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# Code_Aster, Salome-Meca course material

## GNU FDL licence (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)

Fracture mechanics
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Outline
Introduction to fracture mechanics
Objectives
Crack vocabulary
Main criteria in fracture mechanics
Linear fracture mechanics in Code_Aster
Computation of K by Displacement Jump Extrapolation method
Computation of G by G-theta method
Accounting for plasticity : limit of classical methods
References
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Fracture mechanics: objectives and generalities
Objectives of fracture mechanics: determine the speed of
propagation of an existing crack and its shape change.
crack able to propagate? if yes, at what propagation rate?
The prediction of the crack initiation is not a focus of fracture
mechanics (for this application, damage mechanics may be more
appropriate)
Applications:
Design (computation of fatigue life)
Safety (for existing defaults)
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Cracking in aeronautical industry
Ductile failure in fatigue of fuselage shells
Contribution of fracture mechanics:
better estimation of service life of structures
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Cracking in civil engineering
Cracking on a surface of a dam
Contribution of fracture mechanics:
assessment of crack and repairing
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Vocabulary for a mechanical problem with crack
Crack : macroscopic geometrical discontinuities of matter
Crack front : zone where matter sees its continuity (dimension N-2)
Crack faces : parts of crack on which discontinuity occurs (dimension N-1)
In 2 dimensions In 3 dimensions
Superior crack face
Inferior crack face
Crack front (or crack tip)
Cube with a circular crack
Crack face
Crack front
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Crack in elastic solids
3 cracking modes
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]

=
0
0
0
z
y
x
u
u
u [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]

=
=

0
0
0
z
y
x
u
u
u [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]

=
=
0
0
0
z
y
x
u
u
u
x
y
z
Singular stress (crack = geometrical singularity)
( )
( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) [ ]

g r a K
f
r
a K
i
r
i
r
,
,
~
~
0
0
u

## with polar coordinates

With respect to crack front,
and the crack size.
Von-Mises stress at the
crack front
r
x
y
q
( ) , r
a
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Expressions of displacement and stress fields
2D-plane
2D-
antiplane
Displacement field:
Stress field:
Displacement field:
( )
4(1 )
sin
2
2
z III
r
u K
E

+
=
sin
2 2
cos
2 2
III
xz
III
yz
K
r
K
r

| |
=
|
\

| |

=
|

\
Stress field:
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Criteria for crack propagation in LEFM
Stress intensity factors (Westergaard): local criterion
Contour integral (Rice): global criterion
Energy release rate (Griffith): global criterion
Relation between parameters
Aside: Fatigue (Pariss law)
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Stress intensity factors K
K s dimension: MPa m
Characterisation of stress intensity factors
( ) ( )
( )
[ ] [ ]
|
|

\
|

= =

2
2
0 0
2
1 8
lim 2 0 , lim u
r
E
r r K
r
yy
r
I

( ) ( )
( )
[ ] [ ]
|
|

\
|

= =

1
2
0 0
2
1 8
lim 2 0 , lim u
r
E
r r K
r
xy
r
II

( ) ( )
( )
[ ] [ ]
|
|

\
|
+
= =

3
0 0
2
1 8
lim 2 0 , lim u
r
E
r r K
r
yz
r
III

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R
t
Stress intensity factor K: some analytical solutions
K depends on:
- crack geometry
- structure geometry
Codified approaches: RCC-M and RSE-M for pipes
Example: semi-elliptical crack with a/b ratio = 0.3 in a pipe with R/t ratio = 10
with
2 classical examples
2a

sin cos
cos
2
a K
a K
II
I

=
=
2a b

2
1
cos

\
|
=
b
a
a K
I

|
|

\
|
|

\
|
+
|

\
|
+
|

\
|
+
|

\
|
+ =
4
4 4
3
3 3
2
2 2 1 1 0 0
t
a
i
t
a
i
t
a
i
t
a
i i a K
I

( )
4
4
3
3
2
2 1 0
|

\
|
+
|

\
|
+
|

\
|
+
|

\
|
+ =
t
x
t
x
t
x
t
x
x
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Contour integral: Rice
Characterization of stress singularity
Induced from energy conservation
Independent of the considered contour
For a plane cracked solid subjected to
a mixed-mode load (modes I et II):
With the elastic energy density.
1
x
2
x
n
ds
1
C
|
|

\
|

=
1
ds
1
1
C
i
j ij e
x
u
n n w J
: =
e
w
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Energy release rate: G (Griffith)
Griffiths hypothesis
Cracking energy is proportional to separated surface (material properties)
Total energy = Potential energy + Cracking energy
Minimum total energy principle
2D example
l l + dl ?
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) dl l dl l P dl l E l l P l E
tot tot
+ + + = + + = 2 , 2
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 <
+
< +
dl
l P dl l P
l E dl l E
tot tot
2 >

=
l
P
G
Definition of G : variation of potential energy per (virtual) crack advance
Minimum total energy principle:
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Generalization and illustration: G (Griffith)
Generalisation:
Illustration:
A
P
G

=
Potential energy
Cracking energy
F
U
Prescribed
G
F
U
Prescribed
displacement
G
Gs dimension: J/m or N/m
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Relation between parameters (Irwin)
Linear elasticity
In Code_Aster
Computation of K
Computation of G
Usual values (limit criterion)
( )
( )
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
1 1
1 1
III II I
III II I
K
E
K K
E
G
K
E
K K
E
G

+
+ +

=
+
+ + =
Plane strain, 3D
Plane stress
J G =
Plane elasticity (plane strain + plane stress)
Propagation if

2 G
K K
Ic i
Aluminium alloy
Titanium Alloy
Hardened Steel
Polymer
Wood
Concrete
m MPa K
Ic
30
m MPa K
Ic
100
m MPa K
Ic
3
m MPa K
Ic
120
m MPa K
Ic
2
m MPa K
Ic
1
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Aside: fatigues law (Paris)
Principle of fatigue:
Crack propagation by repetition of a weak load
Paris fatigue propagation law
(c, m material parameters)
Stage A : K weak, slow or non propagation
Stage B : K moderate, propagation with a constant velocity
Stage C : K high, sudden failure
m
K c
dN
da
= .
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Cube containing circular crack
Regular mesh near crack front
Crack face
Crack front
Study of a fracture mechanics problem in
Code_Aster
Mandatory steps to perform crack analysis:
Step 1: Meshing cracked structures (except for X-FEM
method)
Step 2: Thermo-mechanical computation
Step 3: Post-processing : computation of fracture
mechanics parameters
Possible Thermo-mechanical computations
Thermo-Elastic (linear or non linear)
Residual stresses (linear or non linear elasticity)
Thermo-elastoplastic : need to use specific tools of crack
analysis
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FOND = DEFI_FOND_FISS (
MAILLAGE = MA,
FOND_FISS =_F( GROUP_NO = / GROUP_MA =) ,
/ CONFIG_INIT =/COLLEE /DECOLLEE
/ LEVRE_SUP = _F(GROUP_MA = ),
LEVRE_INF = _F(GROUP_MA = ),
/ NORMALE = (x, y, z),
);
Crack definition in Code_Aster
General case :
Crack front definition
Crack surface definition
Superior face
Inferior face
Crack front
n
r
Warning:
- 3D front (orientation)
- notch
n
n
p
p
n p
r
r
r
=
2D/3D 3D
If CONFIG_INIT = DECOLLEE
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Computation of K and G in Code_Aster
Two possibilities in Code_Aster: K or G (elasticity)
Computation of stress intensity factors K: operator POST_K1_K2_K3
: easy to use, relatively precise
: quite sensitive to mesh quality near the front, only quasi-planar cracks
Computation of energy release rate: operator CALC_G
: theoretically more precise and less mesh sensitive
: regularity of results along crack front in 3D
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Usage of the POST_K1_K2_K3 operator
TABL_K = POST_K1_K2_K3 (
MODELISATION = "3D","AXIS","D_PLAN" or "C_PLAN",
/FOND_FISS = FOND,
/FISSURE =FISS
MATER = ,
RESULTAT ( or TABL_DEPL_SUP / TABL_DEPL_INF)
ABSC_CURV_MAXI= ,
)
Crack front (pre-defined with DEFI_FOND_FISS)
Model definition
Results of mechanics
computation
Maximal distance from the crack
front for extrapolation
X-FEM crack (pre-defined with DEFI_FISS_XFEM)
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Displacement Jump Extrapolation Method (1)
0,0E+00
5,0E-08
1,0E-07
1,5E-07
2,0E-07
2,5E-07
3,0E-07
3,5E-07
4,0E-07
4,5E-07
5,0E-07
0E+00 1E-05 2E-05 3E-05 4E-05 5E-05 6E-05
Curvilinear co-ordinate
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

j
u
m
p
Computed displacement jump
function K.sqrt(r)
Extraction of node
displacements along the crack
front (normal direction)
ABSC_CURV_MAXI
Analytical model:
with:
Operator POST_K1_K2_K3
ABSC_CURV_MAXI
( )
[ ] [ ]
|
|

\
|

2
2
0
2
1 8
lim u
r
E
K
r
I

[ ] [ ]
n
u
2
[ ] [ ] ( ) N .
LEVRE_INF LEVRE_SUP 2
U U = u
N
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Displacement Jump Extrapolation Method (2)
3 methods to extrapolate the displacement:
Method 1
Prolongation until r = 0 for
the right segments
One value of K for each
consecutive node couple
[ ] [ ]
r
u
2
With quarter-node
elements
Without quarter-
node elements
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Displacement Jump Extrapolation Method (3)
Slope of the line
One value of K of each node
of crack front
Method 2:
[ ] [ ]
2
u
Printed results:
- in a table (resu file): only the max values of method 1,
- in a table (resu file): an estimation of the relative difference between the 3 methods,
- in the mess file (if INFO=2): computing details
Method 3
( )

=
dmax
0
2
)] ( [
2
1
) ( dr r k r U k J
Minimisation by least
square error of J(k):
One value of K
Without quarter-node elements
With quarter-node elements
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Operator limited to plane or quasi-planar cracks (possibility to define only one
normal)
Choice of ABSC_CURV_MAXI: in general so that the extrapolation is made on 3 to 5
elements
Interesting verification: the relative error should be small enough
Precision of computation: error < 10 % for validation tests;
precision is tremendously increased by using quadratic node elements (Barsoum
elements, operator MODI_MAILLAGE).
Mesh type: free or structured ? If possible, use structured (one extrapolation avoided,
better precision a priori) ;
Computation on an unstructured mesh Computation on a structured mesh
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Computation of K and G in Code_Aster
Two possibilities in Code_Aster: K or G (elasticity)
Computation of stress intensity factors K: operator POST_K1_K2_K3
: easy to use, relatively precise
: quite sensitive to mesh quality near the front, only quasi-planar crack
Computation of energy release rate : operator CALC_G
: theoretically more precise and less mesh sensitive
: regularity of results along crack front in 3D
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Linear fracture mechanics in Code_Aster:
G-theta method
Operator CALC_G
G-theta method:
Lagrangian derivation of the global energy of the system
Properties:
G, local energy release rate, is solution of the following variational
equation
Derivative difficult to compute directly
( )
: F M M M

+
Family of transformations from reference configuration
Represent virtual crack propagation
A
P
G

=
( )
( ) ( )
0
0
dW u
G mds
d

=
= =

## crack front normal to front

to tangent
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G-theta method: introduction of the theta field

0

0
R
inf

n
| || | | || | =0
| || | | || | =| || |
0
| || |
R
inf
R
sup

R
sup

Remark: computation is
inf
and R
sup
Geometrical definition of theta field
Basics of test functions for theta field
Spatial discretization of G
{ }
, 1,...,
i
i P = =
%

In 2D:
In 3D:
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G-theta method: 3D case
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) =

m , .
0
ds s s s G
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] P i ds s s p G
i i
N
j
j j
, 1 , .
0
1
=
|
|

\
|

=
m
[ ]
( ) ( )
( )

=
=
=

=
i
i
i
j ij
i
N
j
j ij
b
ds s m s p a
P i b G a

0
. with
, 1
1
Two families of smoothing:
utilisation of LEGENDRE polynomials with degree from 0 to 7
utilisation of shape functions of elements of crack front: LAGRANGE
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TAB_G = CALC_G (
RESULTAT = resu,
THETA = _F( FOND_FISS = FOND,
(or FISSURE = ...),
R_INF = ri,
R_SUP = rs,
),
SYME_CHAR = "SYME" or "SANS "
EXCIT =_F( CHARGE = charmeca,
FONC_MULT = ff,)
LISSAGE = _F(
LISSAGE_THETA =
LISSAGE_G =
DEGRE = 0 7
Operator CALC_G
keyword, by default all
account
Results from
mechanical
computation
Definition of theta field
Smoothing options in 3D
Non mandatory
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Operator CALC_G: computational options
OPTION =
/ CALC_G
/ CALC_G_GLOB
/ CALC_K_G
Computation of G in 2D & 3D (local)
Computation of G in 3D (global)
Computation of K in 2D & 3D (local)
Usual options
mandatory keyword: FOND_FISS / FISSURE
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Operator CALC_G: local vs global values
Global values: options CALC_G_GLOB and G_MAX_GLOB,

o

Local values: options CALC_G, CALC_K_G, G_MAX
The value G(s) printed in the result table corresponds to local value in J/m
To induce a mean local value (J/m), we need to divide by the
crack length l :
( ) ( )
absc. curviligne de m 1 ,
o
s s s =
The global G (J/m) printed in the result table corresponds
to an uniform crack propagation.
G
Particular case: in 2D-axisymetric, the local G (option CALC_G) corresponds to the energy by
unit of radian. In order to obtain a local value of G, we need to divide by its radius R.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

=
0
, . ds s m s s G
( ) ( ) = =

l
ds s G
l
G
1 1
0
( ) =
R
G
1
( )
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Theoretically, results do not depend on the contour of theta. Advise to choose
- R
inf
different from 0 (imprecise computational results at crack front)
- R
sup
not too large (for example 5 or 6 elements)
- if possible, verify the independency for different contours
- compare G and G_Irwin in result table
Remark: in practice, we use mesh with a tore around the crack front
No obligation to use a tore in the mesh around the crack front
If a tore is meshed around the crack front, results will be more regular if the radii of the
theta field correspond to the radius of the tore
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Choice of smoothing in 3D : need to use different smoothing methods and
compare the obtained results !
Energy release rate for an elliptical crack (relative quite coarse mesh)
0,0E+00
5,0E+03
1,0E+04
1,5E+04
2,0E+04
2,5E+04
3,0E+04
0 0,005 0,01 0,015 0,02 0,025 0,03 0,035
Curvilinear co-ordinate
G
LAGRANGE: no smoothing
oscillations can occur
LAGRANGE_REGU: decrease of
oscillations if nodes along crack
front are dense and regularly
spaced
LEGENDRE: smooth results, but
results from the nodes at the
extremities of the crack front should
be used with care
34 - Code_Aster and Salome-Meca course material GNU FDL Licence
G-theta method: computation of stress intensity
factors
Definition: g(u,v) symmetric bilinear form associated with G(u)
( )
1
( , ) ( ) ( )
4
g u v G u v G u v = +
( , ) ( ) g u u G u =
Properties: singular displacements are orthogonal two to two referring to the scalar
product defined by g(u,v)
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 , , , = = =
S
III
S
II
S
III
S
I
S
II
S
I
u u g u u g u u g
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 , , , = = =
S
III
R S
II
R S
I
R
u u g u u g u u g
( )
( )
, ,
R S S S R S S S
I I II II III III I I II II III III
G g u u g u K u K u K u u K u K u K u = = + + + + + +
2 2 2
( , ) ( , ) ( , ) ( , )
S S S S S S
I I I II II II III III III
G g u u K g u u K g u u K g u u = = + +
( )
( )
2
,
1
S
I I
E
K g u u

( )
( )
2
,
1
S
II II
E
K g u u

( )
2 ,
S
III III
K g u u =
(so )
Demonstration: Rices integral (=G in elasticity) and
symmetric properties of singular functions
R S S S
I I II II III III
u u K u K u K u = + + +
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Between free surface (crack) and sound zone, interaction zone.
Particular behaviour law:
Assuming the existence of a surface energy depending on displacement jump
Cohesive law = relation between and force vector of separation (stress)
Parameters of cohesive law: critical surface energy and critical stress
Particular finite elements:
Classical joint elements, linear, with regularisation: PLAN_JOINT, AXIS_JOINT,
Discontinuous elements including, linear, without regularisation: PLAN_ELDI,
AXIS_ELDI
Interface elements, quadratic, mixed formulation: PLAN_INTERFACE,
AXIS_INTERFACE, 3D_INTERFACE ; (an additional parameter PENA_LAGR)
Cohesive zone model (CZM): generalities

r
r

=

r
c
G
c

## 36 - Code_Aster and Salome-Meca course material GNU FDL Licence

Cohesive zone model (CZM): possible laws
CZM_LIN_REG
+

C
C
G

2
+

## Keyword RUPT_FRAG of DEFI_MATERIAU:

MAT = DEFI_MATERIAU (
RUPT_FRAG =_F( GC=
SIGM_C =
PENA_LAGR =
),);
Principal parameters
For joint elements
For interface elements
CZM_EXP_REG
0

0

+

C
C
G

2
C
C
G

CZM_OUV_MIX CZM_TAC_MIX
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Summary for brittle behaviour:
Specificities for some laws:
CZM_OUV_MIX pure mode I
CZM_TAC_MIX both sides of crack must be meshed
Orientation:
Cohesive force direction: all element; MODI_MAILLAGE (ORIE_FISSURE =_F(GROUP_MA= ))
Local basis of crack: interface elements;
AFFE_CARA_ELEM(MASSIF=_F(ANGL_REP= ))
STAT_NON_LINE=(CARA_ELEM= )
Cohesive zone model (CZM): some rules
Element
JOINT DISCONTINUITE INTERFACE
Thickness Null or non null Non null Null or non null
Material Linear or non Linear Linear or non
Possible laws
CZM_LIN_REG
CZM_EXP_REG
CZM_EXP
CZM_OUV_MIX
CZM_TAC_MIX
Regularisation
None
PENA_LAGR
(optional)
x
r
z
r
y
r
X
r
Y
r
Z
r
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Accounting for confined plasticity by plastic correction
we replace a crack of length a by a virtual crack of length a + r
y
, where r
y
is the plastic zone size
(Irwins approach)
we compute stress intensity factors by analytical formula (RCC-M approach)
Simple accounting for plasticity
If the loading is radial and monotone, we can compute G for a crack with non-linear elastic
behaviour (ELAS_VMIS_TRAC or ELAS_VMIS_LINE under COMP_ELAS)
Advanced models for complex situations (see doc Aster):
Research at EDF R&D
GTP approach for extended plasticity (addition of a plastic term in computation of G)
Gp approach (extended energetic approach to account for plasticity for brittle fracture)
Damage law ENDO_FRAGILE for brittle fracture and ROUSSELIER ductile fracture
Specific cohesive law CZM_TRA_MIX for ductile fracture
Non Linear fracture mechanics
2
1
6
I
y
s
K
r

| |
=
|
\
y
cp I
a r
K K
a

+
=
coefficient dependent on ratio crack length / pipe thickness
39 - Code_Aster and Salome-Meca course material GNU FDL Licence
Code_Aster references
General user documentation
Application domains of operators in fracture mechanics of Code_Aster and advices for users
[U2.05.01]
Notice for utilisation of cohesive zone models [U2.05.07]
Realisation for a computation of prediction for cleavage fracture [U2.05.08]
Documentation of operators
Operators DEFI_FOND_FISS [U4.82.01], DEFI_FISS_XFEM [U4.82.08], CALC_G [U4.82.03] et
POST_K1_K2_K3 [U4.82.05]
Reference documentation
Computation of stress intensity factors by Displacement Jump Extrapolation Method [R7.02.08]
Computation of coefficients of stress intensity in plane linear thermoelasticity [R7.02.05]
Energy release rate in linear thermo-elasticity [R7.02.01]
Energy release rate in non-linear thermo-elasticity [R7.02.03]
Energy release rate in non-linear thermo-elasticity-plasticity: GTP approach [R7.02.07]
Elastic energy release rate en thermo-elasticity-plasticity by Gp approach [R7.02.16]
40 - Code_Aster and Salome-Meca course material GNU FDL Licence
End of presentation
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