:<8; , ) It is darkness upon darkness6: 5 it is a great Ipustule upon a boilH6: 9 to think that the Self is located in the non+Self C the body6 breath6 etc): :
thi$g, (egi$$i$g*e"" 0i"p'"iti'$", t' (e the #a "e '1 the i** "'r% phe$'/e$a* w'r*0. B" e/pha"iUe0, here, i$ CD:" #'//e$tar%, the .rika viewp'i$t re1*e#t" it" /ai$ &'"t *ate= the a("'* te 1ree0'/ '1 the N'r0. 6t i" thi" 0ivi$e 1ree0'/ that /ake" a** e$titie" appear, i.e., that /ake" the/ k$'w$ a$0 k$'wa(*e. -iver"it% i" the e7pre""i'$ '1 the N'r0:" 1ree0'/, a$0 there i" $'thi$g that i" $'t he (#1. .4 66 16, $. 708). 710 .hi" i" the 1ir"t '## rre$#e '1 the pr'$' $ aham it"e*1 J a $'ti'$ that i" at the #'re '1 .rika "pe# *ati'$. 711 Sa/e phra"e'*'g% i$ CD a0 &S 25. 712 .hat i", i$ ter/" '1 akara:" B0vaita, the " peri/p'"iti'$ (adh!sa0adh!ropaa) '1 the $'$, Se*1 '$ the Se*1. 713 !1. CD a0 60, wh' 0eve*'p" the $'ti'$ '1 the " peri/p'"iti'$ '1 the Se*1 '$ the $'$,Se*1, wherea", i$ CD a0 61, ap)ratvakh!ti, 8the 2/i"take$3 #'g$iti'$ (kh!ti) that 2the Se*13 i" i$#'/p*ete: "ta$0" 1'r tman! antmbhimna. 714 .he rea"'$i$g re"e/(*e" great*% that '1 akara '$ the $'ti'$ '1 adh!sa0adh!ropaa (abhimna E adh!ropaa)> #1. 5padeashasr, 51= avid! nma an!asminn an!adharmdh!ropa, 8)e"#ie$#e i" 20e1i$e0 a"3 the " peri/p'"iti'$ '1 the K a*itie" '1 2'$e3 thi$g p'$ a$'ther:. .he adh!sa i$v'*ve" a*wa%" tw' a"pe#t" J tasminn atad0atasmin tad, 8$'t that i$ that[that i$ $'t that: J a$0 &S 31 0ea*" with the "e#'$0 a"pe#t, whi#h i" the #'$trar% '1 the 1ir"t, a" #*ear*% "tate0 (% CD a0 *'#= atdr)p!e tdr)p!apratipatti, 8.he apprehe$"i'$ '1 a thi$g a" havi$g " #h a$0 " #h a 1'r/ i$ 2re1ere$#e t' a$ '(Le#t3 $'t havi$g " #h a$0 " #h a 1'r/:. 715 Si*( r$ tra$"*ate" timira a" 8tr' (*e" 0e *a vi"i'$:. Fetter t' re1*e#t the #'here$#e '1 the te7t, we take timira here a" a "%$'$%/ '1 andhakra '1 the previ' " kArikA> "ee a*"' kA. 25. 6t i" the #'//e$tar% that p*a%" '$ the do'ble entendre '1 timira. 716 Re ('rr'w the i0i'/ 1r'/ Far$ett. 717 tmamnitva J i.e., whe$ that whi#h i" the $'$,Se*1 (antman), the ('0% 'r vita* (reath, i" take$ t' (e the Se*1. !1. CD a0 &S 53 a$0 60. !1. S; 6 2= evam tman! antmatbhimnar)pkh!tilaka%&ntmaka %nna na kevala bandho !vad antmani ar,rv tmatbhimntmakam a%&nam)la %&nam api bandha eva, 8.h ", that 2*i/ite03 k$'w*e0ge, whi#h i" rea**% ig$'ra$#e i$ the "e$"e that '$e i" $'t aware that the $'$,Se*1 2ha" (ee$3 err'$e' "*% " peri/p'"e0 '$ the Se*1, i" $'t a*'$e ('$0age> 2a" we**3 that 2*i/ite03 k$'w*e0ge, whi#h i" r''te0 i$ the ig$'ra$#e where(% the Se*1 i" " peri/p'"e0 err'$e' "*% '$ the $'$,Se*1, viU., the ('0%, et#., i" a*"' ('$0age:. Bt thi" p'i$t i$ hi" 0e/'$"trati'$, ?9e/arALa K 'te" Sp? 666 14 ("%//etri#a**%, i$ hi" #'//e$tar% t' Sp? 666 14, ?9e/arALa K 'te" S 6 2), whi#h 0e1i$e" the #'$0iti'$ '1 the pa', the 1ettere0 " (Le#t, th " e7p*ai$i$g h'w the $'$,Se*1, the ('0%, et#., i" take$ t' (e the Se*1= (% /et'$%/%, the ('0% repre"e$t" the i$$ /era(*e i0ea" (prat!a!a) '1 whi#h it i" the " ("trat /, a$0 (% 8i0ea": '$e ha" t' $0er"ta$0 w'r0", a" we** a" their #'rre"p'$0i$g '(Le#t", e7#* "ive*% apprehe$0e0 i$ their re*ati'$ t' the eg', a" "h'w$ (% the 8rkae!ap'ra 55; 15 (K 'te0 (% Sp) 666 14)= tteti ki&cit tana!eti ki&cid ambeti ki&cid da!iteti ki&cit0mameti ki&cin na mameti ki&cid bha'ta sadha bah'ah m lapeth0, (-' $'t i$0 *ge #ea"e*e""*% i$ /ateria*

In t!e first %la&e, t!e dar5ness t!at is nes&ien&e 6a,hytitimira7 <8C !as res(lted in t!e i"%osition of insentien&e, a%%earin as differen&e, onto entities t!at are in reality '(t one &ons&io(sness, s(&! t!at t!ose entities, $!i&! are not different fro" oneIs essential Self 6s3tman7, are yet dis%layed as different fro" it) *en&e nes&ien&e, $!i&! is li5e dar5ness, is &alled HdarknessI 6timira7 W"eta%!ori&allyY) As t!e one and only "oon a%%ears do('le d(e to Wt!e disease &alledY Hline? dar5nessI 6re,htimira7 WviL), di%lo%iaY, sit(ated in t!e eye, s(&! t!at one &on&l(des: HT!ere are !ere t$o "oonsI, so li5e$ise does t!e do('le?vision t!at is nes&ien&e 6a,hytitimira7 "a5e ea&! and every o'#e&t a%%ear as if it !ad t!e for" of non?Self, t!ro( ! Wt!e %rin&i%le ofY differen&e, t!o( ! Win tr(t! t!e o'#e&tive $orld isY one only and s!ares t!e nat(re of oneIs essential Self)<8@ In t!is sit(ation, anot!er darkness ens(es R a del(sion en endered 'y a del(sion R Wit is as t!o( !Y Ha %(st(le re$ upon a boilH) No$, as regards 6yat7 ))) the Self Wwhich isY thought Wto be located in the non+ SelfY 6tmamnit3am7 W$e sayY: on&e t!e ('i9(ito(s o'#e&ts Wof o(r nor"al e,%erien&eY !ave fallen vi&ti" to insentien&e R t!eir nat(re as &ons&io(sness 6cits3ar/pa7 !avin 'een a'ro ated 'y not re&o niLin Wt!eir identity $it! t!e SelfY R fro" a"on t!e", on one or anot!er insentient Wo'#e&tY o&&(%yin t!e field of t!e 5no$a'le, s(&! as the body, or breath, etc), no$ seen as ot!er t!an t!e Self, is WsuperimposedY, a&&ordin to t!e %rin&i%les of ordinary &o nition, the belief that this is the Self 6tmamnit3a7 R or, Win eneral,Y t!e a%%re!ension of a t!in as !avin s(&! and s(&! a for" in referen&e to an o'#e&t not !avin s(&! and s(&! a for" R as, for e,a"%le, $!en one asserts HI a" t!inI, HI a" sto(tI, HI a" !(n ryI, HI a" !a%%yI, HI a" not!in I<67 R so "any assertions t!at Wa&&ordin to (sY are o(tra eo(s Wt!at is, fly in t!e fa&e of &o""on senseY)<68 No$, if it is o'#e&ted t!at s(&! an We,%erien&e, $!i&! is anY o(tra e to &o""on sense e,ists WevenY $it!o(t %ost(latin t!e &on&eit t!at lo&ates t!e Self Win t!e non? SelfY, let it 'e so as re ards s(&! %!eno"ena as b'l(ec and b%leas(rec)<66

a""'#iati'$", "a%i$g "'/eti/e" E< 1atherE, "'/eti/e" E< /% #hi*0E, "'/eti/e" E< /'therE, "'/eti/e" E< (e*'ve0E, "'/eti/e" E.hi" i" /i$eE, "'/eti/e" E.hi" i" $'t /i$e.E: B" "tate0 (% the kArikA it"e*1, it i" pre#i"e*% the 8ri"e '1 i0ea": (prat!a!odbhava) that /ake" '$e wh' i" e""e$tia**% p re a$0 a t'$'/' " #'$"#i' "$e"" *'"e hi" i$0epe$0e$#e (asvatantratm eti). Si/i*ar*% S 66 8= ar,ra havi, 8<(*ati'$ i" the ('0%:, re1er" t' the err'r that #'$"i"t" i$ taki$g the ('0% t' (e the Se*1, a$0 whi#h ha" t' (e re0 #e0 t' $'thi$g i$ the 1ire '1 k$'w*e0ge, i$ the wa% the '(*ati'$ i" #'$" /e0 i$ 1ire> "ee S; a0 *'#. !1. FSFh 6 1 a$0 4 6 13 a$0 15. 718 See kA. 25 (a%&natimira) a$0 CD a0 &S 30. 719 See &S 25 a$0 $. 638. 720 B re1ere$#e t' the F 00hi"t )n!a? 721 ativaiasa. .he "%$ta7 i"= !at... tmamnitvam ... etad ativaiasam. 722 ;iU., 8" #h a$ '(Le#ti'$ "h' *0 a*"' app*% t' the i$ter$a* a$0 e7ter$a* '(Le#t" '1 e7perie$#e: J a$ '(Le#ti'$ whi#h we a$"wer (% "a%i$g that, '$ the #'$trar%, it i" 0i11i# *t t' 0' with' t the $'ti'$ '1 " peri/p'"iti'$ a" regar0" E(* eE a$0 Ep*ea" reE, (e#a "e, a##'r0i$g t' %' (/ight the '(Le#t'r (e a )ai%A%ika?), " #h K a*itie" a" E(* eE a$0 Ep*ea" reE #a$$'t e7i"t i$ the a("e$#e '1 a " ("trat /, whi#h, i$ thi" #a"e, i" a Se*1. &erhap" i/p*ie0 i" the )%A%a p'"iti'$ that /'"t #a"e" '1 err'r " #h a" that '1 the 8re0 #r%"ta*: /a% (e a##' $te0 1'r with' t re1erri$g t' tmbhimna, 8" peri/p'"iti'$ '1 the Se*1 '$ the $'$,Se*1, ( t eve$ the )%A%a, "a%" CD, a0'pt" thi" $'ti'$ i$ the #a"e '1 the i$ter$a* a$0 e7ter$a* K a*itie" '1 the Se*1.

Or<6A even if $e &o(ld avoid referrin to it WviL), t!e notion of a$himna Y in all &ases,<6; still t!ere is, t!ro( ! t!e notion of W'ein asso&iated $it!Y a Self, t!e (n&tion of i%seity s%rin5led on t!is or t!at insentient o'#e&t, s(&! as t!e 'ody, et&), itself not!in '(t a l("% of &lay)<6B On t!e ot!er !and, in t!e &ase of %!eno"ena s(&! as b'l(ec, b%leas(rec, and so on, t!e attri'(tion to t!e" of a la&5 of relation to t!e Self W&an 'e (nderstood onlyY t!ro( ! t!e notion t!at t!ey are related to not!in '(t t!e"selves)<6= T!e sit(ation Wt!at $e !ave #(st des&ri'edY is not!in '(t t!e ro(nd of e,isten&es in its f(ll and la"enta'le for", for $!at dra s t!e fettered so(ls Winto t!e ro(nd of e,isten&esY is t!at very in#(ry infli&ted Won t!e SelfY <6< 'y t!e d(alities Wof %leas(re and %ain, et&)Y, 'ro( !t into %lay t!ro( ! s(&! &on&eits Was !ave 'een dis%layed in t!e %re&edin analysisY) As !as 'een said 'y t!e yogin- .ad4las4 in t!e Mr,a0 eyapur0a : T!e &!ariot is sit(ated on t!e ro(nd, and t!e 'ody is sit(ated on t!e &!ariot, and in t!e 'ody is sit(ated yet anot!er s%irit 6puru)a7 Wi)e), t!e SelfY) -et no one t!in5s of t!e eart! as H"ineI, as one does $it! !is o$n 'ody) S(&! e,traordinary del(sion[<6C

Re $0er"ta$0 thi" #'$ti$ ati'$ '1 the arg /e$t a" agai$ 0ire#te0 t' the )ai%A%ika", wh'"e 0'#tri$e ha" (ee$ re1'r/ *ate0 i$ ter/" /'re #'$ge$ia* t' the .rika (ahant0idant, ahantrasbhieka). F t, a$'ther p'""i(i*it% /ight (e that the 1'r/er #*a "e i" a00re""e0 t' a pr'p'$e$t '1 the SAkh%a, wh'"e $'ti'$ '1 b'ddhi a$0 ahakra 0'e" i$0ee0 appear t' #'$1*ate the #'$"#i' " pri$#ip*e with the i$ert pri$#ip*e> the *atter ha*1 /ight #'$#eiva(*% (e a00re""e0 t' a F 00hi"t, p'""i(*% a ;ai(hA9ika, wh'"e $'ti'$ '1 svalakaa appear" t' attri( te a$ $t'war0 8that$e"": t' 1*eeti$g a$0 "e*1,re1ere$tia* e7perie$#e". 724 Nit., 8<r eve$, 2*et it (e a0/itte0 that3 there i" $' 2" #h $'ti'$3 i$ a$% #a"e:. )'te that, pr'(a(*%, the #'//a a$0 the "e/i,#'*'$ i$tr'0 #e0 (% the ?S.S e0. "h' *0 (e i$ter#ha$ge0= the "e/i,#'*'$ a1ter ast', the #'//a a1ter bh)t. B$%h'w, i$ the #'rre#te0 te7t pre"e$te0 i$ thi" v'* /e, we have $'t /ai$tai$e0 p $#t ati'$ /ark" 'ther tha$ daas. 725 Sa/e i/age '1 the $#ti'$ '1 ip"eit% te/p'rari*% "pri$k*e0 '$ a$ i$"e$tie$t '(Le#t (ahantv!avasthrasbhiikta) i$ CD a0 8. 726 idanta! J *it., 8thr' gh the $'ti'$ that the% are $'thi$g ( t Ethi"E:. .hat i" t' "a%, a##'r0i$g t' the ;ai(hA9ika", a*th' gh there i" $' ESe*1E t' "erve a" " ("trat / t' the $e$0i$g "erie" '1 #'g$iti'$", ea#h #'g$iti'$ i" /'/e$tari*% 0i"ti$g i"he0 1r'/ the $e7t, a$0 at that /'/e$t i" e$0'we0 with idant, 8that$e"":. .h " the .rika a$"wer" ('th the SAkh%a" (8%' 0' $'thi$g ( t re1'r/ *ate ' r $'ti'$ '1 ahant E6,$e""E:) a$0 the ;ai(hA9ika" (8%' 0' $'thi$g ( t re1'r/ *ate ' r $'ti'$ '1 idant Ethat$e""E:) J a$0 the re" *t i$ ('th #a"e" i" the "a/e= 8thi" w'r*0 i" *a/e$ta(*e: (ea eva sasra ocan,!a). 727 abhighta. 728 8rkae!ap'ra 55; 18. .hi" i" a 0eve*'p/e$t '1 the a$#ie$t para(*e '1 the Se*1 ri0i$g i$ the #hari't (ei$g the #hari't,0river, the /i$0 (manas) the rei$", the "e$"e" (indri!a) the h'r"e", the '(Le#t" '1 "e$"e (via!a) the% ra$ge 'ver> "ee ?AH 6 3, 5. <$#e the 1ir"t *eve* '1 err'r ha" take$ p*a#e, that i", '$#e the e$titie" #'$"tit tive '1 phe$'/e$a* rea*it% have (ee$ take$ t' (e 0i11ere$t 1r'/ the Se*1, earth, #hari't a$0 ('0% are ( t /ere " ("trata 1'r the Se*1, i.e., the% are '(Le#t" eK a**% i$"e$tie$t. )everthe*e"", i$ a "e#'$0 pha"e, the *i/ite0 " (Le#t i0e$ti1ie" hi/"e*1 with the ('0% a*'$e, wherea" he "h' *0 i0e$ti1% hi/"e*1 with a** the '(Le#t" '1 the $iver"e, th " re#'g$iUi$g that there i" $' '(Le#t '1 the w'r*0 that i" 0i11ere$t 1r'/ the " pre/e Se*1, whi#h i" ('th tra$"#e$0e$t a$0 i//a$e$t. 6t i" $'tew'rth% that, i$ the "a/e #'$te7t J the 0e1i$iti'$ '1 the pa' a" he wh' take" the ('0% t' (e the Se*1 J Sp) 666 14 K 'te" a ver"e ('rr'we0 1r'/ the "a/e #hapter '1 the 8rkae!ap'ra ("ee $. 717). See a*"' &S 39, whi#h e7p*ai$" the rever"e pr'#e"", i$ whi#h the tw' err'r" are " ##e""ive*% 0i"pe**e0.


#!rik! ,* *avin esta'lis!ed t!at, in t!is $ay, one 'inds oneIs Wtr(eY Self $it! false "ental &onstr(&ts 'y failin to re&o niLe t!at Self,<6@ t!e "aster no$ says: ,*) Aow strange it is that one en"elops oneHs Self with notions such as the body6 or the "ital breaths6 or with concepts belonging rather to the intellect6 or with the expanse of the 1oid:,@ C 8ust as does the silkworm with its cocoonK:, On&e Wt!e (nity ofY &ons&io(sness !as 'een &ast aside in failin to re&o niLe t!e Self, ea&! and every &o niLer en"elops his Self6 t!o( ! Wit is in tr(t!Y %ervasive, $it! t!e 'indin s<A6 of "ental &onstr(&ts $!i&! arise fro" !i"self) *o$Z T!e "aster e,%lains t!is 'y sayin : Ithe body6 etc)H) WT!ese "ental &onstr(&ts are:Y notions 63imar(ana7 of body and "ital breath Was t!e one and only SelfYM concepts 612n7 proper to the intellect6 t!at is, t!e deter"inate &o nition Wor as&ertain"entY Wof %leas(re and %ain, et&)YM and the expanse 6prapa2ca7 , t!at is, t!e %roliferation of Ws%e&(lations on t!eY 1oid 6na$has7 ) with WnotionsY such as ))) 6yogena7 "eans H'y relatin W!is SelfY to "ental &onstr(&ts s(&! as t!e 'ody, et&I R for instan&e, sayin : HI a" sli", fat, 'ea(tif(l, $iseI)<AAR T!(s do fee'le?"inded %ersons, &!ildren, and $o"en, and, indeed, &(ltivators W$!o are a'sor'ed only in t!eir %!ysi&al la'o(rY ta5e t!eir 'ody to 'e t!e Self, on t!e stren t! of t!eir o$n (nderstandin ,<A; and, in so doin , dee" t!e"selves

akh!tivat J #1. S 6 2= %nna bandha, 82Ni/ite03 k$'w*e0ge i" ('$0age:. 8Sk%: (nabhas) here /etaph'ri#a**% 1'r the " a* 8;'i0: ()n!a) J "ee (e*'w. prapa&ca /a% a*"' (e "'/ewhat ir'$i#a**% i$te$0e0 J the /arve**' " e7te$t '1 0i11ere$t "pe# *ati'$" '$ e/pti$e"". .hi" e$ /erati'$ '1 the 1' r /ai$ /'0e" '1 #'$#eivi$g the Se*1 agree" with that '1 ^&? 6 6, 4, S; 6 1, a$0 &MvX 8 ("ee $. 661 a$0 Bppe$0i7 14, p. 338). B" /a0e #*ear (% the ;ir)pakapa&cik 3, K 'te0 i$ &+ 19 (p. 54), th'"e 1' r /ai$ /'0e" '1 #'$#eivi$g the Se*1 ($a/e*%, ('0%, (reath, b'ddhi, the ;'i0) are $'thi$g ( t rea*iUati'$" '1 8eg'it%: (asmit), a" 'pp'"e0 t' 8ip"eit%: (ahant), whi#h i" the e7perie$#e '1 the tr e Se*1> $'te that the ;ir)pkapa&cik a00" t' the"e 1' r, '(Le#t" '1 "e$"e a$0 the "e$"e" the/"e*ve"= sampanno 8smi ko 8smi snih!attro 8smi modamno 8smi0 primi )n!o 8sm,ti hi a#s' padev asmit d#00. 731 B$ e#h' '1 thi" 0i"# ""i'$ i" t' (e 1' $0 i$ &S 51, a" "h'w$ (% CD a0 *'#. De*%i$g '$ the #'//e$tar%, a$0 th " agreei$g with F. ). &a$0it (&S= 39), we pr'p'"e tra$"*ati$g %lakra, *it., 8$et,/aker:, a" 8"i*kw'r/:, rather tha$ a" 8"pi0er:, a" 0' Far$ett a$0 Si*( r$. T'r, $'t '$*% 0'e" CD g*'"" %lakra a" kmi, wh'"e pri/ar% /ea$i$g i" 8w'r/:, ( t the 0etai*e0 0e"#ripti'$ '1 the e$tire pr'#e"" (etter " it" the "i*kw'r/. B*th' gh $'t " gge"te0 here (% CD, the /etaph'ri# /ea$i$g '1 %la, 80e#epti'$:, 8i** "i'$:, 8/agi#:, #' *0 a*"' (e i/p*i#it*% i$te$0e0 here (#1. 4&S 30). 732 nigaa. 733 .h'"e wh' "a%= 86 a/ wi"e: are th'"e wh' take the b'ddhi t' (e the Se*1. 734 svavikalpena.
729 730


dis&ernin ,<AB at least to so"e e,tent) W+(t, $e say,Y t!e 'ody %eris!es !ere and no$M !o$ &an it 'e t!e SelfZ On t!e ot!er !and, t!ose $!o ta5e t!e vital 'reat! to 'e t!e Self, <A= t!in5in : HIt is I $!o a" !(n ry and t!irstyI, "ay dee" t!e"selves a 'it W'(t not "(&!Y "ore dis&ernin [ WTo $!i&! $e re%ly:Y no$, 'ot! t!e 'ody and t!e vital 'reat!s are as insentient as is a l("% of &lay, et&)M !o$ &o(ld eit!er of t!e" 'e t!e SelfZ So, .F"4sa5as and ot!ers,<A< W$!o t!in5 t!at t!e assertions:Y HI a" !a%%yI, or HI a" sadI, "ean t!at it is t!e Self $!o feels %leas(re and %ain, s!o$ even reater dis&ern"ent, for t!ey ta5e t!e s('tle 'ody to 'e t!e Self)<AC W+(t, $e re%ly,Y !o$ &an affe&tations of t!e intelle&t, <A@ s(&! as %leas(re and %ain, 'e said to 'e t!e SelfZ<;7
vivecakaman!a J &hi*'"'phi#a**%, thi" $" rpri"i$g p'"iti'$ i" L "t that a0'pte0 (% the !ArvAka "#h''* '1 th' ght. !1. S; 6 1, K 'te0 $. 661, a$0 &MvX 8= caitan!avii#a ar,ram tm iti crvk, 8.he !ArvAka" "a%= E.he Se*1 i" i0e$ti#a* with the ('0% e$0'we0 with #'$"#i' "$e"".E: <$ the !ArvAka 0'#tri$e, "ee +aha0eva$ 1974= 79,86= 8.he !ArvAka 0'e" $'t 0e$% #'$"#i' "$e"", ( t '$*% that it i" rea* i$0epe$0e$t '1 the ('0%. Rhe$ the e*e/e$t" #'/e t'gether i$ a parti# *ar /'0e t' 1'r/ a$ 'rga$i"/, #'$"#i' "$e"" (/i$0 'r "' *) appear" i$ it. !'$"#i' "$e"", th ", i" a$ epiphe$'/e$'$, a$ a1ter,g*'w '1 /atter> it i" a 1 $#ti'$ '1 the ('0%. 2...3 whe$ the e*e/e$t" #'/(i$e t' 1'r/ a$ 'rga$i"/i# patter$, #'$"#i' "$e"" e/erge", eve$ a" the i$t'7i#ati$g K a*it% appear" i$ a /i7t re '1 #ertai$ i$gre0ie$t", $'$e '1 whi#h, take$ "eparate*%, p'""e""e" it, 'r a" the re0 #'*'r i" pr'0 #e0 1r'/ the #'/(i$ati'$ '1 (ete* *ea1, are#a $ t, a$0 *i/e, $'$e '1 whi#h i" re0. .hat there i" $' "' * apart 1r'/ the ('0% i" evi0e$#e0 (% the 1a#t, "a%" the !ArvAka, that #'$"#i' "$e"" peri"he" with the ('0%:. )'te h'w the '(Le#t'r 2?3 rever"e" the arg /e$t i$ CD:" #'//e$tar%. 736 .hat i", i$a"/ #h a" vita* (reath i" the prereK i"ite '1 a** "e$"e e7perie$#e. Mere CD:" e7p'"iti'$ 0i11er" 1r'/ that '1 kA. 27= there, he wa" re1erri$g t' a phi*'"'phi#a* "#h''*, the &rA@a(rah/avA0i$", here he a** 0e" t' the 'r0i$ar%, a*/'"t trivia*, e7perie$#e '1 (reathi$g. 737 Mere, CD #'//e$t" p'$ dh,%&na, *it., 8#'g$iti'$ '1 the i$te**e#t:, '1 the kArikA. S; 6 1 (K 'te0 $. 661) a$0 Sp) 6 4 i0e$ti1% th'"e wh' take the b'ddhi, 'r the a#t '1 #'g$iti'$ pr'per t' the b'ddhi, t' (e the Se*1, re"pe#tive*%, a" the C'gA#Ara", a$0 a" ('th the C'gA#Ara" a$0 the +Y/A"aka". B##'r0i$g t' &MvX 8 (K 'te0 i$ Bppe$0i7 14, p. 338), whi#h give" a /'re #'/p*ete a##' $t '1 thi" p'"iti'$, the% are C'gA#Ara", )ai%A%ika" a$0 +Y/A"aka", ea#h "#h''* 0eve*'pi$g it" 'w$ view" '$ the wa% b'ddhi "ta$0" 1'r the Se*1. 6t "ee/" *ike*%, there1're, that here, the 8et#: re1er" t' C'gA#Ara" a$0 )ai%A%ika". 738 .he +Y/A"aka": p rp'"e i" t' 0i"#*'"e the rati'$a*it% i$here$t i$ the *aw '1 kar/a$= the 0'er a$0 the e7perie$#er are '$e a$0 the "a/e per"'$, eve$ i1 the 1r it" '1 hi" a#t" are e7perie$#e0 a1ter "'/e 0e*a%, i$ a$'ther (irth eve$. .here1're, the% p'"t *ate a 8"' *:, p'r!a#aka, whi#h tra$"/igrate" 1r'/ '$e (irth t' a$'ther. .h " the p'r!a#aka, #'/p'"e0 '1 eight e*e/e$t", a/'$g whi#h the " (t*e"t i" b'ddhi, ('th a#t" a$0 e7perie$#e" the 1r it" '1 it" a#ti'$", i$ the 1'r/ '1 p*ea" re a$0 pai$. Sp) 6 4 pre"e$t" a "i/i*ar e7p'"iti'$ '1 the +Y/A"aka view '1 the Se*1 ("ee $. 740). 6$ a00iti'$, it "h'w" that " #h a view, a*th' gh $'t 1 **% "ati"1a#t'r%, i/p*ie" it" 'w$ #'/p*eti'$. 6$ e11e#t, t' #'$"i0er the Se*1 a" the e7perie$#er, 'r the 86:, '1 86 a/ happ%:, 86 a/ "a0:, i" $0' (te0*% a pr'gre"" with regar0 t' th'"e, !ArvAka" a$0 the $t t're0, wh' take the ('0% t' (e the Se*1, a$0 th " k$'w '$*% 86 a/ thi$:, 86 a/ 1at:. 739 b'ddhidharma J here, b'ddhidharma appear" t' (e $0er"t''0 i$ the "e$"e '1 b'ddh!'pdhi, 8e7tri$"i# a11e#tati'$ '1 the i$te**e#t: (a$0 $'t i$ the "e$"e '1 the eight b'ddhidharmas= dharma, %&na, vairg!a, aivar!a, a$0 their 'pp'"ite"), "i$#e p*ea" re a$0 pai$ are "' #hara#teriUe0 i$ .rika te7t" J #1. &MvX 8, Sp) 14, 'r CD a0 &S 27. Sp? 6 4 a$0 Sp; a0 *'#. "peak '1 2b'ddh!3avasth. 740 6t /a% (e i$tere"ti$g t' #'/pare thi" pa""age with ?9e/arALa:" re1 tati'$ J 1r'/ the .rika p'i$t '1 view J '1 +Y/A"aka 0'#tri$e, a0 Sp? 6 4= aha s'kh, ca d'kh, ca rakta ca it!disavida0 s'khd!avasthn's!)te vartante 8n!atra t sph'#am00,: E6 a/ happ%, 6 a/ "a0, 6 a/ 0ev'te0E J the"e a$0 'ther #'g$iti'$" have evi0e$t*% their (a"i" i$ "'/e 'ther 2" ("trat /3


*en&e t!e %artisans of t!e 1oid<;8 assert t!at t!e Self Wis rat!er to 'e fo(ndY $!ere t!ere is an W(tterY a'sen&e 6a$h3a7 of "ental &onstr(&t R $!et!er it 'e t!at of 'ody, vital 'reat!, or intelle&t) T!in5in t!at H$!atsoever a%%ears, I a" not t!atI, t!ey "aintain t!at t!e Self is '(t t!at 1oid, defined as t!e a'sen&e of any W&o niLa'leY &ontent $!atsoever,<;6 $!ose essen&e is t!e ne ation of all Wdefinite &o nitionY) WT!is 1oidY is e,%ressed !ere 'y t!e ter" HskyI 6na$has7 ) +(t t!ere is anot!er H1oidI 6(/nya7 R t!at of t!e +ra!"av4da<;A R $!ose %artisans "aintain t!at, in t!e %ro&ess of "editation 6samdhna7 , $!en it is realiLed t!at H!ere is anot!er a'sen&e 6(/nya7 Wt!atY is not "yselfI, t!ey t!en %osit t!at ot!er a'sen&e as t!e Self,<;; in a&&ordan&e $it! t!e for"(la Hnot t!is, not t!isIM <;B t!is a"o(nts to ivin (% one %arti&(lar 1oid and ras%in Win its %la&eY anot!er, in series, as t!e essen&e of t!e 1oid) T!ese Wlatter s%e&(lationsY !ave 'een &!ara&teriLed as Ithe expanse of the 1oidH:29 in t!e 54ri54) F(rt!er"ore, 'e&a(se t!ey !ave not deter"ined t!e nat(re Wof t!e SelfY to 'e &ons&io(sness, t!ose as&eti&s 6yogin7 $!o ta5e t!e 1oid to 'e t!e Self R t!e"selves

(an!atra) threa0e0 thr' gh the "tate" '1 happi$e"", et#., 2*ike Lewe*" '$ a $e#k*a#e, 'r 1*'wer" '$ the "tri$g '1 a gar*a$03:> $'te that Sp) 6 4 g*'""e" s'khd!avasthn's!)te '1 the kA. a"= antasraks)trakalpata! sthite, 8whi#h i" *ike the #'r0 withi$ 2a$0 (i$0i$g t'gether3 the gar*a$0 '1 1*'wer":> #1. CD a0 34 a$0 35> '$ the +Y/A/"aka p'"iti'$ '$ the Se*1, "ee Bppe$0i7 16, p. 340. 741 )n!bhimnin J the "a/e e7a/i$ati'$ '1 the )n!avda i" at i"" e i$ Sp? 6 12,13 a$0 Sp) a0 *'#, whi#h treat" the /atter th'r' gh*%. See Bppe$0i7 17, p. 341. 742 Nit, 8a" the a("e$#e '1 a$% 0i"p*a%:. 743 6t i" a "e#'$0 ver"i'$ '1 the )n!avda that i" at i"" e here, $a/e*%, that '1 the B0vaita, i$terprete0 a##'r0i$g t' the .raika". .he 0i11ere$#e appear" t' (e ( t a K e"ti'$ '1 /eth'0 J F 00hi"t" "a% that the ;'i0 i" the ;'i0, $a/e*%, that it i" apprehe$0e0 '$*% a" " #h, wherea" B0vaiti$" wa$t t' parti# *ariUe it, a" it were, (% 0i"tri( ti$g it 'ver "evera* a#t" '1 $egati'$, i$ keepi$g with the 1'r/ *a 8neti neti:. .h " it "ee/" that CD wa$t" t' a""'#iate the B0vaiti$" t' the )n!avda whi*e 0i"ti$g i"hi$g the/ 1r'/ the +A0h%a/ika", (% taki$g re#' r"e t' a *itera* rea0i$g '1 8neti neti:, whi#h "ee/" t' p* ra*iUe the $'ti'$ '1 ;'i0. 744 8Rhe$, at the /'/e$t 2'r i$ the pr'#e""3 '1 /e0itati'$ (samdhna) 2...3:= here, the #'$#ept '1 abhvasamdhi, 8a("'rpti'$ i$ the ;'i0:, that the aiva" a"#ri(e t' " #h 8$ihi*i"t": a" the ;e0A$ti$" a$0 the +A0h%a/ika", i" re1erre0 t' a$0 re1 te0, a" i" a*"' 0'$e i$ Sp? 6 12,13, Sp) a$0 Sp& a0 *'#. Sa/e arg /e$t i$ Sp) 112,13= tvdm avi%&e! 2avasth3 avi%&e!atvd vakt'm aak!et! 'c!at )n!eti t' k'ta, )n!atpi ca!vad bhv!ate tvad vikalpollikhitatvd asa' vi%&e!aiva 2e/e$0i$g vi%&aiva t' vi%&e!aiva3, 861 thi" "tate 2$a/e0 va# it%3 i" $k$'w$ t' pe'p*e *ike %' , it "h' *0 (e "ai0 that, '$ a##' $t '1 it" $k$'wa(i*it%, it i" i/p'""i(*e t' e7pre"" it. .he$ wh% #a** it ;'i0? Gve$ va# it%, a" *'$g a" it i" #'$#eive0, i" i$0ee0 k$'wa(*e, i$a"/ #h a" it i" #'$#ept a**% 0e*i$eate0:. 745 neti neti. See Bppe$0i7 18, p. 342. 746 Sp) 6 12,13 (?a * ShA"trY= 28) 0e$' $#e" it a" a$ 8 $1ath'/a(*e a(%"" '1 " pre/e 0e* "i'$: (agdhe mahmohe) i$t' whi#h the \$%avA0i$" thr'w the/"e*ve" a$0 'ther".

insentient<;< and &onf(sed, i""ersed as t!ey are in t!e &ave of dee% slee% R fetter t!e Self $it! insentien&e, t!e Self t!at is essentially &ons&io(sness)<;C Aow strangeK R t!at is, !o$ astonis!in t!is all is[ .oreover, !o$ a's(rd[ T!is $o(ld never !a%%en of its o$n a&&ord[<;@ And !ere t!e "aster ives an e,a"%le: HW)))Y with its cocoon6 etc)H) N(st as the silkworm6 t!at is, a &ertain 5ind of $or", after "a5in its &o&oon, na"ely, an envelo%e for"ed of its o$n saliva, en"elops itself on all sides, t!at is, 'inds itself $it! a vie$ to its o$n deat! R for, later on, it t!ere dies R so li5e$ise does one $!o &onsiders t!e 'ody, et&), to 'e t!e Self, 'ind !is o$n Self $it! !is o$n t!o( !t? &onstr(&ts, t!at is, $it! t!o( !t?&onstr(&ts s(&! as HII or H"ineI t!at !e !i"self !as "ade) As +(dd!ists say: O!ere t!ere is Self, t!ere is t!o( !t of an ot!er) Atta&!"ent and !atred arise fro" distin (is!in t!e Self and t!e ot!er) Co"%o(nded of t!ese t$o Wo%%osed ideasY, all vi&es arise)<B7 #!rik! ,,

!1. Sp? 6 13a= atas tat ktrima %&e!a sa''ptapadavat 2...30, 8Me$#e, that 2viU., $'$,(ei$g (abhva)3 "h' *0 (e #'$"i0ere0 a 1a#titi' " 2"tate3 "i/i*ar t' 0eep "*eep:> i$ 'ther w'r0", the abhvasamdhi i" take$ t' (e a "tate '1 $a ght a$0 i$"e$tie$#e '$*% i$ a h%per('*i# 'r tra$"it'r% "e$"e, a" i" the #a"e with 0eep "*eep. T'r whe$ '$e awake" 1r'/ 0eep "*eep, '$e k$'w" that he ha" e7perie$#e0, a0ve$titi' "*%, that "tate '1 $a ght a$0 i$"e$tie$#e> #1. Sp) 6 13a= ato mohvasthaiva s kalpit tath smar!amatvt s cn'bh)!amnatvd an'bhavit' pramt'r avasthtr)pas!a prat!'ta sattm veda!ate na tv abhvam iti, 8Me$#e, that "tate '1 i$"e$tie$#e i" ( t a pre" /pti'$ (kalpita), "i$#e th " it i" re#'**e#te0 (smar!ama). <$ the #'$trar%, the 1a#t that " #h a "tate i" e7perie$#e0 atte"t" t' the e7i"te$#e (satt) '1 the e7perie$#er (an'bhavit), '1 the #'g$iUer (pramt), wh' i" the " ("trat / (avastht) '1 that e7perie$#e, a$0 $'t '1 a$% $'$,(ei$g (abhva) 2'r ;'i03:. 748 .he e7perie$#e '1 the ;'i0 re/ai$" a$ i$te**igi(*e e7perie$#e (pratipatti), whi#h the %'gi$ th " #'$"tr e", a1ter he ha" e/erge0 1r'/ samdhi= 86 wa" pr'1' $0*% $#'$"#i' ": (gham)ho 8ham sam). .here1're the e7perie$#e i" $'t p'""i(*e with' t a$ e7perie$#er, that i" t' "a%, with' t #'$"#i' "$e"" it"e*1. 6$"e$tie$#e #a$$'t a" a #'$"eK e$#e #hara#teriUe " #h a$ e7perie$#e. .h " the .rika ha" 1'r/ *ate0 three '(Le#ti'$" agai$"t the )n!avda= 1) .aki$g the Se*1 a" a ;'i0, 0e1i$i$g it $egative*%, a/' $t" t' a regress's ad in9init'm, 1'r thi" i$v'*ve" the ap'ria that the '(Le#t $egate0 ha" (% that 1a#t (ee$ a0/itte0. 2) .aki$g the Se*1 a" a ;'i0 i/p*ie" it" i$"e$tie$#e. 3) Tr'/ the .rika per"pe#tive, it i" i/p'""i(*e t' #'$#eive the a**,vi(rati$g a$0 1 *g rati$g Se*1 'r #'$"#i' "$e"" a" i$ert a$0 i$"e$tie$t. <$ thi" arg /e$t a" t' the i$tri$"i# 0%$a/i"/ '1 the Se*1 'r #'$"#i' "$e"" a$0 the #'rre*ative pri$#ip*e '1 it" "'vereig$ 1ree0'/, "ee CD a0 27= 86$ ('th the"e 20'#tri$e", th' gh the #'$"#i' " pri$#ip*e ha" (ee$ 1'r/ *ate0 a" " pre/e3, what ha" $'t (ee$ re#'g$iUe0 i" the 1ree0'/ (svtantr!a) '1 that #'$"#i' " pri$#ip*e whi#h, e$0'we0 with *i1e, (e#'/e" the 2e11i#ie$t3 #a "e '1 the #'$"tr #ti'$ '1 the $iver"e:> "ee a*"' ?9e/arALa:" 0i"# ""i'$ '$ the "a/e K e"ti'$" i$ Sp) 6 12,13. 749 )a/e*%, it #a$ (e e7p*ai$e0 '$*% i$ ter/" '1 0e* "i'$, that i", i$ ter/" '1 ' r $'ti'$ '1 abhimna. 750 Pramavrttika, Pramasiddhi 219, a##'r0i$g t' ;etter:" e0iti'$ (S 221 i$ &a$0e%a:" e0iti'$). )'te the i$ver"i'$ '1 the 1ir"t tw' w'r0" i$ CD, wh' rea0" sat! tmani i$"tea0 '1 tmani sati. .he i0e$ti1i#ati'$ i" 0 e t' Firgit ?e**$er a$0 Sei"hi ?ara"hi/a, wh'/ 6 tha$k. &r'1. Da11ae*e .'re**a ha" 0raw$ /% atte$ti'$ t' the 1a#t that the ver"e i" K 'te0 a$'$%/' "*% i$ the +bhisama!lakrloka (% Mari(ha0ra (e0. ;ai0%a= 303, 545).


*o$ is t!is reat del(sion 6mahmoha7 t!en dissolved, in itself diffi&(lt to fend off,<B8 $!i&! arises $!en t!e 'ody, et&), is ta5en to 'e t!e &o niLerZ To t!is 9(estion, $e ans$er: it is t!e freedo" of t!e Lord only t!at is t!e &a(se Wof s(&! a dissol(tionY) T!e "aster says: ,,) &ne should un"eil:5* his proper Self by a discipline that aims at manifesting the might of Self+knowledge ) Thus does the Supreme 'i"a extend Wwithin our sphereY his play made wonderful by Wthe alternation ofY bondage and liberation):5, WT!e &o"%o(nd s3a12na3i$ha3$hsanayogena is analyLed as follo$s:Y Self+ knowledge 6s3a12na7 !ere "eans t!e Ha$areness 6a3agama7 of SelfIs o$n freedo"I R t!at Self $!ose distin&tive feat(re is &ons&io(snessM t!e might 63i$ha3a7 of t!at Self?5no$led e "eans t!e Hflo(ris!in 6sph-tat3a7 of Wt!e a&olyteIsY o$n freedo"I, in t!e "arvelo(s for" of s(%re"e i%seity, as !is &ons&io(s for" 6cidr/pa7 W'e&o"es evidentY as !e slo( !s off t!e &on&eit t!at ta5es t!e 'ody, et&), to 'e t!e Self 6dehdya$himna7 ) T!en !e 5no$s: HI a" a (nifor" "ass of 'lissf(l &ons&io(sness, W!en&eY I a" freeI)<B; T!e manifestation 6$hsana7 of t!at "i !t t!at is not!in '(t t!e freedo" of &ons&io(sness "eans ill("ination Wna"ely, of t!e a&olyte $!oY !as lo&ated in !is o$n Self everyt!in t!at !ad 'een !eretofore $ron ly &onsidered as e,ternal to it, sayin Was it $ereY: HT!is "i !t is all "ineI)<BB T!e discipline 6yoga7 ai"in at t!is "anifestation "eans t!e fi,ation of refle&tion on t!e Self t!at res(lts fro" s(&! a %ro ra" of s(&! deter"ined %ra&ti&es)<B= T!(s, by a discipline that aims at manifesting the might of Self+knowledge6 one un"eils:5: his proper Self R t!at Self, $!ose nat(re is &ons&io(sness and is not s('servient to anyt!in else)<BC W+y Hone (nveilsI is "eant t!atY t!e Lord !i"self (nfastens !i" $!o !ad 'een "ade fast in t!e &!ains t!at &onsist in &onsiderin 6paramar(an7 t!e 'ody, vital 'reat!s, s('tle 'ody or t!e 1oid Was t!e SelfY, t!at is, no$ re"oves $!at !ad &overed !i", 'y "a5in !i" a$are of t!e tr(t!: HI a" &ons&io(sness, I a" freeI)<B@ T!(s, t!e veilin of t!e Self t!at is t!e 'ody, et&), $!i&! !ad &o"e a'o(t t!ro( ! failin to re&o niLe t!e Self as s(&!, %eris!es no$ d(e to t!e %o$er of re&o nition 6,hyti7 , <=7 inas"(&! as t!e fa(lt WviL), t!e $ron identifi&ation $it! t!e 'ody, et&)Y
d'rnivra J #1. CD a0 18, where the he7a0 #'$"tit te0 '1 m! a$0 the 1ive ka&c'kas i" a*"' "ai0 t' (e d'rnivra> "ee a*"', at the e$0 '1 the pa""age, the a("'* tive= ... nivr!a. 752 .he"e tw' kArikA" are "%//etri#a*= ve#a!ate, i$ kA. 32> 'dve#a!et, i$ kA. 33. .he "e#'$0 he/i"ti#h '1 33 i" i$te$0e0 a" a #'$#* "i'$ t' ('th 32 a$0 33. 753 See &S 60, $. 1039. 754 cidnandaikaghana svatantro 8smi. 755 V 'te 1r'/ ^&? 6; 12= sarvo mam!a vibhava, whi#h '## r" agai$ i$ CD a0 51 (avat). 756 evapari,lanakramea. 757 'dve#a!ate @ 'dve#a!et, i$ the kA. 758 .hi" "tate/e$t e7pa$0" p'$ the pre#e0i$g ni%a, 8'w$, pr'per:. !'$"#i' "$e"" i" a t'$'/' ", i$ the "e$"e that it i" "e*1,#a "e0> it i" $'t a$ e11e#t, rather, it i" the '$*% #a "e '1 whatever e7i"t". <r, a" "a% the B0vaiti$", the *a$g age '1 #a "e a$0 e11e#t, (ei$g v!vahrika, #a$$'t (e "e0 t' 0e"#ri(e the *ti/ate pri$#ip*e, whi#h i" 8with' t (egi$$i$g:. 759 caitan!asvar)pa svatantro 8smi. 760 Mere we $'te the '$*% '## rre$#e i$ CD:" #'//e$tar% '1 the p'"itive ter/ kh!ti, p*ai$*% a$0 perhap" eve$ p*a%1 **% #'$tra"te0 with akh!ti. .he #'$tra"t " gge"t" that kh!ti i" t' (e take$ i$ the "e$"e '1 prat!abhi%&, wh'"e a$t'$%/ a1prat!abhi%& i" $'t atte"te0. !1. &MvX 4, where the


is s(&! insofar as it is "ade (% fro" oneIs o$n t!o( !t?&onstr(&ts, as !as 'een stated 'y t!e revered a(t!or of t!e Tantrasra : One 'e&o"es t!e Lord 6pati7 instantly R !is self not!in '(t &ons&io(sness and !is 'ody not!in '(t t!e (niverse R t!ro( ! reasonin , $!ere'y is o'tained a fir" &onvi&tion $!olly ot!er t!an t!e WfalseY &onvi&tion of t!e 'o(nd so(l, Win t!e !a'it ofY assertin W&onfidently:Y HI a" inertI, HI a" 'o(nd 'y "y a&tsI, HI a" i"%(reI, HI a" overned 'y anot!erI)<=8 +(t $!y does t!e Lord 'ot! 'ind and li'erateZ T!e "aster says: IThus Wdoes the Supreme 'i"a extend his play made wonderful by Lthe alternation ofM Y bondage6 etc)H) Thus 6iti7 , i)e), t!ro( ! t!e %ro&ess e,%o(nded earlier, t!e free Lord, the Supreme 'i"a6 $!ose distin (is!in feat(re is t!at t!e (nifor" "ass of 'lissf(l &ons&io(sness of $!i&! !e is &o"%osed &annot 'e %erfe&ted,<=6 &reates 'onda e, esta'lis!in !i"self in t!e &a%a&ity of &o niLer 'y "eans of t!e 'ody, et&) R $!ere(%on fail(re to re&o niLe WoneIs o$n identity $it! t!e SelfY is "ade to a%%ear t!ro( ! !is %layf(l !a'it t!at essentially &onsists in &on&ealin !is o$n real nat(re, t!(s &overin over !is o$n nat(re) Si"ilarly, mutatis mutandis 6puna 7 , !avin s(%%ressed t!e 'onda e of &o niLin 'y "eans of t!e 'ody, et&), t!ro( ! t!e %ro&ess of revealin t!e 5no$led e !e !as of !is o$n Self, !e li'erates 6mocayati7 !i"self of !is o$n free $ill) T!(s, in t$o $ays, he extends6 or !e s%reads W'efore (sY, his play 6,r- 7 , !is s%ortin 6,hel7 , made wonderful by Wthe alternation ofY bondage and liberation6 t!at is, "ade "arvelo(s 'y 'rin in o(t t!e essential nat(re of t!e trans"i ratin $orld and of li'eration 6apa3arga7 R Wall t!e $!ileY t!in5in to !i"self: HAlone, I do not re#oi&eI)<=A For t!is is t!e very essen&e of t!e deity t!at, $!ile re"ainin fi,ed in !is o$n nat(re 6s3ar/par/pa san7 , !e dis%lays !i"self every$!ere as t!e %rin&i%le of e,%erien&e itself, $!atever state Wor &onditionY !e "ay ass("e) And t!is is %re&isely !is freedo") #!rik! ,2 And it is not #(st t!at Wfreedo" or %lay t!at is t!e iss(eY, inas"(&! as any ot!er %arti&(lar state, to t!e e,tent t!at 6e3a7 it re%oses in its o$n for" Wi)e), a%%ears as s(&!Y, is WalsoY "ade to a%%ear 6a3a$hsyate7 'y t!e Lord) T!e "aster says:

1'**'wi$g ver"e, '1 $k$'w$ pr've$a$#e, i" #ite0= akh!tir !adi na kh!ti kh!tir evvai!ate0 kh!ti cet kh!tir)patvt kh!tir evvai!ate, 861 $'$,/a$i1e"tati'$ 0'e" $'t /a$i1e"t 2it"e*13, the$ E/a$i1e"tati'$E a*'$e re/ai$"> i1 it 0'e" /a$i1e"t 2it"e*13, the$ /a$i1e"tati'$ a*'$e re/ai$", (e#a "e 2the $'$,/a$i1e"t3 ha" the "hape '1 the /a$i1e"t:. .he rhet'ri#a* /'0e* here i" perhap" the pa$i9a0i# 8p)ram ada p)ram idam0 p)rt p)ram 'dac!ate0 p)ras!a p)ram d!a0 p)rnam evvai!ate (F4H ; 1, 1): 'r the (iK it' " aiva 8npraka prakate:. 761 Tantrasra 6; (p. 32). 762 p)racidnandaikaghana J *it., 8wh'"e $i1'r/ /a"" '1 (*i""1 * #'$"#i' "$e"" i" a*rea0% per1e#t[#'/p*ete:. 763 ekk, na ramm! aham J #1. F4H 6 4, 3= sa vai naiva reme, tasmd ekk, na ramate, sa dvit,!am aicchat.

,2) Creation6 maintenance and dissolution6 as well as waking6 dream and deep sleep6 appear against Wthe backdrop ofY the Nourth abode):92 /e"ertheless6 the Nourth abode does not appear as co"ered o"er by them):95 No$, $!et!er it &on&ern &reation and t!e rest fro" t!e &os"i& %oint of vie$, or %arti&(lar states, s(&! as $a5in and t!e rest, t!at a%%ly to t!e &o niLer (nder t!e do"inion of my , in eit!er &ase, t!ese states appear a ainst t!e W'a&5dro% of t!eY Lord, a "ass of 'liss 6nandaghana7 , t!at is, against the Nourth abode 6tur-ye dhmani7 , na"ely, t!e Fo(rt! 6caturtha7 state &onsistin of not!in '(t %erfe&t i%seity 6p/r0hant7 ) Re%osin t!ere as t!ey do, s(&! states nevert!eless a&9(ire a for"alWly inde%endentY e,isten&e,<== Wi)e), a%%ear to e,istY as e,ternal to it, $!en re arded fro" t!e %ers%e&tive of t!e Wli"itedY &o niLer, !i"self &onstr(&ted W'y t!e LordIs %o$er of my Y) T!at $!i&! does not a%%ear 6na pra,(ate7 a ainst t!e 'a&5dro% of t!e S(%re"e Lord does not a%%ear e,ternally eit!er) T!(s Wt!e Ci3as/tra statesY: Li5e sesa"e oil, t!e Fo(rt! state is to 'e s%rin5led over t!e t!ree ot!ers)<=<

.he kArikA e"ta(*i"he" the #'rre"p'$0e$#e (etwee$ the /a#r'#'"/i# (#reati'$, et#.) a$0 /i#r'#'"/i# (waki$g, et#.) "tate". ?ArikA" 34 a$0 35 '1 BI:" &S #'rre"p'$0 t' 4&S 31= tribhir eva vivatai%asapr%&ais tair dimadh!anidhankh!ai0 %gratsvapnas''ptair bhramabh)tai chdita t'r!am00. B" '("erve0 (% +aha0eva$ (1975= 21), it "ee/" that s#isthitisahra, 8#reati'$, /ai$te$a$#e a$0 0i""'* ti'$:, are paraphra"e" '1 dimadh!anidhana, 8(egi$$i$g, /i00*e a$0 e$0:, i$ app'"iti'$ with vivatai%asapr%&a, i$ 4&S 31. 765 ... 1'r it i" the 1'r#e (ehi$0 their appeara$#e. Tr'/ the gra//ati#a* p'i$t '1 view, tw' i$terpretati'$" '1 the *a"t *i$e (tathpi tair nvta bhti) are p'""i(*e, 0epe$0e$t '$ whether vtam i" #'$"tr e0 with the " (Le#t phra"e 'r a" a part '1 the pre0i#ate (S na bht! vttam). Si*( r$ a0'pt" the 1ir"t p'""i(i*it%= 8&' rta$t (#e K atrie/e) $e "e reve*e p* " *'r"K :i* e"t re#' vert par #e" (0iver"e" #'$0iti'$"):. Re pre1er the "e#'$0 a" 0'e" CD. .he $egati'$ the$ i$#* 0e" vtam rather tha$ e7#* 0e" it. .he a/(ig it% '1 the ver"e i" perhap" $'t 1'reig$ t' BI:" p rp'"e", 1'r rea0i$g it i$ '$e wa% e7pre""e" the "ta$0p'i$t '1 the pa', a$0 i$ the 'ther that '1 the N'r0. .he *atter i$terpretati'$ i" " pp'rte0 (% DAghavA$a$0a:" ;ivaraa (p. 18) '$ the "*ight*% 0i11ere$t 1'r/ '1 the kArikA i$ 4&S (kA. 31, K 'te0 a('ve)= bhramabh)tair iti %gradd,n mith!bh)tatvn na vast'tais t'r!a tiraskta rh'evdit!a, 8F% "a%i$g 2that the three a$teri'r "tate"3 Ehave (e#'/e i** "i'$E, it i" /ea$t that, "i$#e waki$g, et#., are 1a*"e, the T' rth "tate i" $'t i$ rea*it% #'$#ea*e0 (% the/ J a" i" the " $ (% DAh :. chditam, here, i" t' (e rea0 i$ re*ati'$ t' bhramabh)tais, "' that chditam a"" /e" i$ e11e#t the /ea$i$g '1 achditam J i1 the T' rth "tate i" #'$#ea*e0 (% "'/ethi$g $rea*, it i" i$ 1a#t $'t #'$#ea*e0. !1. 4 6 5, K 'te0 $. 769, a$0 ++ 61= !og, %garasvapnasa''ptat'r,!aparvapaript,m0 citrm iva maiml vimaras)traikag'mphitm 'dvahati, E.he %'gi$ wear", *ike a /arve*' " Lewe*,gar*a$0 2that i", *ike a r'"ar%3, the arti# *ate0 "eK e$#e '1 2"tate" '1 #'$"#i' "$e""3= waki$g, 0rea/, pr'1' $0 "*eep, a$0 the T' rth J "tr $g p'$ $'thi$g ( t the threa0 '1 hi" re1*e#tive #'$"#i' "$e"" (vimara):. 766 svar)pasatt. 767 S 666 20. B0'pti$g here ?9e/arALa:" e7p*a$ati'$ a0 *'#= tailavad iti, !ath taila kramea adhikam adhika prasarad ra!a v!pnoti tath sec!am0,: EB" "e"a/e 'i*E /ea$" Ea" "e"a/e 'i*, gra0 a**% "prea0i$g *itt*e (% *itt*e, perva0e" it" " ("trat /E, "' *ikewi"e "h' *0 2the T' rth "tate3 (e "pri$k*e0 'ver 2the three 'ther"3:.


T!(s, t!e Fo(rt! "ode is t!readed <=C t!ro( ! all states R t!is is t!e s(%re"e %(r%ort of t!e verse) +(t H&an for all t!at !is essential nat(re 'e veiled t!ere Win t!at Fo(rt! stateY 'y t!ose W%!eno"enal statesY, or notZI T!e "aster ans$ers: H/e"ertheless, it Wt!e Fo(rt! stateY does not appear to be co"ered o"er by themI) And so, t!o( ! &overed over for t!e sa5e of Wrevealin Y t!e for"al inde%enden&e Wof entities in t!is $orldY, Wt!at essential nat(reY is still "anifest 6a3a$hsate7 every$!ere, for, 'ein t!e %rin&i%le of e,%erien&e itself at t!e !eart of ea&! and every %er&i%ient s('#e&t, !e Wt!e LordY trans&ends all t!ose states) And it is not t!e &ase t!at, t!ere WviL), in t!e Fo(rt! stateY, !e !ides !is o$n nat(re of %lenit(de 6p/r0as3ar/pa7 'y &on&ealin t!at Wessential nat(reY) T!(s is t!e a'ode t!at is Siva ever re%lete, in all &onditions $!atsoever) #!rik! ,5 Oit! lan (a e ta5en fro" ved4nti& state"ents,<=@ t!e "aster treats of t!e nat(re of t!e t!ree states of $a5in , drea", and dee% slee%M and Win so doin Y !e "a5es 5no$n t!e Fo(rt! WstateY, $!i&! is 'eyond t!e", t!o( ! inf(sed in t!e":<<7 ,5) The waking state is this All6 because difference is there) 3ream is Splendor6 because of the glorification there of 4ight ) The state of WdeepY sleep is that of the WpureY #nower6 because it is a mass of consciousnessM beyond there is the Nourth):: The waking state is this All 63i(3a7,<<6 i)e), t!e &os"i& 63air1a7 for" of $rahman ) <<A
an's!)ta J CD:" #'//e$tar% '$ the $e7t kArikA pre"e$t" the "a/e i/age. .he "a/e ter/ i" 1' $0 i$ Sp? 6 4> "ee a*"' .4 5 296 (a*"' K 'te0 i$ &+ 61)= tra!as!s!n'sadhis t' !advad 'pa%!ate0 sraks)trakalpa tat t'r!a sarvabhede' gh!atm, 8.he T' rth i" t' (e $0er"t''0, withi$ a** the 2three3 0i11ere$t 2"tate"3, a" the "tri$g 2h'*0i$g t'gether3 the gar*a$0, thr' gh wh'"e p'wer #'/e" i$t' (ei$g the i$ter#'$$e#ti'$ '1 2the e*e/e$t" '13 the tria0:. )'te that ++ 61 pre"e$t" a "'/ewhat 0i11ere$t i/age= the "tri$g i" vimara, a$0 the T' rth i" '$e '1 the pear*" that are there "tr $g. 769 .he the/e" 0eve*'pe0 i$ kA. 35 are (a"e0 '$ +AH 2,12, a$0 have (ee$ e*a('rate0 (% prePakarite ve0A$ti# w'rk", " #h a" 4&S 31 (K 'te0 $. 764) a$0 4 6 1,29 a0 +AH 2,12. )'te that, i$ the "a/e #'$te7t, ?9e/arALa a*"' re1er" t' ve0A$ti# rea"'$i$g". 6$ 'r0er t' " ("ta$tiate hi" g*'"" '$ S 6 11= trita!abhokt v,rea, 8.he e$L'%er '1 the three 2"tate"3 i" the N'r0 '1 the her'e" 2i.e., '1 hi" "e$"'ria* e$ergie"3 (v,rea):, he K 'te" (with' t givi$g the "' r#e) 4 6 5= tri' dhmas' !ad bhog!a bhokt !a ca prak,rtita0 vedaitad 'bha!a !as t' sa bh'&%no na lip!ate00, 8Me wh' k$'w" ('th what i" "ai0 t' (e the '(Le#t '1 e7perie$#e a$0 the " (Le#t '1 e7perie$#e i$ the three "tate" i" $'t a11e#te0 (% the/ 2i.e., (% th'"e tw' #'$0iti'$"3, eve$ whi*e he e7perie$#e" the/:. <$ the rea"'$i$g, "ee Sp? 66 4(, K 'te0 (% CD a0 1. 770 an's!)ta J *it., 8threa0e0 thr' gh the/:. 771 B" t' #'$te$t, kArikA" 34 a$0 35 #'rre"p'$0 t' 4&S 31. 772 viva, here, #'rre"p'$0" t' the vaivnara '1 +AH 3, a" 0eve*'pe0 (% 4 6 1,5 (whi#h e/p*'%" viva, i$"tea0 '1 vaivnara). Se$art (!hH= 69) tra$"*ate" vaivnara, i$ !hH ; 11, 2, a"= 8*:A/e K i e"t 0a$" t' " *e" h'/i$e":, +i$ar0 1949 (p. 156, i 432) a"= 8&a$a$thr'pe: ('("ervi$g i$ the $'te= 8< &a/ph%*e ' &a$0e/e, "i *:'$ e$te$0 Eapparte$a$t a t' " *e" #*a$" e$ #'// $E, #'//e *e 1ait De$. B$th. 15 $. 1:), F' % (4= 84) a"= *e 8&a$h /ai$:. .he 1ir"t '## rre$#e '1 the $'ti'$ (a*th' gh $'t %et i$#* 0e0 i$ the K a0ripartite "#he/e e7p' $0e0 i$ +AH) appear" i$ !hH ;, whi#h e*a('rate" it i$ "eve$ #hapter" (11,18)> "ee a*"' F 5 6 1, 9> FS 6 2, 2411., a$0 a0 *'#. 773 !1. !hH ; 18, 2, t' (e #'/pare0 with +Fh 566 47, 44, K 'te0 (% CD a0 27, a" we** a" (% FSFh 6 2, 25.


O!yZ Because of difference6 t!at is, 'e&a(se t!e sense?or ans R t!e eye, et&)<<;R of all &o niLers o%erate $it!in t!e fivefold do"ain Wof sense o'#e&tsY R so(nd, et&),<<B $!i&! t!e S(%re"e Lord !as &reated as e,ternal to !i"self)<<= *en&e, it is one and t!e sa"e $rahman , WdiversifiedY as to o'#e&t and s('#e&t, t!at s('tends t!e "arvelo(s dis%lay of varied sensory &o nition) *en&e, it !as 'een stated in t!e Ci3as/tra : T!e $a5in state is WordinaryY &o nition 612na7 ) NNN T!is !as 'een %ro&lai"ed as t!e &os"i& state 63ir a3asth7 of $rahman ) As !as 'een said in t!e Pr(ti:<<C *e $!o !as eyes on every side, and a fa&e on every side, $!o !as !ands on every side, and feet on every side, !e for es to et!er $it! !ands, $it! W$in sY t!at are $ort!y of sa&rifi&e, &reatin t!e !eaven and t!e eart!, sole od)<<@ WAs $a5in is t!e &os"i& for" of $rahman ,Y li5e$ise dream is t!e state of $rahman t!at is te1as , HS%lendorI 6te1o3asth7 ) <C7 O!yZ T!e "aster says: Ibecause of the glorification of 4ightH ):< In drea"s, neit!er do t!e e,ternal sense?or ans "a5e so 'old as to o%erate on t!eir
;iU., the b'ddh,ndri!as ("ee &S 20). ;iU., the tanmtras ("ee &S 21). 776 .h ", a" "tate0 (% +AH 3 a$0 4 6 3, the waki$g " (Le#t i" sth)labh'%, 8e7perie$#e" the gr'"" a"pe#t ('1 '(Le#tivit%):. 4 6 4 a00" that $'t '$*% 0'e" the waki$g " (Le#t, 'r viva, 8e7perie$#e the gr'"":, ( t 8the gr'"" a*"' "ati"1ie" hi/:= sth)la tarpa!ate vivam. 6t i" the "tate '1 e7ter$a* #'g$iti'$= bahipra%& (+AH 3> 4 6 1). 777 S 6 8. 778 B$0 it ha" (ee$ "ai0 pr'1 "e*% i$ the r ti. .hi" te7t (lS 5 81, 3) i" '$e '1 the h%/$" t' ;iPvakar/a$. 6t i" a*"' 1' $0 (with varia$t") i$ 6#hakasahit 2?S3 5;666 2, ;%asane!isahit 2;S3 5;66 19, 8aitr!a,sahit 2+S3 66 10, 2, +tharvasahit 2BthS3 5666 2, 26, Taittir,!asahit 6; 6, 2, 4, Taittir,!ra!aka 5, vH 666 3. Mere, the rea0i$g (namate, sa!a%atrair) i" that '1 ?S 5;666 2. namate i" a*"' " pp'rte0 (% Taittir,!asahit a$0 Taittir,!ra!aka, whi#h rea0 namati. +ai$ varia$t"= dhamati (lS 5 81, 3> ;S, +S, vH), i$ the "e$"e '1 8t' we*0:, 8t' 1'rge:, i" " pp'rte0 (% lS 5 72, 2, where Frah/a@a"pati 81'rge0 t'gether: (samadhamat) a** thi$g" i$ thi" w'r*0> bharati i$ BthS. sa!a%atrair i" 1' $0 '$*% i$ ?S> e*"ewhere= sapatatrair, whi#h i" " pp'rte0 (% lS 65 112, 2, 0e"#ri(i$g the (*a#k"/ith wh' "e" the 1eather" '1 great (ir0" (parebhi ak'nnm) 1'r 1a$$i$g 1ire> there1're, i$ 'r0er t' /ake "e$"e with sa!a%atrair, 8w'rth% '1 "a#ri1i#e:, we " pp*% 8wi$g": a" the i/p*i#it $' $ t' (e th " K a*i1ie0. )'te that D a0 4&S 6 K 'te" the *a"t pada '1 lS 5 81, 3. T'r 'ther te7t" ev'ki$g ;irAL, "ee CD a0 27, a$0 $. 678. 779 lS 5 81, 3. 780 6.e., the tai%asa 1'r/ '1 tman0brahman, a" 0e1i$e0 (% +AH 4 (a$0 4 6 1,5). )'t '$*% 0'e" the 0rea/i$g " (Le#t 8e7perie$#e the " (t*e:= praviviktabh'% (4 6 3), ( t a*"' 8the " (t*e "ati"1ie" hi/:= tarpa!ate 2...3 vivikta t' tai%asam (4 6 4). .hi" i" the "tate '1 i$ter$a* #'g$iti'$= antapra%& (+AH 4> 4 6 1). !'/pare the 1'**'wi$g pa$i9a0i# pa""age", whi#h pre0ate the 1'r/ *ati'$ '1 the $'ti'$ '1 te%as0tai%asa a$0 it" i$#'rp'rati'$ i$t' the 0'#tri$e '1 the tman:" K a0ripartiti'$= F4H 6; 3, 9= sa 2p'r'a3 !atra prasvapiti as!a lokas!a sarvvato mtrm apd!a sva!a vihat!a sva!a nirm!a svena bhs svena%!oti prasvapiti0 atr!a p'r'a sva!a %!otir bhavati, 8Rhe$ he g'e" t' "*eep, he take" a*'$g the /ateria* (mtra) '1 thi" a**,e/(ra#i$g w'r*0, hi/"e*1 tear" it apart, hi/"e*1 ( i*0" it p> he "*eep" (0rea/") (% hi" 'w$ (right$e"", (% hi" 'w$ *ight. 6$ that "tate the per"'$ (e#'/e" "e*1,i** /i$ate0:> a$0 F4H 6; 3, 14= atho khalv h' %garitadea evs!aia0 !ani h! eva %grat pa!ati tni s'pta iti0 atr!a p'r'a sva!a %!otir bhavati, 8<ther", h'wever, "a% that (the "tate '1 "*eep) i" L "t hi" waki$g "tate 1'r whatever '(Le#t" he "ee" whe$ awake, th'"e t'', he "ee", whe$ a"*eep> ($'t "') 1'r i$ the 0rea/,"tate the per"'$ i" "e*1, i** /i$ate0:. 781 .hi" Night i" the /a$i1e"ti$g p'wer '1 brahman.



&orres%ondin sensory do"ains, so(nd, et&),<C6 nor is anyt!in t!ere attested t!at is e,ternal and (lti"ately real, s(&! as so(nd, et&), nor is any ot!er &a(se of t!e deter"inate &o nition We,%erien&ed in drea"in Y to 'e a%%re!ended as so"et!in e,ternal Wto drea" itselfY, $!et!er sli !tly different Wfro" drea"Y, s(&! as nes&ien&e, et&),<CA or as identi&al to it WviL), drea" itselfY nor &an Ws(&! a &a(seY 'e esta'lis!ed 'y ar ("ent W$!en t!e drea" is overY)<C; Still, everyt!in Wt!at one &an %ossi'ly i"a ineY does a%%ear in drea"s)<CB O!at is i"%lied 'y all t!is<C= is t!at it is !e, t!e Lord, t!e l("ino(s od <C< endo$ed $it! !is o$n essential nat(re Wof &ons&io(snessY, <CC $!o !as ass("ed t!e &ondition of diverse &o niLers, and as if drea"in ,<C@ $!o t!en reveals to ea&! &o niLer in !is o$n
!1. F4H 6; 3, 11= svapnena r,ram abhiprahat!a0 as'pta s'ptn abhicka,ti00, 8Mavi$g "tr #k 0'w$ i$ "*eep what (e*'$g" t' the ('0%, he hi/"e*1 "*eep*e"" *''k" 0'w$, '$ the "*eepi$g ("e$"e"):. 783 T'r avid! 'perate" i$ the E'(Le#tiveE w'r*0, wherea" the #a "e '1 whatever i" e7perie$#e0 withi$ a 0rea/ i" t' (e 1' $0 i$ 0rea/i$g it"e*1 'r i$ the 0rea/er. .he 0i"# ""i'$ wi** (e take$ p agai$ i$ CD a0 48. !1. F4HFh 6; 3, 9= the 0rea/ i" #ir# /"#ri(e0 (% the ('0% '1 the 0rea/er, a 80rea/ ('0%: (svapnadeha), 8#'$"tit te0 '1 *ate$t 0i"p'"iti'$": (vsanma!a), 8*ike a /A%i# ('r /agi#) ('0%: (m!ma!am iva) @ 8sva!a nirm!a: nirma ktv vsanma!a svapnadeha m!ma!am iva. B##'r0i$g t' Miri%a$$a, akara:" m! a$0 avid! are t' (e $0er"t''0 a" /'re 'r *e"" re1erri$g t' the "a/e thi$g. 61 a 0i"ti$#ti'$ i" t' (e 1'r#e0, '$e /a% (e take$ t' repre"e$t the E'(Le#tiveE "i0e '1 the phe$'/e$a* w'r*0, the 'ther it" E" (Le#tiveE "i0e J ( t the 0i"ti$#ti'$ it"e*1 i** "trate" the 1'r#e '1 m!, a$0 a 9ortiori, '1 avid!. 6$ 'ther w'r0", (' $0 "' *" are the " ("trat / '1 avid!> wherea" the " ("trat / '1 m! i" ^Pvara, wh' #a"t" i** "i'$" '$ the (' $0 "' *" a" 0'e" a /agi#ia$ wh' i" $'t trappe0 (% it. B$0 " #h i" the 0eep*% r''te0 e11e#t '1 m! that ea#h (' $0 "' * #*i$g" t' hi" ig$'ra$#e> m! i" /ea$t 1'r e*"e'$e, $'t 1'r ^Pvara. 784 .he pa""age e7p*ai$" i$ what /a$$er the 0rea/i$g " (Le#t e7perie$#e" phe$'/e$a i$ their " (t*e 1'r/. See 4 66 1,5, whi#h 0i"# ""e" the $rea*it% '1 0rea/,phe$'/e$a 1r'/ a *'gi#a* per"pe#tive. 785 !1. F4H 6; 3, 9,10= 2...3 atr!a p'r'a sva!a%!otir bhavati00 na tatra rath na ratha!og na panthno bhavant! atha rathn ratha!ogn patha s%ate na tatrnand m'da pram'do bhavant! athnandn m'da pram'da s%ate na tatra vent p'kari!a sravant!o bhavant! atha ventn p'kari, sravanat, s%ate sa hi kart, 86$ that "tate the per"'$ (e#'/e" "e*1, i** /i$ate0. .here are $' #hari't" there, $'r a$i/a*" t' (e %'ke0 t' the/, $' r'a0", ( t he #reate" (pr'Le#t" 1r'/ hi/"e*1) #hari't", a$i/a*" t' (e %'ke0 t' the/ a$0 r'a0". .here are $' L'%" there, $' p*ea" re", $' 0e*ight", ( t he #reate" L'%", p*ea" re" a$0 0e*ight". .here are $' ta$k" there, $' *'t ", p''*", $' river", ( t he #reate" ta$k", *'t ",p''*" a$0 river". Me, i$0ee0, i" the age$t (/aker 'r #reat'r):. )'te that 4 66 3, i$ 0ea*i$g with the $rea*it% '1 0rea/,phe$'/e$a, a** 0e" pre#i"e*% t' thi" te7t= abhva ca rathd,n r)!ate n!!ap)rvakam0, 8.he $'$,e7i"te$#e '1 20rea/,3#hari't" a$0 the *ike i" ta ght (% the r ti, a##'/pa$ie0 (% rea"'$i$g":. 786 ata idam arthabald !tam. 787 deva i", et%/'*'gi#a**%, the 8* /i$' " '$e: ("ee CD a0 15 a$0 45), whi#h " it" the #'//e$tar% a" it e7p*ai$" prakamhtm!t. +'re'ver, CD:" e7p'"iti'$ agree" with the pa""age '1 the F4H K 'te0 " pra, whi#h e"ta(*i"he" that the 0rea/i$g " (Le#t i" * /i$' " i$ a$0 '1 hi/"e*1, a$0, a" " #h, #reative. 788 <r 8wh'"e e""e$tia* $at re i" 2t' (e3 hi/"e*1 2viU., (ei$g p re #'$"#i' "$e"", he #a$$'t (e 'ther tha$ hi/"e*13:. 789 svapn!amna J $'te the 0e$'/i$ative. !1. F4H 6; 3, 13 #'$#er$i$g the g'*0e$ (hirama!a) p'r'a= svapnnta 'ccvacam ,!amno r)pi deva k'r'te bah)ni0 'teva str,bhi saha modamno %akad 'tevpi bha!ni pa!an00, 86$ the "tate '1 0rea/ g'i$g p a$0 0'w$, the g'0 /ake" /a$% 1'r/" 1'r hi/"e*1, $'w a" it were e$L'%i$g hi/"e*1 i$ the #'/pa$% '1 w'/e$ 'r *a ghi$g 'r eve$ (eh'*0i$g 1ear1 * "ight":.


drea" a (ni9(e (niverse,<@7 after dividin 6pra3i$ha1ya7 !is o$n Self into t!e "arvelo(s diversity of n("ero(s s('#e&ts, !o(ses, &ities, %ala&es, et&), t!ro( ! !is ill("inative Wi)e), "anifestin Y W%o$er ofY freedo") *en&e, t!e +ra!"av4dins a&&e%t t!at t!e freedo" of $rahman is not!in else t!an drea" Wi)e), "anifests itself as drea"Y) For it is stated in t!e 1ed4nta te,ts: Dividin 6pra3i$ha1ya7 !i"self 'y !i"self and &reatin entities of vario(s 5inds, t!e Lord of all, 'ein all for"s, a%%ears 6pra,(ate7 as t!e en#oyer in a drea")<@8 T!(s, t!e &a(se !ere WviL), of $!at is e,%erien&ed in drea"Y is t!e lorifi&ation 6mhtmya7 of !is Li !t alone Wt!at is, t!e lorifi&ation i"%li&it in !is %o$er of "anifestationY)

asdhraa J here, Far$ett "ee/" t' $0er"ta$0 a contrario= 8.he N'r0 2...3 revea*" t' ea#h 0rea/er a #'//'$ $iver"e: J wherea" the priva#% '1 0rea/ i" atte"te0 (% '$e:" 'w$ e7perie$#e= /% 0rea/" are /i$e a*'$e. .' the "'vereig$ 1ree0'/ '1 the N'r0 #'rre"p'$0" the eK a* 1ree0'/ '1 the 1i$ite 0rea/er. 791 V 'te0 i$ ;k!apad,!avtti 2;&vX3 6 119. .he rea0i$g i" vednte', i$ ?S.S a$0 i$ a** ' r /a$ "#ript", e7#ept 1'r the Ri*"'$ +S, whi#h rea0" vednti'. Re have 'pte0 1'r the rea0i$g vednte' J i$ a$% #a"e /'re "ati"1a#t'r% gra//ati#a**%. .hi" ver"e i" 1' $0 a" a K 'te i$ ;&vX 6 119 2119 6%er S 127 Fiar0ea 3, with '$e varia$t= pravartate i$"tea0 '1 prakate. 6%er tra$"*ate" (p. 115)= 8.he N'r0 '1 B**, the B**,e/(ra#i$g, the G$L'%er, a1ter 0ivi0i$g Mi/"e*1 a$0 a1ter havi$g #reate0 /a$% 0i11ere$t thi$g", pr'#ee0" t' "*eep:. Fiar0ea ha" (p. 163)= 8Se 0ivi"a$t * i,/e/e et #rea$t 0e" '(Let" 0e t' te" "'rte", *e " Let 0evie$t, 0a$" *e reve, "' verai$ 0e t' te" #h'"e" et 1ait 0e t' te" #h'"e": 2J 8-ivi0i$g hi/"e*1 a$0 #reati$g '(Le#t" '1 a** ki$0", the " (Le#t (e#'/e", i$ 0rea/i$g, the "'vereig$ '1 a** thi$g" a$0 i" /a0e '1 a** thi$g":3. .he ver"e "ee/" t' have (ee$ 1a/' " i$ the aiva #ir#*e", 1'r DA/aka@ha K 'te" it J a*th' gh with tw' varia$t"= sarvaakti, 8e$0'we0 with a** p'wer": (1'r sarvama!a) a$0 prapad!ate (1'r pravartate) J i$ hi" ;ivti t' Sp? 666 1,2 (p. 102), i$ the #'$te7t '1 the N'r0:" revea*i$g hi/"e*1 i$ 0rea/ t' the %'gi$. )'w, what i" the "' r#e '1 thi" ver"e? DA/aka@ha attri( te" it t' FhartXhari, 1r'/ whi#h "tate/e$t we /a% i$1er that DA/aka@ha, a$0 pr'(a(*% 'ther ?a"h/iria$ aivite", #'$"i0ere0 FhartXhari t' (e the a th'r '1 the ;tti. .he K e"ti'$ that re/ai$" i" whether FhartXhari t'' #ite" the ver"e, 'r whether it i" hi" 'w$ ("ee Fiar0ea 2;&= 1623, wh' '("erve" that the $'rther$ /a$ "#ript" attri( te the ver"e t' FhartXhari hi/"e*1). B*th' gh, a" '("erve0 (% Fiar0ea (p. 163), the te7t "' $0" rather pa$i9a0i# (8Na re"'$a$#e e$ e"t p* t't pa$i9a0iK e:), the ver"e ha" $'t (ee$ tra#e0 i$ the pa$i9a0i# #'rp ". .aki$g i$t' a##' $t three i$0i#e", it /a% (e i$1erre0 that thi" pa""age '1 CD:" #'//e$tar% '$ the 0rea/ "tate re1*e#t" the view" '1 the Ira//aria$", wh'"e a11i$it% with the .rika i" "' /arke0 that CD (e*ieve" hi/"e*1 a(*e t' re1'r/ *ate i$ .raika ter/" FhartXhari:" p'"iti'$"= the three are 1) the "' r#e '1 the K 'te (;&vX 6 119 2S 1273> 2) the pre"e$#e '1 the "a/e ke%,ter/, pravibha%!a, ('th i$ CD:" g*'"" a$0 i$ the K 'te " pp'rti$g it> a$0 3) the 1reK e$#% '1 the 0rea/ /etaph'r i$ the ;& a$0 i$ it" ;tti J "ee, (e"i0e" ;& 119 a$0 it" ;tti K 'te0 here, ;&vX 6 1= 2...3 vivarta 0 svapnavia!apratibhsavat, 8&he$'/e$a* /a$i1e"tati'$ i" *ike the appeara$#e" i$ a 0rea/:> ;&vX 6 4= ekas!a hi brahmaas 2...3 svapnavi%&nap'r'avad abahistattv 2...3 bhoktbhoktav!abhogagrantha!o vivartante, 86$ thi" <$e brahman 2...3, Ek$'t"E '1 the $at re '1 " (Le#t, '(Le#t a$0 e7perie$#e /a$i1e"t, havi$g $' e7ter$a* rea*it%, *ike the (ei$g" per#eive0 i$ 0rea/:. 6t "ee/" i$0 (ita(*e, the$, that i$ i$tr'0 #i$g a #itati'$ that i" t' (e 1' $0 8vednte':, CD i" re1erri$g t' a #'//e$tar% '$ FhartXhari (a$0, perhap", '1 FhartXhari)> it 1'**'w" that the 8Frah/avA0i$: wh'"e 0'#tri$e i" " pp'rte0 (% the K 'te i" a a(0a(rah/avA0i$, that i", a gra//aria$ '1 the "#h''* '1 FhartXhari. +'re'ver, it i" $'tew'rth% that ear*% (prePakarite) ;e0A$ta, the ;& with it" ;tti, a$0 the .rika, a** have a "i/i*ar #'$#epti'$ '1 0iver"it%= the% h'*0 that phe$'/e$a* / *tip*i#it% i" $'t i** "'r%, that, i$ it" " (t*e 1'r/, it i" the N'r0:" 8/a$i1e"tati'$: (pratibhsa, i$ ;&> bhsa, i$ .rika), wherei$ the N'r0 a" #'$"#i' "$e"" J a" i$ a 0rea/ J appear" a" the tria0 '1 " (Le#t, '(Le#t a$0 e7perie$#e it"e*1.


T!erefore, t!e drea" of $rahman is t!e &ondition ter"ed HS%lendorI 6te1as7 Wna"ely, Hdrea"I Din t!e 54ri54E refers to t!e l("ino(s state of $rahman Y) Li5e$ise, the state of sleep is Wthat ofY the WpureY #nower) The state of sleep 6supt3asth7 , t!at is t!e dee% slee% 6su)upta7 of all &o niLers is &alled t!e I#nowerH 6pr12a7 , <@6 "eanin t!at it is t!e 5no$in state 6pr123asth7 of $rahman ) T!at is to say, in dee% slee%, only t!e Oisdo" 6pra127 <@A of $rahman re"ains, $!o !as 'e&o"e t!(s t!e seed of t!e (niverse)<@; WDee% slee%Y is t!e reat 1oid 6mah(/nya7 , <@B $!ere o'#e&ts, et&), are dissolved, $!ere root i"%ressions<@= only re"ain, inas"(&! as %!eno"enal dis%lay !as vanis!ed for all 5no$ers, Walon $it!Y t!e di&!oto"y of 5no$er and 5no$n) T!ere, $rahman re"ains at t!e very &enter Wof all 'ein sY as t!e %rin&i%le of /no$in 6pra12t.taya7 ) T!is W&ondition of H/no$erI, viL), $rahman Y is t!e s('strat(" of t!e root i"%ressions i"%li&it in t!e dis%lay of t!e $orldIs "arvelo(s diversity R as 'l(e, %leas(re, et&) R t!at 'elon to every Windivid(alY &o niLer R as in W"anyY e,a"%les dra$n fro" ordinary e,%erien&e, s(&! as t!at of t!e a$a5ened one $!o Wre"e"'ers $!at !eY !as e,%erien&ed %revio(sly)<@< Ot!er$ise, !ad t!e sta'le<@C $rahman not s!one fort! as t!e nat(re of t!e /no$er 6pra12t.7 in t!is &ondition Wof dee% slee%Y, 'y en&o"%assin everyt!in Wt!at is 5no$a'leY, $!erefro" &o(ld !ave arisen, in t!e rea$a5ened &o niLer, t!e "e"ory 6sm.ti7 of t!in s %revio(sly e,%erien&ed R via t!e re&all of s(&! e,%erien&e Wt!ro( ! #(d "ents li5eY: H#(st so t!is !a%%enedZI<@@ Nor &o(ld !ave arisen t!e e,%erien&es: HI sle%t $ell, I sle%t 'adlyI, or HI Wsle%t as t!o( !Y &o"%letely senselessI)

pr%&a J the ter/ i" vari' "*% tra$"*ate0= 8H$0er"ta$0i$g: (Far$ett &S= 731)> the 8!'g$iti'$a*: (M /e F4H= 392)> 8wi"e: a$0 8i$te**ige$t: (Fhatta#har%a 4)> 8E"ere$e*%E aware: (T'rt 1990= 151)> the 8e$*ighte$e0:, the 8k$'wer: (I pta 4= 180, 181)> 8*e &er#ipie$t: (F' % 4= 86). .he 1ir"t '## rre$#e '1 the ter/ i" pr'(a(*% 1' $0 at F4H 6; 3, 21, whi#h 0e"#ri(e" 0eep "*eep thr' gh the /etaph'r '1 the /a$ wh' Ek$'w" $'thi$g with' t 'r withi$E whi*e i$ the ar/" '1 hi" (e*'ve0. -e1i$i$g pr%&a, +AH 5 ('rr'w" 1r'/ F4H 6; 3, 19= 2...3 evam ev!a p'r'a etasm ant!a dhvati3 !a