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Part I The lexical Approach


is basically its lexicon: Words or word combinations. The key principle of a lexical approach is that language consists of grammaticalized lexis, not lexicalized grammar Lexis is central in creating meaning, grammar plays a secondary role in managing meaning. We should spend more time helping learners develop their stock of phrases, and less time on grammatical structures.

Lexical approach advocates

argue that language consists of meaningful chunks that, when combined, produce continuous coherent text, and only a minority of spoken sentences are entirely novel creations. The Lexical Approach pays attention not only to single words but more importantly to collocations and institutionalized utterances and sentence frames.

There are some hints about how the teaching looks like within this approach.

language is a wider concept than accurate language. Emphasis is on successful communication not grammatical mastery. Language is not learnt by learning individual sounds and structures and then combining them, but by an increasing ability to break down wholes into parts. We can also use whole phrases without understanding their constituent parts. Noticing and recording language patterns and collocations. Grammar is acquired by a process of observation, hypothesis and experiment. That is, the ObserveHypothesise-Experiment cycle replaces the Present-Practice-Produce Paradigm.

Grammar exploration instead of

grammar explanation. Intensive and extensive listening and reading in the target language. Teachers create the environment. First and second language comparisons and translation carried out chunk-for-chunk, rather than word-for-word aimed at raising language awareness: Guessing the meaning of vocabulary items from context. Repetition and recycling of activities. The language activities consistent with a lexical approach must be directed toward naturally occurring language and toward raising learners awareness of the lexical nature of language. Students as discourse analyst or discoverers Working with dictionaries and other reference tools.

Part II The CALLA approach

CALLA is based on cognitive learning

theory in which students are viewed as mentally active participants in the teacher-students interaction. described by the application of prior knowledge to new problems, the search for meaning in incoming information, higher level thinking and the developing ability to adjust ones own learning (special methods or TRICKS)
CALLA model recommends ways in which the teacher can make the most of this mental activity by asking students to reflect on their own learning and expand a strategy approach to learning and problem solving (learning strategies)

The mental activity of learners is


Language skills are used for learning academic subject matters.

Content Topics Academic Language Skills

Allow students to see how language works in different encvironments.

Strategy Instruction
Strategies provide students with tools to work different tasks.

Enable learners to manipulate information by categorizing, summarizing or linking new concepts to prior knowledge. Useful for declarative knowledge

Enable learners determine which learning strategies are best suited to a given task. Useful for procedural knowledge.


Meta cognitive

Social Affective
Help students to control their emotions in order to work with their classmates or other people to apply cognitive skills

Cross Linguistic
Enables students to represent information on their prior knowledge of their native language to understand information in English

Types of knowledge
All these types of knowledge are stored in the long term memory to be used for life.

Declarative Knowledge

Consist on what we know or declare. Includes facts, dates, etc and it is best learnt through linking old with new information to form associations. Consist on the things that we know how to. Includes processes and procedures. It is best learnt through practice applied on meaningful tasks.

Procedural Knowledge

Metacognitive Knowledge

Consist on applying previous experiences to solve new problems.

Language across the curriculum: Learn the

language through the language. Subjects matters taught using the target language. Language Experience Approach: My life is my learning. Based on reading and writing of experiences. Whole language: Four skills ONE language. Based on interaction with literature and opportunities to use language in communicative purposes. Process writing: Thinking about the writing process. Cooperative learning: There is no I on a TEAM. Provides active practice of language and context.
Cognitive instruction: Critical thinking through

challenging questions modeling the learning process.

Part III Teaching Listening


is the language modality that is used most frequently. It has been estimated that adults spend almost half their communication time listening. Students may receive as much as 90% of their in-school information through listening to instructors and to one another. Listening is a very active skill because as people listen , they process what they hear and connect it to already known information.

Put emphasis in mimicry and memorization of drills. Oral before written language

Verbs (actions) are the key elements according to topics.

Communicative Language Audiolingual Teaching Method

Direct method Charles Berlitz
Students learn through the act of communication. Comprehensible input is necessary for real intake to happen.

Gouins series method

All teaching is done in L2 using everyday language. Grammar is taught inductively, there is a focus on speaking and listening.

Top down Expose Ss. to different ways of processing information


Bottom up Listening for specific information

Monitoring Clarifying

Teach listening strategies


Expose Ss. to different types of listening

Listening for gist Listening between the lines

Practice with natural authentic language

Consider difficulty and authenticity

Teach variety of tasks

From simple to more complex tasks

Adjust the level of difficulty

Part IV Teaching Speaking

Speaking is also a very active skill because it

happens in real time. Different from written language. Language learners need to recognize that speaking involves three areas of knowledge: Mechanics (pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary): Using the right words in the right order with the correct pronunciation. Functions (transaction and interaction): Knowing when clarity of message is essential (transaction/information exchange) and when precise understanding is not required (interaction/relationship building). Social and cultural rules and norms (turntaking, rate of speech, length of pauses between speakers, relative roles of participants): Understanding how to take into account who is speaking to whom, in what circumstances, about what, and for what reason.

Audiolingual Method: Repetition drills to learn

structural patterns (grammar). Based on behaviorim. Form over function was the goal.
Communicative Language Teaching:

Students learn through the act of communication. Comprehensible input is necessary for real intake to happen. The goal is intelligibility.

Weak version

Strong version

ESL: Language of massive communication. Easy to practice in society

Differeence between ESL and EFL

EFL: Not used for massive communication. Few chances to practice

Transactional meaning: Exchange of goods and services

Transactional Vs. Interactional speech


Maximazing STT over TTT

Interactional meaning: Social interaction

Using activities where group work is required (negotiation of meaning)

Fluency: The appropiate pace of speaking

Chances to practice fluency and accuracy

Accuracy: The correct way of speaking.

Part V Teaching Reading


goal of reading is COMPREHENSION. In language instruction, reading materials have traditionally been chosen from literary texts that represent "higher" forms of culture. This approach assumes that students learn to read a language by studying its vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure, not by actually reading it. The communicative approach to language teaching has given instructors a different understanding of the role of reading in the language classroom and the types of texts that can be used in instruction. When the goal of instruction is communicative competence, everyday materials become appropriate classroom materials, because reading them is one way communicative competence is developed.

Reading Processes
Bottom - up Students start with the foundations of language: Phonics, letter recognition, words, etc Graded reader approach. Intensive reading: Short passages with textbook activities. Top - down The comprehension resides on the reader. Meaning generating activities. Literature based approach Integrated with writing. Extensive reading: Read longer texts with no focus on assessment. Interactive Model It combines elements of top down and bottom up. Integrates extensive with intensive reading. Selection of texts is quite important.

Exploit readers previous knowledge.

Build assessment and evaluation: RUBRICS Build a strong vocabulary base through context.

Teach how to comprehend: Reading strategies and skills
Work on increasing reading rate

Grow as a reading teacher.

Part VI Teaching Writing

Writing is a complex process that

allows writers to explore thoughts and ideas, and make them visible and concrete. "Good writing does not just happen. The best writers spend a great deal of time thinking, planning, rewriting, and editing. The teaching of writing was thought to be the teaching of correct spelling, punctuation and grammar Then trends like expressivism, cognitivism , social constructivism appeared as a response to different needs of science and society. Lately a principled eclecticism approach came to light considering the best of each trend.

Understand students reasons for writing.

Make clear how writing will be evaluated: RUBRICS.


Provide many opportunities for students to write.

Make feedback helpful and meaningful.

Part VII Teaching Grammar

Grammar is central to the teaching and learning of languages. It is also one of the more difficult aspects of language to teach well.

past mastering English grammar was considered to master the language. In the 70 s a new trend led by Krashen argued that grammar instruction was unnecessary and that exposure to comprehensible input was enough to acquire the rules. Late approaches like focus on form and consciousness raising center on communication adding grammar within meaning focused activities.

Integrate deductive and inductive methods.

Use tasks that integrate grammar and communication. CONTEXT Focus on procedural rather than declarative knowledge.

Part X - Selecting Materials for Teaching English

What are materials?

The term materials is used to mean anything used within a classroom environment which facilitates the acquisition learning of language. (Ur, 1996)

Types of materials
Coursebooks. Supplementary materials: CDs, PPTs, flashcards, dictionaries, websites, graded readers, storybooks, flip charts, posters, etc.

Teacher materials: flashcards.

made Worksheets,

The term coursebook is used to mean a textbook of which the teacher and, usually, each student has a copy, and which is in principle to be followed systematically as the basis for a language course . (Ur; 1996)

Why do we need to use a coursebook?

In favor of using a coursebook Framework. Ready made texts and tasks. Economy. Convenience. Guidance. Autonomy
Cambridge University Press, 1996

Against using a coursebook

Irrelevance. Lack of interest.

Homogeneity. Over easiness for teachers.

Cambridge University Press, 1996

How do we choose a coursebook?

Choosing a coursebook is a very difficult task due to the huge amount of alternatives in te market. Before even trying to select a coursebook, teachers should have very clear ideas about what the objectives towards the teaching of English in the school are and what they want to get from the book.

What should any coursebook cover?

Pronunciation practice.

Introduction of new vocabulary and

practice. Grammar explanations and practice. Recordings for listening practice. Listening and speaking communicative tasks. Reading and writing communicative tasks. Short and long reading texts. Dictionary work. Review of previously learnt material. Some entertaining or fun activities.

Cambridge University Press, 1996

Supplementary materials
Books are considered as the conventional and primary learning materials. While books are the central technology of education (Barth and Mithchell 1992), there are also other tools and sources which have now become necessary in education. Some of these includes CDs, websites, e books, etc. Other sources of learning contents are supplementary reading materials such as big books, graded readers.

Teacher made worksheets and flashcards

Good teacher made materials are the best there are because they are relevant and personalized, answering the needs of the learners in a way no other materials can (Jeremy Harmer 1998)
Guidelines for teacher made materials: They should:
Be neat, clean , clear margins, well

spaced. Begin with short and clear instructions including an example. Be clear and attractive to look at. Have a balanced and varied layout. Be clearly do able by the learners on their own.

Part XI Action research

It is a reflective process that allows for inquiry and discussion as components of the research. Participant examine their educational practice using scientific techniques. The main intention is to inform and make any suitable changes in teaching practice to improve teaching and learning in classroom environments.

Steps of Action Research

Identify the problem

Gather data
Implement changes

Interpret data
Evaluate results Act on evidence