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AE57/AC57/AT57 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS JUNE 2013

IETE 1

Q2 (a) Determine whether the following signals are periodic or not of periodic
then find its fundamental period
(i) ( )
2
n
1 ) n ( x =
(ii)

=
=
k
k
) k 2 t ( ) 1 ( ) t ( x

Answer
(i) ( )
2
n
1 ) n ( x =
For given signal to be periodic

2 N is x(n) of period
1 ) 1 ( (-1) 2 N
1 1 (-1) 1 N
) 1 ( 1 2 ) 1 (
if periodic ) (
) 1 .....( .......... .......... 2 ) 1 )( (
2 ) 1 ( ) 1 (
2 ) 1 (
) )( 1 ( ) (
) ( ) (
4 4 2 N
2n 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
=
= = =
= =
= = +

+ =
+ =
+ + =
+ = +
= +
+ +
+
l Fundamenta
for
for
nN
is n x
nN n x
nN
nN N
N n N n x
n x N n x
n nN
m N
N
N n
n


(ii)

=
=
k
k
k t t x ) 2 ( ) 1 ( ) (
For x(t) to be periodic x(t+T)=x(t)

=
+ = +
k
k
k T t T t x ) 2 ( ) 1 ( ) (
Performing a change of variables





AE57/AC57/AT57 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS JUNE 2013

IETE 2

4 x(t) of period l fundamenta
4
2
2
) 1 ( 1 (-1)
periodic be to x(t)
) 1 )( (
) 1 )( 2 ( ) 1 (
) 2 ( ) 1 ( ) (
2
2
2 2
2
2
T
2
2
2
=
=
=
= =
=
=
= +
+ =
=
=

=
+
m T
m
T
for
t x
m t
m t T t x
m
T
K
m K
T
m T T
m
T
T
k
m
k
m
T



Q2 (b) For each of the following systems determine whether it is Memoryless,
Causal, Stable, Linear and Time invariant.
(i) )] n ( x [ log ) n ( y
e
=
(ii) ) n ( x ) n ( y
2
=

Answer
(i) )] n ( x [ log ) n ( y
e
=
As the present output depends on the present input only system is memory less,
causal
Assuming that input signal x(n) satisfies the condition |x(n)| <
x
B for all n.
We can then final that
|y(x)|=| | )] ( [ log | n x
e

= < = By Bx
e
| [ log |
for bounded i/p , system is giving a bounded o/p . Thus system is stable
consider two arbitrary inputs ) ( & ) ( |
2 1
n X n x
AE57/AC57/AT57 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS JUNE 2013

IETE 3

Invariant - Time is
) ( y ) ( y sin
)] ( [ log ) ( y
)] ( [ log
)] ( [ log ) ( y i/p shifted to ing correspond /
) ( ) ( x /
)] ( [ log ) ( y
Linear - Non is
) ( ) (
)] ( ) ( [ log )] ( [ log ) ( y
linear be to system
) ( ) ( ) ( x
)] ( [ log ) ( ) (
)] ( [ log ) ( ) ( |
0 1 2
0 1 0 1
0 1
2 2
0 1 2
1 1
2 1
2 1 3 3
2 1 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
system
n n n ce
n n x n n Now
n n x
n x n p O
n n x n p shiftedi
n x x
System
n by n ay
n bx n ax n x n
for
n bx n ax n let
n x n y n x
n x n y n x
e
e
e
e
e e
e
e

=
=
=
=
=
=

+
+ = =
+ = =
= =
=

(ii) ) ( ) (
2
n x n y =
System has memory since the value of output signal y(x) at time n depends on the
future inputs
) / ) ( / ) (
2
0 0 0
n x n y n n n y = = =

It is not memory less
For bounded i/p system gives a bounded o/p System is BIBO stable.
system is Non-Causal since present value of o/p y(n) depends on the future values
of input signal x(n)
Consider two arbitrary inputs ) ( ) ( ) (
2
1 1 1
n x n y n x =
) ( ) ( ) (
2
2 2 2
n x n y n x =
Let ) ( ) ( ) (
2 1 3
n bx n ax n x + =
If system is linear them
AE57/AC57/AT57 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS JUNE 2013

IETE 4

Variant - Time is
) ( ) (
) ) (( x ) ( y
) ( ) ( y
) ( ) ( y i/p shifted to ing correspond o/p ) ( ) ( x i/p shifted the
) ( ) ( y *
linear is system RHS LHS
) ( y ) ( y
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( y *
linear is System
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
0 1 2
2
0 1 0 1
0
2
1 2
2
2 2 0 1 2
2
1 1
2 1
2
2
2
1
2
1 1
2 ) ( 1
2
2
2
1
2
3 3
2 1 3
system
n n y n y
n n n n Now
n n x n
n x n n n x n consider
n x n
Since
RHS n b n a
n bx n ax n x n
RHS LHS Since
RHS n by ay
n bx n ax n x n y LHS
n by n ay n y
n


=
=
= =
=
=
= + =
+ = =
=
= + =
+ = = ==>
+ =

Q3 (a) Find the trigonometric Fourier series for the triangular wave shown in
Fig.1 and hence plot its line spectrum.











Answer




AE57/AC57/AT57 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS JUNE 2013

IETE 5

Waveform is periodic write period T=2
& Fundamental Frequency
T
w
2
0
=
( ) )
| |
n
n
n
n
T
n
T
a bn an line
t t t
t nw a a t x
n
a
n
n
n
t n
n
t n
t
dt t n t
dt t nw t x T a
t
t
dt t dt t x
T
a
The
t
t
t x
= + =
+ + + + =
+ =

=
=
=
=
(
(

=
=
= =
= =>
= =
=
)
`

< <
< <
=

=
2 2
n
2 2 2
1
0 0
2 2
2 2
1
0
2 2
1
0
1
0
2 /
0
0
1
0
2
2 /
0
1
0
0
n
c spectrum
)...... 5 cos(
) 5 (
4
) 3 cos(
) 3 (
4
) cos(
4
2
1
) cos( ) (
.. .......... 2,4,6..... n 0
..... 1,3,5..... n
4
) cos( 1
2
cos
sin 1 2
) cos( ) 1 (
2
4
) cos( ) ( / 4
2
1
2
) 1 (
2
2
) (
2
0 b function even an is Wave
2 t 0 1
1 t 0 1
) (



Cn
4/(5 )
2

4/(3 )
2


4/(5 )
2




0 1 2 3 4 5 6 n


AE57/AC57/AT57 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS JUNE 2013

IETE 6

Q3 (b) A continuous time periodic signal is real valued and has a fundamental
period T= 8 .The non zero Fourier series coefficients for x(t) are
2 X X
1 1
= =

, j 4 X X
*
3 3
= =

. Express x(t) in the form

=
+ =
0 n
n n n
) t ( Cos A ) t ( x
Answer
Given:
)
2 4
3
cos( 8 )
4
cos( 4 ) (
4
3
sin 8 )
4
cos( 4
4 4 2 2
x(t) have
4 8
2
8
4 / 3 4 / 3
4
3
3
0
4
0 0





+ + =
|
.
|

\
|
=
+ + =
+ =
= = =

t t t x
t t
je je e e
e X e X we
w T
t j t j j
t j
n
t w j t jw
n
t


Q3 (c) Find the time domain signal corresponding to following DTFS coefficients

Answer
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
11
6 k
sin j 2
11
4 k
cos X
k

) 9 (
2
11
) 8 ( 11 ) 3 ( 11 ) 2 (
2
11
x(n)
equations two above the
) (
11
) 1 (
2
11
) 8 ( 11 ) 3 ( 11 ) 2 (
2
11
11
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
, 2
1
0
11
2
10
0
8
11
2 3
11
2 9
11
2 2
11
2
11
11
2 3 .
11
2 11 .
11
2 2
11
2 2
11
2
11
6
11
4
11
4
11
6
+ + = =
=
(

+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =

=
=


n n n n
Comparing
e n x
N
X
e n n n n
e e e e
e e e e e
e e e e
nk
N
j
N
K
k
nk j
k
k j k j k j k j
k j k j k j k j k j
k j k j k j
k j






AE57/AC57/AT57 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS JUNE 2013

IETE 7

Q4 (a) State and Prove duality property of Continuous Time Fourier Transform.
Using it, find the Fourier Transform of following signals
(i)
jt 1
1
) t ( g
+
=
(ii)
2
t 1
1
) t ( x
+
=
Answer

) ( 2
1
1
) ( 2
jt 1
1
x(-w) 2 x(t)
duality to
jt 1
1
x(t) & ) ( a ) (
jw 1
1
x(w) & ) ( a ) (
1
1
) ( a
1 a
1
) ( e
g(t) of expression in the t with w &
jw 1
1
x(w)
jt 1
1
g(t) (i)
x(-w) 2 x(t)
)] ( [ x(-w) 2
) ( x(-w) 2
w. and t variables the
) ( x(-t) 2
t - by t Replace
) ( x(t) 2
) (
2
1
x(t) - : proof
x(-w) 2 then x(t)
x(w) x(t) of property
w
t -
t -
at -
w u e
jt
f
w u e
According
w u w x
t u t x
jw
t u
ing Subsititut
jw a
t u
replace Define
t x F
dt e t x
ing Interchang
dw e w x
dw e w x
dw e w x
Duality
w
w
jwt
jwt
jwt
jwt
=
(

+

+

+
= =
+
= =
+

=
+

+
=
+
=

=
=
=
=
=





AE57/AC57/AT57 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS JUNE 2013

IETE 8

| |
2
| |
2
| |
2
| -|-w
2
| -|-w
2
| t | a -
2
| t | a -
2
| t | a -
2 2
| t | a -
2
.
1
1
.
t 1
1
2
1
. 2
t 1
1
x(-w) 2 X(t)
Duality .
e
2
1
1
1
x(t) e
2
1
) (
1
1
x(w) and e
2
1
) (
1
1
e
2
1

1
2
e 1 a
2
e , have we
t 1
1
x(t) ) (
w
w
w
e
t
F
e
e
to Acc
t
w x
w
t x
w
w
Put
w a
a
ii

=
(

+
=

+
=

+
=

=
+
= =
+
= =
+

+
=
+

+
=



Q4 (b) Consider a stable LTI system characterized by the differential equation
) t ( x 2
dt
) t ( dx
) t ( y 3
dt
) t ( dy
4
dt
) t ( y d
2
2
+ = + +
(i) Find the frequency response ) ( H and impulse response h(t) of the
system.
(ii) What is the response of this system if the input ) t ( u e ) t ( x
t
=

Answer
) t ( x 2
dt
) t ( dx
) t ( y 3
dt
) t ( dy
4
dt
) t ( y d
2
2
+ = + +
Taking Fourier Transform on both sides


AE57/AC57/AT57 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS JUNE 2013

IETE 9


) (
2
1
) (
2
1
h(t)
Transform fouries inverse
3
1
.
2
1
1
1
.
2
1
) (
) 3 )( 1 (
2
3 4 ) (
2
) (
) (
) (
) ( 2 ) ( ) ( 3 ) ( 4 ) ( ) (
3
2
2
t u e t u e
Jaking
jw jw
w H
jw jw
jw
jw jw
jw
w x
w y
w H
w x w jwx w y w jwy w y jw
t t
+ =
+
+
+
=
+ +
+
=
+ +
+
= =
+ = + +




Q5 (a) Suppose that a system has the response ) n ( u )
4
1
(
n
to the input
) n ( u )
2
1
)( 2 n (
n
+ .If the output of this system is ) n ( u )
2
1
( ) n (
n
,what
is the input?


Answer

) (
4
1
2
1
4
1
y(t)
Transform fouries inverse
) 3 (
1
4
1
) 1 (
1
2
1
1
1
4
1
) (
) 3 ( ) 1 (
2
) 3 )( 1 (
2
jw 1
1
x(w).H(w) ) (
jw 1
1
) x(w
) ( e Given x(t) ) (
3
2
2
-t
t u e te e
Taking
jw jw jw
w y
jw jw
jw
jw jw
jw
w y
t u ii
t t t
(

+ =
+

+
+
+
=
+ +
+
==>
(

+ +
+
(

+
= =
+
=
=

AE57/AC57/AT57 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS JUNE 2013

IETE 10


jw
jw
jw
jw
n
jw
jw
jw
jw
jw
jw
jw
n
jw
jw
jw
jw
jw
n n
n
e
e
e
e y
n u Given
e
e
e x
e y
e H
e
e y
n u Given
e
e
e
e
e
Taking
n n n
n u Given

+
=
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

= =

=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

=

+
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1 ) (
) (
2
1
- (n) y(x)
4
1
1 2
2
1
1
) (
) (
) (
4
1
1
1
) (
) (
4
1
y(n)
2
1
1
4
1
1 2
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
) x(e
equation above the of DTFT
) ( 4
2
1
2 ) ( 4
2
1
) (
2
1
3) (n ) that x(n
2
2
2
jw




AE57/AC57/AT57 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS JUNE 2013

IETE 11

) (
2
1
4
1
) 1 (
2
1
8
3
) 1 (
2
1
8
3
x(n)
DTFT inverse
2
1
1
8
1
2
1
1
8
3
2
1
1
8
3
2
1
1
2
1
1
4
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
4
1
1 2
) (
2
1
1
4
1
1 2
) (
1 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
n u n n u n u
Taking
e
e
e
e
e
e
e e
e e
e
e
e
e
e y
e
e
e x
n n n
jw
jw
jw
jw
jw
jw
jw jw
jw jw
jw
jw
jw
jw
jw
jw
jw
jw
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|

+

+
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

=
+
=
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

=
=
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

=



Q5 (b) State and Prove convolution property of Discrete Time Fourier
Transform. Using it determine the convolution ) n ( x ) n ( x ) n ( x
2 1
= of
the sequences, where
) 1 n ( ) n ( ) 1 n ( ) n ( x ) n ( x
2 1
+ + + = =

Answer

Convolution property:

If
AE57/AC57/AT57 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS JUNE 2013

IETE 12

| | | |
)
| |
| |
} 1 , 2 , , 3 , 2 , 1 {
) 2 ( ) 1 ( 2 ) ( 3 ) 1 ( 2 ) 2 ( ) (
2 3 2
) ( ) 2( 3
(2w) cos 2 w cos 4 3
w cos 2 1
) ( ). ( ) ( ) ( x F
property, condition Using
w cos 2 1
1

) ( ) ( ) (
) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( } " {" ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
term bracketed the o property t shifting time
) ( ) (
summation of order the
( ) (
) ( x ) ( ) ( x ) ( f - : proof
) ( ) ( ) ( x ) ( then
) ( ) ( x ) ( ) (
2 2
2 2
2
2 1 2 1
1
1
1 2 1
2 1
2 1 2 1
2 1 1 2
2 1
2 1
2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1
2 2 1 1
=
+ + + + + + = =
+ + + + =
+ + + + =
+ + =
+ =
= +
+ =
+ + =
=
= =
+ + + = = =
=
= =
|
.
|

\
|
=

\
|
=
+ = +
+





n n n n n n x
e e e e
e e e e
e x e x n x n
e e
e
e n x e x e x
n n n n x n x
e x e x n x n x
e x e x e x e x
Apply
e m n x m x
ing Interchang
e m n x m x
e n n x n n x
e x e x n n x
e x n e x n x
w j jw jw w j
w j w j jw jw
jw jw
jwn jwn
n
jwn
jwn
n
jw jw
jw jw
jw jw jw jw
n
jwn
m
jwn
n m
jwn
n
jw jw
jw jw



Q6 (a) Determine the conditions on the sampling interval T
S
so that each x(t) is
uniquely represented by the discrete time sequence x(n) = x(nT
S
).
(i) ) t 4 sin( ) t 2 sin( 3 ) t cos( ) t ( x + + =
(ii) ) t 2 ( c sin ) t 6 sin( 3 ) t ( c sin ) t 2 cos( ) t ( x + =

Answer
) 4 sin( ) 2 sin( 3 ) cos( ) ( t t t t x + + =
AE57/AC57/AT57 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS JUNE 2013

IETE 13

Comparing it with

4
1
T interval sampling
4 max 2 f
sec / 8 2 w frequency Sampling
2
2
f or 4
4 , 2 ,
) sin( ) sin( ) , cos( , ) (
s
s
max s
max
mox 3
3 2 1
3 3 2 2

=
=
= = = =
= = =
+ + =
Hence
Hz f or
ras w
w
w W
w w w
t w A t w A t w A t x
mox



| |
| | | |
8
1
T Interval Sampling
8 2 f freq. Sampling
4
2
w
f or 8 w is freq. Maximum
) 8 cos( ) 4 cos(
4
3
) sin( ) 3 sin(
t 2
1

2
) 2 sin(
) 6 sin( 3 ) sin( ) 3 sin(
) 2 (
1

2
) 2 sin(
) 6 sin( 3
) sin(
) 2 cos(
) 2 ( sin ) 6 sin( 3 ) ( sin ) 2 cos( ) ( Given ) (
s
max s
mox
max mox

=
= = =
+ =
+ =
+

=
+ =
Hz f
t t
t
t t
t
t
t t t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t c t t c t t x ii



Q6 (b) A causal LTI system is described by the differential equation

) t ( x ) t ( y 2
dt
) t ( dy
= +


Determine:
(i) The frequency response of the system
(ii) The group delay associated with the system
(iii) Output of the system to the input x(t)=e
-t
u(t)
(iv) Output of the system if the input has its fourier transform

) 2 j (
1 j
) jw ( X
+
+
=

Answer
(i) Taking F.transform both the sides of given equ


AE57/AC57/AT57 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS JUNE 2013

IETE 14


{ }
| |
| | ) ( 4 e y(t)
transform fouries inverse
) 2 (
1
) ( ). ( ) (
) ( e e y(t)
transform fouries inverse
2) (jw
1
1) (jw
1

2) 1)(jw (jw
1
(jw) H(jw) y(jw)
1 jw
1
x(jw)
) ( e x(t) ) (
4
2
2
1
.
2
1
1
2
tan ) ( ) (
2
-tan H(jw) ) (
2
1
x(jw)
y(jw)
H(jw)
x(jw) 2y(jw) y(w)
2 2t -
2
2t - t -
t -
2 2
1
1 -
t te
Taking
jw
jw
jw X jw H iv
t u
Taking
t u iii
w
w
w
dw
d
jw H
dw
d
w T
w
ii
jw
jw
t

=
+
+
=
=
+

+
=
+ +
= =
+
=
=
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
)
`

|
.
|

\
|
= =
|
.
|

\
|
=
+
= =
= +

Q7 (a) Consider the signal ) 1 t ( u e ) t ( x
t 5
=

and its Laplace Transform be X(s)
(i) Evaluate X(s) and find its ROC
(ii) Determine the values of the finite numbers A and t
0
such that
the Laplace transform G(s) of ) t t ( u Ae ) t ( g
0
t 5
=

has the
same algebraic form as X(s).What is the ROC corresponding
to G(s)?

Answer

(i) By definition
AE57/AC57/AT57 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS JUNE 2013

IETE 15

{
| |
-5 R{s} R.O.C
5
) 5 5 (
) 5 5 (
0 ) 5 (
1
) 5 5 (
) 5 5 (
1
) 5 5 ( 1
1
) (
1 t 0
1 t 1
) 1 (
) 1 ( ) (
) ( ) 5 (
>
+
+
=
+
+ =

+
+
=

+
=


=
<
>
=



=
s
t
e
t
e s
t
e
dt
t
e dt
st
e
st
e
s
x
t u
dt
st
e t u
st
e s x
dt
st
e t x x

{ } 5 s R R.O.C
-1. to -1, A
) 8 ( ) 8 ( ..........
5
) (
5
) (
0 0 ) 0 ( 0
0 0 ) 0 ( 1
) (
) (
) ( ) (
) (
0
0
0
) 5 (
0
) 5 (
0
) 5 ( 5
0
0
5
<
= =
=
+

=
+

=
= =

> <
< >
=
=
=
+


if x G
s
Ae
s G
s
Ae
A
dt Ae dt e Ae s G
t t t t
t t t t
t t u
dt e t t u Ae
dt e t g s G
ii
t s
t
t s
t
s
t
st t
st t
st

Q7 (b) Find the inverse Laplace transform of
) 1 )( 2 (
3
) (
+

=
s s
s X
If the ROC is:

(i) Re{s} > 1
(ii) Re{s} < - 2
(iii) -2 < Re{s} < 1


Answer
AE57/AC57/AT57 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS JUNE 2013

IETE 16

{ } 1
) (
1 2 ) (
) 1 (
1
) 1 (
1
) 1 )( 2 (
3
) (
>

+
=
+

=
s ROCR
i
and haspolesat s X
s s
s s
s X

Is to the right of the eight most poles so both poles correspond to casual signals.

1 } { 2 ) (
) ( ) ( -e ) (
1
1
) ( e -
2
1
) ( e -
signals anticasual to correspond poles both so pole leftmost of left the to is 2 ) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
1
1
) (
2
1
) (
2t -
t -
2t -
2
2
< <
+ =

<
=

s R iii
t u e t u t x
and
s
t u
s
t u
s R
ii
t u e t u e t x
and
s
t u e
s
t u e
t
t t
t
t

for pole at 2 ROC lies to the right of this pole .:. This pole corresponds to a casual
signal.
.:.
1
1
) (
2
+

s
t u e
t

Second pole is at s=1. Hence ROC is to the left of this pole. So this pole corresponds
to the ant casual
) ( ) ( 4 ) (
1
1
) (
2
t u e t e t x
Hence
s
t u e
t t
t
+ =




AE57/AC57/AT57 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS JUNE 2013

IETE 17

Q8 (a) Determine the signal x(n) whose z-transform is given
by a z ), az 1 log( ) z ( X
1
> + =



Answer
1 1
1
)
) (
(
1
) (
), 1 log( ) (
1
2
1
+

=
+

=
> + =

az
az
dz
z dx
Z
az
az
dz
z dx
a z az z X

Take inverse Z-transform

| | | |
1
) ( ) (
| | | |
1
1
) ( ) (
1
1
) (

1
) (
1 1
1 ) (
) (
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
a z
az
a
n u a a
a Z
az
n u a
az
n u a
know we
az
az
z n nx
az
az
z
dz
z dx
z
n
n
n
>
+

>
+

=
(

+

=
(

= =



Using time shifting property,

) 1 ( ) 1 (
1
) 1 (
) (
) (
) 1 ( ) ( ) (
| | | |
1
) 1 ( ) (
| | | |
1
) 1 ( ) (
1
1
1
1
1
1
=

=
=
>
+

>
+

+

n u a
n
n u
n
a
n x
n u a n nx
ly consequent
a z
az
az
n u a
a z
az
az
n u a a
n n
n
n
n
n


AE57/AC57/AT57 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS JUNE 2013

IETE 18

Q8 (b) Find the inverse z-transform of
1
1
z ) 3 / 1 ( 1
z 1
) z ( X

+
=
When,
(i) ROC: |z| > 1/3
(ii) ROC : |z| < 1/3, using power series expansion

Answer

......
27
4
9
4
3
4
1
.... ,.........
27
4
,
9
4
,
3
4
, 0 ) (
......
27
4
9
4
3
4
1 ) (
27
4

27
4
9
4

9
4

9
4
3
4
3
1
1
1 3 / 1 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3
3 2
2
2 1
1
1 1
+ + + +
)
`

=
+ + + =


z z z
n x
z z z z x
z
z z
z
z z
z
z z

..... 36z - 12z - 3 -
36z
36z - 12z
12z
12z - 4
4
3
1 1
3
1
) (
2
2
2
1
1 1
+

+ +


z
z z
ii


AE57/AC57/AT57 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS JUNE 2013

IETE 19

Q9 (a) A random variable X has the uniform distribution given by
( )

=
otherwise 0,
2 x 0 for ,
2
1
x f
X

Determine its mean and variance

Answer
| |
3 3
4
] [ ] [ var
3
4
3 2
1
2
1
2
1
. ) ( ] [
2 2
1
.
2
1
2
1
. ) (
2
2 2
2 2 2
2
2
0
3 2
0
2
2
0
2 2 2
2
0
2 2
0
2
0

= =
=
= = =
= =
= = =
= =


x E x E iancex
x
dx x
dx x dx x fx x x E
x
dx x
dx x dx x xfx m
x


Q9 (b) A WSS random process X(t) with autocorrelation function
| | a
X
e ) ( R

=
where a is a real positive constant is applied to the input of LTI system
with impulse response h(t) = e
-bt
u(t) where b is real positive constant.
Find the autocorrelation function of the output Y(t) of the system.

Answer
Frequency response H/W of the system
H (W) =F [h(t)]=1/jw+b

Power spectral density of X(t) is
Sx (w) =F [Rx(z)]=
( )
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
+
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2
2 2
2 2
) (
2 1
) ( | ) ( | ) (
2
a w
a
b b a
b
b w
b
b b a
a
b w
a
b w
w sx w H w sr
a w


Taking inverse Fourier transform on both sides


| |
| | | /
2 2
) (
1
) (
e a e b
be ae
b b a
c R

+
=
AE57/AC57/AT57 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS JUNE 2013

IETE 20


Text Books

1. Signals and Systems, A.V. Oppenheim and A.S. Willsky with S. H. Nawab,
Second Edition, PHI Private limited, 2006.

2. Communication Systems, Simon Haykin, 4th Edition, Wiley Student Edition, 7th
Reprint 2007.