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Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership (QCF)

BTEC Professional qualifications

Specification
From August 2010 Issue 2

Pearson Education Limited is one of the UK's largest awarding organisations, offering academic and vocational qualifications and testing to schools, colleges, employers and other places of learning, both in the UK and internationally. Qualifications offered include GCSE, AS and A Level, NVQ and our BTEC suite of vocational qualifications, ranging from Entry Level to BTEC Higher National Diplomas. Pearson Education Limited administers BTEC qualifications. Through initiatives such as onscreen marking and administration, Pearson is leading the way in using technology to modernise educational assessment, and to support teachers and learners.

This specification is Issue 2. Key changes are sidelined. We will inform centres of any changes to this issue. The latest issue can be found on the Edexcel website: www.edexcel.com

References to third-party material made in this specification are made in good faith. We do not endorse, approve or accept responsibility for the content of materials, which may be subject to change, or any opinions expressed therein. (Material may include textbooks, journals, magazines and other publications and websites.) Authorised by Martin Stretton Prepared by Susan Hoxley and Kelly Padwick Publications Code BA035146 All the material in this publication is copyright Pearson Education Limited 2013

BTEC Professional qualification titles covered by this specification


Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award in Strategic Management and Leadership Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Certificate in Strategic Management and Leadership Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Extended Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership

The QCF Qualification Accreditation Number (QAN) should be used by centres when they wish to register their learners. Each unit within a qualification will also have a QCF unit code. The QCF qualification and unit codes will appear on learners final certification documentation. The QAN for the qualifications in this publication are: Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award in Strategic Management and Leadership Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Certificate in Strategic Management and Leadership Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Extended Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership 501/1001/9 501/0999/6 501/1000/7 501/0998/4

These qualification titles will appear on learners certificates. Learners need to be made aware of this when they are recruited by the centre and registered with Edexcel.

Welcome to BTEC Level 7 in Strategic Management and Leadership


We are delighted to introduce our new qualifications, which are available for teaching from August 2010. These qualifications have been revised and conform with the requirements of the new QCF (Qualifications and Credit Framework).

Focusing on the BTEC Level 7 in Strategic Management and Leadership


BTEC Level 7 Professional qualifications in Strategic Management and Leadership are designed to provide focused and specialist vocational short courses, linked to professional body requirements and National Occupational Standards where appropriate, with a clear work-related emphasis. The qualifications provide short vocational programmes of study that meet the individual needs of learners. There is a strong emphasis on practical skills development alongside the development of requisite knowledge and understanding in the sector. They are particularly suitable for more mature learners who wish to follow a short programme of study that is directly related to their work experience or to an aspect of employment that they wish to move into in due course. On successful completion of these qualifications, national recognition by employers enables learners to progress into or within employment and/or continue their study in the vocational area. Learners are able to progress across the range of Level 7 qualifications, from Award to Certificate to Diploma to Extended Diploma. These BTEC qualifications also support Continuing Professional Development (CPD), as well as enabling sideways progression to Masters degrees, such as an MBA, or a Level 7 NVQ in Management. BTEC Professional qualifications are designed to meet a range of different needs. The qualifications offer:

maximum flexibility with a range of different-sized Level 7 programmes the opportunity to certificate smaller blocks of learning designed to motivate learners and encourage widening participation in education and training courses that relate to the particular training and employment patterns in a sector courses that may offer preparation for specific jobs when in employment the opportunity to use a range of delivery methods opportunities for learners to develop skills that support career and professional development underpinning knowledge, skills and understanding linked, where appropriate, to named NVQs programmes that can enable progression either to higher levels of study or to other courses at the same level of study.

Straightforward to implement, teach and assess


Implementing BTECs couldnt be easier. They are designed to easily fit into your curriculum and can be studied independently or alongside existing qualifications, to suit the interests and aspirations of learners. The clarity of assessment makes grading learner attainment simpler.

Engaging for everyone


Learners of all abilities flourish when they can apply their own knowledge, skills and enthusiasm to a subject. BTEC qualifications make explicit the link between theoretical learning and the world of work by giving learners the opportunity to apply their research, skills and knowledge to work-related contexts and case studies. These applied and practical BTEC approaches give all learners the impetus they need to achieve and the skills they require for workplace or education progression.

Recognition
BTECs are understood and recognised by a large number of organisations in a wide range of sectors. BTEC qualifications are developed with key industry representatives and Sector Skills Councils (SSC) to ensure that they meet employer and student needs in this case the Council for Administration (CfA). Many industry and professional bodies offer successful BTEC students exemptions for their own accredited qualifications.

All you need to get started


To help you off to a flying start, weve developed an enhanced specification that gives you all the information you need to start teaching BTEC. This includes:

a framework of equivalencies, so you can see how this qualification compares with other Edexcel vocational qualifications information on rules of combination, structures and quality assurance, so you can deliver the qualification with confidence explanations of the contents relationship with the learning outcomes guidance on assessment, and what the learner must produce to achieve the unit.

Dont forget that were always here to offer curriculum and qualification updates, local training and network opportunities, advice, guidance and support.

Contents

What are BTEC Level 7 Professional qualifications?


Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Certificate Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Diploma Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Extended Diploma Key features of the Edexcel BTEC Level 7 qualifications in Strategic Management and Leadership National Occupational Standards

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2 2 2 2 2 3

Rules of combination
Rules of combination for the Edexcel BTEC Level 7 qualifications Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award in Strategic Management and Leadership Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Certificate in Strategic Management and Leadership Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Extended Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership

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4 5 6 7 8

Assessment Quality assurance of centres Programme design and delivery


Mode of delivery Resources Delivery approach

9 10 11
11 12 12

Access and recruitment


Restrictions on learner entry Access arrangements and special considerations Recognition of Prior Learning

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13 13 13

Unit format
Unit title Unit code

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15 15

QCF level Credit value Guided learning hours Unit aim Unit introduction Learning outcomes Assessment criteria Unit content Essential guidance for tutors

15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 17

Units
Unit 1: Developing Strategic Management and Leadership Skills Unit 2: Professional Development for Strategic Managers Unit 3: Strategic Change Management Unit 4: Developing Corporate Culture Unit 5: Leading E-strategy Unit 6: Creative and Innovative Management Unit 7: Strategic Marketing Management Unit 8: Corporate Communication Strategies Unit 9: Managing Corporate Responsibility in the Wider Business Environment Unit 10: Strategic Human Resource Management Unit 11: Strategic Quality and Systems Management Unit 12: Strategic Planning Unit 13: Managing Financial Principles and Techniques Unit 14: Strategic Supply Chain Management and Logistics Unit 15: Developing Successful Business Teams Unit 16: Research Methods for Strategic Managers Unit 17: Project Development and Implementation for Strategic Managers

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21 29 37 47 57 67 79 89 99 109 119 129 141 153 163 173 183

Further information Useful publications


How to obtain National Occupational Standards in Management and Leadership

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197

Professional development and training Annexe A


The Edexcel/BTEC qualification framework for the Management and Leadership sector

198 199
199

Annexe B
Wider curriculum mapping

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Annexe C
National Occupational Standards/mapping with NVQs

203
203

Annexe D
Unit mapping overview

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205

Annexe E
Glossary of accreditation terminology

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207

Annexe F
BTEC Specialist and Professional qualifications

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What are BTEC Level 7 Professional qualifications?


BTEC Professional qualifications are qualifications at Level 4 to Level 8 in the Qualifications and Credit Framework (QCF) and are designed to provide professional work-related qualifications in a range of sectors. They give learners the knowledge, understanding and skills that they need to prepare for employment. The qualifications also provide career development opportunities for those already in work. Consequently they provide a course of study for full-time or part-time learners in schools, colleges and training centres. BTEC Professional qualifications provide much of the underpinning knowledge and understanding for the National Occupational Standards for the sector, where these are appropriate. They are supported by the relevant Standards Setting Body (SSB) or Sector Skills Council (SSC). A number of BTEC Professional qualifications are recognised as the knowledge components of Apprenticeships Frameworks. On successful completion of a BTEC Professional qualification, learners can progress to or within employment and/or continue their study in the same, or related vocational area. The QCF is a framework which awards credit for qualifications and units and aims to present qualifications in a way that is easy to understand and measure. It enables learners to gain qualifications at their own pace along flexible routes. There are three sizes of qualification in the QCF:

Award (1 to 12 credits) Certificate (13 to 36 credits) Diploma (37 credits and above).

Every unit and qualification in the framework will have a credit value. The credit value of a unit specifies the number of credits that will be awarded to a learner who has achieved the learning outcomes of the unit. The credit value of a unit is based on:

one credit for those learning outcomes achievable in 10 hours of learning learning time defined as the time taken by learners at the level of the unit, on average, to complete the learning outcomes of the unit to the standard determined by the assessment criteria.

The credit value of the unit will remain constant in all contexts, regardless of the assessment method used for the qualification(s) to which it contributes. Learning time should address all learning (including assessment) relevant to the learning outcomes, regardless of where, when and how the learning has taken place.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award


The Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award provides an introduction to the skills, qualities and knowledge that may be required for employment in a particular vocational sector.

Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Certificate


The Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Certificate extends the work-related focus from the Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award and covers some of the knowledge and practical skills required for a particular vocational sector. The Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Certificate offers an engaging programme for those who are clear about the vocational area they want to learn more about. These learners may wish to extend their programme through a complementary NVQ or study of other related vocational or personal and social development qualifications. These learning programmes can be developed to allow learners to study complementary qualifications without duplication of content. For adult learners the Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Certificate can extend their knowledge and understanding of work in a particular sector. It is a suitable qualification for those wishing to change career or move into a particular area of employment following a career break.

Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Diploma


The Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Diploma extends the work-related focus from the Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Certificate. There is potential for the qualification to prepare learners for employment in a particular vocational sector and it is suitable for those who have decided that they wish to enter a specific area of work.

Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Extended Diploma


The Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Extended Diploma provides an even broader work-related focus than the Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Diploma and is particularly useful for learners who wish to progress to an MBA or other Masters degree programme.

Key features of the Edexcel BTEC Level 7 qualifications in Strategic Management and Leadership
The Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Professional qualifications in Strategic Management and Leadership have been developed to give learners the opportunity to:

engage in learning that is relevant to them and which gives them opportunities to develop a range of skills, techniques and attributes essential for successful performance in working life achieve a nationally recognised Level 7 vocationally-related qualification progress to employment in a particular vocational sector progress to related general and/or vocational qualifications.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

National Occupational Standards


Where relevant, Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Professional qualifications are designed to provide some of the underpinning knowledge and understanding for the National Occupational Standards (NOS), as well as developing practical skills in preparation for work and possible achievement of NVQs. NOS form the basis of National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs). Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Professional (QCF) qualifications do not purport to deliver occupational competence in a particular sector, which should be demonstrated in a work context. Each unit in the specification identifies links to elements of the NOS in Annexe C. The Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership relate to the NOS in Management and Leadership.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

Rules of combination
The rules of combination specify the credits that need to be achieved, through the completion of particular units, for the qualification to be awarded. All accredited qualifications within the QCF have rules of combination.

Rules of combination for the Edexcel BTEC Level 7 qualifications


When combining units for an Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership, it is the centres responsibility to ensure that the following rules of combination are adhered to.

Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award in Strategic Management and Leadership 1 2 3 Qualification credit value: a minimum of 10 credits. Minimum credit to be achieved at, or above, the level of the qualification: 10 credits. All credits must be achieved from the units listed in this specification.

Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Certificate in Strategic Management and Leadership 1 2 3 Qualification credit value: a minimum of 20 credits. Minimum credit to be achieved at, or above, the level of the qualification: 20 credits. All credits must be achieved from the units listed in this specification.

Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership 1 2 3 Qualification credit value: a minimum of 60 credits. Minimum credit to be achieved at, or above, the level of the qualification: 55 credits. All credits must be achieved from the units listed in this specification.

Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Extended Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership 1 2 3 Qualification credit value: a minimum of 120 credits. Minimum credit to be achieved at, or above, the level of the qualification: 115 credits. All credits must be achieved from the units listed in this specification.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award in Strategic Management and Leadership


The Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award in Strategic Management and Leadership is a 10-credit and 30-guided-learning-hour (GLH) qualification that consists of one mandatory unit.

Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award in Strategic Management and Leadership Unit 1 Mandatory unit Developing Strategic Management and Leadership Skills Credit 10 Level 7

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Certificate in Strategic Management and Leadership


The Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Certificate in Strategic Management and Leadership is a 20-credit qualification that consists of one mandatory unit plus optional units that provide for a combined total of 20 credits.

Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Certificate in Strategic Management and Leadership Unit 1 Unit 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Mandatory unit Developing Strategic Management and Leadership Skills Optional units (choose a minimum of 10 credits) Professional Development for Strategic Managers Strategic Change Management Developing Corporate Culture Leading E-strategy Creative and Innovative Management Strategic Marketing Management Corporate Communication Strategies Managing Corporate Responsibility in the Wider Business Environment Strategic Human Resource Management Strategic Quality and Systems Management 5 10 5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Credit 10 Level 7

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership


The Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership is a 60-credit qualification that consists of three mandatory units plus optional units that provide for a combined total of 60 credits (where at least 55 credits must be at Level 7 or above).

Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership Unit 1 2 3 Unit 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Mandatory units Developing Strategic Management and Leadership Skills Professional Development for Strategic Managers Strategic Change Management Optional units (choose a minimum of 35 credits) Developing Corporate Culture Leading E-strategy Creative and Innovative Management Strategic Marketing Management Corporate Communication Strategies Managing Corporate Responsibility in the Wider Business Environment Strategic Human Resource Management Strategic Quality and Systems Management Strategic Planning Managing Financial Principles and Techniques Strategic Supply Chain Management and Logistics Developing Successful Business Teams Research Methods for Strategic Managers 5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 15 15 15 5 15 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5 7 Credit 10 5 10 Level 7 7 7

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Extended Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership


The Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Extended Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership is a 120-credit qualification that consists of three mandatory units plus optional units that provide for a combined total of 120 credits (where at least 115 credits must be at Level 7 or above).

Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Extended Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership Unit 1 2 3 Unit 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Mandatory units Developing Strategic Management and Leadership Skills Professional Development for Strategic Managers Strategic Change Management Optional units (choose a minimum of 95 credits) Developing Corporate Culture Leading E-strategy Creative and Innovative Management Strategic Marketing Management Corporate Communication Strategies Managing Corporate Responsibility in the Wider Business Environment Strategic Human Resource Management Strategic Quality and Systems Management Strategic Planning Managing Financial Principles and Techniques Strategic Supply Chain Management and Logistics Developing Successful Business Teams Research Methods for Strategic Managers Project Development and Implementation for Strategic Managers 5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 15 15 15 5 15 20 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5 7 7 Credit 10 5 10 Level 7 7 7

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

Assessment
All units within these qualifications are internally assessed. The qualifications are criterion referenced, based on the achievement of all the specified learning outcomes. To achieve a pass a learner must have successfully passed all the assessment criteria.

Guidance
The purpose of assessment is to ensure that effective learning has taken place to give learners the opportunity to:

meet the standard determined by the assessment criteria and achieve the learning outcomes.

All the assignments created by centres should be reliable and fit for purpose, and should be built on the unit assessment criteria. Assessment tasks and activities should enable learners to produce valid, sufficient and reliable evidence that relates directly to the specified criteria. Centres should enable learners to produce evidence in a variety of different forms, including performance observation, presentations and posters, along with projects, or time-constrained assessments. Centres are encouraged to emphasise the practical application of the assessment criteria, providing a realistic scenario for learners to adopt, and making maximum use of practical activities. The creation of assignments that are fit for purpose is vital to achievement and their importance cannot be over-emphasised. The assessment criteria must be clearly indicated in the assignments briefs. This gives learners focus and helps with internal verification and standardisation processes. It will also help to ensure that learner feedback is specific to the assessment criteria. When designing assignments briefs, centres are encouraged to identify common topics and themes. A central feature of vocational assessment is that it allows for assessment to be:

current, ie to reflect the most recent developments and issues local, ie to reflect the employment context of the delivering centre flexible to reflect learner needs, ie at a time and in a way that matches the learners requirements so that they can demonstrate achievement.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

Qualification grade
Learners who achieve the minimum eligible credit value specified by the rule of combination will achieve the qualification at pass grade. In the Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Professional qualifications each unit has a credit value which specifies the number of credits that will be awarded to a learner who has achieved the learning outcomes of the unit. This has been based on:

one credit for those learning outcomes achievable in 10 hours of learning time learning time being defined as the time taken by learners at the level of the unit, on average, to complete the learning outcomes of the unit to the standard determined by the assessment criteria the credit value of the unit remaining constant regardless of the method of assessment used or the qualification to which it contributes.

Quality assurance of centres


Pearson's quality assurance system for all BTEC higher level programmes on the QCF at Levels 4-7 will ensure that centres have effective quality assurance processes to review programme delivery. It will also ensure that the outcomes of assessment are to national standards. The quality assurance process for centres offering Pearson BTEC higher level programmes on the QCF at Levels 4-7 comprises three key components.

Approval process
Centres will be required to seek approval to offer BTEC Level 7 qualifications in Subject through the existing Edexcel qualification and centre approval process. Prior to approval being given, centres will be required to submit evidence to demonstrate that they:

have the human and physical resources required for effective delivery and assessment understand the implications for independent assessment and agree to abide by these have a robust internal assessment system supported by fit for purpose assessment documentation have a system to internally verify assessment decisions, to ensure standardised assessment decisions are made across all assessors and sites.

Applications have to be supported by the head of the centre (principal, chief executive etc) and include a declaration that the centre will operate the programmes strictly as approved and in line with Pearson requirements.

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

Monitoring of internal centre systems


Centres will be required to demonstrate ongoing fulfilment of the centre approval criteria over time and across all programmes. The process that assures this is external examination, which is undertaken by Pearsons appointed External Examiners. Centres will be given the opportunity to present evidence of the ongoing suitability and deployment of their systems to carry out the required functions. This includes the consistent application of policies affecting learner registrations, appeals, effective internal examination and standardisation processes. Where appropriate, centres may present evidence of their operation within a recognised code of practice, such as that of the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education. Pearson reserves the right to confirm independently that these arrangements are operating to Pearsons satisfaction. Pearson will affirm, or not, the ongoing effectiveness of such systems. Where system failures are identified, sanctions (appropriate to the nature of the problem) will be applied in order to assist the centre in correcting the problem.

Independent assessment review


The internal assessment outcomes reached for all Edexcel BTEC higher level programmes on the Qualifications and Credit Framework at Levels 4-7 are subject to an independent assessment review by an Edexcel-appointed External Examiner. The outcomes of this process will be to: confirm that internal assessment is to national standards and allow certification or make recommendations to improve the quality of assessment outcomes before certification is released or make recommendations about the centres ability to continue to be approved for the qualifications in question.

Additional arrangement for ALL centres


Regardless of the type of centre, Pearson reserves the right to withdraw either qualification or centre approval when it deems there is an irreversible breakdown in the centres ability either to quality assure its programme delivery or its assessment standards.

Programme design and delivery


Mode of delivery
Edexcel does not normally define the mode of delivery for Edexcel BTEC Level 4 to Level 8 qualifications. Centres are free to offer the qualifications using any mode of delivery (such as full-time, part-time, evening only, distance learning) that meets their learners needs. Whichever mode of delivery is used, centres must ensure that learners have appropriate access to the resources identified in the specification and to the subject specialists delivering the units. This is particularly important for learners studying for the qualification through open or distance learning.
BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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Learners studying for the qualification on a part-time basis bring with them a wealth of experience that should be utilised to maximum effect by tutors and assessors. The use of assessment evidence drawn from learners work environments should be encouraged. Those planning the programme should aim to enhance the vocational nature of the qualification by:

liaising with employers to ensure a course relevant to learners specific needs accessing and using non-confidential data and documents from learners workplaces including sponsoring employers in the delivery of the programme and, where appropriate, in the assessment linking with company-based/workplace training programmes making full use of the variety of experience of work and life that learners bring to the programme.

Resources
Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Professional qualifications are designed to give learners an understanding of the skills needed for specific vocational sectors. Physical resources need to support the delivery of the programme and the assessment of the learning outcomes, and should therefore normally be of industry standard. Staff delivering programmes and conducting the assessments should be familiar with current practice and standards in the sector concerned. Centres will need to meet any specific resource requirements to gain approval from Edexcel. Where specific resources are required these have been indicated in individual units in the Essential resources sections.

Delivery approach
It is important that centres develop an approach to teaching and learning that supports the vocational nature of Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Professional qualifications and the mode of delivery. Specifications give a balance of practical skill development and knowledge requirements, some of which can be theoretical in nature. Tutors and assessors need to ensure that appropriate links are made between theory and practical application and that the knowledge base is applied to the sector. This requires the development of relevant and up-to-date teaching materials that allow learners to apply their learning to actual events and activity within the sector. Maximum use should be made of learners experience.

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

Access and recruitment


Edexcels policy regarding access to its qualifications is that:

they should be available to everyone who is capable of reaching the required standards they should be free from any barriers that restrict access and progression there should be equal opportunities for all wishing to access the qualifications.

Centres are required to recruit learners to BTEC qualifications with integrity. This will include ensuring that applicants have appropriate information and advice about the qualifications and that the qualification will meet their needs. Centres should take appropriate steps to assess each applicants potential and make a professional judgement about their ability to successfully complete the programme of study and achieve the qualification. This assessment will need to take account of the support available to the learner within the centre during their programme of study and any specific support that might be necessary to allow the learner to access the assessment for the qualification. Centres should consult Edexcels policy on learners with particular requirements. Centres will need to review the entry profile of qualifications and/or experience held by applicants, considering whether this profile shows an ability to progress to a higher level qualification.

Restrictions on learner entry


The Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Professional qualifications in Strategic Management and Leadership are accredited on the QCF for learners aged 19 and above.

Access arrangements and special considerations


Edexcels policy on access arrangements and special considerations for BTEC and Edexcel NVQ qualifications aims to enhance access to the qualifications for learners with disabilities and other difficulties (as defined by the 1995 Disability Discrimination Act and the amendments to the Act) without compromising the assessment of skills, knowledge, understanding or competence. Further details are given in the policy document Access Arrangements and Special Considerations for BTEC and Edexcel NVQ Qualifications, which can be found on the Edexcel website (www.edexcel.com). This policy replaces the previous Edexcel policy (Assessment of Vocationally Related Qualifications: Regulations and Guidance Relating to Learners with Special Requirements, 2002) concerning learners with particular requirements.

Recognition of Prior Learning


Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) is a method of assessment (leading to the award of credit) that considers whether a learner can demonstrate that they can meet the assessment requirements for a unit through knowledge, understanding or skills they already possess and so do not need to develop through a course of learning.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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Edexcel encourages centres to recognise learners previous achievements and experiences whether at work, home and at leisure, as well as in the classroom. RPL provides a route for the recognition of the achievements resulting from continuous learning. RPL enables recognition of achievement from a range of activities using any valid assessment methodology. Provided that the assessment requirements of a given unit or qualification have been met, the use of RPL is acceptable for accrediting a unit, units or a whole qualification. Evidence of learning must be sufficient, reliable and valid.

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

Unit format
All units in the Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Professional qualifications have a standard format. The unit format is designed to give guidance on the requirements of the qualification for learners, tutors, assessors and those responsible for monitoring national standards. Each unit has the following sections.

Unit title
The unit title is accredited on the QCF and this form of words will appear on the learners Notification of Performance (NOP).

Unit code
Each unit is assigned a QCF unit code that appears with the unit title on the National Database of Accredited Qualifications.

QCF level
All units and qualifications within the QCF will have a level assigned to them, which represents the level of achievement. There are nine levels of achievement, from Entry Level to Level 8. The level of the unit has been informed by the QCF level descriptors and, where appropriate, the NOS and/or other sector/professional benchmarks.

Credit value
All units have a credit value. The minimum credit value that may be determined for a unit is one, and credits can only be awarded in whole numbers. Learners will be awarded credits for the successful completion of whole units.

Guided learning hours


Guided learning hours are defined as all the times when a tutor, trainer or facilitator is present to give specific guidance towards the learning aim being studied on a programme. This definition includes lectures, tutorials and supervised study in, for example, open learning centres and learning workshops. It also includes time spent by staff assessing learners achievements. It does not include time spent by staff in day-to-day marking of assignments or homework where the learner is not present.

Unit aim
The aim provides a clear summary of the purpose of the unit and is a succinct statement that summarises the learning outcomes of the unit.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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Unit introduction
The unit introduction gives the reader an appreciation of the unit in the vocational setting of the qualification, as well as highlighting the focus of the unit. It gives the reader a snapshot of the unit and the key knowledge, skills and understanding gained while studying the unit. The unit introduction also highlights any links to the appropriate vocational sector by describing how the unit relates to that sector.

Learning outcomes
The learning outcomes of a unit set out what a learner is expected to know, understand or be able to do as the result of a process of learning.

Assessment criteria
The assessment criteria of a unit specify the standard a learner is expected to meet to demonstrate that a learning outcome, or set of learning outcomes, has been achieved. The learning outcomes and assessment criteria clearly articulate the learning achievement for which the credit will be awarded at the level assigned to the unit.

Unit content
The unit content identifies the breadth of knowledge, skills and understanding needed to design and deliver a programme of learning to achieve each of the learning outcomes. This is informed by the underpinning knowledge and understanding requirements of the related National Occupational Standards (NOS), where relevant. The content provides the range of subject material for the programme of learning and specifies the skills, knowledge and understanding required for achievement of the unit. Each learning outcome is stated in full and then the key phrases or concepts related to that learning outcome are listed in italics followed by the subsequent range of related topics. Relationship between content and assessment criteria The learner should have the opportunity to cover all of the unit content. It is not a requirement of the unit specification that all of the content is assessed. However, the indicative content will need to be covered in a programme of learning in order for learners to be able to meet the standard determined in the assessment criteria. Content structure and terminology The information below shows the unit content is structured and gives the terminology used to explain the different components within the content.

Learning outcome: this is shown in bold at the beginning of each section of content. Italicised sub-heading: it contains a key phrase or concept. This is content which must be covered in the delivery of the unit. Colons mark the end of an italicised sub-heading.

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

Elements of content: the elements are in plain text and amplify the subheading. The elements must be covered in the delivery of the unit. Semi-colons mark the end of an element. Brackets contain amplification of content which must be covered in the delivery of the unit. eg is a list of examples, used for indicative amplification of an element (that is, the content specified in this amplification could be covered or could be replaced by other, similar material).

Essential guidance for tutors


This section gives tutors additional guidance and amplification to aid understanding and a consistent level of delivery and assessment. It is divided into the following sections.

Delivery explains the contents relationship to the learning outcomes and offers guidance about possible approaches to delivery. This section is based on the more usual delivery modes but is not intended to rule out alternative approaches. Assessment gives amplification about the nature and type of evidence that learners need to produce in order to achieve the unit. This section should be read in conjunction with the assessment criteria. Essential resources identifies any specialist resources needed to allow learners to generate the evidence required for each unit. The centre will be asked to ensure that any requirements are in place when it seeks approval from Edexcel to offer the qualification. Indicative resource materials gives a list of learner resource material that benchmarks the level of study.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

Units
Unit 1: Developing Strategic Management and Leadership Skills Unit 2: Professional Development for Strategic Managers Unit 3: Strategic Change Management Unit 4: Developing Corporate Culture Unit 5: Leading E-strategy Unit 6: Creative and Innovative Management Unit 7: Strategic Marketing Management Unit 8: Corporate Communication Strategies Unit 9: Managing Corporate Responsibility in the Wider Business Environment Unit 10: Strategic Human Resource Management Unit 11: Strategic Quality and Systems Management Unit 12: Strategic Planning Unit 13: Managing Financial Principles and Techniques Unit 14: Strategic Supply Chain Management and Logistics Unit 15: Developing Successful Business Teams Unit 16: Research Methods for Strategic Managers Unit 17: Project Development and Implementation for Strategic Managers 21 29 37 47 57 67 79 89 99 109 119 129 141 153 163 173 183

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 1: DEVELOPING STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP SKILLS

Unit 1:

Developing Strategic Management and Leadership Skills


F/602/2058 BTEC Professional 10

Unit code: QCF Level 7: Credit value:

Guided learning hours: 30

Unit aim
This unit provides the learner with an understanding of the links between strategic management, leadership and organisational direction, and the skills to be able to apply this understanding.

Unit introduction
The main aim of this unit is to investigate how current thinking on leadership influences an organisations planning to meet current and future leadership requirements. Learners will gain an insight into the current thinking on leadership from an organisational perspective. They will examine the links between strategic management and leadership, particularly the skills a leader needs to support organisational direction. The unit will help learners understand the impact of management and leadership styles on strategic decisions in differing situations, through examining the competences and styles of successful leaders. Applying management and leadership theories and models to specific situations will enable learners to assess their impact on organisational strategy. The unit will draw on a selection of established principles, including the influence of emotional intelligence on leadership effectiveness. This will enable learners to assess how organisations can plan to meet current and future leadership requirements. This unit gives an organisational perspective, but it offers learners an insight into how it can contribute to development of their strategic management and leadership skills through assessing requirements for their current or future job roles and measuring these against relevant National Occupational Standards. Learners will develop analytical and long-term planning skills through the use of case studies and research. Finally, this unit will enable learners to research a range of management and leadership development methods and evaluate their in meeting the skills requirements for effective leadership.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 1: DEVELOPING STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP SKILLS

Learning outcomes and assessment criteria


In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria determine the standard required to achieve the unit. On completion of this unit a learner should: Learning outcomes 1 Understand the relationship between strategic management and leadership Assessment criteria 1.1 1.2 explain the link between strategic management and leadership analyse the impact of management and leadership styles on strategic decisions evaluate how leadership styles can be adapted to different situations review the impact that selected theories of management and leadership have on organisational strategy create a leadership strategy that supports organisational direction use appropriate methods to review current leadership requirements plan for the development of future situations requiring leadership plan the development of leadership skills for a specific requirement report on the usefulness of methods used to plan the development of leadership skills

1.3

Be able to apply management and leadership theory to support organisational direction

2.1

2.2 3 Be able to assess leadership requirements 3.1

3.2

Be able to plan the development of leadership skills

4.1

4.2

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 1: DEVELOPING STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP SKILLS

Unit content

Understand the relationship between strategic management and leadership Strategic management and leadership: functions of strategic management eg reviewing strategic aims and objectives, improving organisational performance, creating, communicating and implementing change, developing and leading high performance teams, strategic decision making; definitions of leadership eg Mintzbergs 10 Managerial Roles; followership; direct versus indirect leadership; link between strategic management and leadership eg the skills of the leader to achieve the strategic objectives Management and leadership style: style eg autocratic, bureaucratic, charismatic, laissez-faire, persuasive, participative; influences on style eg culture of organisation, characteristics of the manager/leader; impact of styles on strategic decisions; adapting management and leadership styles in different situations

Be able to apply management and leadership theory to support organisational direction Theories: universal theories such as Transformational Leadership, Transactional Leadership (Bennis, Bass), charismatic leadership (Weber, Conger and Kanungo); contingency theory eg Fiedler; situational theories eg Hersey and Blanchard, Vroom and Yetton, tri-dimensional leadership theory (Yukl) Emotional intelligence: influence on leadership effectiveness, drivers; constrainers and enablers; studies on Emotional Quotient (EQ) eg Goleman, Higgs and Dulewicz Applicability to support organisational direction: factors eg efficiency, reliability, innovation, adaptation and human resources in sectors, organisations and subunits; size and stage of development of organisation eg business start-up versus established business; turnaround leadership, cultural issues

Be able to assess leadership requirements Assess leadership requirements: generic challenges eg virtual organisations, diversity, globalisation, economic climate, world threats, ethics and corporate social responsibility; e-leadership, mergers and takeovers, restructuring, integrity leadership, diverse teams, partnerships and alliances, regulatory compliance, changes in reporting and control, new technology, interim leadership

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 1: DEVELOPING STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP SKILLS

Be able to plan the development of leadership skills Development of leadership skills: different methods of developing leaders through formal learning, self-help and developmental activities eg training courses, job rotation, seminars, executive coaching, mentoring, companies own universities, developmental assessment centres, action learning, self-directed learning, reading articles, partnership with key academics; changing methodology in leadership development programmes; benefits of self-help activities eg learning from mistakes, viewing events from multiple perspectives; developing leaders versus recruiting as needed; creating a learning climate; model for assessing future leadership requirements eg Council for Excellence in Leadership and Management diagnostic tools; leadership competencies eg thinking and acting strategically, emotional intelligence, social intelligence, ability to learn, systems thinking

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 1: DEVELOPING STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP SKILLS

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
Tutors will need to use a wide range of teaching and learning methods so that learners meet the learning outcomes in this unit. Methods include lectures, seminars, workshops, project work and individual and group assessments. Some formal delivery will be necessary, but work can be increasingly learnercentred to develop independent learning. Learners need to adopt an investigative, analytical and participative approach to achieve the learning outcomes and reflect on their own experiences and roles to enhance the learning experience. Sufficient time needs to be built into the delivery schedule to allow learners to undertake the research needed to help them meet the learning outcomes and be responsible for their own learning. For learning outcome 1, it is important that learners understand that strategic leadership is required to respond to the challenges organisations face in relation to todays rapid rate of change and globalisation. In order to understand leadership requirements in organisations, learners need to explore the fundamentals of the concept of followership and the relationship between leaders and followers. Tutors could provide input on the key elements that underpin effective followership and types of follower (for example isolate, bystander, participant, activist and diehard) using case studies of leader-follower interactions. Learners need to appreciate the importance of leaders needing to adopt a strategic approach to examine the causes of organisational change and the impact of culture and systems on the organisation, as well as evaluating and justifying different leadership theories and models used to enable change. The development of future leaders versus recruiting as needed is an issue which could involve much group discussion. When covering learning outcome 2, it is important to focus on current thinking and consider models and theories selected from each section of the learning outcome content. For most of the learning outcome, it is preferable for time to be spent on consolidating and actively learning and considering the application of a theory or model which is representative of a school of thought, rather than learning many different theories and models using a tutor-led approach. When learning about the competences for strategic leadership and styles of successful leaders, learners can use their own experiences and relate them to current theories and models. For learning outcomes 3 and 4, it is important that tutors highlight the differences between operational and strategic leadership, as well as the opposing aspects of leadership the need to oversee day-to-day work and the need to continuously push for change. Small-group working can enable learners to use case studies to investigate current and future requirements for different organisations, sectors and industries. They could then produce a short presentation assessing the likely future leadership requirements for the different situations, identifying the challenges faced. Examples include case studies from textbooks or using local organisations such as the centre itself, a local charity, a new business start-up or a public sector organisation. Learners could present their findings to the rest of the class and discuss the typical challenges that organisations face today and how they can be addressed, for example by applying e-leadership principles. There are different

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 1: DEVELOPING STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP SKILLS

ways and initiatives for developing leadership skills to meet these challenges and learners could work in groups to research them. Learners could produce a chart showing analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each method, as well as preparing a plan for the development of their own leadership skills.

Outline learning plan


The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the programme of suggested assignments. The outline learning plan demonstrates one way in planning the delivery and assessment of this unit.

Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/assessment Introduction to unit and programme of learning Tutor-led discussion on definitions of strategic management and leadership learner group work and exercises Tutor input on management and leadership styles followed by exercises Learner research on adapting management and leadership styles in different situations contributing to Assignment 1: Management and Leadership Tutor input on theoretical models and concepts of leadership followed by learner research and activities Learner research on organisational direction contributing to Assignment 2: Leadership Strategy Learner research on current and future leadership requirements using their own organisation (if appropriate) and case studies Learner activity on a case study on recruiting for a leadership position in an organisation, contributing to Assignment 3: Planning for Leadership Learner research on suitable development activities to improve their own leadership skills Learner activity evaluating the usefulness of planning methods, contributing to Assignment 3: Planning for Leadership Review of unit and programme of assignments

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 1: DEVELOPING STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP SKILLS

Assessment
Learners can use their own workplaces as a base for much of the assessment for this unit. However, if they are not a part of a suitable organisation, other strategies may have to be used, for example a work placement, a detailed investigation of an organisation or the use of suitable case study material. For AC1.1, learners need to explain the link between strategic management and leadership. Learners need to use examples to explain the links between functions, with particular emphasis on meeting strategic objectives. For AC1.2, learners can draw on their own practices as managers/leaders, using examples from their organisations or a suitable case study to analyse the impact of different management and leadership styles on strategic decisions. This can be developed to evaluate how these styles have been adapted to meet challenges in at least two different situations and organisational contexts for AC1.3. For AC 2.1and 2.2, learners need to apply theory to specific situations and create a realistic leadership strategy. They need to review a range of management and leadership theories and models, with the emphasis on current thinking. Learners do not need to use lots of different theories to demonstrate wide-ranging knowledge, but should draw on two or three relevant theories to illustrate understanding in the context of the selected organisation. Learning outcomes 3 and 4 relate to the assessment of current and future leadership requirements to meet the challenges for a specific situation. Learners need to plan for the development of leadership skills and report on the usefulness of the planning methods used to meet the requirements of AC 3.1, 3.2, 4.1 and 4.2.

Programme of suggested assignments The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the criteria in the assessment grid. This is for guidance only and it is recommended that centres either write their own assignments or adapt Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources.

Assessment criteria covered AC 1.1, 1.2, 1.3

Assignment title Management and Leadership

Scenario Learners analyse the impact of management and leadership styles on different work situations, evaluating how styles can be adapted. Learners review theory when creating a leadership strategy. Learners plan the

Assessment method Report

AC 2.1, 2.2

Leadership Strategy

Theoretical review

AC 3.1, 3.2, 4.1,

Planning for

Material for 27

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 1: DEVELOPING STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP SKILLS

Assessment criteria covered 4.2

Assignment title Leadership

Scenario recruitment and future development for a specific leadership role.

Assessment method planning the recruitment and development of a leadership role

Essential resources
There are no essential resources required for this unit.

Indicative resource materials


Textbooks Adair J Effective Leadership: How to be a Successful Leader (Pan, 2009) ISBN 0330504193 Adair J How to Grow Leaders: The Seven Key Principles of Effective Leadership Development (Kogan Page, 2009) 0749454806 Gold J, Thorpe R and Mumford A Leadership and Management Development (CIPD, 2010) ISBN 1843982447 Kouzes J M and Posner, B Z The Leadership Challenge, 4th Edition (Jossey-Bass, 2008) ISBN 0787984922 Mullins L J Management and Organisational Behaviour, 9th Edition (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2010) ISBN 0273724088 Journals Management Today (Haymarket Business Media) People Management (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development) Professional Manager (Chartered Management Institute) Training Journal (www.trainingjournal.com) Websites www.cipd.co.uk www.leadershipnow.com www.managementhelp.org Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development Articles and blogs on leadership challenges Free management library for articles and blogs on leadership development planning Chartered Management Institute searchable database which members can use to access journal articles and other publications Questionnaires and trainer packs The Strategic Management Society

www.managers.org.uk

www.peterhoney.com www.strategicmanagement.net 28

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 2: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS

Unit 2:
Unit code: QCF Level 7: Credit value:

Professional Development for Strategic Managers


F/602/2061 BTEC Professional 5

Guided learning hours: 10

Unit aim
This unit provides the learner with the methods and techniques to assess the development of their own skills to support the achievement of strategic direction.

Unit introduction
This unit is designed to enable learners to take responsibility for their learning and development needs to gain the personal and professional skills needed to support the strategic direction of an organisation. Learners can achieve this through analysing their current skills and preparing and implementing a personal development plan. This unit highlights the importance of seeking feedback from others to improve performance by continuously reviewing learning needs. The development of appropriate personal and professional skills will allow learners to cope with demanding responsibilities and career progression. Learners will conduct a skills audit to evaluate the strategic skills they need to meet current and future leadership requirements and then use it to identify their preferred learning style. This will also inform the structure of a personal development plan. Evidence for this unit needs to be generated continuously throughout the qualification, enabling learners to take ownership of their development needs. Learners will need to demonstrate that they have a regularly updated and realistic personal development plan that fits with their preferred learning style. This unit will also enable learners to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of their learning against the achievement of strategic goals and their chosen career path.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 2: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS

Learning outcomes and assessment criteria


In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria determine the standard required to achieve the unit. On completion of this unit a learner should: Learning outcomes 1 Be able to assess personal and professional skills required to achieve strategic goals Assessment criteria 1.1 use appropriate methods to evaluate personal skills required to achieve strategic goals apply techniques to assess the professional skills required to support the strategic direction of the organisation carry out a skills audit to evaluate the strategic skills needed to meet current and future leadership requirements apply appropriate techniques to identify preferred learning style construct a personal development plan that meets leadership development requirements identified in the skills audit use suitable methods to assess the outcomes of a personal development plan against personal work objectives evaluate the impact of own learning against the achievement of strategic goals

1.2

Be able to conduct a skills audit to identify learning style

2.1

2.2 3 Be able to implement a personal development plan 3.1

3.2

3.3

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 2: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS

Unit content

Be able to assess personal and professional skills required to achieve strategic goals Personal skills: time management eg using time effectively, analysing time spent to improve productivity, setting SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, time-based) objectives, prioritising work tasks, dealing with time wasters, effective delegation; stress management; problem solving; decision making; effective communication eg active listening, questioning, handling conflict Professional skills: counselling and mentoring to support staff with their own learning and development requirements; coaching skills; leadership skills; multi-tasking; using occupational standards to identify competencies; continuing self-development to meet requirements for professional bodies eg learning new skills and knowledge, developing in current and future job roles; leading and chairing meetings; delivering effective presentations Achieving strategic goals: importance eg to ensure that staff can perform their job effectively, to provide opportunities to meet individual learning needs, to improve flexibility and adaptability when responding to change, to ensure business success, to create a learning culture; methods eg using conceptual tools to identify own strengths and limitations, developing personal networks, management development and Continuing Professional Development (CPD) programmes

Be able to conduct a skills audit to identify learning style Skills audit: to assess skills and competencies against organisational and personal objectives; personal profile using appropriate self-assessment tools, psychometric testing, personal SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis listing strengths, weaknesses, identifying opportunities for improvement or career progression, identifying threats to progress; assessment against relevant National Occupational Standards (NOS) and NVQ competence standards; importance of feedback from others eg peers, line manager, customers; methods of feedback eg appraisal, supervision, performance review, mentoring; defining the gap, identifying learning and development needs to meet strategic objectives Identify preferred learning style: methods such as learning style inventories and questionnaires, psychometric testing eg Kolb (converger, diverger, assimilator, accommodator), Honey and Mumford (activist, reflector, theorist, pragmatist), Flemings VAK/VARK model (visual, auditory, reading/writing, kinesthetic), Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI); criticisms of learning style theories

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 2: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS

Be able to implement a personal development plan Personal development plan: importance of having a plan to provide a systematic or structured approach to decisions about what is needed to learn and how to plan to learn it; setting objectives for life and career planning, identifying resources and support needed and available to meet objectives, identifying obstacles to achieving objectives and how to overcome them, reviewing and monitoring plan; the importance of self-review, providing a reflective record of management experience; gaining support from others to achieve goals and work objectives Monitoring and evaluation: importance of keeping a working document; to help manage learning; to evaluate progress of achievement towards goals; to become a critical, self-directed learner; to develop a clear understanding of strengths and areas for development of leadership skills; review on regular basis; compare achievements against original objectives, reflect on learning, record results, agree whether objectives were achieved or not, set date for next review; set new objectives when others have been achieved

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 2: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
This unit gives learners the opportunity to develop the skills needed to take ownership of improving their management or leadership performance to support the achievement of strategic direction for an organisation. The integration of learning with practice, and reflection on own strengths and weaknesses as strategic managers forms an essential part of this unit. Delivery needs to be related to learners own employment experience. Where learners do not have relevant employment experience, they can use diverse opportunities to explore their personal development. Activities such as work experience, job shadowing or voluntary work can support the exploration of personal development. To be of value, the exploration of personal development can be systematic with more than ad hoc and unstructured thoughts. So learners can prepare a personal development plan and review and reflect on their management experience and development. It is recommended that this unit is either delivered first in the programme or integrated with other units on an ongoing basis. Learners need to plan their learning and development and involve others in the process. This can involve seeking feedback from line managers and colleagues regarding performance and development needs. This will enable learners to review and revise their performance and development needs to meet organisational and personal objectives. This can be achieved through a series of skills-based workshops or a residential training session where learners analyse their personal development requirements. For learning outcome 1, learners could assess a range of interpersonal skills which are important for strategic managers/leaders to achieve strategic objectives and develop good working relationships. Tutors can show video/DVD clips of ineffective communications, followed by learners using role-play scenarios to practise skills such as body language, active listening, negotiation and assertiveness in a nonthreatening environment. Learners can analyse how well they currently manage their time through keeping a time log and reviewing it after a period of say, one week, to identify where improvements could be made. For learning outcome 2, learners can carry out a personal SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis against the current and future leadership requirements of their job role. When training and developing staff, it is important to find out how they learn best. This can be achieved through understanding learning style preferences. Kolbs learning cycle is a useful tool to understand how people learn. Learners can complete an inventory or questionnaire to identify their own preferred learning style. There are many free examples that can be downloaded from the internet. Tutors need to emphasise that learning styles are used to suit the learning being undertaken and improve learning in weaker styles. There are many learning style theoretical models that learners could research and compare.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 2: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS

For learning outcome 3, and in order for learners to prepare a development plan, tutors need to explain the importance of having a plan, for example setting SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, time-based) objectives to meet personal and professional goals and to monitor and assess progress against targets. Tutors could provide a template for a personal development plan for learners to complete. Tutors need to reinforce the importance of keeping the development plan and reflective record up to date so that it can be monitored and reviewed throughout the learning programme. Learners will prepare their plan using the results of the skills audit. Ongoing review and monitoring of learning against the achievement of strategic goals is essential and learners will need to understand the importance of this in improving performance in order to achieve strategic goals.

Outline learning plan


The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the programme of suggested assignments. The outline learning plan demonstrates one way in planning the delivery and assessment of this unit.

Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/assessment Introduction to unit and programme of learning Tutor input on interpersonal skills, showing DVDs of ineffective behaviours Role-play activities to practise personal and interpersonal skills and behaviours, followed by feedback and evaluation Tutor-led discussion on time management, followed by learner activities on time stealers and ways to manage them Learner activities to analyse time management Learner activities to assess personal and professional skills, contributing to Assignment 1: Personal and Professional Skills Review Tutor input on importance of conducting a skills audit Tutor input on learning styles followed by learner activities to identify preferred learning style Learner activities to complete a skills audit, contributing to Assignment 2: Personal Development Planning Tutor input on resources needed to support leadership development activities Learner research on suitable development activities to improve performance Tutor input on methods for monitoring achievement of objectives of a personal development plan and setting SMART objectives Learners prepare and implement personal development plan, contributing to Assignment 2: Personal Development Planning Review of unit and programme of assignments

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 2: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS

Assessment
Assessment for this unit needs to be evidenced through a personal development plan that is monitored throughout the programme. It is important that learners evaluate their current skills using a skills audit to identify and inform their preferred learning style. The personal development plan needs to demonstrate learner ability to reflect on their learning and development needs, identify target dates for review, and show how their needs have been met. For AC 1.1 and 1.2, learners need to use appropriate methods to evaluate personal skills and assess the professional skills needed for effective leadership and management. To meet the strategic goals and direction of the organisation, learners need to link their evaluation to leadership requirements for a specific goal. For AC2.1, learners will need to demonstrate they can conduct a skills audit, to evaluate current and future leadership requirements. Learners need to benchmark against suitable criteria such as National Occupational Standards for Management and Leadership. This can help inform their preferred learning style for AC2.2. For AC 3.1 and 3.2, learners will construct a personal development plan using the information from their skills audit. They can use a standard template or construct their own plan, but it must include SMART objectives and an identification of the resources needed to achieve the objectives, as well as assessing the outcomes against personal work objectives. To be of value, the plan needs to be implemented for at least six months in order for learners to evaluate the impact of their learning against the achievement of strategic goals for AC3.3. Programme of suggested assignments The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the criteria in the assessment grid. This is for guidance only and it is recommended that centres either write their own assignments or adapt Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources.

Assessment criteria covered AC 1.1, 1.2

Assignment title Personal and Professional Skills Review Personal Development Planning

Scenario Learners to review skills needed to achieve strategic goals. Learners to prepare and implement a personal development plan through carrying out a skills audit.

Assessment method Skills review

AC 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3

Skills audit and Personal Development Plan showing monitoring and review for at least 6 months

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 2: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS

Essential resources
There are no essential resources required for this unit.

Indicative resource materials


Textbooks Allen M and Adair J The Concise Time Management and Personal Development (Thorogood, 2003) ISBN 1854182234 Gold J, Thorpe R and Mumford A Leadership and Management Development (CIPD, 2010) ISBN 1843982447 Megginson D and Whitaker V Continuing Professional Development (CIPD, 2007) ISBN 1843981661 Owen J How to Lead, 2nd Edition (Prentice Hall, 2009) ISBN 027372150X Pedler M, Burgoyne J and Boydell T A Managers Guide to Self Development (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006) ISBN 0077114701 Journals Management Today (Haymarket Business Media) People Management (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development) Professional Manager (Chartered Management Institute) Training Journal (www.trainingjournal.com) Websites www.businesslink.gov.uk Interactive tools for creating a personal development plan through assessment of management and leadership skills Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development Articles on leadership development planning and self-assessments for personal and professional development Chartered Management Institute Time-management tools and activity logs

www.cipd.co.uk www.managementhelp.org

www.management-standards.org.uk www.mindtools.com

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 3: STRATEGIC CHANGE MANAGEMENT

Unit 3:
Unit code: QCF Level 7: Credit value:

Strategic Change Management


J/602/2062 BTEC Professional 10

Guided learning hours: 30

Unit aim
This unit provides the learner with the understanding and skills to support active engagement in the process of strategic change management.

Unit introduction
Alvin Tofflers famous comment There is only one constant today and that is change was made some decades ago, but now change itself is changing at a fast rate. The phenomenal pace of change in countries such as China and India is impacting on older, established economies in the western world. With such change comes uncertainty and insecurity. Organisations, even those in the public sector where steady state was ever the watchword, can no longer sit back. All organisations are being increasingly challenged by change. Consequently, they need to understand the issues that drive the need for change in their own organisations. This means that organisations need to have a proactive approach to strategic change management. Strategic change management is most effective when an organisation actively seeks the participation of all relevant stakeholders. A change management strategy will be effective only if it has the support of all stakeholders. If they are to have a sense of ownership, stakeholders need to have the opportunity to contribute to the development of the change strategy. Strategic change impacts on the human resources structure of the organisation and this often means a restructuring of the workforce or changes in working practices. Almost inevitably, change will generate resistance from some, particularly those who feel that the change will have no positive benefits for them. Other people may resist change simply because they prefer the status quo. Organisations need to ensure that they have strategies in place to manage resistance to change and this should be part of the overall model that they adopt for managing the change. Once in place, progress towards change will need to be monitored. Learners will develop an understanding of the models of strategic change and the role that stakeholders play in this process. They will then examine the need for change in a selected organisation and plan the implementation of a model for change.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 3: STRATEGIC CHANGE MANAGEMENT

Learning outcomes and assessment criteria


In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria determine the standard required to achieve the unit. On completion of this unit a learner should: Learning outcomes 1 Understand the background to organisational strategic change Assessment criteria 1.1
1.2

discuss models of strategic change evaluate the relevance of models of strategic change to organisations in the current economy assess the value of using strategic intervention techniques in organisations examine the need for strategic change in an organisation assess the factors that are driving the need for strategic change in an organisation assess the resource implications of the organisation not responding to strategic change develop systems to involve stakeholders in the planning of change develop a change management strategy with stakeholders evaluate the systems used to involve stakeholders in the planning of change create a strategy for managing resistance to change develop appropriate models for change plan to implement a model for change develop appropriate measures to monitor progress

1.3

Understand issues relating to strategic change in an organisation

2.1 2.2

2.3

Be able to lead stakeholders in developing a strategy for change

3.1

3.2 3.3

3.4 4 Be able to plan to implement models for ensuring ongoing change 4.1 4.2 4.3

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 3: STRATEGIC CHANGE MANAGEMENT

Unit content

Understand the background to organisational strategic change Models: John P Kotter's eight steps to successful change; Kbler-Ross five stages transition (grief) cycle; Proscis five building blocks ADKAR (awareness, desire, knowledge, ability, reinformcement) model; McKinseys 7S (strategy, structure, systems, shared values, skills, style, staff) framework; Kurt Lewins change management model - unfreeze, transition and refreeze; Burke-Litwins causal change model; action research; gap analysis Strategic interventions: teambuilding consensus and conflict, game play, contingency theory, autocratic versus participative style, proactive and reactive, creating synergy; human process interventions; techno-structural interventions; human resources management interventions; organisational and external environment interventions

Understand issues relating to strategic change in an organisation Need for change: reasons for change eg changes in markets, economic downturns, changes in global markets, customer expectations, competitive edge, budget pressures, legislation, size, demographics, mergers, acquisitions, change in mission, restructuring operations, new technologies, major collaborations, rightsizing, new programmes such as Total Quality Management (TQM), re-engineering Factors driving the change: change drivers eg economics, political factors, environmental, financial pressures, new markets, loss of markets, technological advances, transition to a new chief executive, funding cuts, need to be competitive Resource implication: human resources eg restructuring, interviewing and hiring, redundancies, training; physical resources eg equipment, vehicles, buildings; financial resources eg costs of training, redundancy costs, relocation costs; new building, refurbishment of existing buildings

Be able to lead stakeholders in developing a strategy for change Systems to involve stakeholders: stakeholder analysis, systems modelling, systems and sub-systems, input transformation-output modelling, multiple cause diagrams, tropics factors, configuration, divergence and convergence, functional and divisional structures, cultural web, images of organisations, team development, influencing skills, awareness raising, commitment development Involving stakeholders in the change management strategy: six steps stakeholder circle (identify stakeholders, prioritise stakeholders, map their profiles, develop an engagement strategy, optimise their support, monitor changes); methods of involvement eg dialogue with individuals and groups, meetings, presentations, group facilitation, team building, coaching, delegating, developing and sharing a change plan

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 3: STRATEGIC CHANGE MANAGEMENT

Resistance to change: types of resistance eg individual versus collective, passive versus active, direct versus indirect, behavioural versus verbal or attitudinal, minor versus major, resistance to the content of change, resistance to the process of change. Strategies: eg open communications, education, involvement, forums, listening to stakeholders, feedback, addressing needs, ownership of the change, change champions, communicate the vision, getting the support of all key power players, focus on the positives, delivering training programmes 4 Be able to plan to implement models for ensuring ongoing change Plan to develop appropriate models for change: choice of appropriate model eg John P Kotter's eight steps to successful change; Kbler-Ross five stages transition (grief) cycle; Proscis five building blocks ADKAR (awareness, desire, knowledge, ability, reinforcement) model; McKinseys 7S (strategy, structure, systems, shared values, skills, style, staff) framework; Kurt Lewins change management model - unfreeze, transition and refreeze; Burke-Litwins causal change model; action research; gap analysis Plan to implement a model for change: organisational development, Business Process Re-Engineering (BPR), learning organisation, Kaizen, delayering and right-sizing, matrix organisations, network organisations, adhocracy, virtual organisation, push and pull strategies, conflict handling, transformational leadership, empowerment, consultation, contextual planning, contingency planning, adjustments, flexibility Develop appropriate measures to monitor progress: eg goal-based evaluation, process-based evaluation, outcome-based evaluation, regular reports, meetings, quality circles, progress reviews, milestones, deadlines

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 3: STRATEGIC CHANGE MANAGEMENT

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
Learning outcome 2 is a good starting point for this unit and tutors could use the experiences of learners from their own organisations. Learners could be encouraged to discuss and share their experiences of change within their own workplaces. It is likely that all employed learners will have experienced change on some scale in their workplace and they could also draw on topical examples of strategic change in other organisations. For example, the restructuring of cabin crew staff at British Airways or the restructuring of Civil Service departments following the 2010 election. Learners could identify and discuss the factors that are driving the need for change in their own organisations or in topical examples. This approach can be continued with tutors leading a discussion on the resource implications for organisations if they fail to respond to strategic change. For learning outcome 1, tutors can build on the discussions from learning outcome 2 and introduce the various models of strategic change. Learners could conduct their own research into the models, particularly those that may be appropriate to their selected organisation in the current economic climate. Topical case studies are a useful method of highlighting and examining different strategic intervention techniques. Learners can compare the techniques used in different strategic change management situations. For learning outcome 3, learners will need to be aware of the range of internal and external stakeholders who are affected by change. Tutor input will be required to introduce and develop an understanding of systems that can be used to involve stakeholders in the planning stages of the change process. Learners may be able to draw on their own experiences of change management strategies that have been employed in their own organisations. Tutor-led discussions are a useful way of identifying strategies. This can give learners the opportunity to develop their understanding of the strategies as they are identified and discussed. A good way of introducing resistance to change is through a topical case study. For example, the current resistance to change in public sector organisations throughout much of the European Union to the cuts in public spending caused by national budget deficits. Learners could look at these examples and discuss strategies that would be appropriate to manage the resistance to change. For learning outcome 4, learners will require some tutor input on ways of monitoring progress towards change in organisations. Again, they may be able to draw on their experiences from their own organisations. Tutor support and guidance will be required as learners develop their plans to choose and implement a model for change.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 3: STRATEGIC CHANGE MANAGEMENT

Outline learning plan


The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the programme of suggested assignments. The outline learning plan demonstrates one way in planning the delivery and assessment of this unit.

Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/assessment Introduction to unit and programme of assignments Need for strategic change and drivers of change case studies, group discussions and feedback Resource implications tutor-led discussion Tutor input models of strategic change Intervention strategies tutor-led discussion Systems to involve stakeholders tutor input and discussion Ways of developing a change management strategy with stakeholders tutor-led discussion Resistance to change case studies and tutor-led discussions Strategies for managing resistance to change tutor input and discussion Developing appropriate change models and planning to implement change models tutor guidance and support Monitoring progress on the models of change tutor input and discussion Assignment Planning Change in an Organisation (to cover all assessment criteria) Review of unit and programme of assignments

Assessment
Learners need to research information from a chosen organisation and develop a report on planning strategic change in that organisation. For AC1.1, learners need to show that they understand the different approaches to models of change management. They need to discuss a minimum of three established models, highlighting the differences in approach. For AC1.2, in the introduction to their report learners need to evaluate the relevance of the models of strategic change, using examples from organisations. They need to explain why the models for change are appropriate in their selected examples. For AC1.3, learners will be expected to assess the value of using strategic intervention techniques that are used in organisations. These need to be applied to the organisation in their report.

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 3: STRATEGIC CHANGE MANAGEMENT

For AC 2.1 and 2.2, it is expected that learners will show an understanding of the forces that are impacting on an organisation and driving the need for change. Showing understanding needs to be more than just a list of forces and change drivers. Learners need to demonstrate that they have researched and examined the current position of the organisation and that they are able to assess the factors in the organisation that are driving the need for change. For AC2.3, learners need to assess the resource implications of the organisation not responding to change. It is expected that learners will assess the relevant financial, human and physical resources. They are not expected to cost the resource implications for the organisation. For AC3.1, learners need to develop systems to involve stakeholders in the planning of change. The systems need to be appropriate and workable in the selected organisation. For AC3.2, learners need to show that they understand the different strategies that are available in the process of change management. They need to develop an appropriate strategy for change in the selected organisation and show how they would involve stakeholders in the development of this strategy. For AC3.3, learners need to make judgements on the effectiveness of the systems used to involve stakeholders in the development of a change strategy. They need to evaluate the process, taking account of anything that worked well and anything that did not work well or could have worked better. For AC3.4, learners need to show that they recognise that resistance to change can show itself in different ways. If managed badly, resistance can become entrenched and spread throughout the organisation. Learners need to create a strategy for managing resistance to change that is appropriate to their selected organisation. It needs to address the issues and provide a workable approach to overcome the resistance. For AC4.1, learners need to develop appropriate models for ongoing change in their selected organisation. The models need to reflect the circumstances facing the organisation. For AC4.2, learners need to show how they would plan to implement the model for change in their selected organisation. Internal and external circumstances impacting on the organisation also need to be considered. For AC4.3, learners need to develop measures to monitor the progress of the change model once it is launched. The measures will need to be practical, workable and appropriate to the organisational context.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 3: STRATEGIC CHANGE MANAGEMENT

Programme of suggested assignments The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the criteria in the assessment grid. This is for guidance only and it is recommended that centres either write their own assignments or adapt Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources.

Assessment criteria covered All assessment criteria

Assignment title Planning Change in an Organisation

Scenario Learners select an organisation and develop a model for change, incorporating issues related to strategic change in that organisation. They need to show how they will lead stakeholders in developing a strategy for change and how they plan to implement the chosen model for change. The report needs to start with an introduction to the background of change.

Assessment method Report

Essential resources
There are no essential resources required for this unit.

Indicative resource materials


Textbooks Blake I and Bush C Project Managing Change: Practical Tools and Techniques to Make Change Happen (Financial Times/ Prentice Hall, 2008) ISBN 0273720457 Cameron E and Green M Making Sense of Change Management (Kogan Page, 2009) ISBN 0749453109 Carnall C Managing Change in Organizations, 5th Edition (Financial Times/ Prentice Hall, 2007) ISBN 0273704141 Diamond M A and Allcorn, S Private Selves in Public Organizations: The Psychodynamics of Organizational Diagnosis and Change (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009) ISBN 0230613098 Dunphy D, Griffiths A and Benn S Organizational Change for Corporate Sustainability (Routledge, 2007) ISBN 0415393302 44

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 3: STRATEGIC CHANGE MANAGEMENT

Fullan M Leading in a Culture of Change (Jossey-Bass, 2007) ISBN 0787987662 Goncalves M Change Management: Concepts and Practice (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, US, 2007) ISBN 0791802647 Green M Change Management Masterclass (Kogan Page, 2007) ISBN 0749445076 Helms-Mills J, Dye K and Mills A J Understanding Organizational Change (Routledge, 2008) ISBN 041535577X Herold D M and Fedor D B Change the Way You Lead Change (Stanford University Press, 2008) ISBN 0804758751 Kehoe D Leading and Managing Change (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2008) ISBN 0070137889 Leban B Managing Organizational Change, 2nd Edition (John Wiley and Sons, 2007) ISBN 0470897163 Lewis S, Passmore P and Cantore S Appreciative Inquiry for Change Management (Kogan Page, 2007) ISBN 0749450711 Nelson S Implementing for Results (ALA Editions, 2009) ISBN 0838935796 Stewart Black, J and Gregersen H B It Starts with One: Changing Individuals Changes Organizations (Wharton School Publishing, 2008) ISBN 0132319845 Journals Academy of Management Journal (Academy of Management) British Journal of Management (John Wiley and Sons) California Management Review (University of California, Berkeley) European Management Journal (Elsevier) Harvard Business Review (Harvard Business Publishing) Journal of General Management (Braybrooke Press Ltd) Journal of Management Studies (John Wiley and Sons) Management Today (Haymarket Business Media) MIT Sloan Management Review (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Websites www.businessballs.com www.changingminds.org www.managementhelp.org www.themanager.org www.mindtools.com www.12manage.com Change management articles and links Useful articles on strategic change by leading theorists Articles on strategic change and further links The 7s model of change Lewins change management model Articles on the framework for change

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 4: DEVELOPING CORPORATE CULTURE

Unit 4:
Unit code: QCF Level 7: Credit value:

Developing Corporate Culture


L/602/2063 BTEC Professional 5

Guided learning hours: 15

Unit aim
This unit provides the learner with an understanding of the importance of corporate culture in an organisations success, and the managerial skills to influence the achievement of that culture.

Unit introduction
The development of an appropriate culture is vital to the success of an organisation. It could be said that all the best policies, procedures, and technologies are supported by a culture that reinforces consistently what the organisation is about. This unit focuses on the importance of understanding culture and climate in a globalised, diverse and repeatedly restructured working environment, and how to develop a climate appropriate to the desired culture. The unit explores cultural issues at national and organisational levels and the differences between culture, climate and values. Learners will find out that establishing an organisation's vision and values is an important step in developing the desired culture. They will have the opportunity to investigate the development of these values, the climate in the workplace and the extent to which they, as managers, can influence it. This unit gives learners the opportunity to explore the dynamic link between an organisations objectives and its desired culture, and how a manager can interact effectively in different cultural settings and influence the development of a desired organisational culture. Learners will explore work that has already been carried out to develop an understanding of both national and organisational cultural dimensions. This understanding will allow them to consider how this affects their interaction with stakeholders from different cultural groups. Although the unit is underpinned by an exploration of relevant theory, the intention is that learners apply their learning to specific organisations and situations. They will develop realistic strategies for interacting effectively with people from different cultures and for contributing to the development of organisational culture. This will include the development of communications strategies for stakeholders that take into account of differences in beliefs, values, customs and language.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 4: DEVELOPING CORPORATE CULTURE

Learning outcomes and assessment criteria


In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria determine the standard required to achieve the unit. On completion of this unit a learner should: Learning outcomes 1 Understand how the characteristics of corporate culture affect the achievement of organisational objectives Assessment criteria 1.1 explain how models of organisation culture can be used to achieve organisational objectives explain the difference between organisational and national culture analyse the corporate cultural profile in an organisation discuss the impact of an organisations corporate culture in achieving its objectives evaluate the existing climate of an organisation recommend ways to improve corporate climate in an organisation propose a framework of organisational values that meet the specific strategic and operational needs of an organisation identify internal and external stakeholders of an organisation evaluate the effectiveness of an organisations existing communication strategies develop new communication strategies for stakeholders of an organisation that address differences in belief, values, customs and language

1.2 1.3 1.4

Be able to propose organisational values that will influence corporate climate

2.1 2.2

2.3

Be able to develop strategies to communicate with stakeholders of an organisation who belong to different cultural groups

3.1 3.2

3.3

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 4: DEVELOPING CORPORATE CULTURE

Unit content

Understand how the characteristics of corporate culture affect the achievement of organisational objectives Culture: culture as shared values, practices and customs; definitions of organisational culture; culture at ascending levels; sub-cultures; professional cultures Models of organisational culture: Charles Handy power, role, person and task cultures; Johnson and Scholes cultural web; organisational change programmes activities, effectiveness, successful and unsuccessful cases, links to organisational objectives Organisational culture: industry culture; national and supranational culture; models of culture eg Trompenaarss implicit-explicit factors, Scheins three levels National cultures: methods of classifying national culture eg the work of Laurent, Hofstede and Trompenaars Impact on achievement of organisational objectives: areas of differences and potential misunderstandings communications; management, negotiation; buyer behaviour; misinterpreting conflicting cultural signals eg work of Trompanaars and Hampden-Turner 1998; cultural shock, importance of developing cohesive culture in merged organisations

Be able to propose organisational values that will influence corporate climate Climate profile: how climate is defined; difference between climate and culture; key aspects of organisational climate eg flexibility; responsibility; standards; rewards; clarity; team commitment; impact of management practices on climate; impact of climate on efficiency and effectiveness Methods of improving climate: recognising that improve may mean change because a particular climate is no longer appropriate; understanding the climate that is required; understanding management styles; effective communications and rationale; continual review Values: values or core values as a part of organisational culture; crisis of ethics in business and the new emphasis on value leadership framework for developing and supporting strong corporate core values

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 4: DEVELOPING CORPORATE CULTURE

Be able to develop strategies to communicate with stakeholders of an organisation who belong to different cultural groups Stakeholders: customers, consumers, employees; shareholders; governments; communities, business partnerships and alliances the increasing need to cooperate with people from different cultural groupings (including beliefs, values, customs and language) Communicating effectively: strategies; identifying potential barriers and ensuring strategies overcome them; developing self-awareness of own and organisational culture; benefits of a diverse workforce; acculturation programmes; intercultural communication skills

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 4: DEVELOPING CORPORATE CULTURE

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
It is recommended that a range of strategies are used to deliver this unit to facilitate the integration of theory, its application to practical situations and the development of an awareness of learners own cultures. As this is a Level 7 unit, learners need to actively consider how the insights they gain can be applied within an organisational context at a strategic level. There are many complex theories within this unit and relatively few guided learning hours. It is essential that tutors share the delivery plan with learners so they can research topics and undertake relevant reading in advance. This will reduce the need for tutor input and facilitate discussion of the theories which will be the real vehicle for the understanding and development of ideas. The use of case studies and scenarios is strongly recommended. Wherever possible, learners need to receive the case study in advance of the class so they can read and research the issues, again facilitating better debate. Advantage can be taken of the wide range of experience within the group to facilitate understanding further and provide a breadth of examples for comparison and debate. The use of investigative tools is recommended to encourage both self-awareness and the practical application of the insights learners gain. Learning outcome 1 covers many theories and models that learners could research in advance. This can be supported by tutor provided summaries and guidelines on sources. It is recommended that learning is supported by case studies on well known organisations. For learning outcome 2, full use could be made of learners work experience. Wherever learners work or have worked, there will be some sort of climate. It is important that learners understand that there is no such thing as a wrong climate what works in one organisation might not work in another, depending on what culture the organisation has or is striving to have. For learning outcome 3, case studies could be used to enable learners to appreciate the range and complexity of the stakeholders an organisation has. There needs to be opportunities for class studies on stakeholders from individual learners organisations to enhance this appreciation.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 4: DEVELOPING CORPORATE CULTURE

Outline learning plan


The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the programme of suggested assignments. The outline learning plan demonstrates one way in planning the delivery and assessment of this unit.

Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/assessment Introduction to unit and programme of assignments this could include the tutor arranging one-to-ones with learners to look at opportunities for assessment based on their workplace Short, tutor-led discussion on the concept of organisational culture. Learners break into groups to research assigned models of organisational culture Group presentations on models, each followed by a tutor-led discussion Formal theory input on impact of culture on organisations achieving their objectives. Learners to be directed to produce a report on their own workplace Learners start work on Assignment 1: Culture and Objectives and complete in their own time Tutor-led discussion on climate and how it differs in organisations Group work on features of climate in learners own organisations (learners to be directed to research core values in their organisation or on one they know well) Each learner to give a presentation on core values in a chosen organisation. Tutor to build on presentations through class discussions and then lead on framework of organisational values Learners start work on Assignment 2: Improving Corporate Climate and complete in their own time Discussion on stakeholders and differing demands tutor to use case studies from well-known organisations Learners start work on Assignment 3: Communicating the Culture Theory-led tutor input on communication strategies supported by case studies Learners complete Assignment 3: Communicating the Culture Review of unit and programme of assignments

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 4: DEVELOPING CORPORATE CULTURE

Assessment
A key feature of assessment for this unit is the practical application of the theoretical content to an organisational situation at a strategic level. It is important that during formative assessment, full use is made of the learners own organisation. However, for the formal assessment, it is important that learners have opportunity to show their understanding and ability to apply the models and techniques they have learned to develop a strategy and make recommendations if appropriate. It is recommended that there is discussion between the tutor and learners at the beginning of the learning programme to establish whether their organisation provides a large-enough scope to use as the basis of assessment for this unit. If there is any doubt, it is recommended that a case study is used to cover the assessment criteria in learning outcomes 1 and 2. In the case study, learners could role play a consultant who is helping an organisation to develop its corporate culture (often the case in the real world as organisations do not always have the required expertise). Learners own experiences could be used as examples in the case study and also any examples they have learned about from research or in class. It is anticipated that, for most learners, this type of case study would be the most appropriate means of assessment. An assignment to cover the assessment criteria in learning outcome 3 could be an extension of the assignment covering learning outcomes 1 and 2. But, wherever possible, it is recommended that assessment is based on the learners own place of work. It is vital that learners understand the needs of stakeholders in their own organisations and that, in most cases, they have the range of opportunity needed in their own organisation. Careful checking of whether there is a wide-enough range of stakeholders in the learners organisation is needed. For all assessment criteria, wherever possible, it is recommended that learners use examples from their own experience or from real-life organisations. For AC1.1, learners need to explain two organisational models which would help achieve the organisational goals in the context of the scenario. For AC1.2, learners need to explain the difference between national and organisational culture in the context of the scenario as well as two theories of national culture and two of organisational culture. In each case, the explanation needs to relate to the context. For AC 1.3, the analysis of the corporate cultural profile needs to contain a minimum of five key features and to be contextualised. For AC1.4, learners need to show an understanding in their discussion that culture should consistently reinforce what the organisation is about, shown through the organisational objectives. For AC 2.1 and 2.2, learners need to evaluate the existing corporate climate of an organisation. The evaluation needs to be in the context of what the organisation wants to achieve in terms of its culture. Learners need to demonstrate that they understand that a climate that is right for one organisation may not be right for another, or that a climate may be appropriate for the present but not the future. Therefore, in recommending improvements, learners need to show that the improvement might be a future need rather than the fact that the climate is wrong now.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 4: DEVELOPING CORPORATE CULTURE

For AC2.3, learners need to have a clear rationale in their proposal for a framework for the values that are linked to organisational objectives. Learners need to show in the proposal a clear distinction in how different values may support operational and strategic needs. AC3.1 is really a precursor to developing a communication strategy that differentiates its message depending on the stakeholder (AC3.3). Here, learners need to identify stakeholders of an organisation before tailoring their communication strategy to suit the needs and expectations of stakeholders in AC3.3. For AC3.2, the evaluation of the effectiveness of an existing organisational communication strategy needs to begin with a description recognising strengths and weaknesses. Learners need to show understanding that some of the current strategy may be fine in the current context of the organisation, but may need to change for a new context. For AC3.3, learners need to develop new communication strategies tailored to different groups of stakeholders, with a clear differentiation between the treatment of internal and external stakeholders.

Programme of suggested assignments The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the criteria in the assessment grid. This is for guidance only and it is recommended that centres either write their own assignments or adapt Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources.

Assessment criteria covered AC 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 AC 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 AC 3.1, 3.2, 3.3

Assignment title Culture and Objectives Improving Corporate Climate Communicating the Culture

Scenario Case study/ work-based study Case study/ work-based study Case study/ work-based study

Assessment method Report Report Report and presentation

Essential resources
There are no essential resources required for this unit.

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 4: DEVELOPING CORPORATE CULTURE

Indicative resource materials


Textbooks Brooks I Organisational Behaviour: Individuals, Groups and Organisations, 4th Edition (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2008) ISBN 0273715364 Brown A Organisational Culture, 2nd Edition (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 1998) ISBN 0273631470 Chaney L and Martin J Intercultural Business Communication, 4th Edition (Prentice Hall, 2005) ISBN 0131860097 Goffee R and Jones G The Character of a Corporation (Profile Business, 2003) ISBN 1861976399 Handy C Understanding Organizations (Allen Lane, 2005) ISBN 0713997796 Handy C Gods of Management (Souvenir Press Ltd, 2009) ISBN 0285638440 Hofstede G Cultures Consequences, 2nd Edition (Sage, 2001) ISBN 0803973233 Hofstede G and Hofstede G J Cultures and Organizations: Software for the Mind (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2004) ISBN 0071439595 Rollinson D Organisational Behaviour and Analysis: An Integrated Approach, 2nd Edition (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2003) ISBN 0582820766 Schein E H Organizational Culture and Leadership, 3rd Edition (Jossey-Bass, 2004) ISBN 0787968455 Journals Academy of Management Perspectives (Academy of Management) Business Strategy Review (John Wiley and Sons) Harvard Business Review (Harvard Business Publishing) International Journal of Project Management (Elsevier) Journal of World Business (Elsevier) Management Today (Haymarket Business Media) People Management (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development) Copies of articles from the above journals can be obtained from the Chartered Management Institute.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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Websites www.ccl.org Center for Creative Leadership a nonprofit educational institution offering research findings in areas of creative leadership Hay Group information on assessing climate in work groups Extracts from Harvard Business Review articles The Chartered Management Institute searchable database which members can use to access journal articles and other publications International statistics on a variety of subjects

www.haygroup.co.uk www.hbsp.harvard.edu www.managers.org.uk

www.nationmaster.com

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 5: LEADING E-STRATEGY

Unit 5:
Unit code: QCF Level 7: Credit value:

Leading E-strategy
R/602/2324 BTEC Professional 10

Guided learning hours: 30

Unit aim
This unit provides the learner with the understanding and skills needed to develop, implement and manage an e-strategy for an organisation to ensure it retains its competitive advantage in a global market.

Unit introduction
Business technology has changed the way in which organisations work and how business is carried out. Organisations can internally manage and manipulate information in ways that provide a fuller insight into how they work. This information is communicated instantly to interested parties to enable them to carry out their work more efficiently and effectively. Relationships with external customers have been transformed as they too have information they can use when engaging in transactions, whether it is to check a product specification, view an item, make a purchase or transfer funds. Technology benefits all interested parties in business transactions and, as a result, organisations develop e-strategies to exploit these benefits. E-strategies complement and align to the overarching organisational strategy. The broader organisational strategy may need to be reviewed to accommodate an estrategy. In some cases, an e-strategy is the major factor in shaping an organisation that thrives whilst competitors struggle to adapt and keep up. An estrategy enables an organisation to add value to its activities by using the worldwide web and wide area and local area networks to exploit the available business information and accessibility to that information. By considering the role of an e-strategy, learners will understand how it allows an organisation to develop efficient processes that improve its competitive advantage in a global market.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 5: LEADING E-STRATEGY

Learning outcomes and assessment criteria


In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria determine the standard required to achieve the unit. On completion of this unit a learner should: Learning outcomes 1 Understand the value of an estrategy in organisations Assessment criteria 1.1 1.2 explain the benefits of having an e-strategy in organisations evaluate the contribution of an estrategy to the achievement of an organisations objectives discuss how to align an estrategy with an overarching organisational strategy analyse the business factors that underpin the requirement for an e-strategy in an organisation discuss the benefits of ecommerce to an organisation develop a plan for an e-strategy that ensures an organisation retains its competitive advantage in a global market specify the technical infrastructure required in an estrategy plan for an organisation assess the resource requirements for implementing an e-strategy in an organisation develop an implementation schedule for an organisations estrategy assess how existing business systems need to be adapted to accommodate the requirements of an e-strategy in an organisation implement an e-strategy in an organisation develop processes to monitor the implementation of an e-strategy in an organisation assess how an e-strategy contributes to ensuring an organisations competitive advantage in a global market

1.3

Be able to develop an e-strategy for an organisation

2.1

2.2 2.3

2.4

Be able to plan the implementation of an e-strategy for an organisation

3.1

3.2

3.3

Be able to manage an e-strategy in an organisation

4.1 4.2

4.3

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 5: LEADING E-STRATEGY

Unit content

Understand the value of an e-strategy in organisations E-strategy: harnessing technology to achieve organisational goals; Business Process Re-Engineering (BPR); competitive advantage; alignment of organisational strategy and e-strategy; impact of organisational strategy on development of e-strategy; impact of e-strategy on organisational strategy; estrategy and organisational performance; business focus of e-strategy; impact on organisational structure; impact on organisational culture; aligning organisation to e-strategy; balanced scorecard Benefits: improved business processes; cost reduction; revenue generation; productivity increases; automated activity; improved information (strategic, tactical, operational); shared knowledge and information; information flow; response time; business activity harmonisation; integrated internal systems; linked internal and external systems; linking to customers; continuous market presence; adding value

Be able to develop an e-strategy for an organisation Business factors: business growth; new markets; efficiency gains; productivity gains; market pressure; competitive advantage; business stability; business survival; cost control; identification of systems that benefit from application of technology (management information systems (MIS), communications, manufacturing, inventory management, purchasing, retailing, marketing, customer relationship management, supply chain, cash management) E-commerce: e-commerce relationships (business to business, business to consumer, consumer to business, consumer to consumer, business to employee); online presence; 100 per cent uptime; global access; internet presence; internet trading; funds transfer Technical infrastructure: networks (local area networks, wide area networks, intranets, extranets); servers; communications (teleconferencing, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), email, voicemail, web conferencing); hardware; software (database, communications, accounting, trading, payment); cost; document management; physical security; computer security (firewalls, access, encryption)

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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Be able to plan the implementation of an e-strategy for an organisation Resources: time; finance; human resources; physical resources; information resources; software tools eg Microsoft Project; senior management commitment Planning: implementation plan; schedule work; set objectives; SMART targets (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, time-based); milestones; staff commitment; allocate responsibilities; implementation management (control, coordination, monitoring, administration); critical path analysis; anticipating problems; building in slack; lead times; fast tracking; criteria for success; project operation; uncertainty; risk Existing systems: identify impact of e-strategy implementation on existing systems; specify change required; modify existing systems; system interfaces

Be able to manage an e-strategy in an organisation Implementation: staff involvement; install e-systems; integrate e-systems; test systems functioning; staff training; implement e-systems Monitoring, review and evaluation: e-strategy components to be monitored (internal business processes, e-business operations, e-commerce operations); gathering information about e-strategy implementation and operation; developing performance indicators; evaluating e-strategy implementation and operation using performance indicators; quantitative measures; qualitative measures; compare outturn with plans, compare quality of e-strategy against agreed quality standards; explain variations between outcomes and plans; contribution of e-strategy to organisational goals; costs; benefits; proposing changes

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 5: LEADING E-STRATEGY

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
All the learning outcomes in this unit can be delivered flexibly. No previous knowledge of e-strategy development and implementation is assumed and learners can use experiences from their workplace. Formal tutor input could identify some of the theoretical material, but learners can work individually and in groups to research and gather information about the development and implementation of estrategies. Case studies, research, investigations and discussions all offer approaches to the development and implementation of e-strategies. Using an organisations own senior staff, IT manager or a guest speaker can provide a practical insight into current e-strategy issues. Up-to-date materials are available on the internet, and the web-based activities of organisations give an insight into how some aspects of e-strategies work their way into e-business processes and operations. Learners need to be introduced to e-strategy and how, when aligned to overall organisational strategy, it provides a new way of enabling organisations to meet their objectives by opening up new opportunities to work more efficiently and to develop their activities. Organisations are under increasing pressure to improve their effectiveness and many have chosen to develop an e-strategy that involves moving into e-business and e-commerce. Case studies and discussions can provide examples that show the development of existing organisations and the emergence of new organisations that have a significant virtual existence and for whom knowledge management is the key activity. Presentations and research can enable learners to identify the benefits that accrue from e-commerce and which ensure that organisations survive and grow in the competitive global environment in which they operate. However, when implemented, e-strategies need a significant injection of resources as well as the re-engineering of business processes. Practical work using case studies and examples from their own workplace will allow learners to look at the resource requirements for developing and implementing an e-strategy and its associated processes and activities. Plans to implement, and an assessment of the changes to business systems, need to be made. On implementing the strategy, learners will need to develop processes and measures to establish the estrategys effectiveness and to identify how the e-strategy contributes to organisational effectiveness, using appropriate indicators.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 5: LEADING E-STRATEGY

Outline learning plan


The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the programme of suggested assignments. The outline learning plan demonstrates one way of planning the delivery and assessment of this unit.

Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/assessment Introduction to the unit and programme of assignments Presentation on e-strategy and the benefits it can bring in helping achieve organisational goals Discussion on aligning e-strategy to overall organisational strategy and adjusting business activities to the e-strategy Assignment 1: The Benefits of an E-strategy Tutor support and feedback Research and discussion about the business requirements for an e-strategy Practical work on planning an e-strategy Investigation and discussion of the technical requirements for an e-strategy Assignment 2: Developing an E-strategy Tutor support and feedback Presentation and discussion on the techniques used to plan the implementation of an e-strategy Research and discussion on adapting systems to accommodate e-strategy requirements Assignment 3: Planning the Implementation of an E-strategy Discussion on how e-strategy supports organisational objectives/goals Assignment 4: Managing an E-strategy Tutor support and feedback Review of unit and programme of assignments

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 5: LEADING E-STRATEGY

Assessment
For AC1.1, learners need to explain the benefits of having an e-strategy. It is useful to take the long-term view, so using a balanced business scorecard will help identify all the benefits of an e-strategy. For AC1.2, learners need to evaluate how an e-strategy contributes to the achievement of an organisations objectives by looking at its potential impact internally and externally. For AC1.3, learners need to discuss how e-strategy goals can be aligned with, and support, organisational strategies. They will need to identify how an e-strategy may re-shape organisational strategy and the need to re-engineer business processes to synchronise with an e-strategy. For AC 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3, a presentation can be used, including additional supporting material. For AC2.1, learners need to analyse the business factors, internal and external to the organisation, that dictate the requirement for an e-strategy. For AC2.2, learners need to discuss the benefits e-commerce can offer an organisation, together with the reasons why e-commerce is an activity worth developing. For AC2.3 and 2.4, learners need to produce a plan for an e-strategy. The plan needs to be detailed, with SMART objectives, and specify the nature of the technical infrastructure that an e-strategy implies. For AC 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 and 2.4, evidence needs to be a structured plan in a format that might be taken to, and tabled at, a meeting with senior managers. The assignment can be viewed either as a standalone assignment, or as the first part of a three-part assignment with the second and third parts covering learning outcomes 3 and 4 respectively. For AC3.1, learners need to assess the resource requirements for implementing an e-strategy in an organisation. For AC3.2, learners need to develop a schedule for implementing an e-strategy in an organisation. For AC3.3, learners need to identify the business systems that will be affected by the implementation of an e-strategy and assess how they can be adapted to accommodate the requirements of the strategy. This will need to include consideration of the systems that need re-engineering and those that need only their interfaces modified. For AC 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3, evidence needs to be an implementation schedule that identifies which business systems need to be adapted and identifies the implementation resource requirements. The assignment can be viewed either as stand-alone assignment or as the second part of a three-part assignment. The implementation schedule needs to be for the implementation plan identified in AC2.3 and for the implementation activity for AC 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3. For AC4.1, learners need to implement an e-strategy in an organisation with a narrative of how this is carried out. For AC4.2, learners need to develop processes to monitor the implementation of an e-strategy in an organisation. For AC4.3, learners need to assess how an e-strategy contributes to ensuring an organisations competitive advantage in a global market. For AC 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3, evidence needs to show the implementation of an e-strategy. The assignment can be viewed either as stand alone or as the third part of a three-part assignment. The e-strategy implementation needs to be for the implementation plan identified in AC2.3 and the work carried out for AC 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3.
BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 5: LEADING E-STRATEGY

It is possible to assess work orally, with learners explaining and describing things to the assessor in discussion, in group work or a presentation. If oral assessments are used, then the work must be directly attributable to each learner. The assessor needs to provide a signed statement that includes detail of the evidence presented that is aligned to the criteria. The evidence needs to support achievement of the criteria. If there is sufficient evidence from the oral work, or from observations, to make an assessment decision then the assessment decision should be shown. Programme of suggested assignments The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the criteria in the assessment grid. This is for guidance only and it is recommended that centres either write their own assignments or adapt Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources.

Assessment criteria covered AC 1.1, 1.2, 1.3

Assignment title The Benefits of an E-strategy

Scenario The learner works as a business consultant advising organisations on the benefits of using electronic technologies. The learner is an operations director for an organisation and has been charged with developing an estrategy. The learner is an operations director for an organisation and has been charged with planning the implementation of an e-strategy. The learner is an operations director for an organisation and has been charged with implementing and managing an estrategy.

Assessment method Presentation

AC 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4

Developing an Estrategy

Proposal

AC 3.1, 3.2, 3.3

Planning the Implementation of an E-strategy

A schedule for implementing an estrategy

AC 4.1, 4.2, 4.3

Managing an Estrategy

Portfolio of evidence

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 5: LEADING E-STRATEGY

Essential resources
There are no essential resources required for this unit.

Indicative resource materials


Textbooks Birch C Successful E-business Strategy (East West Books, 2007) ISBN 8186852867 Chaffey D Business and E-Commerce Management: Strategy, Implementation and Practice, 4th Edition (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2009) ISBN 0273719602 Jelassi T and Enders A Strategies for E-business: Concepts and Cases, 2nd Edition (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2008) ISBN 0273710281 Phillips P Business Strategy: Text and Cases (McGraw Hill Higher Education, 2002) ISBN 0077098374 Journals/newspapers The Economist (The Economist Newspaper Ltd) has articles on e-business related topics from time to time Management Today (Haymarket Business Media) Websites www.businesslink.gov.uk www.managementhelp.org Business Link section on IT and commerce Free management library with links to ecommerce and business strategy articles

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 6: CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MANAGEMENT

Unit 6:
Unit code: QCF Level 7: Credit value:

Creative and Innovative Management


R/602/2064 BTEC Professional 10

Guided learning hours: 30

Unit aim
This unit provides the learner with the understanding to recognise the value to organisations of creative and innovative management ideas and the skills to implement this understanding.

Unit introduction
The prevalent forces for organisational change, including globalisation and the supply of ideas at much faster speeds and lower costs, have been evident for some time. Many advocate the fact that the world of business is now in a permanent state of flux and constant innovation is the only strategy for survival. This need to innovate is propelled by the demands of increasingly competitive markets and the need for organisations to improve their competitive advantage in these markets. In response, companies can reduce costs, improve quality, increase productivity or effect innovation. However, the changes introduced by most organisations commonly address the first three factors but, less often, the last. This unit will help learners to develop skills to effect innovation. They will understand the benefits of creativity and innovation, and how to evaluate current levels of innovation in an organisation, to lead others to embrace and support innovation. It is essential that there is support within the organisation for ongoing innovation and creativity. Learners will recognise the crucial part that mission and vision play in this. They will also find out how to identify creative ideas and assess their viability and, through the understanding of change models, support the implementation of innovative ideas. Often, individuals within an organisation cannot easily see the benefits of an innovative idea. Learners will find out how to produce an appropriate rationale and identify key goals and priorities to help persuade and communicate ideas to stakeholders. In spite of developing a creative strategy through the mission and vision, there are often barriers to innovation within an organisation such as fear of change, risk adversity, expertise and fear of failure. In this unit, learners will find out how to assess these barriers and develop and implement a strategy to overcome them.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 6: CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MANAGEMENT

Learning outcomes and assessment criteria


In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria determine the standard required to achieve the unit. On completion of this unit a learner should: Learning outcomes 1 Understand the importance of creative and innovative management in organisations Assessment criteria 1.1 evaluate current creative and innovative management processes in an organisation explain how to lead others to positively embrace innovation and change assess the influence of vision and mission on generation of creative and innovative management processes in an organisation use analytical tools to identify potential creative and innovative management ideas assess risks and benefits of creative and innovative management ideas use change models to support the implementation of creative and innovative management ideas produce an appropriate rationale to persuade stakeholders of an organisation of the benefits of a creative and innovative management idea communicate a creative and innovative management idea to stakeholders of an organisation establish key goals and priorities for implementation of a creative and innovative management idea using feedback from stakeholders

1.2

Be able to support creative and innovative management processes for an organisation

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

Be able to influence others to effect change in an organisation

3.1

3.2

3.3

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 6: CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MANAGEMENT

Learning outcomes 4 Be able to plan to overcome barriers to implementation of creative and innovative management ideas in an organisation

Assessment criteria 4.1 assess the barriers to the implementation of a creative and innovative management idea in an organisation plan a strategy to overcome identified barriers to the implementation of a creative and innovative management idea in an organisation explain how a strategy plan for overcoming barriers will ensure innovative change is achieved communicate a strategy plan for overcoming barriers to relevant stakeholders in an organisation

4.2

4.3

4.4

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 6: CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MANAGEMENT

Unit content

Understand the importance of creative and innovative management in organisations Organisational processes: processes for the evaluation, selection and development of ideas; ideas value chain, inside/outside, cross-pollination, selection, development, diffusion; role of incubation; need to be systematic Leading the case for innovation: leadership styles and behaviours strengths, adopting appropriate style for different circumstances; theory and practice of influencing and motivating others methods of rewarding staff for appropriate behaviours, effecting change management, strengths and weaknesses; relationship between transformational and transactional change; decisionmaking processes and style; key stakeholders in organisations their perceptions and motivational influences and how to influence them; different methods of communication strengths and weaknesses in different circumstances

Be able to support creative and innovative management processes for an organisation Vision and mission: influence of vision and mission; indicators of organisational performance; influence of an organisational strategic plan and business plan on innovation; methods; concept that policies and procedures are supported by a culture that reinforces consistently what the organisation is about Tools for creative and innovative solutions: theory and application of lateral thinking, visioning and problem-solving techniques; theory and use of analytical tools SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats), PESTLE (political, economic, social, technological, legal, environmental) analysis; cost-benefit analysis; decision-making processes and styles Risks: risk analysis, risk management techniques Change models: eg IDEAL model (initiating, diagnosing, establishing, acting and learning)

Be able to influence others to effect change in an organisation Benefits and limitations of innovation: benefits first to market, premium prices, large market share, increased shareholder return, increased employee motivation and morale, improved systems and processes; limitations risk, investment needed, continual change; expertise in organisation, technological know-how; strategy strengths and weaknesses

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 6: CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MANAGEMENT

Be able to plan to overcome barriers to implementation of creative and innovative management ideas in an organisation Obstacles and barriers to innovation: political, bureaucratic and resource barriers, techniques for addressing them; analysis of trends; conflict resolution; culture; attitudes; the politics of working relationships; theory and practice of reward management; techniques and their applications in managing expectations; theory and application of the change/performance curve; strategy identifying obstacles and barriers in innovation strategies Communication strategy: identifying potential barriers and ensuring strategies for each; differentiated strategy for stakeholders; developing self-awareness of own organisational culture

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 6: CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MANAGEMENT

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
This unit is drawn from a range of disciplines and a wide variety of learning methods can be used. It is potentially a very exciting unit to study and this potential can be maximised by involving learners as much as possible in research and their own learning. Case studies can be used to bring the unit to life with examples of real situations where innovation has revitalised an organisation or of organisations that have always fostered an innovative culture. There will also be a wealth of experience within the group of organisations with different innovation cultures. Learners could be given the opportunity to share their experiences and learn from the experiences of others. For learning outcome 1, case studies will be particularly useful in introducing the importance of effective processes in the development of an idea. Learners could be given examples of where good ideas have floundered because of ineffective processes to develop them. Learners could then review processes for innovation in their own organisation and report back to the main group. Each learner could research an organisation that has successfully led others to embrace innovation and present their findings to the rest of the group. This will enhance the breadth and depth of the whole groups learning. For learning outcome 2, learners will probably already understand the concept of vision and mission, and it is highly likely that they have been involved in developing them in their own organisations. This lends itself to a learner-led session where, in groups, they research vision and mission in innovative and not-so-innovative organisations and compare and contrast them. Their findings could be disseminated through presentations. If possible, case studies or simulations could be used to underpin delivery of analytical tools. Learners could work in pairs using the tools in a range of scenarios and then go on to assess the risks and benefits of the ideas they have generated. Learners could then apply these tools in their own organisations. They could work in groups on an allocated change model and present the outcome to the rest of the group. Learning outcome 3 is a practical aspect of the unit. Learners could work in groups to make the case for innovation in a well-known organisation and present their case to the rest of the group who can role play stakeholders of the organisation. Learning outcome 4 can be delivered practically by identifying barriers from case studies and suggesting ways to overcome them. This can be achieved through a tutor-led class discussion. Learners will have come across planning strategy in other areas of study and probably at work, and they could carry out individual presentations where they apply communication strategies based on one of the case studies they have analysed. The rest of the group can role play stakeholders of the organisation and give their reaction to the communication strategies used to present creative and innovative ideas.

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 6: CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MANAGEMENT

Outline learning plan


The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the programme of suggested assignments. The outline learning plan demonstrates one way in planning the delivery and assessment of this unit.

Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/assessment Introduction to unit and programme of assignments Tutor input on processes for innovation management and use of case studies and discussion Learner presentations on leadership of innovation Assignment 1: Innovative Management Processes Group research on mission and vision culminating in presentations Short theory input on analytical tools for innovation and case study work on using analytical tools and analysing risks and benefits Group presentations on change models with class discussion and case studies from the tutor Group research into organising and developing a strategy and rationale to persuade stakeholders of the benefits of change, followed by presentations Assignment 2: Influencing Change Short theory input on barriers to innovation followed by case study work and discussion Individual work on strategy and communications arising out of a case study on barriers to communication individual presentations Assignment 3: Overcoming Barriers Finish assignment work Review of unit and programme of assignments

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 6: CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MANAGEMENT

Assessment
Learners should be at a level in their organisation where they influence the vision and mission of the organisation and therefore its direction. Wherever possible, assessment can be based on the learners place of work. There is an underlying assumption that almost any organisation can be more innovative than it already is. It is unlikely that this has been looked at in isolation in the organisation. Early discussion between learners and the tutor could establish the feasibility of workbased assessment. Learners could complete assessments in the workplace straight after learning has taken place. If assessment cannot be work-based, a case study will need to be provided. Where workplace assignments are used for assessment purposes, learners need to give a clear explanation of the workplace situations and the importance of the policies and strategies of their organisation to these situations. AC1.1 could be assessed practically with learners evaluating current processes in their own organisation. The evaluation needs to begin with a description so it is clear what is being evaluated. Learners need to draw comparisons with at least one other department/organisation. For AC1.2, learners need to explain how they led a team to positively embrace innovation in their workplace. If this is not possible, a scenario could be used where learners explain how they would lead. In either case, the explanation needs to include, as a minimum:

the management and leadership styles that need to be employed with their relative strengths specific influencing and motivating tactics methods of rewarding staff for appropriate behaviours a model for effecting change (including the strengths and weaknesses of the model) whether change is transformational or transactional who the stakeholders are and how this would be taken into account perceptions of their audience and methods of communication to use to communicate change.

AC2.1 lends itself to work-based assessment where learners assess the mission and vision of their own workplace. The recommended classwork for this criterion needs to give the learner enough scope to make comparisons and show evidence of research into other organisations. For AC2.2, learners need to use analytical tools that are appropriate to the situation. Learners need to identify at least two sustainable ideas. For AC2.3, in order for learners to show their applied knowledge, the assessment of risks and benefits needs to be based on the ideas generated in AC2.2. At least three risks and three benefits need to be assessed in this process. AC2.4 needs to be based on the ideas generated in AC2.2. Learners need to use at least two change models that are appropriate for the situation. For AC3.1, the rationale needs to take into account the interests, views and goals of stakeholder. The main groups of stakeholders need to be identified and their characteristics described.

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 6: CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MANAGEMENT

For AC3.2, learners need to communicate an idea to the stakeholders described in AC3.1. This communication must also show that it will generate the feedback required for AC3.3. For AC3.3, learners need to establish key goals and targets using feedback from the stakeholder communication activity in AC3.2. For AC4.1, learners need to assess at least four material barriers that are relevant to the situation. For AC4.2, the strategy needs to include a clear plan of how to overcome the barriers identified in AC4.1. For AC4.3, learners need to explain how the strategy plan created for AC4.2 will ensure that innovative change is achieved. For AC4.4, the strategy needs to be differentiated to the needs of each group of stakeholders. At least five groups of stakeholders need to be identified and the strategy plan created for AC4.2 communicated accordingly. The assessment of AC 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4 can be based on a case study if learners do not have the range of assessment opportunities available in their workplace.

Programme of suggested assignments The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the criteria in the assessment grid. This is for guidance only and it is recommended that centres either write their own assignments or adapt Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources.

Assessment criteria covered AC 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 AC 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 AC 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4

Assignment title Innovative Management Processes Influencing Change Overcoming Barriers

Scenario Work-based assessment Work-based assessment Case study

Assessment method Portfolio

Report Report

Essential resources
There are no essential resources required for this unit.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 6: CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MANAGEMENT

Indicative resource materials


Textbooks Ashkenas R, Ulrich D, Jick T and Kerr S The Boundaryless Organization (Jossey-Bass, 2002) ISBN 078795943X Birkinshaw J and Hagstrm P The Flexible Firm (Oxford University Press, 2001) ISBN 0199248559 Cairncross F The Death of Distance (Harvard Business School Press, 2001) ISBN 157851438X Christensen C Innovation and the General Manager (McGraw-Hill, 2002) ISBN 0071183809 Christiansen J A Competitive Innovation Management: Techniques to Improve Innovation Performance (Palgrave USA, 2003) ISBN 0312230257 Clegg B Creativity and Innovation for Managers (Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999) ISBN 0750642556 Drucker P F Innovation and Entrepreneurship (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2007) ISBN 0750685085 Financial Times Mastering Global Business (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 1998) ISBN 0273637061 David Ford D, Gadde L E, Hkansson H and Snehota I Managing Business Relationships (John Wiley and Sons, 2003) ISBN 0470851252 Galbraith J R Designing the Global Corporation (Jossey-Bass, 2000) ISBN 0787952753 Gupta A K and Westney E Smart Globalization: Designing Global Strategies, Creating Global Networks (Jossey-Bass, 2003) ISBN 0787965324 Hammer M and Champy J Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution (Harper, 2004) ISBN 0060559535 Hofstede G and Hofstede G J Cultures and Organizations: Software for the Mind (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2004) ISBN 0071439595 Jones T Innovating at the Edge (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002) ISBN 0750655194 Konopaske R and Ivancevich J M Global Management and Organizational Behavior (McGraw-Hill Education, 2003) ISBN 0071232516 Mead R and Andrews T G International Management: Culture and Beyond, 4th Edition (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009) ISBN 1405173998 Mercado S, Welford R and Prescott K European Business, 4th Edition (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2000) ISBN 0273646001 Mole J Mind Your Manners, 3rd Edition (Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 2003) ISBN 1857883144 Neuhauser P, Bender R and Stromberg K Culture.Com: Building Corporate Culture in the Connected Workplace (John Wiley and Sons, 2000) ISBN 0471645397 Schneider S C and Barsoux J L Managing Across Cultures (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2002) ISBN 027364663X

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 6: CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MANAGEMENT

Thussu D K International Communication: Continuity and Change, 2nd Edition (Hodder Education, 2006) ISBN 034088892X Tidd J and Bessant J Managing Innovation (John Wiley and Sons, 2009) ISBN 0470998105 Journals Academy of Management Journal (Academy of Management) British Journal of Management (John Wiley and Sons) California Management Review (University of California, Berkeley) EuroMedia (Advanced Television Ltd) European Management Journal (Elsevier) Global Trade Review (Exporta Publishing and Events) Harvard Business Review (Harvard Business Publishing) Journal of Management Studies (John Wiley and Sons) Management Today (Haymarket Business Media) MIT Sloan Management Review (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Websites www.asa.org.uk www.bbc.co.uk www.benchmarkingnetwork.com www.bized.co.uk www.britishcouncil.org.uk www.business.com www.cipd.co.uk www.direct.gov.uk www.findarticles.com www.ft.com www.i-l-m.com www.ico.gov.uk Advertising Standards Authority British Broadcasting Corporation The Benchmarking Network Inc Learning materials and case studies British Council Business search engine on business background Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development Public service information BNET for articles in more than 500 publications Financial Times archive Institute of Leadership and Management Information Commissioners Office data protection and freedom of information advice International Quality Systems Directory Chartered Management Institute Mintel International on consumer markets The Times and Sunday Times archive Office for National Statistics 77

www.iso9000.org www.managers.org.uk www.mintel.co.uk www.newsint-archive.co.uk www.ons.gov.uk

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

UNIT 7: STRATEGIC MARKETING MANAGEMENT

Unit 7:
Unit code: QCF Level 7: Credit value:

Strategic Marketing Management


Y/602/2065 BTEC Professional 10

Guided learning hours: 30

Unit aim
This unit provides the learner with the understanding and skills to support active engagement in the process of strategic marketing management.

Unit introduction
Marketing is at the core of business. Outperforming the competition requires solid marketing knowledge and precise marketing decision making. An organisations positioning, and the positioning of its products and services, depend on the formulation and implementation of intelligent and well-informed strategic marketing plans. All organisations operate in a dynamic marketplace. Competition, consumers, technology and market forces constantly redefine the way organisations operate. Staying competitive means that organisations need to continuously adjust and adapt their customer approach to meet changing needs and expectations. This is increasingly important with the globalisation of markets and the rapid increase in competition from emerging nations such as China, India and Brazil. In todays markets, it is imperative that organisations focus on establishing, developing and adjusting their strategic marketing plans if they are to remain competitive. Strategic marketing is a way of focusing an organisation's energies and resources on a course of action that can lead to increased sales and dominance of a targeted market. A strategic marketing strategy combines product development, promotion, distribution, pricing, relationship management and other elements of marketing. It identifies an organisations strategic marketing goals, and explains how they will be achieved, ideally within a designated timeframe. Without a strategic marketing plan, organisations can waste resources, miss opportunities or, in a worse case scenario, threaten their own survival. Strategic marketing executives have up-to-date knowledge of competitive dynamics and know how to integrate marketing strategy into an overall business strategy. Strategic marketing management provides a comprehensive examination of all the major components of marketing strategies and their integration into organisations. It is the basis for continued success in highly competitive markets.

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Learning outcomes and assessment criteria


In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria determine the standard required to achieve the unit. On completion of this unit a learner should: Learning outcomes 1 Understand the principles of strategic marketing management Assessment criteria 1.1 1.2 1.3 discuss the role of strategic marketing in an organisation explain the processes involved in strategic marketing evaluate the links between strategic marketing and corporate strategy assess the value of models used in strategic marketing planning discuss the links between strategic positioning and marketing tactics analyse the merits of relationship marketing in a given strategic marketing strategy use appropriate marketing techniques to ascertain growth opportunities in a market plan how to use marketing strategy options in a market create appropriate strategic marketing objectives for a market report on the impact of changes in the external environment on a marketing strategy conduct an internal analysis to identify current strengths and weaknesses in a marketing strategy propose strategic marketing responses to key emerging themes in a marketing strategy

Understand the tools used to develop a strategic marketing strategy

2.1 2.2 2.3

Be able to use strategic marketing techniques

3.1

3.2 3.3 4 Be able to respond to changes in the marketing environment 4.1

4.2

4.3

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UNIT 7: STRATEGIC MARKETING MANAGEMENT

Unit content

Understand the principles of strategic marketing management Role of strategic marketing: key definitions of strategic marketing from the Chartered Institute of Marketing and key authors (eg Hugh Davidson; Peter Doyle; Philip Kotler; Malcolm McDonald); role and importance of strategic marketing in an organisation; concepts; systematic approach; sequencing and scheduling of activities; integration of activities; resource requirements; timescaling; monitoring and control elements Processes: strategic marketing planning processes (eg Peter Doyle, Malcolm McDonald) including strategic marketing analysis, marketing strategy objective setting, perceptual mapping, factor analysis, option evaluation, choice, formulation, implementation and control Links to corporate strategy: the nature of strategy and marketing links to corporate strategy eg Michael Porter; links to mission statement, organisational structure, corporate responsibility and ethics; dynamic strategy (Carpenter and Sanders); knowledge management systems

Understand the tools used to develop a strategic marketing strategy Models: organisation, industry and market environment situation analysis; Porters Five Forces model; structure, conduct and performance; SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis, STEEPLE (social, technological, economical, environmental, political, legal, ethical) analysis, PEST (political, economic, social, technological) analysis, marketing audit; portfolio analysis techniques eg BCG matrix, Product Life Cycle model, Ansoff matrix Links between strategic positioning and marketing tactics: strategic positioning, defining the future position, information collection, analysis, choice of strategy, implementation, monitoring; links to strategic plan eg internal growth, market penetration, market development, product development, marketing tactics; product tactics eg selection, range, quality, branding; price tactics eg skim pricing, penetration pricing, cost price, market price, price discrimination; promotion tactics eg customer loyalty schemes, product sampling, dealer loaders, extended credit, point of sale (POS) materials; place tactics eg distribution channels, transport management, stock and handling, run through times, terms of delivery Relationship marketing: direct response marketing strategies eg offensive strategies, obtaining new customers, increasing customer purchase frequency; defensive strategies, increasing customer satisfaction and increasing switching costs; customer retention strategies eg product bundling, cross-selling, crosspromotions, loyalty programmes; customer satisfaction, customer life cycle value; personalised marketing; Payne and Ballantynes six markets model (internal markets, supplier markets, recruitment markets, referral markets, influence markets, customer markets)

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Be able to use strategic marketing techniques Marketing techniques: setting marketing objectives and marketing strategy, targeting markets; segmenting markets eg geographic, demographic, psychographic, behaviour; profiling markets eg revenue potential, market share potential, profitability potential; positioning segmented markets eg market leader or product line extension, mass marketing or targeted marketing, direct or indirect sales Strategy options: Porters generic strategies (focus, cost leadership and differentiation); core competences (G Johnson and K Scholes, G Hamel and C K Prahalad); competitive advantage (H Davidson, M Porter); investment opportunity evaluation (D F Abell and J S Hammond); General Electric model; Shell directional policy matrix; market leadership; market dominance strategies; market leader, market challenger, market follower, market nicher; innovation strategies; market pioneer; close followers, late followers; offensive, defensive and value-based marketing strategies Strategic marketing objectives: marketing mix 7 Ps (Product, Price, Place, Promotion, People, Process, Physical evidence); marketing activity strategies for product/service, pricing, distribution, promotion (advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, direct marketing, public relations), people (internal, intermediaries, customer service), processes and physical evidence, emarketing strategy; customer relationship management; resource requirements (financial, people, marketing); integration of marketing activity strategies

Be able to respond to changes in the marketing environment Changes in the external environment: shift from supply to demand environment; fashionisation of markets; micro-markets; rising expectations; technological change; competition; globalisation; importance of customer service; commoditisation; erosion of brands; new constraints Strengths and weaknesses: focus of marketing objectives, links to corporate strategy, speed of new product developments, ability to customise, ability to handle information to gain competitive advantage; e-marketing position, core focus, target markets, nature and potential of key market segments, partnerships with customers and other stakeholders, organisational structure, innovation strategies, timescales, resource requirements, budgets, monitoring, review and control mechanisms Strategic marketing responses: emerging themes eg impact of globalisation, the strength or weakness of competitors, importance of environmental factors, changes in the political environment, the state of the economy, the exchange rate, health and safety factors

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UNIT 7: STRATEGIC MARKETING MANAGEMENT

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
For learning outcome 1, it is possible that some learners will have had experience of developing aspects of marketing at an operational or strategic level in their own organisation. They need to be encouraged to share their experiences to provide a valuable source of discussion. A useful starting point would be a tutor-led discussion on the role of strategic marking in organisations to draw out some of the processes involved in strategic marketing. A case study would help to pull the strands together and introduce learners to the links between strategic marketing and corporate strategy For learning outcome 2, tutor input will be required on the tools used in the process of strategic marketing planning. Learners need to have a broad knowledge of the range of models that are available and make an assessment of the value of the models used in strategic marketing planning. Tutors can draw on the experiences of learners and use these as a basis for discussion. Case studies will be a useful way of providing examples of models being used in practice. Current examples of relationship marketing from the internet could be utilised, and with tutor input, this could be developed further to incorporate the links between strategic positioning and marketing tactics. For learning outcome 3, tutor input will be required to introduce learners to the range of strategic marketing techniques. It is important that examples are used to show how marketing theory and models are applied. Tutors can use examples such as the General Electric model and the Shell directional policy matrix to bring the theory to life. Learners will need to apply the principles of strategic marketing and use strategic marketing techniques in a selected market. It is therefore important that the theory and models are delivered in a way that links them with current practice. For learning outcome 4, after tutor input and discussion on changes in the external environment, one way of delivering this outcome is to provide learners with an example of a strategic marketing strategy. This would lend itself to group work where learners are asked to report back on how they think current changes in the external environment would impact on the marketing strategy. This could be developed further with the groups proposing strategic marketing responses to the key emerging themes.

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Outline learning plan


The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the programme of suggested assignments. The outline learning plan demonstrates one way in planning the delivery and assessment of this unit.

Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/assessment Introduction to unit and programme of assignments Role of strategic marketing tutor input, definitions, case study, discussions Strategic marketing processes tutor input, group discussions Strategic marketing and links to corporate strategy tutor input with examples Strategic marketing models tutor input, tutor-led discussions Strategic positioning and marketing tactics tutor input, case studies, tutor-led discussion Relationship marketing tutor input with examples Assignment 1: Developing and Managing a Strategic Marketing Plan Marketing techniques for growth case studies and discussion Use of marketing strategy options in a given market tutor examples and discussion Strategic marketing objectives tutor-led discussion with examples Changes in the external environment topical discussion, newspaper articles, web-based articles Strengths and weaknesses of a marketing strategy things to consider, tutor input and discussion Emerging themes tutor input with examples and discussion Assignment 2: Applying Strategic Marketing Management Techniques to a Market Situation Review of unit and programme of assignments

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UNIT 7: STRATEGIC MARKETING MANAGEMENT

Assessment
For assessment of this unit, learners will need to apply knowledge and understanding of strategic marketing management and research information and apply their knowledge to their selected organisation. For AC1.1, learners need to show that they understand the difference between strategic and tactical marketing. They need to use established models and definitions to develop their discussion. For AC1.2, learners will be expected to understand and explain the processes involved in strategic marketing. This will involve looking at a range of processes and learners may wish to draw on their own experiences in the workplace to amplify their points. For AC1.3, learners are expected to understand that the process of strategic marketing does not take place in a vacuum. They will need to show that they can evaluate the links between strategic marketing and corporate strategy and provide examples of those links. For AC2.1, learners need to research the models used in strategic planning. They will need to make judgements and assess the value of the models for strategic marketing planning. For AC2.2, learners need to understand that when strategic plans are put into operation, day-to-day tactical decisions have to be made. In their discussion, they need to provide examples of how tactics are related to strategic positioning decisions. For AC2.3, learners need to show that they understand the nature of relationship marketing. They need to discuss the place of relationship marketing in a strategic marketing plan and then analyse the merits of using this marketing technique. For AC3.1, learners need to use a selected organisation to research and ascertain growth opportunities in a specific market. Evidence needs to be more than anecdotal and include real-time data to support the research, for example statistical data, current economic data, data from the organisation and data on markets. For AC3.2, learners need to show that they understand the importance of marketing strategy options. They need to plan appropriate options and apply them to the organisational context they are using. For AC3.3, learners need to pull all the strands of their learning together successfully to create appropriate strategic marketing objectives for their selected market. The objectives should follow logically from the research undertaken on the organisation and the selected market. For AC4.1, learners need to research the current external environment. They need to report on the extent to which identified changes will impact on the marketing strategy for their selected organisation. For AC4.2, learners need to look closely at their selected organisation. They need to conduct an internal analysis to identify current strengths and weaknesses in their marketing strategy as applied to their selected organisation. For AC4.3, learners need to identify key emerging themes affecting their selected organisation. These could be local, national or global. They will need to apply their understanding and propose strategic marketing responses to these emerging themes.

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Programme of suggested assignments The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the criteria in the assessment grid. This is for guidance only and it is recommended that centres either write their own assignments or adapt Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources.

Assessment criteria covered AC 1.1 ,1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3

Assignment title Developing and Managing a Strategic Marketing Plan

Scenario The learner works as a marketing manager. They have been asked to write a report, to be presented to the board of directors, on how a strategic marketing plan should be developed and managed in the organisation. Using their own organisation or selecting a organisation they are familiar with, the learner uses strategic marketing techniques and creates appropriate marketing objectives for a defined market, showing how they would respond to changes in the marketing environment.

Assessment method Report

AC 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3

Applying Strategic Marketing Management Techniques to a Market Situation

Presentation

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UNIT 7: STRATEGIC MARKETING MANAGEMENT

Essential resources
There are no essential resources required for this unit.

Indicative resource materials


Textbooks Best R J Market-based Management: Strategies for Growing Customer Value and Profitability, 5th Edition (Prentice Hall, 2009) ISBN 0132336537 Chernev A Strategic Marketing Management, 5th Edition (Brightstar Media, 2009) ISBN 0982512635 Hastings H and Saperstein J Improve Your Marketing to Grow Your Business (Wharton School Publishing, 2007) ISBN 0132331594 Hooley G, Saunders J, Piercy N F and Nicoulaud B Marketing Strategy and Competitive Positioning, 4th Edition (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2007) ISBN 0273706977 Kotler P and Armstrong G Principles of Marketing, 13th Edition (Prentice Hall, 2008) ISBN 0136079415 Kotler P and Keller K L A Framework for Marketing Management (Pearson Education, 2008) ISBN 0137131844 Lambin J J Market Driven Management: Strategic and Operational Marketing, 2nd Edition (Palgrave Macmillan, 2007) ISBN 1403998523 McDonald M Malcolm McDonald on Marketing Planning: Understanding Marketing Plans and Strategy (Kogan-Page, 2007) ISBN 0749451491 Mukerjee K Customer Relationship Management: A Strategic Approach to Marketing (Prentice Hall of India, 2007) ISBN 8120332857 Mullins J, Walker O C and Boyd H W Marketing Management: A Strategic Decision-Making Approach, 7th Edition (McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009) ISBN 007126776X Palmer R, Cockton J and Cooper G Managing Marketing: Marketing Success Through Good Management Practice (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2007) ISBN 0750668989 Tollin K and Car A (Eds) Strategic Market Creation: A New Perspective on Marketing and Innovation Management (John Wiley and Sons, 2008) ISBN 0470694270 Winer R and Dhar R Marketing Management, 4th Edition (Pearson Education, 2010) ISBN 0130387924

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Journals European Journal of Marketing (Emerald) International Journal of Research in Marketing (Elsevier) The Journal of Customer Behaviour (Westburn Publishers Ltd) Journal of Interactive Marketing (Elsevier) Journal of Marketing Communications (Routledge) Journal of Strategic Marketing (Routledge) The Marketing Review (Westburn Publishers Ltd) Websites en.wikipedia.org www.businessballs.com Articles on strategic marketing and further links Management learning resources and articles and links on strategic marketing management Local Government Improvement and Development developing a strategic communication strategy in the public sector which applies equally to the private sector Articles on strategic marketing planning and further links American Marketing Association marketing articles

www.idea.gov.uk

www.managementhelp.com www.marketingpower.com

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UNIT 8: CORPORATE COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES

Unit 8:
Unit code: QCF Level 7: Credit value:

Corporate Communication Strategies


M/602/2086 BTEC Professional 10

Guided learning hours: 30

Unit aim
This unit provides the learner with the understanding and skills to support active engagement in the process of developing corporate communication strategies.

Unit introduction
Organisations today need to plan their communication systems to ensure up-todate information, knowledge and awareness are always available to all who need them. A corporate communication strategy is the outcome of a strategic thinking process where senior communicators and managers take strategic decisions to identify and manage corporate communications and communicate them to stakeholders. With or without a formal communication strategy, every organisation communicates with its audience in one way or another. However, to ensure effective relationships with key stakeholders, every corporate organisation requires a dynamic plan that allows it to strategically relate with its customers as well as other key internal and external stakeholders. Communication is crucial to organisational effectiveness as it is the basis for maintaining pace and of ensuring that change can happen at all levels. It is through the management of sound and coordinated systems of communication that an organisation can integrate its various parts to ensure workforce harmonisation and achieve awareness of its performance. Effective corporate communication is closely related to the success of the organisation. An organisations reputation, survival and success rests on its ability to communicate with the public as well as its own employees and stakeholders. When effective corporate communications strategies are incorporated into a business structure, regardless of the size of the organisation, the ability to achieve global communication will be strengthened. Corporate communication is closely linked to business objectives and strategies. It is the processes an organisation uses to communicate all its messages to key stakeholders. It encodes and promotes a strong corporate culture, a coherent corporate identity, an appropriate and professional relationship with the media, and quick, responsible ways of communicating in a crisis. It is essential if organisations

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are to inform and influence external stakeholders, including their customers, and harness the efforts of all internal stakeholders towards the successful accomplishment of organisational objectives. This unit gives learners an opportunity to look into the design of a communication system within an organisation such as their own workplace, one to which they are seconded, or through an appropriate case study.

Learning outcomes and assessment criteria


In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria determine the standard required to achieve the unit. On completion of this unit a learner should: Learning outcomes 1 Understand the importance of corporate communication Assessment criteria 1.1 1.2 discuss the purpose of corporate communication strategies assess how corporate communications link to corporate objectives analyse the relationship between corporate communication and corporate branding plan an internal corporate communications audit conduct an internal corporate communications audit critically evaluate the effectiveness of current levels of practice plan an external corporate communications audit conduct an external corporate communications audit critically evaluate the effectiveness of current levels of practice plan the objectives of a corporate communication strategy select the audiences to influence with a corporate communications strategy plan appropriate measures to monitor a planned corporate communications strategy

1.3

Be able to conduct an internal corporate communications audit

2.1 2.2 2.3

Be able to conduct an external corporate communications audit

3.1 3.2 3.3

Be able to plan the development of a corporate communication strategy

4.1 4.2

4.3

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UNIT 8: CORPORATE COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES

Unit content

Understand the importance of corporate communication Purpose: creates an effective bridge between the organisation and the public; creates and reinforces a positive image about an organisation; effective and timely dissemination of information; smooth and affirmative relationship with all stakeholders (internally and externally); allows all employees to understand the vision and direction of an organisation; encodes understanding of communication tools and techniques; encodes sophisticated approaches to global communication; the importance of two-way communication Links to corporate objectives: supports strategic goals and objectives; supports management and human resources initiatives; helps employees understand organisational strategic goals and objectives and the reasons behind them; promotes strong corporate culture, company loyalty, corporate philosophy, corporate citizenship; promotes transparency and accountability; focuses efforts and resources on the activities and audiences most likely to have the biggest impact on the organisation Links to corporate branding: communicates the essence of the organisation; promotes confidence in the quality and performance of the organisations products or services; ensures adherence to corporate brand guidelines; minimises discrepancies between the organisations desired identity and brand features; clarifies and embeds the brand strategy, brand position, brand identity and brand message

Be able to conduct an internal corporate communications audit Methods: eg planning and launching, surveys, questionnaires, panels, interviews, critical incident analysis, network analysis, participant observation, document review, focus groups; survey participants, channels for distributing survey questions, how to receive completed questionnaires, evaluating and reporting Internal communication processes: efficient and effective, integrated and coordinated systems; communication channels and flows; the grapevine, networking, conferences, newsletters and company magazines, video conferencing, email and websites, roadshows, seminars, training and appraisals, team meetings, team briefing processes, updating systems, vertical teams, action sets; lateral, downward and upward communication systems; interdepartmental/divisional; information as power; confidentiality and data protection; testing and evaluating information; primary and secondary data; organisational structure and culture; listening skills; megaphone management; unfreezing and selling change; developing synergy; evaluation processes; participation levels; types of strategy; systems thinking; connectivity; learning organisation; intellectual capital and knowledge management; strategic intelligence; decision making and taking

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Be able to conduct an external corporate communications audit Methods: eg planning and launching, surveys, questionnaires, panels, interviews, critical incident analysis, network analysis, participant observation, document review, focus groups; online methods eg online surveys, questionnaires, video conferencing; survey participants, channels for distributing survey questions, how to receive completed questionnaires, evaluating and reporting External communication processes: efficient and effective, integrated and coordinated systems; networking, conferences, partnerships, joint ventures, customer and business forums, action sets; stakeholder inclusiveness and integration; communication channels and flows eg news releases, reports, advertising, online communications, speeches, interviews, websites, social network advertising and discussions eg Facebook, Twitter; developing relationships of trust, creating synergy, connectivity, systems thinking, interorganisational participation processes, research processes, websites, expert institution linkage; breaking down barriers; information exchange and negotiation; intellectual capital and knowledge management; strategic intelligence; decision making and taking; collaborative advantage; collaborative capability; boundaryless organisations; virtual communications; incrementalism; scenario building; win-win and zero-sum theory

Be able to plan the development of a corporate communication strategy Strategy for effective communications: communications as infrastructure; strategic objectives; strategic implementation; planned and emergent strategies; strategic drift; monitoring versus evaluation; feedback processes; setting and measuring outcomes; action planning; agreeing timescales; costbenefit analysis; feedback systems; control loop; target revision; regular and exception reporting; surveys and interviews; iterative processes; formal and informal knowledge channels; measuring inputs; processes; outputs and outcomes; quantitative and qualitative measures; 80/20 rule; disseminating awareness; sustainability

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UNIT 8: CORPORATE COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
For learning outcome 1, it is possible that some learners will have had experience of developing aspects of corporate communications in their own organisations. They could be encouraged to share their experiences, which will be a valuable source of discussion. Other learners will be familiar with corporate communications through various forms of media. A useful starting point is to use topical examples of recent issues and events in which corporate communications have played a vital role for organisations. The BP oil well disaster and the British Airways cabin crew strike are good examples of the importance of corporate communication. In both of these examples, the chief executive of the organisation was responsible for communicating the organisations response to the issues, whilst trying to uphold the image of the organisation on the national and global stage. Some tutor input will be required on corporate objectives and corporate branding. This could be followed up by learners carrying out research to find appropriate examples of the links between corporate communication, corporate branding and corporate objectives. For learning outcomes 2 and 3, tutor input will be required on the methodology of conducting audits. Learners need to have a broad knowledge of the range of auditing methods available for internal and external audits. Learners will need to focus on a single organisation, whether it be their own workplace, a work placement or a case study. They will need to select auditing methods that are appropriate and workable in their selected organisation. They could conduct an internal and an external audit of corporate communications in their selected organisation. Working individually or in groups, learners could be encouraged to exchange approaches, findings and options for conducting their audits. Once the audit is complete, learners will have gathered sufficient information on the various methods that the organisation uses to communicate internally and externally. Learners can use this information to evaluate the current levels of practice in the organisation and make judgements about the effectiveness of this practice. For learning outcome 4, tutor input will be required on corporate communications strategies. A good way of following up this input is to use examples of real corporate communications strategies. Many organisations place their corporate communications strategies on the internet and learners will find this is a valuable source of information. Learners could exchange approaches, findings and options for improving communications internally within an organisation and externally between the organisation, stakeholders and others in its environment. Learners could link up with external organisations such as competitors, customer groups, suppliers and councils or institutions of expertise. Learners need to confirm the value of this information, knowledge and awareness and suggest how it can be gained by the organisation on an ongoing basis and shared appropriately within it. Learners could also develop a process whereby information, knowledge and awareness gained from frontline working can be passed on appropriately throughout the organisation.

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Outline learning plan


The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the programme of suggested assignments. The outline learning plan demonstrates one way in planning the delivery and assessment of this unit.

Topic and suggested assignments, activities and assessment Introduction to unit and programme of assignments Purpose of corporate communications tutor input and discussion Links to corporate objectives research on internet to find examples Corporate communication and corporate branding learners research to find examples Assignment 1: Conducting an Internal Audit Tutor input and guidance Assignment 1: Conducting an Internal Audit Planning the audit, deciding on methods to be used, conducting the audit, evaluating the results Assignment 2: Conducting an External Audit Tutor input and guidance Assignment 2: Conducting an External Audit Planning the audit, deciding on methods to be used, conducting the audit, evaluating the results Assignment 3: Planning the Development of a Corporate Communication Strategy Tutor input and guidance Assignment 3: Planning the Development of a Corporate Communication Strategy Review of unit and programme of assignments

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UNIT 8: CORPORATE COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES

Assessment
To generate appropriate evidence, learners will need to research information and make decisions based on their findings. The internal and external audits and the planning of a corporate communications strategy will develop from the choices made as a result of learner research. For AC1.1, learners need to show that they understand the crucial role that corporate communication plays in organisations. This needs to be more than just a simple statement. Learners need to expand the discussion, taking into account a number of points such as image, standards, stakeholders, vision and the global nature of communication. For AC 1.2 and 1.3, there are opportunities to link the requirements for corporate objectives and corporate branding to the organisation learners will use to conduct audits. Learners need to assess how corporate communications link to corporate objectives and analyse the relationship between corporate communication and corporate branding. This can be developed as an introductory section to the audits conducted to cover the assessment criteria in learning outcomes 2 and 3. For AC 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3, learners need to conduct an internal and an external audit of corporate communication in a selected organisation. This will involve learners demonstrating that they have planned the audits before conducting them. If a live organisation is used, this may require consultation with appropriate personnel within the organisation. The audit of external stakeholders can be particularly sensitive. Learners need to seek approval and permission from appropriate personnel for the methods they intend to use. Learners will be required to select appropriate methods of conducting internal and external audits which may or may not be the same for both audits. This will depend on a variety of factors such as the type and size of the organisation and the methods that are feasible in the circumstances. Once the audits are completed, learners will have a bank of information on current corporate communication practice within the organisation. They need to use this information to critically evaluate the effectiveness of current levels of corporate communication practice in the organisation. For AC4.1, it is not expected that learners will develop a comprehensive corporate communication plan. Learners need to plan the objectives of a corporate communication strategy for their chosen organisation. The objectives will develop out of the communications audits and the evaluation of current levels of corporate communications practice used as evidence for the assessment criteria in learning outcomes 2 and 3. For AC4.2, learners need to select the audiences they want to influence with their corporate communications strategy. The nature and size of the audience will depend on the nature and size of the organisation. The selected audience needs to be appropriate and include internal and external stakeholders. For AC4.3, learners need to plan appropriate measures to monitor their planned communication strategy. The measures need to be workable, cost effective and clearly linked to the strategy.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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UNIT 8: CORPORATE COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES

Programme of suggested assignments The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the criteria in the assessment grid. This is for guidance only and it is recommended that centres either write their own assignments or adapt Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources.

Assessment criteria covered AC 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3

Assignment title Conducting an Internal Audit

Scenario Internal corporate communications audit of a selected organisation. External corporate communications audit of a selected organisation. Planning for development of a corporate communication strategy in a selected organisation.

Assessment method Audit report

AC 3.1, 3.2, 3.3

Conducting an External Audit

Audit report

AC 4.1, 4.2, 4.3

Planning the Development of a Corporate Communication Strategy

Report

Essential resources
There are no essential resources required for this unit.

Indicative resource materials


Textbooks Argenti P A Strategic Corporate Communication: A Global Approach for Doing Business in the New India (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2008) ISBN 0071549919 Avgerou C Information Systems and Global Diversity (Oxford University Press, 2003) ISBN 0199263426 Beyerlein M M and Harris C L Guiding the Journey to Collaborative Work Systems: A Strategic Design Workbook (Jossey-Bass, 2003) ISBN 0787967882 Clarke S Information Systems Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach (Routledge, 2006) ISBN 041538186X Clutterbuck D and Hirst S Talking Business: Making Communication Work (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2003) ISBN 0750654996 Dawson R Living Networks: Leading Your Company, Customers and Partners in the Hyper-Connected Economy (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2002) ISBN 0130353337

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UNIT 8: CORPORATE COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES

Galliers R and Leidner D E Strategic Information Management: Challenges and Strategies in Managing Information Systems, 3rd Edition (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002) ISBN 0750656190 Holtz S Corporate Conversations: A Guide to Crafting Effective and Appropriate Internal Communications (Amacom, 2003) ISBN 0814407706 Little S E, Quintas P and Ray T (Eds) Managing Knowledge (Sage Publications, 2001) ISBN 0761972137 McKenzie J and van Winkelen C Understanding the Knowledgeable Organization: Nurturing Knowledge Competence (Thomson Learning, 2003) ISBN 1861528957 O Hair D, Friedrich G W and Dixon L D Strategic Communication in Business and the Professions, 5th Edition (Houghton Mifflin, 2004) ISBN 0618432493 Ormeno M Managing Corporate Brands: A New Approach to Corporate Communication (duv, 2007) ISBN 3835007815 Journals/magazines Most general management journals will contain some relevant articles and these are listed together with more specialised journals. Academy of Management Journal (Academy of Management) British Journal of Management (John Wiley and Sons) California Management Review (University of California, Berkeley) European Management Journal (Elsevier) Harvard Business Review (Harvard Business Publishing) Information Age (Vitesse Media Plc) Information Management (SourceMedia) Information Technology and People (Emerald) Inside Knowledge (Waterlow Legal and Regulatory Limited) Journal of Communication Management (Emerald) International Journal of Information Management (Elsevier) Journal of Information Technology (Palgrave Macmillan) Journal of Management Studies (John Wiley and Sons) Management Today (Haymarket Business Media) MIT Sloan Management Review (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Organization (Sage Publications) Organization Studies (Sage Publications) Strategic Communication Management (Melcrum)

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Websites en.wikipedia.org www.idea.gov.uk Article on strategic communication and further links Local Government Improvement and Development developing a strategic communication strategy in the public sector which equally applies to the private sector Articles on strategic planning Overseas Development Institute how to write a communications strategy A research organisation a useful source for articles

www.managementhelp.com www.odi.org.uk www.tomorrowscompany.com

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UNIT 9: MANAGING CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY IN THE WIDER BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

Unit 9:

Managing Corporate Responsibility in the Wider Business Environment


Y/602/2325 BTEC Professional 10

Unit code: QCF Level 7: Credit value:

Guided learning hours: 30

Unit aim
This unit provides the learner with an understanding of the effect of legislation and global integration on decisions, policies, processes and activities undertaken by organisations.

Unit introduction
The internationalisation of markets and business activities, increased use of information and communication technology and the impact and consequences of the activities of organisations on many areas of life have meant that organisations need to be more aware of the contexts in which they operate. They have to assume greater responsibility for what they do. Globalisation has meant that organisations need to understand the implications of operating in international markets and have had to develop their policies accordingly. Membership of economic and political unions requires accommodating the requirements of transnational laws and regulations within organisational policies and procedures. Corporate governance is concerned with the arrangements for the management of an organisation and the regulation of the relationships between the organisations different stakeholders. Good corporate governance enhances organisational activity and the perception of the organisation as a good corporate citizen. Poor corporate governance can result in negative perceptions and, more seriously, can contribute to the failure of an organisation. Consequently, a major focus of corporate governance centres on the accountability of individuals and organisations to their various stakeholders, including the wider community within which they operate. Organisations have to be concerned with the legal, regulatory, ethical, moral, cultural and environmental dimensions of their activities and the effect these activities have on others. Corporate social responsibility ensures organisations incorporate these requirements in their procedures. By examining corporate responsibility, learners will understand how consideration of the common interest in organisational decision making impacts on the triple bottom line people, planet and profit of organisations.
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Learning outcomes and assessment criteria


In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria determine the standard required to achieve the unit. On completion of this unit a learner should: Learning outcomes 1 Understand the wider implications and effects of global integration on organisations Assessment criteria 1.1 explain the effects of globalisation on national economies discuss the influence of international institutions on organisations explain the role and responsibility of European Union membership on the workplace explain the importance of responsible corporate governance in organisations analyse the regulatory requirements that shape corporate governance evaluate the impact of regulatory requirements on corporate stakeholders interests in an organisation discuss the economics of adopting a policy of environmental awareness in organisations explain the actions that need to be taken by organisations to maintain the environment describe the measures that exist to improve workplace health and safety practice analyse the responsibilities of organisations to improving workforce welfare compare approaches to the management of diversity in organisations compare organisational approaches to ensuring positive policies of workforce diversity

1.2

1.3

Understand the importance of responsible corporate governance in organisations

2.1

2.2

2.3

Understand the effects of environmental legislation, directives and guidance on organisations

3.1

3.2

3.3

Understand the socio-cultural, ethical and moral issues that affect organisations in the current economic environment

4.1

4.2

4.3

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UNIT 9: MANAGING CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY IN THE WIDER BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

Unit content

Understand the wider implications and effects of global integration on organisations Global integration: international business environment PESTLE (political, economic, social, technical, legal, environmental) analysis; market size; economies of scale; multinational corporations; transnational corporations; international institutions World Trade Organization (WTO), World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), The Group of Twenty (G-20); global financial stability; capital investment; emerging economies (tiger economies, BRIC economies); corporate values; corporate social responsibility; fair trade; transfer pricing; outsourcing; developing world production; human rights; child labour; intellectual property (copyrights, trademarks, patents); corruption; pariah states; piracy; counterfeiting; hegemony; cultural imperialism; cultural factors European Union (EU): role, responsibility, EU legislation; EU directives; EU membership; EU business regulations and their incorporation into national law; EU policies eg agriculture (CAP), business, competition, growth, employment, education, economics and finance, employment, environment, science and technology, regional, welfare; Schengen Agreement; labour movement; monetary union; subsidiarity; enlargement (the most up-to-date legislation and regulations must be used)

Understand the importance of responsible corporate governance in organisations Corporate governance: purposes (direction, oversight, accountability); board responsibilities; transparency; disclosure; objectivity; integrity; ethical behaviour; organisational culture; stakeholders interests; principal/agent; governance controls (internal, external); best governance practice Regulatory requirements: Cadbury report; Rutteman guidance; Greenbury report; Hampel report; Turnbull report; Higgs report; Smith report; Companies Acts (2004, 2006); the 8th Company Law Directive of the European Union (2006), Sarbanes Oxley Act (2002, US) impact on domestic business; UK Corporate Governance Code; stock exchange listing requirements; incorporation of legal and regulatory requirements into organisational policies, practice and procedures

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Understand the effects of environmental legislation, directives and guidance on organisations Environmental issues: ecological and anthropocentric world views; climate change eg Kyoto Protocol, Rio Earth Summit; carbon emissions; biodiversity; environmental degradation; conservation; overpopulation; genetic engineering; resource use; resource depletion; waste; pollution; externalities, public goods, free goods; green accounting; balanced scorecards; corporate responsibilities; health and safety at work; accident prevention; employment contract; employers duty of care; occupational health Environmental legislation: EU legislation; UK legislation; environmental protection (air, environmental permitting, land, waste, water, chemicals); noise and nuisance; climate change; energy conservation (the most up-to-date legislation covering these issues must be used)

Understand the socio-cultural, ethical and moral issues that affect organisations in the current economic environment Social, cultural, ethical and moral issues: equal opportunities, diversity; disability; discrimination; racism; harassment; bullying; whistleblowing; privacy; confidentiality (up-to-date legislation covering these issues must be used); workforce profiling; dignity in the workplace; multi-culturalism, stereotyping; labelling; prejudice, glass ceilings; human rights; Citizens Charter, moral imperatives; value rigidity; empowerment; management styles; work-life balance; childcare provision; professional development; employee participation; ethical standards in business activities (finance, human resources, marketing, dealing with stakeholders); affirmative action; codes of practice; organisational policies; staff training

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UNIT 9: MANAGING CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY IN THE WIDER BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
All the learning outcomes in this unit can be delivered flexibly. Formal tutor input could identify some of the theoretical material, but learners can work individually and in groups researching and gathering information about the management of corporate responsibility. No previous knowledge of the management of corporate responsibility is assumed and learners can use work experiences. Research, investigation, case studies and discussions all offer approaches to learning about the management of corporate responsibility. Using an organisations senior managers, compliance officers or an appropriate guest speaker could provide practical insight into the management of corporate responsibilities. Up-to-date materials are available on the internet and material on legal and regulatory topics is available from both government agencies and private providers. Current affairs pieces in the press and media will also consider corporate responsibilities in areas such as finance and the environment. Learners could be introduced to the global context in which organisations operate and the impact that the global economy has on national economies and on the functioning of organisations. Case studies and examples can be used to show how national governments have had to surrender control over various areas of their economies and legal systems to comply with the arrangements they are signed up to. Examination of workplace policies, practices and procedures can show the influence and impact of EU law and directives and there is plenty of explanatory detail available within organisations and from online material produced by the EU. Presentations could identify the nature and importance of responsible corporate governance. Case studies considering the high-profile problems encountered with failures in financial and environmental controls could indicate the need for effective corporate governance practices. The consequences of governance failures have an impact that is immediate and extensive, but they also lead to changes in the requirements for governance incorporated within legislation. Research into organisational policies and discussions could identify the role and importance of environmental awareness in a world where sustainability is rising to the top of the political agenda. These issues trickle down and their influence can be seen in areas such as personal welfare and protection. Learners also need to consider the ethical issues that influence organisational policies, practices and procedures in relation to workforce management.

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Outline learning plan


The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the programme of suggested assignments. The outline learning plan demonstrates one way of planning the delivery and assessment of this unit.

Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/assessment Introduction to the unit and the programme of assignments Presentation on the impact of globalisation on national economies Investigation, research and discussion on the influence of international and EU institutions. Assignment 1: Globalisation Tutor support and feedback Presentation on corporate governance Research and discussion on corporate governance requirements Discussion of the impact of corporate governance requirements on stakeholders Assignment 2: Effective Corporate Governance Tutor support and feedback Presentation, research and discussion on environmental issues and their impact on organisational procedures Presentation, research and discussion on cultural, ethical and moral issues and their impact on organisational procedures Assignment 3: Environmental and Ethical Responsibilities Tutor support and feedback Review of unit and programme of assignments

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UNIT 9: MANAGING CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY IN THE WIDER BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

Assessment
For AC1.1, learners need to explain the effects of globalisation on national economies. This will need to include the economic and social dimensions of globalisation. Learners need to adopt a critical stance and use relevant examples to illustrate their points. For AC 1.2 and 1.3, learners will discuss the influence of international institutions on at least two organisations and explain the role and responsibility of European Union membership on the workplace. Focus needs to be on economic and legal dimensions with examples drawn from specific workplace policies and procedures. AC 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 can be assessed through a guide illustrating the impact of global trends and patterns on organisational behaviour. For AC2.1, learners need to explain the importance of corporate governance. The explanation needs to be critical and use examples of the failure of corporate governance to demonstrate the requirement for effective corporate governance practices. For AC2.2, learners need to use analytical skills to show how legal and regulatory corporate governance requirements have been incorporated into corporate policies and procedures which show organisations are aware of the need to adopt best practice requirements. For AC2.3, learners need to evaluate the impact of regulatory requirements on stakeholders and their often conflicting and contrasting interests, indicating how a balance can be maintained between these different requirements. For AC 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3, evidence can be in the form of a presentation that informs board members of their responsibilities in respect of governance matters. For AC 3.1 and 3.2, learners need to discuss the economic impact of adopting environmental policies, explaining the actions that need to be taken to ensure sustainability and minimise environmental impact. For AC3.3, learners need to describe how employers act to ensure personnel are protected through the adoption of suitable health and safety measures. This is linked to learning outcome 3 as a number of health and safety issues are connected to environmental awareness, such as the handling of hazardous materials. For AC4.1, learners need to analyse the responsibilities of organisations for improving workplace welfare. For AC 4.2 and 4.3, learners need to consider how diversity is managed in organisations and compare how organisations use different approaches. Some organisations adopt a more proactive stance by having affirmative action policies to manage diversity and equality of opportunity. The assessment criteria in learning outcomes 3 and 4 can be assessed through a narrative that considers environmental and ethical issues and their relevance to workplace policies and procedures. It is possible to assess work orally, with learners explaining and describing things to the assessor in discussion, in group work, or a presentation. If oral assessments are used, then the work must be directly attributable to the individual learner. The assessor must provide a signed statement that includes detail of the evidence presented that is aligned to the criteria. The evidence must support achievement of the criteria. If there is sufficient evidence from the oral work, or from observations, to make an assessment decision then the assessment decision needs to be shown.

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Programme of suggested assignments The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the criteria in the assessment grid. This is for guidance only and it is recommended that centres either write their own assignments or adapt Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources.

Assessment criteria covered AC 1.1, 1.2, 1.3

Assignment title Globalisation

Scenario The learner works for a business advisory service that produces guides for local businesses. The learner is a compliance manager and has been asked to advise new board members of their responsibilities in respect of ensuring effective corporate governance. The learner is a senior manager who has been asked to prepare an article for publication in an in-house journal.

Assessment method Guidance booklet

AC 2.1, 2.2, 2.3

Effective Corporate Governance

Presentation

AC 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3

Environmental and Ethical Responsibilities

Article

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UNIT 9: MANAGING CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY IN THE WIDER BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

Essential resources
There are no essential resources required for this unit.

Indicative resource materials


Textbooks Crane A and Matten D Business Ethics: Managing Corporate Citizenship and Sustainability in the Age of Globalization, 3rd Edition (Oxford University Press, 2010) ISBN 0199564337 Mallin C A Corporate Governance, 3rd Edition (Oxford University Press, 2009) ISBN 0199566453 Solomon J Corporate Governance and Accountability, 3rd Edition (John Wiley and Sons, 2010) ISBN 0470695099 Journals/newspapers Management Today (Haymarket Business Media) Professional Manager (Chartered Management Institute) The Economist (The Economist Newspaper Ltd) has articles on corporate responsibility and governance from time to time The Times (Times Newspapers Ltd) has a specialist section on human resource related topics that it publishes once a week Websites www.businesslink.gov.uk www.europa.eu www.frc.org.uk www.imf.org www.netregs.gov.uk www.oecd.org Business Link The European Union The Financial Reporting Council The International Monetary Fund Environmental guidance for small- and medium-sized businesses in the UK The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

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UNIT 10: STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Unit 10:
Unit code: QCF Level 7: Credit value:

Strategic Human Resource Management


D/602/2326 BTEC Professional 10

Guided learning hours: 30

Unit aim
This unit provides the learner with an understanding of how the effective strategic management of human resources supports the achievement of organisational purposes and provides the skills to apply this understanding in an organisational context.

Unit introduction
Strategic human resource management is concerned with the management of human resources in ways that support an organisations strategy and contribute to the achievement of organisational goals. It takes a long-term perspective on how human resources can be matched to organisational requirements and considers broader matters such as the quality and commitment of the human resource to an organisation. Human resource planning provides the mechanisms through which organisations can ensure that they have sufficient staff of the right quality now and in the future to enable their successful functioning. Issues such as the recruitment of staff, the retention of staff, developing staff and succession planning, as well as downsizing and relocation, need to be accommodated in human resource plans. The nature of the changing business environment requires adaptable strategic human resource plans. Organisations have a range of human resources policies that explain how human resources are managed. In many cases, there is a legal or regulatory requirement that insists on the existence of these policies. In other instances, organisations may wish to demonstrate good corporate practice in matters relating to employment. The structure and culture of organisations affects human resource management. The publication of lists of companies that are good employers indicates how structure and culture affect personnel and how the perceptions of other parties are shaped by how employees feel about working for particular organisations. Organisations that are good employers are more likely to attract and keep good staff. By examining human resource management, learners will understand how human resource strategy and policies enable personnel to work in ways that contribute to the overall effectiveness of organisations in both the short and long term.

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Learning outcomes and assessment criteria


In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria determine the standard required to achieve the unit. On completion of this unit a learner should: Learning outcomes 1 Understand how the strategic management of human resources contributes to the achievement of organisational objectives Assessment criteria 1.1 explain the importance of strategic human resource management in organisations assess the purpose of strategic human resource management activities in an organisation evaluate the contribution of strategic human resource management to the achievement of an organisations objectives analyse the business factors that underpin human resource planning in an organisation assess the human resource requirements in a given situation develop a human resources plan for an organisation critically evaluate how a human resources plan can contribute to meeting an organisations objectives explain the purpose of human resource management policies in organisations analyse the impact of regulatory requirements on human resource policies in an organisation analyse the impact of an organisational structure on the management of human resources analyse the impact of an organisational culture on the management of human resources examine how the effectiveness of human resources management is monitored in an organisation make justified recommendations to improve the effectiveness of human resources management in an organisation

1.2

1.3

Be able to develop human resource plans for an organisation

2.1

2.2 2.3 2.4

Understand human resources policy requirements in an organisation

3.1

3.2

Be able to examine human resources management in an organisation

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

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UNIT 10: STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Unit content

Understand how the strategic management of human resources contributes to the achievement of organisational objectives Human resource management (HRM): definition; characteristics of HRM approach; models of HRM eg contingency model, best practice model, Harvard Framework, D Guest, M Patterson; HRM activities; HRM and personnel management Strategy: organisational strategy; HRM strategy; benefits of HRM strategy for organisations; alignment of organisational and HRM strategies; impact of organisational strategy on HRM strategy; influence of HRM strategy on organisational strategy; human capital management; HRM strategy and organisational performance; creating value; business focus of HRM strategy; efficient human resource management

Be able to develop human resource plans for an organisation Business factors: business growth; business decline; business change; labour cost control; capital for labour substitution; location of operations; changing nature of work; impact of technology; increase in productivity; increase in efficiency; business competition; labour market competition; employee development Human resource requirements: identifying personnel requirements (numbers, skill sets, experience, qualifications); match personnel to organisational requirements; internal factors eg labour requirements, skill requirements, workforce profiles; external factors eg demand for labour, supply of labour; government policies eg employment, education, training, industrial, regional; labour market competition Human resource planning: purposes (recruitment, retention, employee development; re-skilling, upskilling, succession planning); outcomes; resources required; criteria for success; milestones; planning horizons (short, medium, long-term); business case eg costs, benefits; setting SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, time-based) targets

Understand human resources policy requirements in an organisation Human resource management policies: recruitment and selection; health and safety; equality and diversity; pay; rewards, benefits and expenses; working time and time off; training and development; maternity/paternity; bullying and harassment; discipline, dismissal and grievance; performance improvement; change management; intellectual property (patents, copyrights); confidentiality of information; whistleblowing/protected disclosures; smoking, drugs and alcohol; purposes of policies

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Employment legislation: legal and regulatory requirements relating to pay, discrimination, equality, employment rights and responsibilities, contractual terms and conditions and data protection (up-to-date legislation must be used) Employment Act 2008, Employment Relations Act 2004, Work and Families Act 2006, Employment Rights Act 1996, Sex Discrimination Act 1995/1997, Race Relations Act 1992, Race Relations Amendment Act 2000, Equal Pay Act 1970, Disability Discrimination Acts 1995 and 2005, European Working Time Directive, National Minimum Wage Act 1998, Data Protection Act 1998 4 Be able to examine human resources management in an organisation Structure and culture: theories of organisational structure eg Weber, Mintzberg, Handy; forms of structure and the impact on HRM eg functional, product based, geographical, divisional, matrix; centralisation; decentralisation; theoretical models of culture eg Handy, Hofstede, Schein; organisational culture; relationships between culture and the HRM function Effectiveness: HRM components to be monitored (HRM strategy, HRM policies, HRM operations); contribution of HRM to achievement of organisational goals; costs; benefits; human resource use; efficiencies; inefficiencies; gathering information about HRM performance; developing performance indicators; evaluating HRM performance using performance indicators; quantitative measures eg productivity, output per person, employee retention, staff turnover, cost savings; qualitative measures eg employee attitude surveys, stakeholder perspectives; benchmarking HR performance; HRM service level agreements and standards; utility analysis to evaluate the costs and benefits of HRM activities; proposing improvements

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UNIT 10: STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
All the learning outcomes in this unit can be delivered flexibly. Formal tutor input could identify some of the theoretical material but learners can work individually and in groups to research and gather information on strategic human resource management. No previous knowledge of strategic human resource management is assumed and learners can use workplace experiences. Research, case studies, business simulations and discussion all offer approaches to learning about strategic human resource management. Using an organisations own human resources manager or an appropriate guest speaker could provide practical insight into strategic human resource management. Up-to-date materials are available on the internet and material on many human resource management topics is available from both government agencies and private providers. Learners could be introduced to the importance of strategic human resource management in organisations and how it is aligned with, and both contributes to and supports, the overarching organisational strategy. Research, case studies and their own employment could enable learners to review the numerous factors that shape human resource planning. The business press provides a range of examples of how the fluidity of the business context causes organisations to adjust their human resource plans to ensure that suitable personnel are employed and developed in the short and long term, to enable the organisation to maintain its competitive advantage and to continue to function. Business leaders are often interviewed to explain how only by changing the pattern of human resource use will the organisation survive. It is a truism for organisations to indicate that staff are their most important asset. Human resource management policies articulate the way in which personnel are looked after and managed. Presentations from speakers such as human resource managers can help to identify the legal requirements that need to be incorporated into human resource management policies and procedures. Reviewing and discussing examples of human resource management policies and procedures to see how they incorporate legal requirements provides illustrations of how this happens in practice. Case studies can demonstrate how organisational structure and culture influence the management of human resources and learners will be expected to carry out practical work to show how this happens. The effectiveness of human resource management activities needs to be kept under review to ensure that these activities provide organisations with efficient and effective human capital. Learners can consider this by carrying out practical work where they make recommendations to improve human resources management in an organisation.

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Outline learning plan


The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the programme of suggested assignments. The outline learning plan demonstrates one way of planning the delivery and assessment of this unit.

Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/assessment Introduction to the unit and the programme of assignments Presentation on the importance of strategic human resource management Case studies and discussion on the link between organisational strategy and human resource management strategy Assignment 1: Human Resource Management Strategy Tutor support and feedback Presentation on human resource planning Case studies, research and practical work on the factors that shape human resource planning for a range of organisations Discussion on the contribution of human resource plans to the achievement of organisational objectives Presentation of the legal and regulatory requirements associated with human resource management policies Review of human resource policies and their purpose in organisations Assignment 2: Human Resources Planning Tutor support and feedback Presentation and discussion on the links between organisational structure and culture and the management of human resources. Investigation and discussion on monitoring and reviewing the effectiveness of human resource management. Assignment 3: Reviewing Human Resource Management Tutor support and feedback Review of unit and programme of assignments

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UNIT 10: STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Assessment
For AC1.1, learners need to explain the importance of strategic human resource management and the need for adopting both a medium- and long-term perspective in respect of human resource management. For AC 1.2 and 1.3, learners need to assess the purpose of strategic human resources management and evaluate how it contributes to organisational objectives. The link between corporate strategy and human resource management strategy needs to be made clear to show their interrelationship and how the human resource management strategy supports and contributes to organisational purposes. For AC 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3, a review or case study can be used to examine the importance of strategic human resource management and its role in supporting wider organisational objectives. For AC2.1, learners need to analyse the business factors that dictate the need to plan human resources by looking internally at the organisations requirements, as well as considering the influence of external environmental factors. For AC2.2, learners need to assess the human resource requirements for a specific organisation in a specific situation. Learners can use their own organisation if appropriate. For AC 2.3 and 2.4, learners need to develop a human resources plan building on the results of the work completed for AC2.2. The plan needs to be formulated using SMART (specific, achievable, measurable, realistic, and time-based) targets. The plan needs to be critically evaluated to show how it can contribute to the achievement of organisational objectives. For AC 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3, evidence needs to be a structured human resources plan. For AC 3.1 and 3.2, learners need to explain the purpose of human resource management policies in organisations, showing how they comply with legal and regulatory requirements. Organisational policies should be accessible and the implications and impact of the policies on managing the human resource need to drawn out through analysis. The assignment used for AC 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 could be extended to cover AC 3.1 and 3.2. For AC 4.1 and 4.2, learners need to analyse the impact of organisational structure and culture on human resource management. Structure and culture need to be defined. For AC4.3, learners need to examine the monitoring of human resource management in relation to contributing to organisational goals. Learners need to identify performance indicators that might be used and how the effectiveness of human resource management can be judged against these indicators. For AC4.4, learners need to use their work from AC4.3 to recommend improvements to human resource management, supported with justifications based on an analysis of a specific organisation in a specific situation. For AC 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4, evidence can be in the form of a report that results from a review of the impact of structure and culture on human resource management, and from an examination of the effectiveness of human resource management, together with recommendations for improving it.

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It is possible to assess work orally, with the individual learner explaining and describing things to the assessor in discussion, in group work or in a presentation. If oral assessments are used, then the work must be directly attributable to the individual learner. The assessor must provide a signed statement that includes detail of the evidence presented that is aligned to the criteria. The evidence must support achievement of the criteria. If there is sufficient evidence from the oral work, or from observations, to make an assessment decision, then the assessment decision should be shown.

Programme of suggested assignments The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the criteria in the assessment grid. This is for guidance only and it is recommended that centres either write their own assignments or adapt Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources.

Assessment criteria covered AC 1.1, 1.2, 1.3

Assignment title Human Resource Management Strategy

Scenario The learner works as a newly appointed human resources manager in an organisation. The learner works as a human resources manager in an expanding organisation. The learner is a human resources consultant who has been asked to review human resource management in an organisation that wants to improve its human resource management.

Assessment method A review for senior managers

AC 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 3.1, 3.2

Human Resources Planning

A human resource plan

AC 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4

Reviewing Human Resource Management

A report for the head of the human resources department

Essential resources
There are no essential resources required for this unit.

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UNIT 10: STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Indicative resource materials


Textbooks Armstrong M Strategic Human resource Management: A Guide to Action, 4th Edition (Kogan Page, 2008) ISBN 0749453753 Holbeche L Aligning Human Resources and Business Strategy, 2nd Edition (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2008) ISBN 0750680172 Saunders M, Millmore M, Lewis P, Thornhill A and Morrow T Strategic Human Resource Management: Contemporary Issues (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2007) ISBN 027368163X Journals/newspapers Management Today (Haymarket Business Media) People Management (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development) Professional Manager (Chartered Management Institute) The Economist (The Economist Newspaper Ltd) has articles on human resource related topics from time to time Websites www.businesslink.gov.uk www.cipd.co.uk Business Link information on human resource management policies The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development has a range of material on strategic human resource management Free management library with links to human resource management articles

www.managementhelp.org

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UNIT 11: STRATEGIC QUALITY AND SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT

Unit 11:
Unit code: QCF Level 7: Credit value:

Strategic Quality and Systems Management


H/602/2327 BTEC Professional 10

Guided learning hours: 30

Unit aim
This unit provides the learner with an understanding of the importance of effective quality and systems management to enable achievement of organisational objectives. It also provides the learner with the skills to be able to implement a strategic quality change in an organisation.

Unit introduction
This unit gives learners the appropriate knowledge and understanding to enable them to make an effective contribution to the implementation of policies in order to achieve a strategic quality change which will improve customer focus and develop continuous improvement. Contributions will be developed in respect of the operational, functional and strategic management of quality. Learners will gain an understanding of the principles, concepts, processes and procedures associated with quality management. This unit will help learners to make a significant contribution to implementing strategies for achieving excellence. They will gain knowledge and understanding of a broad range of modern theory and techniques covering the operational, functional and strategic management of quality. Critical thinking and self-directed study are important aspects of working at this level. Learners will look at the philosophies and practices that provide the theoretical knowledge for planning and implementing a quality programme and then consider the methods available to introduce a strategic quality change programme successfully.

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Learning outcomes and assessment criteria


In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria determine the standard required to achieve the unit. On completion of this unit a learner should: Learning outcomes 1 Understand the role of operations management in an organisation Assessment criteria 1.1 explain the importance of effective operations management in achieving organisational objectives evaluate the success of existing operations management processes in meeting an organisations overall strategic management objectives explain the importance of effective quality management in achieving organisational objectives evaluate the success of existing quality management processes in meeting an organisations overall strategic management objectives plan a strategic quality change to improve organisational performance define resources, tools and systems to support business processes in a strategic quality change evaluate the wider implications of planned strategic quality change in an organisation design systems to monitor the implementation of a strategic quality change in an organisation implement a strategic quality change in an organisation embed a quality culture in an organisation to ensure continuous monitoring and development monitor the implementation of a strategic quality change in an organisation

1.2

Understand the importance of managing quality in an organisation

2.1

2.2

Be able to plan a strategic quality change in an organisation

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

Be able to implement a strategic quality change in an organisation

4.1 4.2

4.3

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Learning outcomes 5 Be able to evaluate the outcomes of a strategic quality change in an organisation

Assessment criteria 5.1 evaluate the outcomes of a strategic quality change in an organisation recommend areas for improvement to a strategic quality change that align with organisational objectives

5.2

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Unit content

Understand the role of operations management in an organisation Operations management: design, management, and improvement of the systems that create an organisation's goods or services; production of goods and services; resource procurement, conversion into outputs, distribution to users Strategic objectives: the importance of effective operations management; role of operations; operations strategy; quality; timing; reliability; flexibility; cost; strategic decisions Performance management: benchmarking; targets; performance indicators; use of environmental research; the balanced scorecard; profit; growth; competitiveness; value for money

Understand the importance of managing quality in an organisation Quality: definitions; quality gurus; evolution of quality; product quality and service quality, 5 gaps model; benchmarking; best practice; self-assessment; vision; continuous improvement Quality models: development eg Japanese, USA, European, Deming, Baldridge, European Foundation of Quality Management, Six Sigma; current focus, future trends Monitoring organisational performance: principles of models underpin organisational performance; types of performance measures and how to determine and set them; cost-benefit analysis; risk analysis; the value of a customer-focused culture; the importance of prevention rather than correction; importance of developing a continual improvement culture and how to involve others; planning, proposing, implementing and evaluating change; identifying wider implications of change within an organisation; Business Process Re-engineering (BPR)

Be able to plan a strategic quality change in an organisation Planning for a strategic quality change: gap analysis; degree of change; change strategies creating a climate of change, workforce participation, communication, stakeholder participation, action planning, timescale, agreeing roles, ensuring resources, final feasibility review; purpose; aims/objectives; resources; targets Designing systems: process, objectives, systems and operations; layout and flow of processes; the impact of technology on operations and systems; Total Quality Management (TQM) philosophy, principles, methods and techniques

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UNIT 11: STRATEGIC QUALITY AND SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT

Resources, tools and monitoring systems: facilities; workforce; machinery; transportation; technology; quality systems; quality circles; ISO 9000/ EN 29000; TQM; managing and monitoring quality Wider implications: improved business performance, corporate image, reputation, standing; competitor response; impact on other functions and departments 4 Be able to implement a strategic quality change in an organisation Implementation of strategic quality change: timing; resource planning; staff training; communication; action planning; monitoring and evaluation criteria Quality culture: self-managed teams and quality circles; matrix structures; senior management commitment; workforce commitment; workforce empowerment; partnerships with suppliers; external auditing; customer service policies; Kaizen, continuous improvement 5 Be able to evaluate the outcomes of a strategic quality change in an organisation Evaluation of strategic quality change: monitoring and evaluation techniques; action learning; change agents; catalysts; empowerment; performance measuring; developing communication channels; task and role realignment; piloting; ice-breaking; business performance indicators; customer feedback; effect on sales and profit

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Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
For learning outcome 1, learners could explore the role of operations management in an organisation. Tutors could encourage learners to use their experiences from their own organisations to stimulate debate and discussion. Learners need to understand how operations management impacts on the achievement of organisational objectives and, through individual and group work, they could reflect and evaluate whether their own and other organisations operations management has been successful or not. When delivering this learning outcome, use of case studies demonstrating the importance of operations management can enhance the learning experience. For learning outcome 2, learners need to understand the importance of managing quality in an organisation. Learners could assess quality management in their own organisations and appropriate guest speakers can give learners useful information on how other organisations manage quality. For learning outcome 3, learners will need to understand the importance of planning a strategic quality change and that the change-planning process is key to achieving success. Learners need to be made aware of the importance of communicating clearly with those who will be affected by change, including encouraging employee participation in the process of change. Learners may be able to draw on their experiences of this process in their own organisations, which could provide useful topics for debate and discussion. Case studies and visiting speakers can be used to help learners understand the importance of systems in the quality change process, and group discussions on the wider implications of planned strategic quality change can also be beneficial. For learning outcome 4, learners need to understand the implementation process for a planned strategic quality change. They could consider how to embed a quality, continuous improvement culture into an organisation. Case studies can be used to demonstrate the importance of culture in developing Total Quality Management (TQM) in an organisation. Learners could also examine how a strategic quality change can be monitored during its implementation. For learning outcome 5, learners need to understand how to evaluate the outcomes of a strategic quality change. Tutors could encourage learners to use their experiences and knowledge gained in their own organisations where strategic quality changes may have been introduced. They also need to know about the various evaluation methods and how they can be put in place to measure success.

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UNIT 11: STRATEGIC QUALITY AND SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT

Outline learning plan


The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the programme of suggested assignments. The outline learning plan demonstrates one way in planning the delivery and assessment of this unit.

Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/assessment Introduction to unit and the programme of assignments Tutor-led discussion on the role of operations management group work and exercises Tutor-led discussion on the importance of managing quality in an organisation group work and exercises Guest speaker Total Quality Management Group discussion Tutor-led discussion on managing performance in an organisation group work and exercises Visit to a local organisation who is about to introduce Six Sigma talk given by senior personnel on planning its implementation Tutor-led discussion on systems to support business processes group work and exercises Group work case study exercises covering the wider implications of a strategic quality change Tutor-led discussion on the implementation of a planned quality change using case studies on organisations that have successfully implemented quality change programmes Guest speaker evaluation methods for quality change programmes Group discussion Assignment: Implementing Strategic Quality Change in an Organisation (covering all assessment criteria) Review of unit and assignment guidance

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Assessment
Learners need to research information on quality management in an organisation and produce a report discussing their findings and making recommendations for strategic quality changes. For AC 1.1 and 1.2, learners need to explain the importance of effective operations management in achieving organisational objectives clearly, indicating how this takes effect in their own organisations or the organisation they have chosen to base their assessment evidence on. They then need to evaluate the success of operations management in meeting their chosen organisations strategic management objectives. For AC 2.1 and 2.2, learners need to explain the importance of effective quality management in achieving their chosen organisations objectives. Following this explanation, they need to evaluate the success of existing quality management processes in meeting their chosen organisations strategic management objectives. For AC 3.1 and 3.2, learners need to plan a strategic quality change that aims to improve organisational performance in their chosen organisation. The plan needs to be action orientated, detailed, and include SMART targets. It should clearly define the resources, tools and systems that will support the business processes involved in the quality change process. For AC3.3, learners need to evaluate the wider implications of their planned strategic quality change. They could assess how the organisation will be perceived from outside, as well as discussing the knock-on effects of the change to systems, people and functions, and their performance within the organisation. For AC3.4, learners need to design systems that will monitor the implementation of their planned strategic quality change. These could be associated with the layout and flow of processes, or other aspects of monitoring using IT systems. For AC 4.1 and 4.3, learners need to implement and monitor their planned strategic quality change. For AC4.2, learners need to provide evidence to demonstrate how they embedded a quality culture into their chosen organisation. For example, they could describe the senior management commitment to the culture change and perhaps how selfmanaging teams have been introduced. For AC 5.1 and 5.2, learners need to evaluate the outcomes of the implementation of their strategic quality change and make recommendations on how further improvements can be made. The improvements recommended need to clearly align with organisational objectives.

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UNIT 11: STRATEGIC QUALITY AND SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT

Programme of suggested assignments The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the criteria in the assessment grid. This is for guidance only and it is recommended that centres either write their own assignments or adapt Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources.

Assessment criteria covered All assessment criteria

Assignment title Implementing Strategic Quality Change in an Organisation

Scenario The learner is acting as an internal quality consultant for an organisation of their choice. They are required to look at the existing quality management within the organisation, and implement a strategic quality change, ensuring the necessary monitoring evaluation systems are in place and evaluating the outcomes of the change.

Assessment method Report

Essential resources
There are no essential resources required for this unit.

Indicative resource materials


Textbooks Bank J The Essence of Total Quality Management, 2nd Edition (Prentice Hall, 1999) ISBN 0135731143 Beckford J Quality: A Critical Introduction, 3rd Edition (Routledge, 2009) ISBN 041599635X Bicheno J The Quality 75: Towards Six Sigma Performance in Service and Manufacturing (PICSIE Books, 2002) ISBN 0954124405 Brue G Six Sigma for Managers: 24 Lessons to Understand and Apply Six Sigma Principles in any Organization (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2005) ISBN 0071455485

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Burnes B Managing Change, 5th Edition (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2009) ISBN 0273711741 Johnston R, Chambers S, Slack N, Harrison A and Harland C Cases in Operations Management, 3rd Edition (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2002) ISBN 0273655310 Naylor J Introduction to Operations Management, 2nd Edition (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2002) ISBN 0273655787 Oakland J S TQM: Text with Cases, 3rd Edition (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2003) ISBN 0750657405 Pike J and Barnes R TQM in Action, 2nd Edition (Springer, 1995) ISBN 0412715309 Slack N, Chambers S and Johnston R Operations Management, 4th Edition (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2003) ISBN 0273679066 Covey S M R The Speed of Trust: The One Thing That Changes Everything (Simon & Schuster Ltd, 2006) ISBN 0743295609 Journals/newspapers Many professional institutes and academic institutions publish journals relevant to this unit. Examples are: Production, Planning and Control (Taylor and Francis) The TQM Magazine (Emerald) A good daily broadsheet, eg The Times, The Guardian or The Financial Times Websites www.businesscases.org/newInterface www.efqm.org Business case studies EFQM helping European organisations learn from each other and improve performance Harvard Business School Working Knowledge management practice research Health and Safety Executive Health and Safety Laboratory International Quality Systems Directory Business management information and resources ISO quality standards translated into understandable language Quality Network a guide to subject of quality management

www.hbsworkingknowledge.hbs.edu

www.hse.gov.uk www.hsl.gov.uk www.iso9000.org www.managerwise.com www.praxiom.com www.quality.co.uk

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UNIT 12: STRATEGIC PLANNING

Unit 12:
Unit code: QCF Level 7: Credit value:

Strategic Planning
H/602/2330 BTEC Professional 15

Guided learning hours: 45

Unit aim
This unit provides the learner with an understanding of how to review current organisational management strategies and the skills to develop a strategy plan in an organisational context.

Unit introduction
A Chinese proverb states that if you are planning for one year, grow rice. If you are planning for 20 years, grow trees. If you are planning for centuries, grow men. This unit focuses on how organisations undertake strategic planning and its importance in a fast changing, turbulent marketplace. Learners will understand why it is important to develop a strategic vision and mission, establish objectives and decide on a strategy. Strategy and strategic plans map out where the organisation is headed, its short- and long-range performance targets, and the competitive moves and internal action required to achieve targeted business results. Learners will understand that a well-constructed strategic plan is essential for organisations to cope with industry and competitive conditions. In this unit, learners will discover how important it is for an organisation to understand what is happening in their external environment and how the environment is changing. This will then enable learners to review an organisations existing business plans, using appropriate tools and techniques. Having explored the competitive environment, learners will understand how to develop strategic options using modelling tools and then develop a strategic plan, giving due consideration to the core values, vision and mission of the organisation. Learners will then look at planning the implementation of a strategic plan and the creation of monitoring and evaluation systems to measure progress.

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UNIT 12: STRATEGIC PLANNING

Learning outcomes and assessment criteria


In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria determine the standard required to achieve the unit. On completion of this unit a learner should: Learning outcomes 1 Understand the external environment affecting an organisation Assessment criteria 1.1 explain the importance of external factors affecting an organisation analyse the needs and expectations of stakeholders of an organisation analyse the major changes taking place in the external environment that will affect strategy use appropriate tools to analyse the effects of current business plans review the position of an organisation in its current market evaluate the competitive strengths and weaknesses of an organisations current business strategies use modelling tools to develop strategic options for an organisation develop a comparative understanding of activity from organisations in the market create options to form the basis of future organisational strategy propose a suitable structure for a strategy plan that ensures appropriate participation from all stakeholders of an organisation develop criteria for reviewing potential options for a strategy plan construct an agreed strategy plan that includes resource implications

1.2

1.3

Be able to review existing business plans and strategies of an organisation

2.1

2.2 2.3

Be able to develop options for strategic planning for an organisation

3.1

3.2

3.3 4 Be able to construct a strategy plan for an organisation 4.1

4.2

4.3

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UNIT 12: STRATEGIC PLANNING

Learning outcomes 5 Be able to examine factors affecting an organisational strategy plan

Assessment criteria 5.1 compare core organisational values (ethical, cultural, environmental, social and business) with the current business objectives of an organisation develop appropriate vision and mission statements for an organisation produce agreed future management objectives for an organisation develop measures for evaluating a strategy plan develop a schedule for implementing a strategy plan in an organisation create appropriate dissemination processes to gain commitment from stakeholders in an organisation design monitoring and evaluation systems for the implementation of a strategy plan in an organisation

5.2

5.3

5.4 6 Be able to plan for the implementation of a strategy plan 6.1

6.2

6.3

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Unit content

Understand the external environment affecting an organisation External environmental factors: needs and expectations of customer groups, shareholders, suppliers and sub-contractors, the workforce and the community as a whole; review the success and direction of competitors and the market sector as a whole; effects of potential longer-term changes in politics, and legislation, technology, product design, trends and expectations; use of external surveys and statistics; use of appropriate tools; SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis, STEEP (social, technological, economic, environmental and political) analysis; market research; primary and secondary information; customer complaints and feedback; feasibility; competitor analysis; customer analysis; market analysis

Be able to review existing business plans and strategies of an organisation Business plans and strategies: use of appropriate tools eg value chain analysis, Porters Five Forces, Boston growth-share (BCG) matrix, SWOT analysis; internal surveys and statistics; product life; strategic drift; market share; measures for monitoring and evaluating; unrealised and emergent strategy; life cycle analysis; effects of globalisation; sustainable competitive advantage; pricing strategies; resources analysis; economies of scale and scope; core skills and competences; organisational culture analysis; market equilibrium; experience curves; comparative analysis

Be able to develop options for strategic planning for an organisation Strategic planning: Ansoff matrix strategies; vertical, backwards and forwards integration; horizontal integration; differentiation; cost leadership; Mintzbergs strategies (deliberate, emergent); leadership and differentiation; strategic alliance; merger, acquisition; competitive strategies; value-based strategy; contingency strategy; market niche; market segmentation; adding value; market share; workforce competence development; product portfolio; reconfiguration; gap analysis; profitability; niche markets; present portfolio analysis; benchmarking

Be able to construct a strategy plan for an organisation Management strategy: reviewing options; attractiveness to stakeholders; stakeholder participation; criteria for judging options; feasibility studies; risk assessment; reviewing additional recent material; cost-benefit analysis; consistency with organisational values; effects on market position and share; costs and investments; opportunity costs; scenario planning; simulation modelling; sensitivity analysis; balanced scorecard approach; potential globalisation and internet advantages; resources issues eg financial, workforce

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UNIT 12: STRATEGIC PLANNING

Be able to examine factors affecting an organisational strategy plan Vision versus mission: core organisational values eg ethical, cultural, environmental, social and business; growth; profit; customer orientation; workforce expectation; management style Objectives and measures: SMARTER (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, time-based, evaluate, reevaluate) objectives; business ethics; raising awareness; promoting good practice; role modelling; stakeholder involvement; managing diversity; spiritual and cultural issues; environmental considerations

Be able to plan for the implementation of a strategy plan Planning: gaining general organisational agreement; communication with stakeholders; organisational development; timetable for implementation; Business Process Re-Engineering (BPR); management by objectives; action planning, performance appraisal; structure and strategic fit; developing policy; communication systems; guidelines; focus and realignment; contingency planning; monitoring and evaluation control systems; dissemination and cascading processes

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Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
Learning outcome 1 looks at understanding the external environment of an organisation and is an important starting point when studying strategic management. Learners in employment could explore the external environment of their own organisations and draw conclusions on how changes in the external environment impact on their organisations. Learners can also draw on topical examples of how organisations are responding to changes in the external environment, for example technological developments affecting the music and entertainments industry. When learners are examining the external environment, they need to concentrate on customers, competitors and the marketplace. For learning outcome 2, learners could review the various tools available to analyse existing strategic plans within their organisation (if appropriate). They could be encouraged to assess where their own organisations are positioned in their respective marketplaces. Case studies can be used to good effect in delivering SWOT analysis and other analytical tools can be used to assess the current strategic position of a variety of organisations in a number of different marketplaces. For learning outcome 3, learners will need to be aware of the importance of developing strategic options. Tutor input could introduce and develop understanding of the use of modelling tools to develop strategic options. Learners may be able to draw on their experiences of this process in their own organisations. Tutor-led discussions can be a useful way of helping learners develop their skills in decision making in relation to available strategic options. Learners could make an assessment of competitor activity and, again, tutors could encourage learners to use experiences and knowledge gained in their own organisations. For learning outcome 4, learners could be shown how a strategic plan is structured and developed. They could be given examples of existing strategic plans so they can see the variety and differing forms that exist. Learners could then examine how potential options that may appear in the plan are reviewed. For learning outcome 5, learners need to understand the importance of core values that exist in any organisation and how they are related to business and strategic objectives. Using case studies and other publications, tutors could encourage learners to review a number of different organisations and identify the dominant cultures that exist within them. Tutor-led discussions can then help learners understand how culture, core values, mission and vision are all linked and the impact they have on strategic planning. Learners also need to understand why evaluation and performance measures need to be in place to assess the progress and development of a plan. For learning outcome 6, learners could be shown how to develop a schedule for implementing a strategic plan and take part in group discussions on the importance of effective communications in ensuring that all stakeholders commit to the plan.

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UNIT 12: STRATEGIC PLANNING

Outline learning plan


The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the programme of suggested assignments. The outline learning plan demonstrates one way in planning the delivery and assessment of this unit.

Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/assessment Introduction to the unit and the programme of assignments Tutor-led discussion on external environmental factors affecting organisations group work and exercises Tutor-led discussion on how stakeholders influence organisational activity group work and exercises on customers, competitors and markets Visit to a local organisation with a talk on how changes are affecting the business Guest speaker on business planning followed by a group discussion Tutor input on the use of tools and techniques in planning Tutor-led discussion on strategic options activity group work and exercises Case study exercises covering strategic options Tutor-led discussion on analysis of competitors activity group work and exercises Guest speaker and discussion on the structure of a strategic plan Strategic planning case studies Tutor-led discussion on core values and the importance of vision and mission activity group work and exercises Tutor-led discussion on setting objectives group exercises Case studies on implementation of strategic plans monitoring and evaluation Guest speaker on monitoring and evaluation of plans discussion and group work Assignment: The Production of a Strategy Plan for an Organisation (covering all assessment criteria) Review of unit and assignment guidance

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Assessment
Learners need to research information from an organisation and develop a full strategic review of the organisation based on their research. For AC 1.1 and 1.3, learners need to show that they understand and explain the importance of the various external factors that impact on the way their chosen organisation conducts its business. Learners need to use tools and techniques such as SWOT and STEEP to help analyse the external environment of their chosen organisation and to consider what happens when significant changes occur in the external environment that may cause their organisations strategic plans to change. Learners need to ensure that their analysis considers customers, competitors and the marketplace in which their organisation operates. For AC1.2 learners, will be expected to analyse the needs and expectations of all stakeholders of their chosen organisation and how they may have influenced strategic decision making within their organisations. For AC 2.1, and 2.3, learners will be expected to use appropriate tools to analyse the effects current business plans are having within their chosen organisation and evaluate the competitive strengths and weaknesses of current business strategies in place. For AC2.2, learners need to review their organisations current position in its marketplace. This could include market share information and a discussion on competitor activity. For AC3.1, learners need to use the various modelling tools available to develop strategic options for their chosen organisation. For AC3.2, learners need to develop a comparative understanding of activity from organisations in the market. They could achieve this by reviewing what other organisations are doing in the marketplace and what this activity will mean for their chosen organisation. For AC3.3, learners need to create options to form the basis of a future strategy for their organisation. For example, this could be entering new markets or developing new products. For AC4.1, learners need to propose a suitable structure for a strategy plan. They need to show that the plan will be developed in such a way that all stakeholders in their chosen organisation will be able to participate in its formation. For AC4.2, learners need to develop criteria for reviewing potential options for their strategic plan. For example, if one strategic option is to raise prices, then the learner would describe how the effect of this would be measured. For AC4.3, learners need to construct an agreed strategy plan that includes the resources that will be needed to implement the plan. They will need to examine factors affecting their plan, including a comparison of their organisations values against their current business objectives (AC5.1). From this comparison, they need to develop appropriate vision and mission statements that will guide the plan (AC5.2) and produce agreed future management objectives (AC5.3). For AC5.4, learners need to develop measures for evaluating their strategy plan. For AC6.1, learners need to develop a schedule for implementing their strategy plan in their chosen organisation.

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For AC6.2, learners need to create appropriate processes to disseminate information to stakeholders in their chosen organisation that will gain their commitment to the strategy plan when it is implemented. For AC6.3, learners need to design systems that will monitor and evaluate the implementation of their strategy plan.

Programme of suggested assignments The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the criteria in the assessment grid. This is for guidance only and it is recommended that centres either write their own assignments or adapt Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources.

Assessment criteria covered All assessment criteria

Assignment title The Production of a Strategy Plan for an Organisation

Scenario The learner selects an organisation and undertakes a full strategic review of its activities. The review will include an assessment of the organisations external environment, a review of its existing plans, consideration of strategic options, the development of a strategic plan, an examination of core values and, finally, the development of a schedule for implementation of the plan, including how it will be monitored and evaluated.

Assessment method Report

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Essential resources
If learners cannot use their own organisations as the basis for assessment, access to local organisations will be a valuable resource.

Indicative resource materials


Textbooks Barney J Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage, 4th Edition (Pearson Education, 2010) ISBN 0132479060 Cusumano M A and Markides C Strategic Thinking for the Next Economy (Jossey-Bass, 2001) ISBN 0787957291 De Wit, B and Meyer R Strategy: Process, Content, Context, 3rd Edition (Cengage Learning EMEA, 2004) ISBN 1861529643 Grant R Contemporary Strategy Analysis, 7th Edition (John Wiley and Sons, 2010) ISBN 0470747099 Gratton L Living Strategy: Putting People at the Heart of Corporate Purpose (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2000) ISBN 0273650157 Harrison J S Strategic Management of Resources and Relationships: Concepts and Cases (John Wiley and Sons, 2002) ISBN 0471222925 Johnson G, Scholes K and Whittington R Exploring Corporate Strategy, 8th Edition (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2008) ISBN 1408206935 Johnson G and Scholes K Exploring Public Sector Strategy (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2000) ISBN 0273646877 Kaplan R and Norton D The Strategy-focused Organization: How Balanced Scorecard Companies Thrive in the New Business Environment (Harvard Business School Press, 2000) ISBN 1578512506 Lynch R Corporate Strategy, 4th Edition (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2005) ISBN 0273701789 McGee J, Thomas H and Wilson D Strategy: Analysis and Practice (McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2005) ISBN 0077107055 Mintzberg H The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2000) ISBN 0273650378 Mintzberg H, Ahlstrand B and Lampel J Strategy Safari: Your Complete Guide Through the Wilds of Strategic Management, 2nd Edition (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2008) ISBN 0273719580 Pettigrew A M, Thomas H and Whittington R (Eds) The Handbook of Strategy and Management (Sage, 2006) ISBN 141292121X Stacey R D Strategic Management and Organisational Dynamics, 6th Edition (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2010) ISBN 0273725599

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UNIT 12: STRATEGIC PLANNING

Journals Academy of Management Journal (Academy of Management) British Journal of Management (John Wiley and Sons) California Management Review (University of California, Berkeley) European Management Journal (Elsevier) Harvard Business Review (Harvard Business Publishing) Journal of Business Strategy (Emerald) Journal of Management Studies (John Wiley and Sons) Long Range Planning (Elsevier) MIT Sloan Management Review (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Strategic Change (John Wiley and Sons) Strategy and Leadership (Emerald) Websites www.ft.com www.managers.org.uk www.sps.org.uk Financial Times Chartered Management Institute Strategic Planning Society

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UNIT 13: MANAGING FINANCIAL PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES

Unit 13:
Unit code: QCF Level 7 Credit value:

Managing Financial Principles and Techniques


A/602/2334 BTEC Professional 15

Guided learning hours: 45

Unit aim
This unit provides the learner with the skills to apply financial principles relevant to strategic management in an organisational context, including forecasting, capital appraisal, budgeting, financial appraisal and analysis.

Unit introduction
Organisations operate in a very competitive and continually changing environment where effective decision making is crucial if an organisation is to survive or even be profitable. An important resource for decision making is financial information and it is important for managers to be able to interpret, analyse and evaluate this information effectively. This unit will give learners a foundation in financial principles and techniques relevant to the strategic management process. It encourages learners to explore the nature of cost-based financial data and information, the impact of the budgeting process on the organisation, and the development of cost reduction and management procedures and processes. It also focuses on the management of these costs through the use of forecasting, appraisal and financial reporting procedures. One of the main objectives of this unit is for learners to develop the confidence to apply, analyse and evaluate financial and cost information. Learners will develop the ability to judge the sources, nature, accuracy and completeness of cost-based information and influence others to make decisions that are based on well-researched options. These important decision-making skills will be enhanced further through the use and validation of forecasting techniques, the consideration of financial statements and making judgements on the validity of information sources used in the decision-making process. Learners will also apply strategies associated with determining sound management information with reference to sources of funds, the potential investment of resources and the interpretation of financial statements. Learners will study issues of cost, responsibility and control in the contexts of management accounting and the management process. This unit gives learners the opportunity to enhance their competency in the construction, review and evaluation of cost-based financial information, and introduces them to the analysis and control or reduction of costs in a range of situations.

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Learning outcomes and assessment criteria


In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria determine the standard required to achieve the unit. On completion of this unit a learner should: Learning outcomes 1 Be able to apply cost concepts to the decision-making process Assessment criteria 1.1 explain the importance of costs in the pricing strategy of an organisation design a costing system for use within an organisation propose improvements to the costing and pricing systems used by an organisation apply forecasting techniques to make cost and revenue decisions in an organisation assess the sources of funds available to an organisation for a specific project select appropriate budgetary targets for an organisation participate in the creation of a master budget for an organisation compare actual expenditure and income to the master budget of an organisation evaluate budgetary monitoring processes in an organisation recommend processes that could manage cost reduction in an organisation evaluate the potential for the use of activity-based costing

1.2 1.3

Be able to apply forecasting techniques to obtain information for decision making

2.1

2.2

Be able to participate in the budgetary process of an organisation

3.1 3.2 3.3

3.4 4 Be able to recommend cost reduction and management processes for an organisation 4.1

4.2

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UNIT 13: MANAGING FINANCIAL PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES

Learning outcomes 5 Be able to use financial appraisal techniques to make strategic investment decisions for an organisation

Assessment criteria 5.1 apply financial appraisal methods to analyse competing investment projects in the public and private sector make a justified strategic investment decision for an organisation using relevant financial information report on the appropriateness of a strategic investment decision using information from a postaudit appraisal analyse financial statements to assess the financial viability of an organisation apply financial ratios to improve the quality of financial information in an organisations financial statements make recommendations on the strategic portfolio of an organisation based on its financial information

5.2

5.3

Be able to interpret financial statements for planning and decision making

6.1

6.2

6.3

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Unit content

Be able to apply cost concepts to the decision-making process Costs and prices: absorption and marginal costing their nature, similarities, differences and use in pricing; relationship to pricing policy; influences on pricing strategy Cost systems: classifications in terms of object; function, product/service and behaviour; opportunity cost, recording and analysing costs; job costing; batch costing; process costing; contract costing; standard costing; variance calculations; variance analysis and management by exception Responsibility and control of systems: cost centre; profit centres; investment centres; accountable management; planning and control methods

Be able to apply forecasting techniques to obtain information for decision making Forecasting techniques: forecasting costs; cash flow forecasts; scatter graphs; linear regression; time series methods; forecasting and price movement; using indices, limitations of index numbers; forecasting problems and limitations; place of qualitative data; recommendations Funds: sources; supporting proposals for obtaining funds internally and externally; gearing ratios; effect of different types of funding on shareholder and market perception; selecting appropriate sources of funds for different projects comparison of costs

Be able to participate in the budgetary process of an organisation Target setting: comparison to previous years; links between targets; realism; organisational objectives Process: importance to management; the steps in the process from subsidiary/ functional to master budget; relationship to cost and quality control, resource utilisation and profitability; computer-assisted processes Budgets: types; flexible and fixed budgets; zero-based budgeting Monitoring process: budgeted and actual figures, accounting for and investigating variances; favourable and adverse variances; the need for prompt and relevant corrective action; behavioural issues relating to budgeting eg management participation authority, performance evaluation

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UNIT 13: MANAGING FINANCIAL PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES

Be able to recommend cost reduction and management processes for an organisation Cost reduction: purpose compared with cost control (standard costing and budgetary control); value analysis and value engineering; difficulties with introducing cost reduction programmes; quality and value, Total Quality Management (TQM), measuring the costs of quality Activity-based costing: development of activity-based costing (ABC); use in calculating costs and pricing policy; activity-based budgeting; merits and limitations of these systems

Be able to use financial appraisal techniques to make strategic investment decisions for an organisation Investment: definition; capital and revenue expenditure; types and interaction with risk; sensitivity analysis Investment appraisal: accounting rate of return; payback period and cash flows, discounted cash flow net present value and internal rate of return, time value of money and allowance for inflation in money and real rates of discount, taxation and project appraisal; post-audit

Be able to interpret financial statements for planning and decision making Statements: estimates and assumptions relating to the profit and loss account; balance sheet and cash flow statement; use of spreadsheets in financial planning; financial resource audits and the use of balanced scorecards Kaplan and Norton Financial ratios: employment of financial ratios internally and externally; financial profiles of organisations; calculation of key ratios reflecting business liquidity; efficiency and profitability Interpretation and limitations of ratio analysis: emphasis on the interpretation of ratios and encouragement of the use of contingency and risk analysis to justify and make strategic portfolio decisions

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Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
When delivering this unit, tutors need to consider the problems that some learners may have in relation to numbers (no matter what their level in their own organisation). Most learners will not be accountants and, wherever possible, delivery needs to be in the context of how useful financial techniques are in strategic planning and decision making. Learners will need to have the opportunity to practise financial techniques in the classroom with tutor support available. This unit enables learners to enhance and refine techniques commonly used to improve financial decision making as part of the strategic management process. It also allows them to explore and utilise techniques relating to financial decision making. Techniques must be appropriate for individual learners within the strategic management process. It is essential that learners are encouraged, wherever possible, to relate the focus of the unit to their own organisation and share their experiences in class discussions and presentations. Research will be necessary on aspects of the unit content, but application must be current and relevant and learners could use work-related experiences and projects. In certain circumstances, respecting the necessary degree of confidentiality, learners may be able to compare and contrast competing organisations operating within different economic sectors. Additionally, the use of case studies and current examples of issues within the public domain could enhance the learning process. For learning outcome 1, learners could find out about a range of costing systems via case studies and be given the opportunity to investigate their own organisations. Delivery could include other qualitative factors influencing pricing such as market forces. Within learning outcome 2, there is a range of forecasting techniques. Learners who have not studied statistics before might find this quite challenging. There needs to be opportunity for learners to practise these techniques both within and outside of the classroom. It is also important that learners understand the rationale for each technique studied. The delivery of learning outcome 3 needs to be as practical as possible. The aim is for learners to participate in the budgetary process. Therefore, the recommended form of delivery is to enable learners to practise. An important aspect of this process is the setting of targets. If their target setting is flawed, this should not stop learners gaining credit for later techniques ie if they have used the targets they originally set. In learning outcome 4, there are some quite challenging theories, although learners may have come across them in previous studies. The use of case studies, where the application of the techniques can be clearly seen, could be very useful. In learning outcome 5, learners need time to practise investment appraisal techniques. However, the use of financial appraisal techniques to make decisions, needs to be given the greater emphasis in both teaching and practical exercises. It would also be useful to make links to specific organisations and their objectives. For example, if an organisation has difficulty getting investment funds then payback may always take precedence. In learning outcome 6, learners need to practise using financial ratios. For delivery 146
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UNIT 13: MANAGING FINANCIAL PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES

purposes, the emphasis needs to be on how financial ratios can be used in decision making. This needs to include analysing what the organisation needs, for example greater profitability versus better liquidity. In general, discussion of the validity of certain forecasts or investment projects, and/or the selection and presentation of financial information, can be used positively to illustrate social or ethical influences, or opportunity cost considerations which pervade most financial decisions.

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Outline learning plan


The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the programme of suggested assignments. The outline learning plan demonstrates one way in planning the delivery and assessment of this unit.

Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/assessment Introduction to unit and programme of assignments Tutor input absorption and marginal costing and their relationship to price Practice exercises Practical exercise pricing policies and when marginal costing is most appropriate as a basis Assignment 1: Systems and Prices Tutor input forecasting techniques and their uses Practical exercises forecasting techniques (and practice out of class) Tutor input role of budgeting in an organisation and link to forecasting with class discussion on own experiences Practical exercises building from functional to master budgets Assignment 2: Master Budgets Tutor input cost reduction Group work and learner presentations cost reduction Tutor input and class practice activity-based costing Assignment 3: Cost Reduction Tutor input capital investment, its risks and impact Tutor input making investment decisions with use of case studies Assignment 4: Investment Appraisal Tutor input financial statements and their interpretation Tutor input case study on the interpretation of financial statements Tutor-led discussion on limitations and uses of interpretation of financial statements Assignment 5: Financial Analysis Review of unit and programme of assignments

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UNIT 13: MANAGING FINANCIAL PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES

Assessment
For this unit, where possible, learners should use information, examples and research from their own organisations or one that they are familiar with. Learners should provide clear explanations of the function of forecasting and appraisal tools in the managerial decision-making process, giving relevant examples of current business practice. Learners should be able to demonstrate the use of forecasting techniques and interpret information arising from project appraisal and calculate ratios, using appropriate spreadsheet presentations. For AC1.1, learners need to explain the importance of costs in the pricing strategy of their chosen organisation. For AC1.2, the costing system that learners design must be appropriate for use in the organisation they are designing the system for. In order to show full understanding, learners could describe other systems they considered in this process and explain the reasons behind their final design. There must also be evidence of research into cost classifications and control mechanisms. In AC1.3, learners need to propose improvements to the costing and pricing systems used in their chosen organisation. They could justify their recommendations by stating the benefits their proposed improvements would bring to the organisation. For AC2.1, learners need to apply forecasting techniques to make cost and revenue decisions in/for their chosen organisation. The assessment should give learners the opportunity to utilise a range of techniques. Learners will need to state why they used a particular technique, the limitations of the technique, and how the information derived from applying the technique can be used to make cost and revenue decisions. For AC2.2, learners need to assess the sources of funds available to their chosen organisation for a specific project. The assessment should give the opportunity to research a range of possibilities for funding. For AC3.1, it might be useful if an assessment also covers AC2.1. Learners can use forecasting techniques as part of the process of selecting appropriate budgetary targets for their chosen organisation. Learners need to explain why the budgetary targets they have selected are appropriate for their chosen organisation. For AC3.2, learners need to demonstrate how they have participated in the creation of a master budget in/for their chosen organisation. For AC3.3, learners need to compare actual expenditure and income to the master budget of their chosen organisation. This may involve calculating budget variances and articulating what they mean and what might have caused them. They should also be able to judge the materiality of the variances. When evaluating the budgetary monitoring processes in their chosen organisation for AC3.4, learners should be able to recognise the generic limitations of budget variances and how this might be different for types of budgets, for example fixed versus flexible. For AC4.1, the recommendations should take account of the idiosyncrasies of the organisation in question. Learners should consider at least three processes that could manage cost reduction before making any recommendations. Learners need to explain the difficulties that may need to be overcome when implementing the recommended processes.

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For AC4.2, in order to evaluate the potential for the use of activity-based costing, learners will first need to describe what it is and explain how it works. For AC5.1, learners need to demonstrate how they have applied financial appraisal methods to analyse competing investment projects in the public and private sector. Learners need to compare and analyse a minimum of two projects in each sector and apply a minimum of three appraisal methods. They need to use some of the results from this analysis exercise to make a justified strategic investment decision for an organisation (AC5.2). They must also show that they can use sensitivity analysis and relevant qualitative information when making their investment decision. A different scenario could be used for AC5.3. Learners should already have information from a post-audit appraisal of a strategic investment decision made in an organisation, and they should supply the strengths and weaknesses of the investment decision before making conclusions on its appropriateness. For AC6.1, learners will not need to produce the financial statements. Their analysis should utilise at least three different financial statements when assessing the financial ability of their chosen organisation. For AC6.2, the ratios applied to improve the quality of financial information in their chosen organisation need to cover liquidity, profitability and efficiency with at least two in each category. For AC6.3, learners need to make recommendations on the strategic (rather than operational) portfolio of their chosen organisation. They need to include the alternatives that were considered before arriving at the recommendations. Where work-based assignments are not possible, case studies could be used so that learners have the opportunity to successfully meet the assessment criteria.

Programme of suggested assignments The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the criteria in the assessment grid. This is for guidance only and it is recommended that centres either write their own assignments or adapt Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources.

Assessment criteria covered AC 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 AC 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4 AC 4.1, 4.2 AC 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 AC 6.1, 6.2, 6.3

Assignment title Systems and Prices Master Budgets Cost Reduction Investment Appraisal Financial Analysis

Scenario Case study (classroom based) Case study Case study Case study Case study

Assessment method Report Report Report Report Report

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UNIT 13: MANAGING FINANCIAL PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES

Essential resources
There are no essential resources required for this unit.

Indicative resource materials


Textbooks Atrill P and McLaney E Management Accounting for Non-specialists, 3rd Edition (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2002) ISBN 0273655914 Berry A and Jarvis R Accounting in a Business Context, 4th Edition (Cengage Learning EMEA, 2005) ISBN 1844802515 Brookson S Managing Budgets (Dorling Kindersley, 2000) ISBN 0751307718 Cox D and Fardon M Management of Finance (Osborne Books, 1997) ISBN 872962238 Drury C Management Accounting for Business, 4th Edition (Cengage Learning EMEA, 2009) ISBN 1408017717 Glynn J, Perrin J, Murphy M and Abraham A Accounting for Managers, 3rd Edition (Thomson Learning, 2003) ISBN 186152904X Harris R and Sollis R Applied Time Series Modelling and Forecasting (John Wiley and Sons, 2003) ISBN 0470844434 Lumby S and Jones C The Fundamentals of Investment Appraisal (Thomson Learning, 2000) ISBN 1861526075 Monden Y Cost Reduction Systems: Target Costing and Kaizen Costing (Productivity Press, 1995) ISBN 1563270684 Makridakis S, Wheelwright S C and Hyndman R J Forecasting, 3rd Edition (John Wiley and Sons, 1998) ISBN 0471532339 Pettinger R Investment Appraisal: A Managerial Approach (Palgrave Macmillan, 2000) ISBN 0333800591 Secrett M Mastering Spreadsheets, Budgets and Forecasts, 3rd Edition (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 1999) ISBN 0273644912 White G I, Sondhi A C and Fried D The Analysis and Use of Financial Statements, 3rd Edition (John Wiley and Sons, 2003) ISBN 0471375942 Yoshikawa T, Innes J and Mitchell F Strategic Value Analysis (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2002) ISBN 0273654292 Journals/newspapers Newspapers can be a useful source for financial issues in both the private and public sector. Examples include The Financial Times, The Guardian, The Independent and The Times. Specialist periodicals also provide current articles on developments in related topic areas. Examples include: Management Accounting Quarterly (Institute of Management Accountants) Management Today (Haymarket Business Media) Strategic Finance (Institute of Management Accountants) 151

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UNIT 13: MANAGING FINANCIAL PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES

Websites There are many websites that provide useful information, case studies and examples of the application of financial techniques in business situations. Company reports can be accessed and ordered through the Financial Times website or through the Registrar of Companies, whose website contains useful information on the style of reporting for company accounts and information on the content of company reports. Public limited companies have websites which normally give access to their published accounts and accompanying reports. Most of the professional accounting bodies (CIMA, ICA, CIPFA, AAT) have their own websites with access to library facilities (although if you are not a member, access may be restricted). www.aat.co.uk www.bized.co.uk www.cimaglobal.com www.cipfa.org.uk www.companies-house.gov.uk http://corporate.marksandspencer.com www.guardian.co.uk www.icaew.co.uk www.icsa.org.uk www.thetimes100.co.uk Association of Accounting Technicians Learning materials and a wide range of company information Chartered Institute of Management Accountants Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy Companies House Example of company website containing information on its published accounts Example broadsheet newspaper website Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales Institute of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators Company case studies

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UNIT 14: STRATEGIC SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT AND LOGISTICS

Unit 14:
Unit code: QCF Level 7: Credit value:

Strategic Supply Chain Management and Logistics


D/602/2357 BTEC Professional 15

Guided learning hours: 45

Unit aim
This unit provides the learner with the understanding and skills to plan strategies to improve an organisations supply chain.

Unit introduction
This unit focuses on how the concept of supply chain management and logistics is based on the idea that every product that reaches an end user represents the combined effort of multiple organisations which make up the supply chain and that until recently, most organisations paid attention to only what was happening within their own business. Few organisations understood, much less managed, the entire chain of activities that ultimately delivered products to the final customer. This resulted in ineffective supply chains. In this unit, learners will develop the knowledge that, today, many organisations realise that effective management of supply chain activities can lead to increased customer value and achieve sustainable competitive advantage. Supply chain activities cover everything from product development, sourcing, production and logistics, to the information systems needed to coordinate these activities. Learners will discover that the organisations that make up the supply chain are linked through physical and information flows. Physical flows involve the transformation, movement and storage of goods and materials and are the most visible piece of the supply chain. Of equal importance are information flows as they allow the various supply chain partners to coordinate their long-term plans and control the day-to-day flow of goods and materials up and down the supply chain. This unit will give learners an understanding of the key drivers in the creation of an integrated supply chain the principal aim of many organisations.

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Learning outcomes and assessment criteria


In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria determine the standard required to achieve the unit. On completion of this unit a learner should: Learning outcomes 1 Understand the relationship between supply chain management (SCM) and organisational business objectives Assessment criteria 1.1 explain the importance of effective supply chain management in achieving organisational objectives explain the link between supply chain management and business functions in an organisation discuss the key drivers for achieving an integrated supply chain strategy in an organisation evaluate the effectiveness of strategies used by an organisation to maintain supplier relationships use information technology to create strategies to develop an organisations relationship with its suppliers develop systems to maintain an organisations relationship with its suppliers assess how information technology could assist integration of different parts of the supply chain of an organisation evaluate how information technology has contributed to the management of the supply chain of an organisation assess the effectiveness of information technology in managing the supply chain of an organisation

1.2

1.3

Be able to use information technology to optimise supplier relationships in an organisation

2.1

2.2

2.3

Understand the role of information technology in supply chain management

3.1

3.2

3.3

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UNIT 14: STRATEGIC SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT AND LOGISTICS

Learning outcomes 4 Understand the role of logistics and procurement in supply chain management

Assessment criteria 4.1 explain the role of logistics in supply chain management in an organisation evaluate procurement practices in an organisation discuss the factors that must be considered when improving logistics and procurement practices in an organisation plan a strategy to improve an organisations supply chain assess how a supply chain improvement strategy will benefit overall business performance in an organisation explain how barriers will be overcome in an organisation when implementing a supply chain improvement strategy

4.2 4.3

Be able to plan a strategy to improve an organisations supply chain

5.1 5.2

5.3

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Unit content

Understand the relationship between supply chain management (SCM) and organisational business objectives Concepts: demand and supply management; push and pull models; enterprise resource planning (ERP); vendor managed inventory (VMI); efficient consumer response (ECR); value chains; lean supply; global SCM; contribution to business objectives Development: physical distribution management; materials management; logistics management and SCM (upstream and downstream) Organisational objectives and business functions: financial, marketing, sales, operational, manufacturing, human resource Key drivers: facilities; inventory; transportation; information; sourcing; pricing; globalisation; technology; customer expectation Integrated supply chain: strategic goals; culture change; roles and responsibilities of staff; organisational rationalisation; higher volume and speed of transactions; enhanced market position; reduced supply chain complexity; potential for smooth process operations following complex initial set-up; enhanced, lean and agile systems

Be able to use information technology to optimise supplier relationships in an organisation Different types of relationship: alliances eg adversarial, developmental, collaborative, strategic; supplier development; e-tailing; business to business, business to consumer; intermediation and disintermediation; networks; supplier associations; supplier tiering; organisational networks; personal networks; auctions Use of information systems: intranets; extranets and virtual private networks (VPNs) for supply chain integration; operational issues eg eliminating media breaks to exchange supply information on a common digital platform; opportunity to use sales service staff in call centres dealing with supply exceptions; order processing, web-based EDI, tracking systems Individual elements: the use of intranets and extranets in building value chains for organisations linked in the supply chain, order processing, web-based electronic data interchange (EDI), tracking systems Differing applications for cost reductions and customer service: time compression, demand fulfilment, total cost of ownership reduction

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UNIT 14: STRATEGIC SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT AND LOGISTICS

Understand the role of information technology in supply chain management Role of information technology: the internet; online communication systems; online business communities; decrease in transaction costs; closer buyer supplier relationships; improved purchasing, order processing, EDI, inventory management, production scheduling; Just in Time (JIT) programmes; tracking shipments; reducing lead times; information sharing; lean organisations

Understand the role of logistics and procurement in supply chain management Procurement: supplier selection; optimal procurement policies; reliability; quality Logistics: role within supply chain management; planning; implementation and control of the movement and storage of goods; management of raw materials; link between the marketplace and operating activity of the organisation; customer satisfaction; coordination of materials and information flows; point of origin to point of consumption

Be able to plan a strategy to improve an organisations supply chain Benefits: reduced stock holding; elimination of waste; improved customer service; reduced labour costs; improved manufacturing planning; Just in Time (JIT) Barriers: inappropriate distribution networks; ineffective distribution strategies; trade-offs in logistical activity eg a full truckload of a product is ordered to reduce transportation costs resulting in increased inventory holding costs; inability to integrate processes through the supply chain to share information; poor inventory management; cash flow problems

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Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
Learning outcome 1 examines the relationships between supply chain management and business objectives. Tutors could encourage learners to use experiences from their own organisations as the basis for class discussions. Learners need to understand that all business functions have a link with the supply chain and that it is not just a business activity that exists outside their respective organisations. Learners can draw on topical examples of supply chain management and logistics. For example, the efficiencies gained by large supermarkets are excellent examples of what can be achieved through effective supply chain management. Learners need to understand that there are key drivers, such as information technology (IT), that are enabling organisations to build integrated supply chains. For learning outcome 2, tutors can build on previous discussions to focus on the IT that is being used to build these relationships in the supply chain. Learners could conduct their own research into the developing systems being used throughout supply chains. Some learners may work for organisations where effective supply chain management and logistics is already well developed and they could be encouraged to share their experiences of how IT systems are being used. Topical case studies are a useful method of highlighting and examining the use of different IT systems within the supply chain which result in enhanced supplier relationships. For learning outcome 3, building on the knowledge gained in learning outcome 2 learners can take this a stage further and examine the wider role of IT in supply chain and logistics management by evaluating its contribution and assessing its effectiveness. Visits to a food distribution centre or a manufacturing organisation to examine how they use IT to manage their supply chains would be very useful, especially if combined with a talk from an IT or logistics professional within the organisation. For learning outcome 4, learners need to be made aware of the precise role of logistics in supply chain management. The visit for learning outcome 3 would also be useful here. Tutor input could be used to introduce and develop learners understanding of what logistics is and how organisations strive to improve this function. The important function of procurement needs to be discussed and again, learners own experiences and knowledge will be interesting areas for discussion. A talk given by a procurement manager from a local organisation could also be useful. For learning outcome 5, learners need to know that achieving the goal of a fullyintegrated supply chain is not an easy task. Learners need to be made aware of the potential problems and barriers to overcome to achieve a fully-integrated supply chain. Case studies are a useful way of demonstrating how some organisations have faced and overcome problems and barriers by implementing improvement strategies.

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UNIT 14: STRATEGIC SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT AND LOGISTICS

Outline learning plan


The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the programme of suggested assignments. The outline learning plan demonstrates one way in planning the delivery and assessment of this unit.

Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/assessment Introduction to unit and programme of assignments Tutor-led discussion on supply chain management learner group work and exercises Tutor-led discussion on logistics management and its importance in effective supply chain management group work and exercises Visit to a local organisation and a talk on how the business manages its supply chain Guest speaker effective supply chain management Tutor input business functions and how they are linked to supply chain management Tutor-led discussion on the key drivers that make organisations move to an integrated supply chain strategy group work and exercises Tutor-led discussion on supplier relationships group work and case studies Case study exercises on IT and its impact on supplier relationships Visiting speaker an IT and/or logistics manager on the role of IT in supply chain management Visit to a local logistics business Tutor-led discussion on logistics and supply chain management group work and case studies Tutor-led discussion on procurement group work and exercises Case study exercises on improvements to supply chain management and overcoming barriers group work Tutor-led discussion on business performance and supply chain management group work and exercises Assignment: Strategic Organisational Supply Chain Management and Logistics (covering all assessment criteria) Review of unit and assignment guidance

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UNIT 14: STRATEGIC SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT AND LOGISTICS

Assessment
Learners need to research information and produce a review of the strategic supply chain management and logistics taking place in an organisation. For AC1.1, learners need to explain the importance of effective supply chain management in achieving organisational objectives. To illustrate this, they could relate this explanation to the achievement of objectives in their own organisation. For AC1.2, learners need to explain the link between supply chain management and business functions in their own/chosen organisation. To illustrate these links, the explanation needs to contain real examples from their chosen organisation. For AC1.3, learners need to discuss the key drivers that are moving their chosen organisation towards implementing an integrated supply chain. For AC2.1, learners need to describe the strategies used in their chosen organisation to maintain relationships with suppliers before evaluating the effectiveness of these strategies. For AC2.2, learners need to demonstrate how they have used IT to create strategies to develop their chosen organisations relationship with its suppliers. From this, they need to develop systems to maintain these relationships (AC2.3). To demonstrate their understanding of the role of IT in supply chain management for their chosen organisation, they need to assess the effectiveness of IT in managing the supply chain, (AC3.3), evaluate how IT has contributed to the management of the supply chain (AC3.2) and assess how IT could assist in the integration of different parts of the supply chain (AC3.1). For AC4.1, learners need to explain the role of logistics in the management of the supply chain in their chosen organisation and then evaluate procurement practices (AC4.2). Having examined both procurement and logistics management, learners need to discuss the factors that must be considered when looking at making improvements to both procurement practices and logistics in the organisation (AC4.3). For AC5.1, having reviewed their chosen organisations supply chain and logistics activity, learners need to plan a strategy to improve the management of the supply chain. For AC5.2, learners need to assess how their improvement strategy from AC5.1 will benefit overall business performance in their chosen organisation. For AC5.3, learners need to identify any current or potential barriers that could prevent or hinder their improvement strategy from being implemented successfully in their chosen organisation. Learners need to explain clearly how these barriers will be overcome.

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UNIT 14: STRATEGIC SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT AND LOGISTICS

Programme of suggested assignments The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the criteria in the assessment grid. This is for guidance only and it is recommended that centres either write their own assignments or adapt Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources.

Assessment criteria covered All assessment criteria

Assignment title Strategic Organisational Supply Chain Management and Logistics

Scenario The learner selects an organisation and undertakes a full review of how it manages its supply chain and logistics. They will need to produce a report that includes how the management of the supply chain impacts on business performance, the role of IT in managing the supply chain, and the role of procurement and logistics management. The final part of the report will be a plan for a strategy to improve the organisations supply chain and logistics management.

Assessment method Report

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Essential resources
There are no essential resources required for this unit.

Indicative resource materials


Textbooks Chopra S and Meindl P Supply Chain Management: Strategy, Planning and Operation, 4th Edition (Pearson Education, 2009) ISBN 0136094511 Christopher M Logistics and Supply Chain Management, 4th Edition (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2010) ISBN 0273731122 Stadtler, H and Kilger C - Supply Chain Management and Advanced Planning: Concepts, Models, Software and Case Studies, 4th Edition (Springer, 2007) ISBN 3540745114 Chaffey D E-Business and E-Commerce Management: Strategy, Implementation and Practice, 4th Edition (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2009) ISBN 0273719602 Harvard Business Review on Managing the Value Chain (Harvard Business School Press, 2000) ISBN 1578512344 Harvard Business Review on Supply Chain Management (Harvard Business School Press, 2006) ISBN 1422102793 Turban T, Lee J K, King D, Liang T P and Turban D Electronic Commerce 2010: A Managerial Perspective, 6th Edition (Pearson Education, 2009) ISBN 0137034652 Journals European Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management (Elsevier) The Journal of Supply Chain Management (Institute for Supply Management) Supply Chain Management (Emerald) Websites www.cips.org www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm www.iwvaluechain.com www.logistics.about.com/mbody Chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Industry Weeks The Value Chain News about logistics and the supply chain

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UNIT 15: DEVELOPING SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS TEAMS

Unit 15:
Unit code: QCF Level 5: Credit value:

Developing Successful Business Teams


D/602/1466 BTEC Professional 5

Guided learning hours: 30

Unit aim
This unit provides the learner with an understanding of the factors needed to create successful business teams and enables them to develop skills for effective management and participation in successful business teams.

Unit introduction
Many organisations now focus on teams as a key element in their organisational structure. However, successful teams do not happen as a matter of chance. They have to be planned and supported if they are to become successful. Only then will they be able to work effectively as a team and meet their objectives. Planning to establish a successful business team requires an understanding of team dynamics and the importance of leading and developing of a team. Team dynamics are concerned with how teams evolve and the processes that determine whether the team is successful or not. For example, team member satisfaction will be derived not only from the achievement of tasks but also from the quality of team relationships and the more social aspects of teamwork. Building and maintaining a successful business team involves fostering constructive relationships between team members. This requires a commitment to open communication throughout the team. Maintaining levels of motivation in all team members is a crucial aspect of successful business teams. Signs of conflict in a team need to be resolved quickly as they can affect the stability and purpose of the team. Developing individual team members includes assigning personal goals that suit the strengths and skills of the individual, and ensuring that each member feels that their contribution to the team's overall task is valued. Team goals should be the foundation for developing successful business teams. Goals should be SMART and provide a clear, measurable framework whilst being flexible and adaptable in the light of changing circumstances. Goals need to provide scope for individual and team development whilst enabling organisational tasks to be achieved. Successful business teams monitor their activities, reflect on how they work and look for ways of improving their performance.

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Learning outcomes and assessment criteria


In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria determine the standard required to achieve the unit. On completion of this unit a learner should: Learning outcomes 1 Understand the features of successful business teams Assessment criteria 1.1 1.2 1.3 describe the characteristics of successful business teams assess the importance of team roles in successful business teams analyse the value of using theoretical models when building successful business teams explain the stages of team development plan how to motivate team members to achieve given objectives encourage open communication between team members to support team development evaluate ways of resolving conflict between team members monitor the performance of a team against given objectives recommend how to improve performance against given objectives

Be able to support team development

2.1 2.2

2.3

2.4 3 Be able to monitor the performance of teams 3.1 3.2

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Unit content

Understand the features of successful business teams Characteristics of successful business teams: definition of team; types of team eg functional, project, matrix, contract, self-managed team; difference between a group and a team; characteristics of successful business teams eg participative leadership, loyalty, trust, open communication, shared goals and objectives, shared responsibility, shared vision, common purpose, cooperation between members, motivation Team roles in successful business teams: Belbins team role theory; differences between team roles; Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI); strengths and weaknesses; contribution of team roles to the team; balanced teams Theoretical models: behavioural models eg Blake and Moutons Managerial Grid, McGregors theory X and Y model; contingency/situational models eg Adairs Action Centred Leadership model, Tannenbaum and Schmidts Leadership Continuum, Fielders contingency model; Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership model; Transformational Leadership, Transactional Leadership (Bennis, Bass)

Be able to support team development Stages of team development: models of developmental stages eg Tuckman (forming, norming, storming, performing), Leigh and Maynards starting, sorting, stabilising, succeeding, stopping, Honeys chaotic, formal and skilful; team leader role in facilitating development at each stage; team building eg team development activities, training, mentoring Motivating team members to achieve given objectives: importance of motivation; importance of negotiation and bargaining skills for motivation; theories of motivation eg McGregors Theory X and Theory Y, Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene theory, Maslows Hierarchy of Needs, Vrooms Expectancy theory, Alderfers ERG theory, Deci and Ryans self-determination theory; factors that motivate people to perform eg praise, encouragement, recognition, celebration of achievement, clear goals, clear feedback, learning, development Open communication and team development: participative decision making; meetings; team briefings; communication channels; thought-showers/buzz groups; groupthink; building inter- and intra-team and organisational relationships; communication through goals; communication through knowledge; access to information; data sharing; win-win theory; synergy Ways of resolving conflict: causes of conflict eg dissatisfaction with workload, perceived lack of fairness, insufficient sharing of information, perceived lack of appreciation, personal grievances against other team members; conflict resolution methods eg communication channels, open communicationimportance of addressing issues for the whole team, gathering information, sharing information, listening skills, thought-showers/buzz groups, collaboration, consensus, agreeing the problem, keeping people and problems separate, building trust

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Be able to monitor the performance of teams Monitoring the performance of the team against given objectives: setting SMART objectives; principle of setting quantified standards; comparison of performance with standards; quantity-based measures (level of production, number of customer enquiries processed, error rate, quantity of scrap, customer feedback, speed of response); qualitative measures (views, opinions, performance data, sampling, timing, proportion of work checked); methods of collecting and interpreting data on performance (work schedules, progress review meetings, milestones, regular reporting systems); importance of contingency plans; making adjustments to plans; importance of continuous feedback relating to objectives (listening, observing, asking others); dealing with problems; taking corrective action, importance of fairness and openness Improving performance against given objectives: measuring performance, evaluating performance against SMART objectives, setting and re-setting SMART objectives; benchmarks; targets; corrective action; follow-up actions; model of good practice (Leigh and Maynards Fun, Open, Regular, Challenging and Energising); involvement of team in reviewing performance; good practice in giving feedback (Leigh and Maynards Effective Feedback); importance of celebrating achievements; thought-shower/buzz group techniques, teambuilding activities, training and development

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UNIT 15: DEVELOPING SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS TEAMS

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
This unit introduces learners to the process of planning and developing successful business teams. Learners will benefit from the opportunity to complement tutor input with discussions on areas such as group dynamics and supporting winning teams. Topical case studies could be a useful way of illustrating the processes involved in developing successful business teams. For learning outcome 1, learners could explore the characteristics of successful business teams. It is important that learners recognise the distinction between teams and successful teams. A useful starting point could be to draw on learners experiences from their workplaces and social lives. This will provide scope for discussion and for drawing out the characteristics of a successful team. Tutor input is required on team role theories such as Belbin. Learners could discuss examples of teams which have not worked effectively because of the poor mix of roles. Further tutor input is required on the value of using theoretical models when building successful teams. This is a fruitful area for discussion and learners could apply the theories to their own experiences. For learning outcome 2, learners need to understand that simply putting a team together in the workplace does not guarantee that it will be successful. Tutors can use topical examples to illustrate the different development stages teams go through. All learners will have some ideas about what motivates them in the workplace. A useful starting point is to generate discussion on motivation and to draw on learner experiences and opinions. This will lead into tutor input that could be required to cover the theories of motivation. Initial discussions around learner experiences will be helpful for the tutor in putting the theories into context for the them. There are always topical examples of conflict occurring in the workplace. This may be manifested in a number of ways, for example poor working practices, dissent, disagreements and industrial disputes. Tutors could use these examples to generate discussion on ways of resolving conflict between team members. This could also provide opportunities to introduce the value of open communications in the workplace. For learning outcome 3, a useful starting point is a discussion on how learner performance is monitored in their place of work. They may be monitored as individuals or they may have experienced being monitored as part of a team. The discussions could provide a platform for the tutor to introduce the importance of SMART objectives and the variety of qualitative and quantitative measures used to monitor performance in the workplace. Examples of good practice of improving team performance can be found on the internet and in newspapers and journals. This is a good way of generating discussion and getting learners to think about how they would improve the performance of their own teams.

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Outline learning plan


The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the programme of suggested assignments. The outline learning plan demonstrates one way in planning the delivery and assessment of this unit.

Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/assessment Introduction to unit and programme of assignments Tutor input characteristics of successful business teams Discussion Tutor input Belbins team roles theory Group exercises Tutor input successful business teams: theoretical models Discussion Assignment 1: Developing a Model for Building a Successful Business Team Tutor input and discussion stages of team development Tutor input motivation theories and practice Case studies and discussion Tutor input communication in teams Examples and discussion Tutor input causes of conflict in teams, resolving conflict Case studies, discussions Assignment 2: Providing Support for Team Development Research activities Tutor input monitoring the performance of teams Examples and discussion Tutor input improving the performance of teams Examples and discussion Assignment 3: Monitoring Team Performance Research activities Review of unit and programme of assignments

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UNIT 15: DEVELOPING SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS TEAMS

Assessment
For AC1.1, learners need to describe the characteristics of a successful business team. Description should be more than just a list and learners will be expected to show that they understand the importance of the characteristics of successful business teams by giving reasons or examples to support their descriptions. For AC1.2, learners need to link theory and practice in their assessment of the importance of team roles in successful business teams. They should use theories such as Belbins team role theory to explain the roles needed in a balanced team, linking it to their assessment. For AC1.3, learners need to analyse the value of using theoretical models when building successful business teams. In their analysis, they should be able to categorise the models in an appropriate manner, discuss the similarities and differences between them and draw out the strengths and weaknesses. For AC2.1, learners need to explain the stages of team development. They will need to show that they understand the importance of development and how successful business teams have gone through the developmental stages. For AC2.2, learners need to plan how to motivate team members to achieve given objectives, using examples of practical measures, whilst linking these ideas to the appropriate theories. For AC2.3, learners need to encourage open communication between team members to support team development. They need to look at ways that are appropriate in the context of the teams that they are endeavouring to support. For AC2.4, learners need to evaluate ways of resolving conflict between team members. For AC3.1 learners need to monitor the performance of a team against given objectives. Learners should use methods that are appropriate to the team(s) they are planning to monitor. For AC3.2, the recommendations should naturally follow on from work completed for AC3.1. The recommendations should be realistic and appropriate to the performance of the team(s) they have monitored.

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Programme of suggested assignments The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the criteria in the assessment grid. This is for guidance only and it is recommended that centres either write their own assignments or adapt Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources.

Assessment criteria covered AC 1.1, 1.2, 1.3

Assignment title Developing a Model for Building a Successful Business Team

Scenario The learner uses their own organisation or one they are familiar with and develops a model for building a successful business team. The learner explores ways to provide support for team development. The learner explores ways of monitoring the performance of a team.

Assessment method Report

AC 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4

Providing Support for Team Development Monitoring Team Performance

Report

AC 3.1, 3.2, 3.3

Report

Essential resources
There are no essential resources required for this unit.

Indicative resource materials


Textbooks Boynton A and Fischer B Virtuoso Teams: The Extraordinary Stories of Extraordinary Teams (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2008) ISBN 0273721836 Clutterbuck D Coaching the Team at Work (Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 2007) ISBN 1904838081 Clutterbuck D and Megginson D Further Techniques for Coaching and Mentoring (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2009) ISBN 1856174999 Dufrene D and Lehman C Building High-Performance Teams, 4th Edition (SouthWestern, Division of Thomson Learning, 2010) ISBN 0324782195 Kehoe D Developing High Performance Teams (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2008) ISBN 0070137900

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Leigh A and Maynard M Leading Your Team: How to Involve and Inspire Teams, 2nd Edition (Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 2002) ISBN 1857883047 Martin Hays J Building High-performance Teams: A Practitioner's Guide (Argos Press, 2004) ISBN 098023859 McCreary J S Creating the I in Team: Building Superior Teams with Intelligence, Initiative and Integrity (Sunstone Press, 2007) ISBN 0865345384 Parker B The Pit Crew Challenge: Winning Customers Through Teaming (Ecw Press, 2007) ISBN 0978222156 Runde C and Flanagan T A Building Conflict Confident Teams (Jossey-Bass, 2008) ISBN 0470189479 Vogt J W Recharge your Team: The Grounded Visioning Approach (Praeger Publishers Inc, 2008) ISBN 0313355428 Journals Leader to Leader (Leader to Leader Institute) Management Today (Haymarket Business Media) People Management (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development) Professional Manager (Chartered Management Institute) Websites en.wikipedia.org www.belbin.com www.businessknowhow.com www.businesstown.com www.leadership-studies.com www.managementhelp.org Overview of motivation theories and further links Belbins team roles theory 12 tips for winning teams Short article on building winning teams Overview of leadership theories and models Articles and further links on building successful business teams

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UNIT 16: RESEARCH METHODS FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS

Unit 16:
Unit code: QCF Level 7: Credit value:

Research Methods for Strategic Managers


R/602/2422 BTEC Professional 15

Guided learning hours: 20

Unit aim
This unit provides the learner with an understanding of the methods and techniques used and required when carrying out formal research. The unit addresses a variety of research methodologies and offers the learner the opportunity to develop research skills.

Unit introduction
This unit is designed to introduce learners to the techniques and methods required to carry out formal research. The unit addresses a variety of research methodologies. Learners will be required to propose a unique research question related to an area of professional business practice that interests them and will add to their professional development. They will carry out a literature review on the topic, critically evaluating its relevance to their research question. Learners will understand the techniques, both quantitative and qualitative, used in research to analyse data. They will select an appropriate research methodology for their question, and record and present their findings. Tutor approval should be sought before learners begin their research and their final report should be presented in a format agreed by the tutor.

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Learning outcomes and assessment criteria


In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria determine the standard required to achieve the unit. On completion of this unit a learner should: Learning outcomes 1 Understand how to select a research question Assessment criteria 1.1 1.2 select a research question explain the factors that contribute to the process of successful research question selection justify their choice of research question conduct research to find literature relevant to the research question undertake a critical review of the key literature for inclusion in a research proposal evaluate techniques for use with quantitative data in a research proposal evaluate techniques for use with qualitative data in a research proposal evaluate appropriate research methodologies in terms of the research question choose an appropriate methodology in terms of the research question justify the methodology selected in terms of the research question record findings on a research question, literature review and methodology in an agreed format summarise the findings using suitable methods present the findings using suitable methods critically analyse the findings

1.3 2 Be able to conduct a literature review 2.1 2.2

Understand techniques used to interpret data in a research proposal

3.1

3.2

Be able to choose the appropriate methodology to research the question

4.1

4.2

4.3 5 Be able to present the findings of a research proposal 5.1

5.2 5.3 5.4

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UNIT 16: RESEARCH METHODS FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS

Unit content

Understand how to select a research question Research question: definition; suitability; skills and knowledge to be gained; aims; objectives; terms of reference; duration; rationale for selection; methodology for data collection and analysis; type of research eg qualitative, quantitative, systematic, original; methodology; resources; statistical analyses; validity; reliability; control of variables; literature review; implications eg resources; ethical issues Action plan: rationale for research question or hypothesis; task dates; review dates; monitoring/reviewing process; strategy Preparation: identifying ideas/topics/areas of investigation; research question(s); scope and feasibility; hypothesis; literature search; agreeing the process; targets; milestones; action plan; timetable and procedure; monitoring and revision Methodology: literature search eg library, internet, sector data sources; pure and applied research, developmental, longitudinal, survey, case study; research and development; concepts and theories; terminology; validity and reliability

Be able to conduct a literature review Secondary research: books; journals; papers; conferences; library search; use of IT; internet; media Evaluation of literature: credibility; validity; reliability; frequency of references and esteem in which publications are held; use and acceptance by others

Understand techniques used to interpret data in a research proposal Qualitative data analysis: interpreting transcripts and records, coding techniques, categorisation, relationships, trends, processes, use of computers; presentation of data and information Quantitative data analysis: coding/values, manual/electronic methods, specialist software; presentation of data eg bar/pie charts, graphs, statistical tables; comparison of variables, trends, forecasting

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Be able to choose the appropriate methodology to research the question Research methodologies: intervention, non-intervention, action research Implement: according to research design and method; test research question/ hypotheses; considering test validity; reliability Methodology for quantitative data: questionnaires (type, layout, questions, distribution, original research data); interviews (selecting interviewees, bias, verification of data, time, place, style, preparation, format, recording); surveys Methodology for qualitative data: case study; observation; interviews Data collection: selection of appropriate tools for data collection; types eg qualitative, quantitative; systematic recording; methodological problems eg bias, variables and control of variables, validity and reliability Data analysis and interpretation: qualitative and quantitative data analysis interpreting transcripts; coding techniques; specialist software; statistical tables; comparison of variables; trends; forecasting

Be able to present the findings of a research proposal Presentation: eg formal written format, by viva voce or oral presentation, diagrammatic or graphical figures Methodology: presentation eg IT, audio, visual aids, time, pace; delivery critique of the methods used in the study, recommendations, eg using the findings, recommendations for the future, areas for future research Evaluation: planning, objectives, focus, benefits, difficulties; an overview of the success or failure of the research project planning, aims and objectives, evidence and findings, validity, reliability, benefits, difficulties, conclusion(s) Future consideration: significance of research investigation; application of research results; implications; limitations of the investigation; improvements; recommendations for the future, areas for future research Criteria: purpose, editing, format, sequencing success, critical analysis, discussion of evidence and findings Format: professional delivery format appropriate to the audience; use of appropriate media

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UNIT 16: RESEARCH METHODS FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
Learners may have developed a range of investigative skills throughout their programme of study, but this unit focuses on formal research methods leading to the production of a thesis style report. It is important that learners understand the elements that make up formal research, including the different methodologies, how to select a research question, action planning, carrying out the research (in this case a literature review), being able to be critical and evaluating the relevance and importance of material, and ways to record and present their findings. Tutors will need to cover the theory that underpins formal research to enable learners to complete this unit successfully. The research proposal itself depends on the learner, the context of their area of learning, their focus of interest and the anticipated outcomes. The unit could draw together a range of other content areas from the programme of study to form a holistic piece of work that makes a positive contribution to research on commercial practice. As Unit 17: Project Development and Implementation for Strategic Managers requires delivery of a major research project, the research question investigated in this unit could underpin the practical outcomes required by that unit. To meet the learning outcomes, learners need to establish relationships with commercial and industrial organisations to collect data that will lead them to their conclusions. It is essential that tutors monitor the development of individual research questions closely to ensure that learners are following the correct guidelines and working towards agreed objectives. Learners will need further guidance to support the presentation and evaluation of their work. The presentation of their research should follow formal presentation practice, with correct referencing and bibliography details. Tutors could deliver an appropriate session to underpin this approach, but the development of presentation skills should not be the focus of this area of work.

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Outline learning plan


The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the programme of suggested assignments. The outline learning plan demonstrates one way of planning the delivery and assessment of this unit.

Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/assessment Introduction to the unit and assessment criteria Tutor input selecting a research question Assignment 1: Selecting the Question Individual investigation and research followed by tutor support and feedback Tutor input literature reviews Assignment 2: Literature Review Tutor support and feedback Tutor input and discussion qualitative and quantitative data and techniques Practical exercises on qualitative and quantitative data and techniques Tutor input research methodologies Assignment 3: Analysing Data for a Research Proposal Tutor support and feedback Tutor input how to present the findings of research proposals Assignment 4: Presenting a Research Proposal and its Evaluation Tutor support and feedback Review of unit and programme of assignments

Assessment
Evidence for this unit should be generated through a written report, demonstrating a sound understanding of research methods and protocol. The report should show evidence of secondary research through a critical review of the relevant key literature relating to the selected research question. It should also show primary research through the selection of a new research question, and then by selecting the appropriate research methodology for this question and evaluating and justifying its use. Crucially, research needs to be focused on meeting its objectives and the outcomes need to be credible. The research question needs to be well-thought-out, appropriate, unique and researched and planned thoroughly. Learners will need to demonstrate the ability to work independently and provide evidence of an individual approach in their finished work. Learners will require close supervision and organised tutor support in order to design a research question/hypothesis which is realistic, achievable and economically viable within the scope of the unit. Tutor approval should be sought before learners begin the research.

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UNIT 16: RESEARCH METHODS FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS

Tutors will need to establish the availability of resources to support independent study before learners proceed with their proposals. For AC1.1, learners select an individual research question. Learners should adopt a critical and realistic approach in this selection exercise and gain tutor support before progressing further. For AC 1.2 and 1.3, learners must explain the factors that contribute to the process of successful research question selection and justify their choice of research question. This will require careful planning and preparation in relation to the selected research question as well as consideration of alternative questions before final selection. For AC2.1, learners need to conduct research to find literature relevant to their research question. The literature review should be comprehensive and thorough. It should include all key material and show an understanding of the concepts in the material and their relevance to the current question. Learners should be selective and disregard irrelevant material. For AC2.2, learners must undertake a critical review of the key literature for inclusion in their research proposal. The review should be critical and consider the validity, credibility and esteem in which material is held as well as its use by other researchers, and its relevance to the current research question. For AC 3.1 and 3.2, learners need to evaluate techniques for use with quantitative and qualitative data in their research proposal. This requires understanding of both types of data and the relevant techniques, and an evaluation of their appropriateness to the research question. For AC 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3, learners need to evaluate appropriate research methodologies in terms of their research question, choose an appropriate methodology and justify the selected methodology in terms of the research. This needs to include a thorough evaluation of all methodologies, with clear reference to the research question, from selection through to justification. For AC 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 and 5.4, learners must record their findings on the research question, literature review and methodology in an agreed format, summarising, presenting and critically analysing them in the process. The presentation must be appropriate in format and content. It must also be professional and show in-depth knowledge and understanding of the research, its context and a critical analysis of its success and findings. It is possible to assess work orally, with learners explaining and describing things to the assessor in discussion, in group work or a presentation. If oral assessments are used, then the work must be directly attributable to the individual learner and, in this unit, needs to be backed up by a written report. The assessor must provide a signed statement that includes detail of the oral evidence presented and how it is aligned to the criteria.

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Programme of suggested assignments The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the criteria in the assessment grid. This is for guidance only and it is recommended that centres either write their own assignments or adapt Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources.

Assessment criteria covered AC 1.1, 1.2, 1.3

Assignment title Selecting the Question

Scenario Selection of a research question, planning and preparation. Review of appropriate literature to use for research. Quantitative and qualitative data and analysis. The presentation of a research proposal and its evaluation.

Assessment method Written report

AC 2.1, 2.2

Literature Review

Written report

AC 3.1, 3.2,

Analysing Data for a Research Proposal Presenting a Research Proposal and its Evaluation

Written report

AC 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4

Presentation

Essential resources
Where learners are engaged in primary research, tutors must check that access has been negotiated and that ethical research procedures are being followed. Learners will need access to ICT and appropriate commercial organisations. Learners will also need access to ICT facilities when analysing their findings and writing up their reports.

Indicative resource materials


Textbooks Bell J Doing your Research Project, 5th Edition (Open University Press, 2010) ISBN 0335235824 Best J W and Kahn J V Research in Education, 10th Edition (Allyn and Bacon, 2005) ISBN 0205458408 Coghlan, D and Brannick T Doing Action Research in Your Own Organization, 3rd Edition (Sage Publications, 2009) ISBN 1848602162 Cohen L, Manion L and Morrison K Research Methods in Education, 6th Edition (Routledge, 2007) ISBN 0415368782

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UNIT 16: RESEARCH METHODS FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS

Coolican H Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology, 5th Edition (Hodder Education, 2009) ISBN 0340983442 Elliott J Action Research for Educational Change (Open University Press, 1991) ISBN 0335096891 Gill J and Johnson P Research Methods for Managers, 4th Edition (Sage Publications, 2010) ISBN 1847870945 Hart C Doing a Literature Review (Sage Publications, 1998) ISBN 0761959750 Hoinville G and Jowell R Survey Research Practice (Avebury, 1985) ISBN 0566051567 Kane E Doing Your Own Research, 2nd Edition (Marion Boyars, 2001) ISBN 0714530433 Lock D Project Management, 9th Edition (Gower Publications, 2007) ISBN 0566087723 Marshall L A Guide to Learning Independently, 3rd Edition (Longman, 1998) ISBN 0582811708 McNiff J and Whitehead J Doing and Writing Action Research (Sage Publications, 2009) ISBN 1847871755 Murray R How to Write a Thesis, 2nd Edition (Open University Press, 2006) ISBN 0335219683 Robson C Real World Research, 2nd Edition (John Wiley and Sons, 2002) ISBN 0631213058 Saunders M, Lewis P and Thornhill A Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2009) ISBN 0273716867 Thomas R and Lynn P Survey Research in Practice (Sage Publications, 2009) ISBN 0761971076

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UNIT 17: PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS

Unit 17:

Project Development and Implementation for Strategic Managers


H/602/2425 BTEC Professional 20

Unit code: QCF Level 7: Credit value:

Guided learning hours: 30

Unit aim
This unit provides learners with an opportunity to develop their project management and research skills by developing a project where they plan and implement a new product, service or process.

Unit introduction
As the rate of change escalates, it is important for organisations to not just hold their place in the market but to plan to move ahead. This unit recognises the importance to managers of having project management skills and the relevant expertise to enable this to happen. The purpose of this unit is to give learners an opportunity to integrate all the knowledge from their programme of learning by developing a project in which they plan and implement a new product, service or process. This unit could follow on from Unit 16: Research Methods for Strategic Managers, where a research question is formulated and researched. The fact that there are two units on research and project development and implementation in this specification recognises the scale of work required to develop and implement a sound project. Learners can take either unit without the other, but may find it necessary to start with Unit 16 if they have no experience of research methodology. Learners need to take a full and active role in all aspects of the project, and the selection of an appropriate management issue is crucial to success. Learners will cover a full range of management activities and roles, including resource and people management and implementation of change. The result needs to be a substantial report in a style appropriate for consideration by senior management.

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Learning outcomes and assessment criteria


In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria determine the standard required to achieve the unit. On completion of this unit a learner should: Learning outcomes 1 Be able to develop a project specification Assessment criteria 1.1 analyse the factors that contribute to the process of project selection develop outline project specifications for the implementation of a new product, service or process produce a specification for an agreed project to implement a new product, service or process produce a project plan for an agreed project match appropriate resources to a project cost all resources required for implementing a project agree timescales for the management and implementation of a project plan an appropriate strategy for the implementation of a project implement a project in accordance with an agreed specification develop appropriate measures to monitor and evaluate progress and outcomes monitor the implementation of a project analyse the outcomes of a project in terms of the original project specification evaluate the outcomes of a project make justified recommendations for improvements to the project

1.2

1.3

Be able to plan for the launch of a project to implement a new product, service or process

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

2.5 3 Be able to implement a project 3.1

3.2

3.3 4 Be able to evaluate the outcomes of a project 4.1

4.2 4.3

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UNIT 17: PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS

Learning outcomes 5 Be able to present the outcomes of a project

Assessment criteria 5.1 5.2 produce a report of all project procedures used present the outcomes of the project to an audience using an agreed format and appropriate media

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Unit content

Be able to develop a project specification Development: defining the product, service or process; research; methods of evaluating feasibility of projects; initial critical analysis of the outline specification; selection of project option; initiating a project logbook/diary; estimating costs and resource implications; identifying goals and limitations; value of project; rationale for selection; agree roles and allocate responsibilities; developing a business case, case justification; primary and secondary sources, official sources; tacit knowledge; political dimensions, environmental scanning, market research, market segmentation Specification: developing a list of requirements relevant to project specifications eg costs, timescales, scale of operation, standards, legislation, ethics, sustainability, quality, fitness for purpose, business data, resource implications; project lifecycle; added value of product, service or process; market and customer expectations; profit margins and vulnerability; market analysis; benchmarking; stakeholder analysis; scoping process; informal contacts and networking; relationship to corporate strategy and planning; sustainability; market intelligence systems (MIS) Project management: principles; role of the project manager eg management of change, understanding of project management system elements and their integration, management of multiple projects; project environment and the impact of external influences on projects; identification of the major project phases (initiate, plan, execute, monitor/control, evaluate/close) and why they are required, understanding of the work in each phase; the nature of work in the lifecycles of projects in various industries Success/failure criteria: need to meet operational, time and cost criteria, measure success eg develop the project scope; product breakdown structure (PBS); work breakdown structure (WBS); project execution strategy and the role of the project team; consideration of investment appraisal eg use of discount cash flow (DCF) and net present value (NPV); benefit analysis and viability of projects; determine success/failure criteria; preparation of project definition report, acceptance tests; requirements for termination eg audit trails, punch lists, close-out reports and post-project appraisals, comparison of project outcome with business objectives Project management systems: procedures and processes; knowledge of project information support (IS) systems; how to integrate human and material resources for success

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UNIT 17: PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS

Be able to plan for the launch of a project to implement a new product, service or process Procedures: planning and monitoring methods; operating methods; lines of communication; risk analysis; structure of groups and collaborative working; targets and aims Project plan: production of a plan for the project including timescales, deliverables, milestones, quality assurance systems and quality plans; monitoring progress Resources: economy, efficiency and effectiveness; sources and evaluation of training and development; workforce planning; contingency factors Cost: cost dimensions eg labour, training and development, materials, supplies, equipment hire, accommodation or space, delivery, accessing funds, overheads, administration, budgeting and cash flow, cost margins; cost-benefit analysis Planning: identify and select product, service or process; scope and feasibility; agreeing the process; plan timeline; action plan; timetable and procedure; task dates; targets; milestones; review dates; monitoring/reviewing process; strategy Methodology: research eg library, internet, sector data sources, pure and applied research, developmental, longitudinal, interviews, questionnaires, survey, case study; research and development; concepts and theories; terminology; validity and reliability Organisational structure: functional, project and matrix structures eg consideration of cultural and environmental influences; organisational evolution during the project lifecycle; job descriptions and key roles eg the project sponsor, champion, manager, integrators; other participants eg the project owner, user, supporters, stakeholders Control and coordination: the need for monitoring and control eg preparation of project plans, planning, scheduling and resourcing techniques; use of work breakdown structure to develop monitoring and control systems; monitoring performance and progress measurement against established targets and plans; project reporting; change control procedures Leadership requirements: team roles, motivation and the need for team building; project leadership styles and attributes; delegation of work and responsibility; techniques for dealing with conflict; negotiation skills Human resources and requirements: calculation, specification and optimisation of human resource requirements; job descriptions

Be able to implement a project Implementation: market or pilot testing; leadership, delegation and motivation, teambuilding, roles; stages breakdown; developing specifications, Gantt chart, PERT/CPA modelling, quality control and analysis, Total Quality Management (TQM), quality chain, milestone charting, auditing; feedback systems, communication systems; time management, progress meetings, corrective measures, variance analysis, bottlenecks; contracting; pricing policy; differentiation; market positioning and strategy; packaging, promotion and advertising; distribution costs; branding

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Project management plans: the why, what, how, when, where and by whom of project management eg contract terms, document distribution schedules, procurement, establishing the baseline for the project Implement: proper use of resources, working within agreed timescale, use of appropriate techniques for generating solutions, monitoring development against the agreed project plan, maintaining and adapting project plan where appropriate Record: systematic recording of relevant outcomes of all aspects and stages of the project to agreed standards Project organisation: the product breakdown structure (PBS) and the work breakdown structure (WBS), project execution strategy and the organisation breakdown structure (OBS) eg preparation of organisational charts, task responsibility matrix, statement of work (SOW) for project tasks Scheduling techniques: relationship between schedules, OBS and WBS, bar charts, milestone schedules, network techniques, resourcing techniques, computer-based scheduling and resourcing packages, project progress measurement and reporting techniques, staff-hours earned value and progress S curves, critical path analysis and reporting, milestone trending Cost control: cost breakdown structure eg types of project estimate, resources needed, estimating techniques, estimating accuracy, contingency and estimation, bid estimates, whole-life cost estimates, sources of information, cost information sensitivity, computer-based estimating Techniques: allocation of budgets to packages of work, committed costs, actual costs, cash flow, contingency management Performance: cost performance analysis eg budgeted cost for work scheduled (BCWS), budgeted cost for work performed (BCWP); concept of earned value, actual cost of work performed (ACWP), cost performance indicators Change control: the need for formal control of changes eg impact of changes on the project, principles of change control and configuration management; changes to scope, specification, cost or schedule; change reviews and authorisation, the formation of project teams, project initiation and start-up procedures 4 Be able to evaluate the outcomes of a project Criteria: purpose; targets and achievement; sequencing success or problems; critical analysis; feedback from stakeholders; significance of project; application of project results; implications; limitations of the project; improvements; recommendations for further consideration Evaluation: planning; objectives; focus; benefits; successes; difficulties; recommendations; analysis of results and planned procedures; use of appropriate evaluation techniques; application of project evaluation and review techniques (PERT); opportunities for further studies and developments Interpretation: use of appropriate techniques to justify project progress and outcomes in terms of the original agreed project specification

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UNIT 17: PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS

Be able to present the outcomes of a project Presentation: eg formal written format, by viva voce or oral presentation, diagrammatic or graphical figures Record of procedures and results: relevant documentation for all aspects and stages of the project Format: professional delivery format appropriate to the audience; appropriate media Methodology: presentation eg IT, audio, visual aids, time, pace; delivery critique of the methods used in the project; recommendations eg using the findings, recommendations for the future; areas for future research

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Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
All the learning outcomes in this unit can be delivered flexibly. Formal tutor input could identify some of the theoretical material, but learners can work individually researching and gathering information about their projects. Research, investigation, case studies and discussions all offer different approaches to learning. Using senior managers from different organisations as guest speakers can provide a practical insight into the management of business. The choice of the project itself is the crucial factor for success in this unit and considerable attention needs to be paid to the learners choice of project. They need to take an active part, if not the lead, in choosing a project. The integration of learning from across the programme is the basis of this unit, so ensuring that the project will draw on other units is essential. While it is possible for the project to be based on a case study, if there is no possible alternative, a real workplace issue is much more valuable as a learning opportunity. Learners currently not in employment, or in employment where such project work is not available, could be seconded to an organisation where a suitable project can be agreed. This unit needs little tutor input as such, but does need ongoing one-to-one supervision by a suitable project supervisor, as well as opportunities for regular discussions with appropriate workplace personnel.

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UNIT 17: PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS

Outline learning plan


The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the programme of suggested assignments. The outline learning plan demonstrates one way of planning the delivery and assessment of this unit.

Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/assessment Introduction to the unit and timeline Tutor input the choice of a project dos and donts Assignment 1: Selecting a Project Tutor support and feedback Tutor input project planning, costs and resources Assignment 2: Planning a Project Tutor support and feedback Group discussion and review of project planning, costs and resources Tutor input and discussion strategy and implementation of the project Assignment 3: Implementing a Project Tutor support and feedback Tutor input and discussion evaluating project progress, outcomes and contingency actions Assignment 4: Evaluating a Project Tutor support and feedback Tutor input presentations and reports Assignment 5: Presenting a Project Report Learner presentations Review of unit and programme of assignments

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Assessment
To pass this unit, learners will need to provide:

a completed management project report, which reflects on the learning from the whole process the presentation with accompanying visual aids.

For AC 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3, learners will need to analyse the factors that contribute to the process of project selection, develop outline project specifications and produce a specification for an agreed project to implement a new product, service or process. There needs to be a thorough analysis of the relevant factors together with suggested outline specifications, from which one is selected and agreed with the tutor with reasons for the final choice. For AC 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5, learners need to produce a project plan for an agreed project, match appropriate resources to the project, cost all resources required for implementation, agree timescales for management and implementation of the project and plan an appropriate strategy for the implementation of the project. Detailed planning will be evident with appropriate resources selected and costed and evidence of a workable strategy. For AC 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3, learners need to implement a project in accordance with an agreed specification, develop appropriate measures to monitor and evaluate progress and outcomes and monitor the implementation of the project. Implementation will match the planning and specification. Appropriate measures will be in place to monitor and evaluate progress and there will be evidence of detailed monitoring. For AC 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3, learners need to analyse the outcomes of their project in terms of the original project specification and evaluate the outcomes of the project, making justified recommendations for improvements. There will be a professional and critical analysis and evaluation of the project outcomes in relation to the specification, together with justified recommendations. For AC 5.1 and 5.2, learners need to produce a report of all project procedures used, and present the outcomes of the project to an audience using an agreed format and appropriate media. The written report will be in an appropriate format, with the presentation completed in a professional manner appropriate to the audience. It is possible to assess work orally, with learners explaining and describing things to the assessor in discussion or a presentation. If oral assessments are used, the work must be directly attributable to the individual learner and in this unit, needs to be backed up by a written report. The assessor must provide a signed statement that includes detail of the oral evidence presented and how it is aligned to the criteria.

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UNIT 17: PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS

Programme of suggested assignments The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the criteria in the assessment grid. This is for guidance only and it is recommended that centres either write their own assignments or adapt Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources.

Criteria covered AC 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 AC 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5 AC 3.1, 3.2, 3.3

Assignment title Selecting a Project Planning a Project Implementing a Project Evaluating a Project Presenting a Project Report

Scenario Selection of the project Planning the project Implementing the project Evaluating the outcomes of the project Presenting a report on the project

Assessment method Written rationale Written report Written report

AC 4.1, 4.2, 4.3

Written report

AC 5.1, 5.2

Report and presentation

Essential resources
Sufficient library facilities need to be available to learners. In addition, learners need to read the broadsheet press and weekly business magazines regularly.

Indicative resource materials


Textbooks Coghlan, D and Brannick T Doing Action Research in Your Own Organization, 3rd Edition (Sage Publications, 2009) ISBN 1848602162 Harvard Business Review on Decision Making (Harvard Business School Press, 2001) ISBN 1578515572 Hart C Doing a Literature Review (Sage Publications, 1998) ISBN 0761959750 Kovacic B New Approaches to Organizational Communication (State University of New York Press, 1994) ISBN 0791419185 Little S E, Quintas P and Ray T (Eds) Managing Knowledge (Sage Publications, 2001) ISBN 0761972137 March J G A Primer on Decision Making; How Decisions Happen (Simon and Schuster Ltd, 1994) ISBN 0029200350 McKenzie J and van Winkelen C Understanding the Knowledgeable Organization: Nurturing Knowledge Competence (Thomson Learning, 2003) ISBN 1861528957

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Murray R How to Write a Thesis, 2nd Edition (Open University Press, 2006) ISBN 0335219683 Preston P Reshaping Communications (Sage Publications, 2001) ISBN 0803985630 Quirke B Making the Connections: Using Internal Communication to Turn Strategy into Action, 2nd Edition (Gower Publishing Ltd, 2008) ISBN 0566087804 Quirke B Communicating Corporate Change: A Practical Guide to Communication and Corporate Strategy (McGraw-Hill, 1996) ISBN 0077093119 Sadler P Building Tomorrow's Company: A Guide to Sustainable Business Success (Kogan Page, 2002) ISBN 0749437103 Stewart T A Intellectual Capital: The New Wealth of Organizations, 2nd Edition (Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 1998) ISBN 1857881834 Welch D Decisions, Decisions: The Art of Effective Decision Making (Prometheus Books, 2001) ISBN 1573929344 Journals/magazines Academy of Management Journal (Academy of Management) British Journal of Management (John Wiley and Sons) California Management Review (University of California, Berkeley) Harvard Business Review (Harvard Business Publishing) Information Management (SourceMedia) Information Technology and People (Emerald) Inside Knowledge (Waterlow Legal and Regulatory Limited) International Journal of Information Management (Elsevier) Journal of Information Technology (Palgrave Macmillan) Journal of Management Studies (John Wiley and Sons) Management Today (Haymarket Business Media) MIT Sloan Management Review (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Organization (Sage Publications) Organization Studies (Sage Publications) Websites www.bbc.co.uk www.bized.co.uk www.business.com www.cipd.co.uk www.findarticles.com British Broadcasting Corporation Business case studies for educational purposes Business search engine Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development BNET for articles in more than 500 publications

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UNIT 17: PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS

www.ft.com http://archive.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/eenvoy/ukonline-top/$file/ukstrategy.htm www.i-l-m.com www.kmmagazine.com www.managers.org.uk www.mintel.co.uk www.newsint-archive.co.uk www.ons.gov.uk

Financial Times archive Office of the e-Envoy UK online strategy Institute of Leadership and Management Inside Knowledge knowledge management publication Chartered Management Institute Mintel International on consumer markets The Times and Sunday Times archive Office for National Statistics

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Further information
For further information please call Customer Services on 0844 576 0026 (calls may be recorded for training purposes) or visit our website (www.edexcel.com).

Useful publications
Related information and publications include:

Guidance for Centres Offering Edexcel/BTEC QCF Accredited Programmes (Edexcel, distributed to centres annually) Functional skills publications specifications, tutor support materials and question papers Regulatory arrangements for the Qualification and Credit Framework (published by Ofqual) August 2008 the current Edexcel publications catalogue and update catalogue.

Edexcel publications concerning the Quality Assurance System and the internal and external verification of vocationally related programmes can be found on the Edexcel website and in the Edexcel publications catalogue. NB: Some of our publications are priced. There is also a charge for postage and packing. Please check the cost when you order.

How to obtain National Occupational Standards in Management and Leadership


The Council for Administration 6 Graphite Square Vauxhall Walk London, SE11 5EE Telephone: 020 7091 9620 Email: info@cfa.uk.com

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Professional development and training


Edexcel supports UK and international customers with training related to BTEC qualifications. This support is available through a choice of training options offered in our published training directory or through customised training at your centre. The support we offer focuses on a range of issues including:

planning for the delivery of a new programme planning for assessment and grading developing effective assignments building your team and teamwork skills developing student-centred learning and teaching approaches building functional skills into your programme building in effective and efficient quality assurance systems.

The national programme of training we offer can be viewed on our website (www.edexcel.com/training). You can request customised training through the website or by contacting one of our advisers in the Training from Edexcel team via Customer Services to discuss your training needs. Our customer service numbers are: BTEC and NVQ GCSE GCE The Diploma DiDA and other qualifications 0844 576 0026 0844 576 0027 0844 576 0025 0844 576 0028 0844 576 0031

Calls may be recorded for training purposes. The training we provide:

is active ideas are developed and applied is designed to be supportive and thought provoking builds on best practice.

Our training is underpinned by the LLUK standards for those preparing to teach and for those seeking evidence for their continuing professional development.

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Annexe A

The Edexcel/BTEC qualification framework for the Management and Leadership sector

Progression opportunities within the framework.

Level

General qualifications

Diplomas

BTEC vocationally-related qualifications

BTEC specialist qualification/ professional

NVQ/competence

8 NVQ Diploma in Management (QCF)

BTEC Award/Certificate/ Diploma/Extended Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership (QCF)

6 BTEC HND Diploma in Business (Management) NVQ Diploma in Management (QCF) BTEC Award/Certificate/ Diploma in Management and Leadership (QCF)

BTEC HNC Diploma in Business

Level 4 NVQ Certificate/Diploma in Business and Administration (QCF)

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Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership

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Level

General qualifications

Diplomas

BTEC vocationally-related qualifications BTEC Award/Certificate in Management (QCF)

BTEC specialist qualification/ professional

NVQ/competence

GCE Applied Business

GCE Business

Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance

BTEC Certificate/Subsidiary Diploma/Diploma/Extended Diploma in Business (QCF)

Level 3 NVQ Certificate/Diploma in Business and Administration (QCF) NVQ Certificate in Management (QCF)

GCSE Business

GCSE Applied Business

Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance

BTEC Certificate/Extended Certificate and Diploma in Business (QCF)

BTEC Award/Certificate in Team Leading (QCF)

Level 2 NVQ Award/Certificate and Diploma in Business and Administration (QCF) NVQ Certificate in Team Leading (QCF)

Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance

Level 1 NVQ Award/Certificate in Business and Administration (QCF)

Entry

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Annexe B
Wider curriculum mapping
Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Professional qualifications give learners opportunities to develop an understanding of spiritual, moral, ethical, social and cultural issues as well as an awareness of citizenship, environmental issues, European developments, health and safety considerations and equal opportunities issues.

Spiritual, moral, ethical, social and cultural issues


Throughout the delivery of these qualifications learners will have the opportunity to actively participate in different kinds of decision making. They will have to consider fair and unfair situations and explore how to resolve conflict. Working in small groups they will learn how to respect and value others beliefs, backgrounds and traditions.

Citizenship
Learners undertaking these qualifications will have the opportunity to develop their understanding of citizenship issues.

Environmental issues
Developing a responsible attitude towards the care of the environment is an integral part of this qualification. Learners are encouraged to minimise waste and discuss controversial issues.

European developments
Much of the content of the qualification applies throughout Europe, even though the delivery is in a UK context.

Health and safety considerations


Health and safety is embedded within many of the units in this qualification. Learners will consider their own health and safety at work, how to identify risks and hazards and how to minimise those risks.

Equal opportunities issues


There will be opportunities throughout this qualification to explore different kinds of rights and how these affect both individuals and communities, for example learners will consider their rights at work and the rights of employers and how these rights affect the work community.

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Annexe C

National Occupational Standards/mapping with NVQs

The grid below maps the knowledge covered in the Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Professional qualifications in Strategic Management and Leadership against the underpinning knowledge of the Level 7 NVQ in Management.

KEY

# indicates partial coverage of the NVQ unit

a blank space indicates no coverage of the underpinning knowledge

Units

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

Level 7 NVQ in Management # # # # # # # # # # # # #

B3

Develop a strategic business plan (Mandatory)

B7

Develop strategic direction and leadership (Mandatory)

C4

Lead change in an organisation (Mandatory)

B4

Put a strategic business plan into action

B8a

Establish policies and procedures

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Units # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # #

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

D4

Plan an organisations workforce

E3

Obtain additional finance for an organisation

E13

Promote knowledge management across an organisation

F13

Manage quality systems

F3a

Design and manage the business processes

F12

Improve organisational performance

B2

Inform strategic decision-making

B9

Support the culture of an organisation

C3

Lead innovation within an organisation

E1

Manage a budget for own area or activity of work

E17

Outsource organisational processes

F2

Manage a programme of complementary projects

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Annexe D

Unit mapping overview

BTEC Level 7 Advanced Professional short courses in Management Studies legacy (specification end date 31/08/2010)/new QCF versions of the BTEC Level 7 Professional qualifications in Strategic Management and Leadership (specification start date 01/08/2010).

Old units Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 Unit 10 Unit 11 Unit 12 Unit 13 Unit 14 Unit 15 Unit 16 Unit 17 Unit 18 X X F X P Unit 19 205

Unit 1

Unit 2

New units F

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3 F

Unit 4

Unit 5

Unit 6

Unit 7

Unit 8

Unit 9

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and

Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership

Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

Unit 3

Old units Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 Unit 10 Unit 11 Unit 12 Unit 13 Unit 14 Unit 15 Unit 16 Unit 17 Unit 18 Unit 19 F P P X P P P

Unit 1

Unit 2

New units P P

Unit 10

Unit 11

Unit 12

Unit 13

Unit 14

Unit 15 X

Unit 16

Unit17

KEY

P Partial mapping (some topics from the old unit appear in the new unit)

F Full mapping (topics in old unit match new unit exactly or almost exactly)

X Full mapping + new (all the topics from the old unit appear in the new unit, but new unit also contains new topic(s))

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

Annexe E
Glossary of accreditation terminology
Accreditation start/end date Certification end date Credit value The first/last dates that Edexcel can register learners for a qualification.

The last date on which a certificate may be issued by Edexcel.

All units have a credit value. The minimum credit value that may be determined for a unit is one, and credits can only be awarded in whole numbers. Learners will be awarded credits for the successful completion of whole units. Guided learning hours are defined as all the times when a tutor, trainer or facilitator is present to give specific guidance towards the learning aim being studied on a programme. This definition includes lectures, tutorials and supervised study in, for example, open learning centres and learning workshops. It also includes time spent by staff assessing learners achievements. It does not include time spent by staff in day-to-day marking of assignments or homework where the learner is not present. Link to the Learning Aims Database, which features detailed funding information by specific learning aim reference. Unique reference number given to the qualification by the funding authorities on accreditation. The level at which the qualification is positioned in the Qualifications and Credit Framework (QCF). These qualifications are listed on the Department for Education (DfE) website School and College Achievement and Attainment Tables (SCAAT) as performance indicators for schools and colleges. Unique reference number given to the qualification by the regulatory authorities on accreditation.

Guided Learning Hours (GLH)

Learning Aims Database Learning Aim Reference Level Performance tables Qualifications Accreditation Number (QAN) Register of Regulated Qualifications Section 96

Link to the entry on the Register of Regulated Qualifications for a particular qualification. This database features detailed accreditation information for the particular qualification. Section 96 is a section of the Learning and Skills Act 2000. This shows for which age ranges the qualification is publicly funded for under-19 learners.

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

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Section 97 Title UCAS points

Section 97 is a section of the Learning and Skills Act 2000. This shows whether the qualification is publicly funded for learners aged 19 and over. The accredited title of the qualification. These qualifications are listed on the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) tariff for those wishing to progress to higher education.

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

Annexe F

BTEC Specialist and Professional qualifications


Level BTEC Level 7 Professional Qualifications BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Extended Certificate and Diploma BTEC Level 6 Professional Qualifications BTEC Level 6 Award, Certificate, Extended Certificate and Diploma BTEC Level 5 Professional Qualifications BTEC Level 5 Award, Certificate, Extended Certificate and Diploma BTEC Level 4 Professional Qualifications BTEC Level 4 Award, Certificate, Extended Certificate and Diploma BTEC Level 3 Specialist Qualifications BTEC Level 3 Award, Certificate, Extended Certificate and Diploma BTEC Level 3 Nationals BTEC Level 3 Certificate, Subsidiary Diploma, Diploma and Extended Diploma BTEC Level 4 Higher Nationals BTEC Level 4 HNC Diploma BTEC Level 5 Higher Nationals BTEC Level 5 HND Diploma BTEC Specialist and Professional Qualifications on the QCF BTEC qualification suites on the QCF

BTEC qualifications on the NQF

BTEC Level 7 Advanced Professional Qualifications

BTEC Advanced Professional Award, Certificate and Diploma

7 6 5 4 3

BTEC Level 6 Professional Qualifications

BTEC Professional Award, Certificate and Diploma

BTEC Level 5 Professional Qualifications

BTEC Professional Award, Certificate and Diploma

BTEC Level 4 Professional Qualifications

BTEC Professional Award, Certificate and Diploma

BTEC Level 3 Qualifications

BTEC Award, Certificate, Extended Certificate and Diploma

BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and

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Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership

Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

BTEC qualifications on the NQF BTEC Level 2 Specialist Qualifications BTEC Level 2 Award, Certificate, Extended Certificate and Diploma BTEC Level 1 Specialist Qualifications BTEC Level 1 Qualifications BTEC Level 1 Award, Certificate and Diploma (vocational component of Foundation Learning) BTEC Entry Level Specialist Qualifications BTEC Entry Level Qualifications (E3) BTEC Level 2 Certificate, Extended Certificate and Diploma BTEC Level 2 Firsts

Level

BTEC Specialist and Professional Qualifications on the QCF

BTEC qualification suites on the QCF

BTEC Level 2 Qualifications

BTEC Award, Certificate, Extended Certificate and Diploma

2 1
BTEC Level 1 Award, Certificate, Extended Certificate and Diploma

BTEC Level 1 Qualifications

BTEC Award, Certificate, Extended Certificate and Diploma

E
BTEC Entry Level Award, Certificate, Extended Certificate and Diploma

BTEC Entry Level 3 Award, Certificate and Diploma (vocational component of Foundation Learning) QCF qualification sizes Award Certificate Diploma 1-12 credits 13-36 credits 37+ credits

NQF = National Qualifications Framework

QCF = Qualifications and Credit Framework

For most qualifications on the NQF, the accreditation end date is normally 31 August 2010 or 31 December 2010.

For qualifications on the QCF, the accreditation start date is usually 1 September 2010 or 1 January 2011.

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BA035146 Specification Edexcel BTEC Level 7 Award, Certificate, Diploma and Extended Diploma professional qualification in Strategic Management and Leadership Issue 2 April 2013 Pearson Education Limited 2013

Publications Code BA035146

April 2013

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