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Summary Table for Statistical Techniques

Inference Parameter
One Population Mean

Statistic

Type of Data

Examples

Analysis

Minitab Conditions Command


Stat >Basic statistics >1-sample t data approximately normal or have a large sample size (n 30)

Estimating a Mean

Sample mean

Numerical

What is the average 1-sample t-interval weight of adults? s What is the average y t /2 n cholesterol level of adult females? Is the average GPA of juniors at Penn State higher than 3.0? Is the average Winter temperature in State College less than 42 F? What is the proportion of males in the world? What is the proportion of students that smoke?

Test about a Mean One Population Mean Sample mean

Ho : = o Ha : o or Ha : > o or Ha : < o
The one sample t test:

Numerical

t=

y 0 s n
(1 ) n

Stat >Basic statistics >1-sample t

data approximately normal or have a large sample size (n 30)

Estimating a Proportion

One Population Proportion

Sample Proportion

1-proportion Z-interval

Categorical (Binary)

z/2

Stat >Basic statistics >1-sample proportion

have at least 5 in each category

Test about a Proportion

One Population Proportion

Sample Proportion Categorical (Binary)

Is the proportion of females different The one proportion Z-test: from 0.5? Is the proportion of 0 students who fail z= Stat 500 less than 0 (1 0 ) 0.1?

Ho : = o Ha : o or Ha : > o or Ha : < o

Stat >Basic statistics >1-sample proportion

n o 5 and n (1-o ) 5

Inference

Parameter

Statistic

Type of Data

Examples

Analysis

Minitab Conditions Command


Stat >Basic statistics >2-sample t Independent samples from the two populations Data in each sample are about normal or large samples

Estimating the difference of two means

Difference in Difference in two two sample population means means 1-2 y1 y 2

Numerical

How different are the mean GPAs of males and females? two-sample t-interval How many fewer colds do vitamin C (y 1 y 2 ) t /2 s.e.(y 1 y 2 ) takers get, on average, than non vitamin C takers? Do the mean pulse rates of exercisers and non-exercisers differ? Is the mean EDS score for dropouts greater than the mean EDS score for graduates? What is the difference in pulse rates, on the average, before and after exercise?

Test to compare two means Difference in Difference in two two sample population means means 1-2 y1 y 2

Numerical

Ho : 1 = 2 Ha : 1 2 or Ha : 1 > 2 or Ha : 1 < 2
The two sample t test:

t=

(y1 y 2 ) 0 s.e.(y1 y 2 )

Stat >Basic statistics >2-sample t

Independent samples from the two populations Data in each sample are about normal or large samples

Estimating a mean with paired data

Mean of paired difference D

Sample mean of difference Numerical

paired t-interval

Stat >Basic statistics >Paired t

d t /2

sd n

d
Numerical

Differences approximately normal or Have a large number of pairs (n 30)

Test about a mean with paired data

Mean of paired difference D

Sample mean of difference

Ho : D = 0 Is the difference in Ha : D 0 or Ha : D > 0 IQ of pairs of twins or Ha : D < 0 zero? d0 Are the pulse rates t= of people higher sd after exercise?

Stat >Basic statistics >Paired t

Differences approximately normal or Have a large number of pairs (n 30)

Inference

Parameter

Statistic

Type of Data

Examples
How different are the percentages of male and female smokers? How different are the percentages of upper- and lowerclass binge drinkers? Is the percentage of males with lung cancer higher than the percentage of females with lung cancer? Are the percentages of upper- and lowerclass binge drinkers different? Is there a relationship between smoking and lung cancer? Do the proportions of students in each class who smoke differ?

Analysis

Minitab Command

Conditions

Estimating the difference of two proportions

Difference in two population proportions 1-2

Difference in two sample proportions

two-proportions Z-interval

1 2

Categorical (Binary)

1 2) ( 1 2) z /2 s.e.(
Ho : 1 = 2 Ha : 1 2 or Ha : 1 > 2 or Ha : 1 < 2
The two proportion z test:
z= 1 2 1 1 (1 )( + ) n1 n 2

Stat >Basic statistics >2 proportions

independent samples from the two populations have at least 5 in each category for both populations

Difference in two population proportions 1-2 Difference in two sample proportions

Test to 10 compare two proportions

1 2

Categorical (Binary)

Stat >Basic statistics >2 proportions

independent samples from the two populations have at least 5 in each category for both populations

y + y2 where = 1 n1 + n 2

.
Stat >Tables >Chi square Test all expected counts should be greater than 1 at least 80% of the cells should have an expected count greater than 5

11 in a 2-way
table

Relationship

Relationship between two categorical variables or difference in two or more population proportions

The observed counts in a Categorical two-way table

not related Ha : The two variables are related The chi-square statistic:

Ho : The two variables are

2 = (Observed Expected) 2 Expected all


cells

Inference

Parameter

Statistic

Type of Data

Examples

Analysis Ho : 1 = 0 Ha : 1 0 or Ha : 1 > 0 or Ha : 1 < 0

Minitab Command

Conditions
The form of the equation that links the two variables must be correct The error terms are normally distributed The errors terms have equal variances The error terms are independent of each other Each population is normally distributed Independent samples from the t populations Equal population standard deviations

Test about a 12 slope

Slope of the population regression line 1

Sample estimate of the slope b1

Numerical

Is there a linear relationship between The t test with n-2 degrees height and weight of of freedom: a person? b1 0

Stat >Regression >Regression

t=

s.e.(b1 )

Test to compare 13 several means

Population means of the t populations 1,2,.., ,t

Sample means of the t populations x1,x2,.., ,xt

Numerical

Ho : 1=2= =t Is there a difference Ha : not all the means are between the mean equal
GPA of Freshman, Sophomore, Junior and Senior classes? The F test for one-way ANOVA:

Stat >ANOVA >Oneway

F=

MSTR MSE
Stat >ANOVA >Test of Equal Variances

1 4

Test to compare two population variances

Population variances of 2 populations 12 , 22

Sample variances of 2 populations s12 , s22 Numerical

Are the variances of t Ho : 12 = 22 length of lumber Ha : 12 22 produced by Company A 2 s1 different from F = 2 those produced by s2 Company B

Each population is normally distributed Independent samples from the 2 populations