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SAVEZ GRA EVINSKIH INŽENJERA SRBIJE ASSOCIATION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS OF SERBIA INŽENJERSKA KOMORA SRBIJE SERBIAN
SAVEZ GRA EVINSKIH INŽENJERA SRBIJE ASSOCIATION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS OF SERBIA INŽENJERSKA KOMORA SRBIJE SERBIAN
SAVEZ GRA EVINSKIH INŽENJERA SRBIJE ASSOCIATION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS OF SERBIA INŽENJERSKA KOMORA SRBIJE SERBIAN
SAVEZ GRA EVINSKIH INŽENJERA SRBIJE ASSOCIATION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS OF SERBIA INŽENJERSKA KOMORA SRBIJE SERBIAN
SAVEZ GRA EVINSKIH INŽENJERA SRBIJE ASSOCIATION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS OF SERBIA INŽENJERSKA KOMORA SRBIJE SERBIAN
SAVEZ GRA EVINSKIH INŽENJERA SRBIJE ASSOCIATION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS OF SERBIA INŽENJERSKA KOMORA SRBIJE SERBIAN

SAVEZ GRA EVINSKIH INŽENJERA SRBIJE

ASSOCIATION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS OF SERBIA

INŽENJERA SRBIJE ASSOCIATION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS OF SERBIA INŽENJERSKA KOMORA SRBIJE SERBIAN CHAMBER OF ENGINEERS

INŽENJERSKA KOMORA SRBIJE

SERBIAN CHAMBER OF ENGINEERS

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IZDAVA / (PUBLISHER):

Savez gra evinskih inženjera Srbije / Association of Civil Engineers of Serbia Beograd, Kneza Miloša 9/I, Tel/Faks: (011) 3241 656

PROGRAMSKI ODBOR / (PROGRAMME COMMITTEE):

KOPREDSEDNICI / (CO-CHAIRS):

Prof.dr Radomir FOLI , Novi Sad, Srbija Prof.dr Milan MAKSIMOVI , Beograd, Srbija LANOVI / (MEMBERS):

Prof. Dr. Heinz BRANDL, Wien, Austrija Prof. Dr. Luvig TRAUNER, Maribor, Slovenija Prof. Dr. Lidija ZDRAVKOVI , London, U.K. Prof. Dr. Tanja ROJE-BONACCI, Split, Hrvatska Prof. Dr. Ivan VRKLJAN, Rijeka, Hrvatska Prof. Dr. Vasil VITANOV, Skoplje, Makedonija Prof. Dr. Adnan IBRAHIMOVI , Tuzla, BiH Prof. Dr. Asterios LIOLIOS, Xanthi, Gr ka Doc. Dr. Georgi FRANGLOV, Sofia, Bugarska Prof. Dr. Zvonko TOMANOVI , Podgorica, Crna Gora Prof. Dr. Slobodan ORI , Beograd, Srbija Dr. Nenad ŠUŠI , Beograd, Srbija Prof. Dr. Milinko VASI , Novi Sad, Srbija Prof. Dr. Mitar OGO, Novi Sad, Srbija Prof. Dr. Petar SANTRA , Subotica, Srbija Miroljub SAMARDAKOVI , Niš, Srbija

EDITOR / (Editor in Chief): Prof.dr Radomir FOLI TEHNI KI UREDNIK / (Editor): Aleksandar UKI

Svi radovi u ovom zborniku radova su recenzirani. Stavovi izneti u ovoj publikaciji ne odražavaju nužno i stavove izdava a, nau nog komiteta ili editora.

TIRAŽ (Circulation): 200 ŠTAMPA: Akademska izdanja, Zemun

III

SAVEZ GRA EVINSKIH INŽENJERA SRBIJE

i

SRPSKO DRUŠTVO ZA MEHANIKU TLA I GEOTEHNI KO IŽENJERSTVO

ZBORNIK RADOVA

PETO NAU NO-STRU NO ME UNARODNO SAVETOVANJE

GEOTEHNI KI ASPEKTI GRA EVINARSTVA

FIFTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE GEOTECHNICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS

Editor: Prof. dr Radomir Foli

Sokobanja, 29. - 31. oktobar 2013.

IV

ORGANIZATORI SAVETOVANJA / (CONFERENCE ORGANISERS):

Savez gra evinskih inženjera Srbije (Beograd), Srpsko društvo za mehaniku tla i geotehni ko inženjerstvo (Beograd)

ORGANIZACIONI ODBOR / (ORGANISING COMMITTEE):

PREDSEDNIK (Chairman): Prof.dr Radomir FOLI , dipl.inž.gra ., Novi Sad

SEKRETAR (Secretary):

LANOVI (Members):

Nevena VUJADINOVI , Beograd Dr Vencislav GRABULOV, dipl.inž.tehn., Beograd, Srbija Milutin IGNJATOVI , dipl.inž, Beograd, Srbija Mr Dragan ZLATKOV, dipl.inž.gra ., Niš, Srbija Jovo SMILJANI , dipl.inž.gra ., Novi Sad, Srbija Milica TRIFKOVI , dipl.inž.gra ., Beograd, Srbija Dubravka PETKOVI , dipl.inž., a ak, Srbija

ODRŽAVANJE SAVETOVANJA SU POMOGLI / (SPONSORED BY):

Ministarstvo prosvete, nauke i tehnološkog razvoja Republike Srbije

Inženjerska komora Srbije

Institut IMS a.d. Beograd

Lipex d.o.o. Beograd

Geoestetika d.o.o. Beograd

Geoput d.o.o. Beograd

Projektinženjering Tim d.o.o. Niš

Sigmainženjering d.o.o. Novi Sad

Benevento Ums d.o.o. a ak

Saobra ajni institut CIP d.o.o. Beograd

Slika na koricama: iskop za izgradnju garaže "Pionirski park" u Beogradu (autor prof. dr Milan Maksimovi )

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S A D R Ž A J C O N T E N T S

Radovi po pozivu / Keynote Papers

1. H.Brandl (Vienna – Austrija) BOX – SHAPED DEEP FOUNDATIONS TO IMPROVE THE

BEARING-SETTLEMENT BEHAVIOUR OF STRUCTURES

1

2. L.Trauner, A.Štrukelj, M.Pšunder, B.Macuh (Ljubljana – Slovenia)

A

STATIC LOADING PILE TEST AT THE SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE

25

3. T.Roje-Bonacci (Split – Hrvatska)

 

PRIRODNE BRANE S OSVRTOM NA NAJVE U POZNATU BRANU USOI

U

TAJIKISTANU

 

43

4. I.Vrkljan (Rijeka – Hrvatska) MEHANIKA STIJENA – 50 GODINA NAKON OSNIVANJA ISRM-A

53

5. E.Mandži (Tuzla – BiH) SLIJEGANJE TERENA GRADA TUZLA

61

 

Tematska oblast 1 / Topic 1 NORMATIVI – TEHNI KI PROPISI U GRA EVINSKOJ GEOTEHNICI U SVETLU USAGLAŠAVANJA SA EN STANDARDIMA GEOTECHNICAL STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS

6. J.Papi , V.Prolovi , Lj.Dimitrievski (Skoplje – Makedonija, Niš - Srbija) PREDLOG ZA PRORA UN POTPORNIH ZIDOVA U REGIONU PREMA EVROKODU 7

75

 

Tematska oblast 2 / Topic 2 STANJE GEOTEHNIKE U NAŠOJ ZEMLJI STATE OF GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING IN SERBIA

7. V.Vujani , M.Joti (Beograd – Srbija) RAZVOJ GEOTEHNIKE U PUTARSTVU (1955 – 2013)

83

 

Tematska oblast 3

/ Topic 3

GEOTEHNIKA U PROJEKTOVANJU I IZVO ENJU OBJEKATA INFRASTRUKTURE GEOTECHNICAL ASPECTS IN INFRASTRUCTURE

8. M.Memi , R.Foli , A.Ibrahimovi (Lukavac – BiH, Novi Sad – Srbija, Tuzla – BiH) UTICAJ PROMJENE PARAMETARA TLA NA POMIJERANJE ARMIRANOBETONSKIH DIJAFRAGMI

93

9. V.An elkovi , D.Divac, Ž.Lazarevi , V.Nedovi (Beograd – Srbija) ISPITIVANJE KARAKTERSITIKA SMICANJA NA KONTAKTU BETON-STENSKA MASA

103

10. Z.Kovrlija, A.Tomanovi (Beograd – Srbija) FUNDIRANJE MOSTA "M 13" PREKO KIJEVSKOG POTOKA, SEKTOR B5.1, OBILAZNICA OKO BEOGRADA

113

11. V.Bogdanovi (Beograd – Srbija) GEOTEHNI KE PODLOGE ZA GLAVNI PROJEKAT CEVOVODA ø300 mm

U

VRANI U

 

119

12. P.Petronijevi , V.Prolovi , S.Zdravkovi (Niš – Serbia)

POOR FOUNDATIONS AS A CAUSE OF COLLAPSE OF THE LATTICE MAST ON VRTOP PEAK

125

VI

13. M.Vasi , M. ogo (Novi Sad – Serbia) GEOTECHNICAL CONDITIONS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF A NEW DRINKING WATER PLANT IN ZRENJANIN

133

14. N. uri (Bijeljina – Republika Srpska – BiH) GEOTEHNI KA ISTAŽIVANJA TERENA NA LOKACIJI POSTROJENJA ZA PRE AVANJE OTPADNIH VODA V.OBARSKA KOD BIJELJINE

139

15. Z.Tali , . erimagi (Sarajevo – BiH) GEOTEHNI KE KARAKTERISTIKE TERENA I PRORA UN DOZVOLJENE NOSIVOSTI NA LOKACIJI MOSTA BR. 1, AUTOPUT KORIDOR Vc, DIONICA TAR IN – KONJIC, PODDIONICA TAR IN – ZUKI I

147

16. Z.Tali , . erimagi (Sarajevo – BiH) GEOTEHNI KE KARAKTERISTIKE TERENA I PRORA UN DOZVOLJENE NOSIVOSTI NA LOKACIJI MOSTA BR. 2, AUTOPUT KORIDOR Vc, DIONICA TAR IN – KONJIC, PODDIONICA TAR IN – ZUKI I

157

17. D.Peco, I.Bojovi , S.Šijan, M.Savi , V.Jovanovi , N.Lazi (Beograd – Srbija) FUNDATION OF RAIL WAY - ROAD BRIDGE OVER THE DANUBE IN NOVI SAD

163

 

Tematska oblast 4

/ Topic 4

GEOTEHNI KI ASPEKTI GRA ENJA U URBANIM SREDINAMA GEOTECHNICAL ASPECTS OF CONSTRUCTION IN URBAN AREAS

18. Ž.Žugi , M.Raki (Beograd, Loznica – Srbija) PROJEKAT SANACIJE TEMELJA ZGRADE PRIRODNO-MATEMATI KOG FAKULTETA – NEKI ASPEKTI IZVO ENJA

171

19. D.Zlatkov, P.Petronijevi , V.Prolovi (Niš – Serbia) FOUNDING OF THE SHALLOW ARCH IN POOR GEOTECHNICAL CONDITIONS

179

20. R. or evi (Beograd – Srbija)TEMELJENJE UZ PROSTORNA OGRANI ENJA

185

 

Tematska oblast 5

/ Topic 5

ISTRAŽNI RADOVI, KARAKTERISTIKE TLA I STENA, KARAKTERIZACIJA I KLASIFIKACIJA TERENA SITE INVESTIGATIONS, CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND ROCK

21. M.Prica, K. okovi , N.Šuši , D.Berisavljevi (Belgrade – Serbia) IN SITU TESTING OF SOILS BY SCREW PLATE LOAD TEST (SPLT)

191

22. K. okovi , L. aki, N.Šuši (Belgrade – Serbia) ASSESSING SOIL DISPERSIVITY BASED ON CLASSIFICATION TESTS

197

23. S.Samardakovi , M.Samardakovi , R.Foli (Niš, Novi Sad – Srbija) DINAMI KA PENETRACIONA ISPITIVANJA I ME USOBNE KORELACIJE

205

24. S.Krsti , M.Ljubojev, V.Ljubojev, D.Taši (Bor – Srbija) GEOTEHNI KA ISTRAŽIVANJA TERENA NA TRASI IZMEŠTANJA KOLEKTORA - FLOTACIJSKO JALOVIŠTE VELIKI KRIVELJ

213

25. E.Mandži , K.Mandži , E.Babaji , A. Ibrahimovi , E.Mandži (Tuzla – BiH) KARAKTERISTIKE PERIDOTITA – SERPENTINITA KOD IZGRADNJE GEOTEHNI KIH OBJEKATA

219

 

Tematska oblast 6

/ Topic 6

MODELI GEOMATERIJALA I NUMERI KE METODE GEOTECHNICAL MATERIAL MODELS AND NUMERICAL METHODS

26. G.Hadži-Nikovi , S. ori (Belgrade – Serbia) ULTIMATE BE RING CAPACITY IN UNSATURATED SOILS

225

VII

27. B.Foli , M. osi , .La inovi (Beograd, Loznica - Novi Sad) NDA VI MOSTA FUNDIRANOG NA ŠIPOVIMA PREKO PE-IPSILON KRIVIH ZA PESAK PREMA RISU

233

28. L.Zdravkovi (London – UK) THE USE OF THE MOHR-COULOMB MODEL IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING PRACTICE

243

 

Tematska oblast 7

/ Topic 7

PREDVI ANJE I REZULTATI OSMATRANJA OBJEKATA – OPSERVACIONI METOD OBSERVATIONAL METHOD, PREDICTION AND MONITORING

29. E. izmi , A.Skeji , D.Ljubun i , A.Bali (Sarajevo – BiH) MONITORING I NUMERI KO MODELIRANJE VREMENSKI OVISNIH POMJERANJA U KLIZIŠTU

249

 

Tematska oblast 8

/ Topic 8

POBOLJŠANJE TLA, ARMIRANJE, INJEKTIRANJE, DRENAŽE I DRUGO SOIL AND ROCK IMPROVEMENT

30. M. Vuki evi , S. Maraš-Dragojevi , S. Jockovi , M. Marjanovi , V. Pujevi (Beograd – Srbija) STABILIZACIJA ALEVRITA PRIMENOM PEPELA IZ TERMOELEKTRANE „KOLUBARA”

257

31. S.Abazi, I.Tomovski, P.Petrovski (Skoplje – Makedonija) EKSPERIMENTALNA I NUMERI KA ANALIZA PONAŠANJA ARMIRANE ZEMLJE

265

 

Tematska oblast 9

/ Topic 9

DUBOKI ISKOPI I TUNELI DEEP EXCAVATIONS AND TUNNELS

32. N.Krstivojevi (Valjevo – Srbija) ZAŠTITA TEMELJNE JAME I SUSEDNIH OBJEKATA ZA IZGRADNJU STAMBENO POSLOVNE ZGRADE NA k.p. 1118/1 K.O. PALILULA U ULICI DALMATINSKA 14 U BEOGRADU

271

 

Tematska oblast 10

/ Topic 10

 

STABILNOST KOSINA I KLIZIŠTA SLOPE STABILITY AND LANDSLIDES

33. Z.Radi , V.Ili (Beograd – Srbija) MERE ZA SPRE AVANJE POJAVA NESTABILNOSTI KOSINA IZAZVANIH TEHNOGENIM PROCESIMA NA AUTOPUTU E-75 U SRBIJI

277

34. Ž.Žugi (Beograd – Srbija) PRIMENA SOFTVERSKIH PAKETA FLAC I GEOSTUDIO ZA NASUTE BRANE I NASIPE

285

35. M.Jovanovi , I.Vasi (Novi Sad – Srbija) SANACIJA OBJEKTA NA KLIZIŠTU DELIMI NIM POTKOPAVANJEM I PODIZANJEM HIDRAULI NIM PRESAMA U EROVI U

291

36. A.Spahi (Srajevo – BiH) RACIONALIZACIJA SANACIJE PLITKIH KLIZIŠTA U ZAVISNOSTI OD IZBORA GEOMETRIJE ARMIRANOBETONSKE POTPORNE KONSTRUKCIJE

299

VIII

37. A.Spahi (Sarajevo – BiH) FUNKCIJA ZAVISNOSTI TROŠKOVA I FAKTORA SIGURNOSTI KOD SANACIJE PLITKIH KLIZIŠTA U GLINAMA SA BETONSKOM POTPORNIM KONSTRUKCIJAMA

307

38. B.Susinov, K.Lazarov (Skopje, Strumica – Makedonija) STABILIZACIJA KOSIN OPTERE ENE OBJEKTOM PRIMENOM ARMIRANOBETONSKOG ZIDA

317

 

Tematska oblast 11

/ Topic 11

HIDROTEHNI KI NASIPI I NASUTE BRANE FLOOD PROTECTION DYKES AND EARTH AND ROCKFILL DAMS

39. M.Vu ini (Podgorica – Crna Gora) PRILOG SEIZMI KOJ ANALIZI NASUTIH BRANA

325

 

Tematska oblast 12

/ Topic 12

ŠIPOVI, DIJAFRAGME I DRUGE TEHNOLOGIJE FUNDIRANJA PILES, DIAPHRAGM WALLS AND OTHER FOUNDATION METHODS

40. D.Mandi , A.Kikovi , M. Hranisavljevi (Beograd – Srbija) PRIMENA JET GROUTING TEHNOLOGIJE KOD FUNDIRANJA U DUBOKOJ TEMELJNOJ JAMI STAMBENO – POSLOVNOG KOMPLEKSA NA NOVOM BEOGRADU

333

41. P.Santra , Ž.Baji (Subotica – Srbija) ANALIZA VARIJANTE ZAŠTITE TEMELJNE JAME I SUSEDNOG OBJEKTA

343

42. A. Liolios, K.Liolios, B.Folic (Xanthi – Greece, Belgrade – Serbia) DYNAMIC PILE-SOIL INTERACTION UNDER ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS:

NUMERICAL APPROACHES

349

43. .Rahimi (Mostar – BiH) ISPITIVANJE BUŠENIH ŠIPOVA PROBNIM OPTERE ENJEM NA PRITISAK

355

44. D.Zlatkov, M.Stanojev, S.Budi (Niš – Srbija) VIŠEKRITERIJUMSKA OPTIMIZACIJA FUNDIRANJA OBJEKATA "MAGNETTO" KOMPLEKS "FIAT AUTOMOBILI SRBIJA" KRAGUJEVAC

363

45. N.Davidovi , Z.Boni , V.Prolovi (Niš – Serbia) GEOTECHNICAL CONDITIONS FOR THE FOUNDATION OF THE „SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PARK“ BUILDING IN NIŠ

371

 

Tematska oblast 13

/ Topic 13

GEOTEHNIKA SAOBRA AJNICA: PUTEVI, ŽELEZNICE I AERODROMI GEOTECHNICAL ASPECTS OF ROADS, RAILWAYS AND AIRPORTS

46. M.Stevanovi , S.Bogdanovi (Beograd – Srbija) ANALIZA REZULTATA UPOREDNIH ISPITIVANJA MATERIJALA STABILIZOVANOG CEMENTOM I HIDRAULI NIM VEZIVOM

377

47. Z.Baši , A. Džananovi (Tuzla – BiH) UPOTREBA NUS PROIZVODA PROCESA PROIZVODNJE SODE ZA IZGRADNJU DONJEG STROJA PUTEVA

383

IX

Tematska oblast 14

/ Topic 14

DEPONIJE VRSTOG OTPADA, EKOLOŠKI ASPEKTI GEOTEHNIKE ENVIRONMENTAL GEOTECHNICS, SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL

48. D.Raki , L. aki, S. ori (Beograd – Srbija) ME UZAVISNOST PARAMETARA STIŠLJIVOSTI STAROG KOMUNALNOG OTPADA I KOEFICIJENTA POROZNOSTI

391

49. S. okanovi (Beograd – Srbija) GEOTEHNI KA ISTRAŽIVANJA ZA POTREBE PROŠIRENJA DEPONIJE KOMUNALNOG OTPADA U KRALJEVU

401

 

Tematska oblast 15

/ Topic 15

 

MIKROZONIRANJE I SEIZMI KI RIZIK SEISMIC MICROZONING AND SEISMIC RISK

50. M.Vu ini (Podgorica – Crna Gora) NEKI POJMOVI O ZEMLJOTRESIMA SA ASPEKTA POTREBA GRA EVINARSTVA

405

51. N.Mani , D.Luki (Novi Pazar, Subotica – Srbija) UTICAJ KVALITETA NASIPA NA SEIZMI KU POUZDANOST INFRASTRUKTURNIH OBJEKATA

413

 

Tematska oblast 16

/ Topic 16

 

OBRAZOVANJE U OBLASTI GEOTEHNIKE, SVI NIVOI OBRAZOVANJA KADROVA EDUCATION IN GEOTECHNICAL DOMAIN, ALL LEVELS

52. M.Hamova, G.Frangov, H.Zayakova, A.Mihailov, M.Periklijska (Sofia – Bulgaria) PROBLEMS AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF GEOTECHNICAL TRAINING

421

53. J.Josifovski, M.Jovanovski, J.Papi , S. or evski, I.Peševski (Skoplje – Makedonija) NEKE NOVOSTI U STUDIJSKOM PROGRAMU ZA GEOTEHNIKU

425

54. M.Trifkovi , Ž.Nestorovi (Subotica, Kladovo – Srbija) NEKI ASPEKTI STICANJA VEŠTINA I ZNANJA U INŽENJERSKIM OBLASTIMA

431

 

Tematska oblast 17

/ Topic 17

OSTALE TEME OD ZNA AJA, NEOUBUHVA ENE TEMAMA OD 1 DO 16 OTHER TOPICS OF INTEREST NOT COVERED BY THE LIST ABOVE

55. A.Zahariev, G.Frangov, I.Zahivko (Sofija – Bugarska) INCREASE OF THE OVERALL STABILITY OF HPP ROSITZA – 1, BULGARIA

435

56. S.Zdravkovi , D.Zlatkov, M.Stanojev (Niš – Srbija) OCCURRENCE OF GREAT DIFFERENCE OF BENDING MOMENTS, DUE TO THE SETTLING OF THE SUPPORTS DEPENDING ON THE CROSS SECTION, CALCULATED ACCORDING TO THE SECOND ORDER THEORY

443

57. D.Raki , I.Basari , N.Šuši (Beograd – Srbija) GEOTEHNI KI ASPEKTI ODRŽIVOG RAZVOJA ENERGETSKE GEO–STRUKTURE

455

58. M.Trifkovi , Ž.Nestorovi , T.Milutinovi , G.Peji i (Subotica, Kladovo – Srbija, Trebinje-R.Srpska-BiH, Br ko - BiH) IZBOR TA AKA ZA DEFORMACIONU ANALIZU TLA I OBJEKATA PRIMENOM GEODETSKIH METODA

463

X

PREDGOVOR / (FOREWORD)

Raznolikost geotehni kih uslova u našoj zemlji i socioekonomski odnosi u društvu, kao i položaj naše zemlje u svetu poslednjih godina, doveli su do zaostajanja za razvijenijim zemljama sveta u oblasti gra evinske geotehnike. Zbog toga postoji potreba da se rezimiraju dosadašnji rezultati i dostignu a u ovoj važnoj oblasti u širokom spektru segmenata i to od metoda primenjenih geotehni kih terenskih istražnih radova, laboratorijskih ispitivanja, primene savremenih teorijskih i numeri kih postupaka, metodologije analize i projektovanja, kao i u oblasti prakti ne gra evinske operative. Uspešno održana savetovanja o geotehni kim aspekima gra evinarstva (prvo Savetovanje na Kopaoniku 2005. godine, drugo Savetovanje u Sokobanji 2007. godine, tre e i etvrto Savetovanje održano na Zlatiboru 2009. i 2011. godine) podstaklo je Savez gra evinskih inženjera Srbije (SGIS) da zajedno sa Srpskim društvom za mehaniku tla i geotehni ko inženjerstvo, uz podršku Ministarstva prosvete, nauke i tehnološkog razvoja Republike Srbije i Inženjerske komore Srbije, organizuje peto Savetovanje sa istom osnovnom tematikom. Osnovni cilj Savetovanja je razmena iskustva stru njaka razli itih profila i specijalnosti koji se bave geotehnikom. Savetovanje treba da ukaže na glavne pravce razvoja ove struke koji bi odgovarali uslovima i potrebama u ovoj fazi izgradnje naše zemlje. Pored toga, to je prilika da se razmotri i stanje naše regulative u ovoj oblasti i potrebe njenog usaglašavanja sa najnovijim internacionalnim i evropskim standardima. Zbornik radova sa etvrtog Savetovanja sadrži ukupno 58 radova koje je Programski odbor nakon pregleda prihvatio za izlaganje na Savetovanju. Na po etku zbornika štampani su radovi po pozivu istaknutih stru njaka, a ostali radovi su razvrstani u ukupno 17 tematskih grupa koje obuhvataju prakti no sve aspekte geotehnike, i to.

1. NORMATIVI – TEHNI KI PROPISI U GRA EVINSKOJ GEOTEHNICI U SVETLU USAGLAŠAVANJA SA EN STANDARDIMA

2. STANJE GEOTEHNIKE U NAŠOJ ZEMLJI

3. GEOTEHNIKA U PROJEKTOVANJU I IZVO ENJU OBJEKATA INFRASTRUKTURE

4. GEOTEHNI KI ASPEKTI GRA ENJA U URBANIM SREDINAMA

5. ISTRAŽNI RADOVI, KARAKTERISTIKE TLA I STENA, KARAKTERIZACIJA I KLASIFIKACIJA TERENA

6. MODELI GEOMATERIJALA I NUMERI KE METODE

7. PREDVI ANJE I REZULTATI OSMATRANJA OBJEKATA, OPSERVACIONI METOD

8. POBOLJŠANJE TLA, ARMIRANJE, INJEKTIRANJE, DRENAŽE I DRUGO

9. DUBOKI ISKOPI I TUNELI

10. STABILNOST KOSINA I KLIZIŠTA

11. HIDROTEHNI KI NASIPI I NASUTE BRANE

12. ŠIPOVI, DIJAFRAGME I DRUGE TEHNOLOGIJE FUNDIRANJA

13. GEOTEHNIKA SAOBRA AJNICA: PUTEVI, ŽELEZNICE I AERODROMI

14. DEPONIJE VRSTOG OTPADA, EKOLOŠKI ASPEKTI GEOTEHNIKE

15. MIKROZONIRANJE I SEIZMI KI RIZIK

16. OBRAZOVANJE U OBLASTI GEOTEHNIKE, SVI NIVOI OBRAZOVANJA KADROVA

17. OSTALE TEME OD ZNA AJA, NEOBUHVA ENE TEMAMA OD 1 DO 16

SGIS zahvaljuje ovim putem preduze ima i institucijama koje su pomogle održavanje ovog Savetovanja. SGIS tako e zahvaljuje lanovima Organizacionog odbora i Programskog odbora kao i autorima radova na uloženom trudu i njihovom stvarala kom radu u pripremi radova.

Nadamo se i želimo da etvrto savetovanje SGIS o geotehni kim aspektima gra evinarstva bude plodonosno i da se svi u esnici vrate u svoju sredinu oboga eni novim saznanjima i kolegijalnim poznanstvima.

Beograd, oktobar 2013.

EDITOR: Prof.dr Radomir Foli , Novi Sad TEHNI KI UREDNIK: Mr Aleksandar uki , Beograd

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UDK: 624.154.042.7 Pregledni (naučni) članak REVIEW PAPER

BOX-SHAPED DEEP FOUNDATIONS TO IMPROVE THE BEARING-SETTLEMENT BEHAVIOUR OF STRUCTURES

Em.O.Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.techn. Dr.h.c.mult. Heinz Brandl

Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria

ABSTRACT Box shaped deep foundations consist primarily of pile walls or diaphragm walls (but also of deep/mixing walls or jet grouting walls). Combined systems of pile walls and jet grouting columns are also used. Such schemes have proved suitable for high-rise buildings, for bridges, silos, power stations, etc. Special applications are strengthening of old foundations (e.g. river bridges against scouring) and buildings in seismic zones. From theory, comprehensive model tests, and numerous site measurements and observations it could be concluded, that box-shaped deep foundations exhibit significant advantages over conventional pile or diaphragm panel foundations, because concrete elements and enclosed soil form a quasi-composite body with a high bearing capacity in vertical and horizontal direction. Moreover, they have a high resistance to earthquake, soil liquefaction and cyclic/fluctuating loading processes. The paper comprises theory, test results, design methods and case histories.

KEYWORDS: Piled raft foundations, diaphragm wall foundations, box-shaped deep foundations, earthquake resistance, scour resistance

SANDUČASTI DUBOKI TEMELJI ZA POBOLJŠANJE PONAŠANJA NOSIVOST- SLEGANJE KONSTRUKCIJE

REZIME Sandučasti duboki temelji prvenstveno sastoje se od zidova formiranih pobijanjem šipova ili dijafragmi (ali takođe od dubokih/mešovitih zidova formiranih mlaznim injektiranjem. Koriste se i kombinovani sistemi zidova od šipova i stubova dobijenih mlaznim injektiranjem. Ovaj način je adekvatan za visoke zgrade, mostove, silose, energane, itd. Posebne primene su pojačavanje postojećih temelja, tj. mostova preko reka usled podlokavanja i zgrada u seizmičkim zonama. Na osnovu teorije, opsežnih eksperimenata na modelima i brojna merenja i monitoring može se zaključiti da sandučasti duboki temelji ispoljavaju značajne prednosti u odnosu na klasične šipove ili temelj panel-dijafragmi jer betonski elementi uokviruju (zatvaraju) tlo kao kvazi-spregnuto telo velike nosivosti u vertikalnom i horizontalnom pravcu. Oni čak imaju veću seizmičku otpornost, pojavu likvefakcije i cikličko/ fluktuarijuće procese opterećenja. U članku su opisani i analizirane teorijske osnove, rezultati eksperimenata, metode projektovanja i studije slučaja.

KLJUČNE REČI: AB ploča na šipovima, temelji od zidova dijafragmi, sandučasti duboki temelji, otpornost na zemljotrese, otpornost na podlokavanje/ispiranja

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BOX-SHAPED PILE AND DIAPHRAGM WALL FOUNDATIONS

Introduction

Box-shaped foundations have proved suitable for high-rise buildings, for bridges, silos, power stations etc. Special applications are foundations in creeping slopes (Fig. 1), strengthening of old foundations (e.g. river bridges against scouring, buildings in seismic zones (Fig. 2)). In principle all forms of ground plans are possible (Fig. 3).

Box-shaped foundations act as a compound body consisting of piles (or diaphragm walls, deep-mixing walls or jet grouting walls) and the enclosed soil. This quasi-monolith can transfer high vertical and horizontal forces. Walls and capping raft form a box, which acts physically like a “pot” turned upside down. Consequently, the settlements are smaller than for conventional pile groups, and the earthquake resistance is significantly higher. Pile boxes (of bored or auger piles) represent a special form of piled raft foundations utilising the enclosed soil core as an integrated load transfer member. This is also the case, if diaphragm walls instead of pile walls are installed (Fig. 4).

Intermittent pile walls with jet grouting columns between the piles are sometimes a cost-effective (and environmentally friendly) alternative to secant pile walls (Fig. 5). Thus, closed walls with a full shear bond can be obtained without excavating material for not reinforced (primary) piles; furthermore each pile can be reinforced. A certain disadvantage is the requirement of an additional site equipment. The optimum clear pile spacing lies typically between 0.2 to 0.5 m depending on the soil properties, required lengths of piles and jet grouting columns, on the jet grouting technique and on static requirements.

on the jet grouting technique and on static requirements. Figure 1. Box-shaped pile foundation for a

Figure 1. Box-shaped pile foundation for a bridge pier in unstable slope. Uphill pile wall tied back with prestressed anchors as additional safety measure.

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3 \ Figure 2. High earthquake resistance of box-shaped deep foundations. The confinement of the ground

\

Figure 2. High earthquake resistance of box-shaped deep foundations. The confinement of the ground enclose by pile walls or diaphragm walls reduces the soil deformation below buildings significantly.

reduces the soil deformation below buildings significantly. Figure 3. Box-shaped pile foundation for a river bridge

Figure 3. Box-shaped pile foundation for a river bridge pier (scheme proven also for silos).

for a river bridge pier (scheme proven also for silos). Figure 4. Box-shaped foundations on slurry-trench

Figure 4. Box-shaped foundations on slurry-trench walls (diaphragm walls) for a river bridge pier.

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4 Figure 5. Scheme of combined wall system for deep box foundations: Reinforced bored (or auger)

Figure 5. Scheme of combined wall system for deep box foundations: Reinforced bored (or auger) piles and jet grouting columns in between.

Model tests

Comprehensive model tests were performed to investigate parameters influencing the bearing-settlement behaviour of box-shaped pile foundations. The research program comprised 70 tests including the following test series (Hofmann 2001, Brandl 2001, Brandl & Hofmann 2002):

Pile boxes with inner piles (according to general design practice);

Pile boxes without inner piles;

Pile boxes without soil infill (simulating zero-stiffness of the enclosed soil);

Pile boxes filled with “concrete” (simulating a monolithic block);

Conventional pile groups (axial spacing a 2d);

Close contact or free gap between raft and soil beneath;

Single piles.

free gap between raft and soil beneath;  Single piles. Figure 6. Two examples of box-foundations

Figure 6. Two examples of box-foundations used for the standard model tests (scale 1:50). Equivalent diameter D for a circular box-foundation for box S.

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5 Figure 7. Dimensionless load-settlement curves for the pile box S. Pile length l = 40

Figure 7. Dimensionless load-settlement curves for the pile box S. Pile length l = 40 cm. s = settlement, Q = total load on the foundation, d = pile diameter, A = foundation area (cross sectional area within circumference of pile box), γ = density of soil.

within circumference of pile box), γ = density of soil. Figure 8. Similar to Fig. 37,

Figure 8. Similar to Fig. 37, but pile box L.

Tests with conventional pile groups and single piles were conducted to compare the load-settlement behaviour of the different pile patterns. Furthermore, pile diameter (d), pile length (l) and density of soil (γ) were varied to check their influence. The “standard” test series were performed with uniform quartzitic sand: d 50 = 0.75 mm, d max = 2 mm, C u = 3. Figure 6 shows two standard types of investigated box-foundations. The pile pattern was similar to the design of foundation alternatives for a long river bridge.

During the tests the load-settlement curves until failure, the settlement troughs and the pile forces in five or six measuring levels were registered.

Figures 7 and 8 show some test results in normalized diagrams. The data are given dimensionless to enable a direct comparison with results gained for conventional pile groups or from in situ measurements on construction sites. Moreover, dimensionless diagrams can be applied more easily to larger scales.

The diagrams demonstrate the effect of pile arrangement and intensity of bond within the pile box. The installation of inner piles reduces the settlement, which can be expressed by a small boxes is relatively greater, whereby, of course, large box-foundations as a whole can take higher total loads due to their larger area and pile number. Figure 9 illustrates the composite effect: The hatched zone between pile box without infill and full monolith depends on the bond factor.

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The influence of the ratio of box area A to box circumference U increases with the limit pile load. This ratio corresponds to the “hydraulic radius” R = A/U. Hence, boxes with a small hydraulic radius (i.e. long-stretched) can transfer higher loads than those with a square or circular shape. This coincides well with the theory, because square or circular foundations cause a higher stress concentration in the ground.

cause a higher stress concentration in the ground. Figure 9. Influence of stiffness of enclosed soil

Figure 9. Influence of stiffness of enclosed soil or bond effect between piles and enclosed soil of the box- foundation S; pile length l = 40 cm.

soil of the box- foundation S; pile length l = 40 cm. Figure 10. Box-factor 

Figure 10. Box-factor of deep box-foundations versus ratio A/U/d, where A = area of pile box, U = circumference of pile box, d = pile diameter. Derived from model tests.

The portion of external load directly taken by the soil core increases with increasing hydraulic radius of the pile box, assuming a similar pile arrangement. From the model tests, a “box-factor” could be deduced:

Q

soil

hence

= κ Q

total

,

Q

pile

= (1 κ ) Q

total

whereby 0 κ 0.4 ,

 

(1)

,

(2)

(3)

The box-factor increases with the stiffness of the soil core. Usually it lies below 0.4. A higher value can be obtained if the soil core is improved by jet grouting or deep mixing.

Figure 10 shows the box-factor for limit loads, which characterise a beginning steepening of the load-settlement curve. The κ-lines should not be extrapolated linearly to values higher than A/U/d = 2. It is rather recommended to

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design piles with a box-factor that then is kept constant (for safety reasons). When approaching failure load the forces concentrate in the piles, because the ratio of stiffness of piles to plastified soil increases. But due to a self- regulating behaviour box-foundations do not have a clear ultimate load. Figure 10 demonstrates the great influence of the cell size(s) on the load transfer via the soil core(s). The portion of external load directly taken by the enclosed soil of the box-foundation increases with the “hydraulic radius” A/U or A/U/d. A cohesion of the soil has no significant effect on the ratio Q soil /Q total , but it influences the load transfer mechanism of the piles, hence the percentage of skin friction force and base resistance force.

Figure 10 represents only one among various correlations because the box-factor depends on a series of parameters:

Ratio A/U/d;

Slenderness of the box-foundation, l/D;

Ratio of stiffness of concrete members (E concrete ) to soil (E soil );

Multi-cellular pattern of the box foundation;

Ratio of service load to limit or rupture load;

Settlement.

The portion of external load directly transferred from the raft into the soil (Q soil /Q total ) decreases with pile length l and box slenderness l/D respectively. The main reduction occurs between l/D = 0 (i.e. flat foundation where the raft takes 100 % of Q total ) and l/D = 0.5 to 0.75 where the raft usually takes about 60 to 30% of Q total .

raft usually takes about 60 to 30% of Q t o t a l . Figure

Figure 11. Base pressure of the piles versus settlement of the pile box S (Fig. 36). Pile length l = 50cm.

The transfer of vertical loads by a box-shaped pile foundation concentrates rather on the inner piles than on the outer ones. This effect increases with increasing total load (e.g. Fig. 11) and is caused by a silo pressure within the cells (Brandl 2001).

The base pressure of the piles increases with the size of the soil cells because larger cells facilitate higher silo pressures. In the upper zone of the box, the ring walls are subjected to a lateral earth pressure difference that is directed outward. With increasing depth, the horizontal silo pressure is widely compensated by the earth pressure at rest acting on the outer face of the box-foundation. Therefore, adjacent piles should exhibit sufficient bond along their connecting line (mainly in the upper zone), i.e. secant piles are advantageous over tangent piles. In the case of contiguous or even intermittent pile walls, a load transferring closure can be obtained by jet grouting between the spandrels. The effectiveness of piles forming cross walls in a deep box-foundation can be quantified by dividing the settlement reduction by the increase of the proportional pile number when adding inner piles to form a multi-cellular pattern. The model tests exhibited that piles forming cross walls in long-stretched boxes have a larger effect than those in square-shaped or circular cells.

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Theory and calculation

General

In conventional design practice, the bearing capacity of the capping raft of deep foundations is usually neglected. But box-shaped deep foundations behave as a compound body: the enclosed soil cannot move laterally and takes

part in bearing external loads. Consequently, the capping raft can be designed to take a signifyc cant percentage of the forces from the structure above by transferring it directly into the ground. Comprehensive model tests and in- situ measurements have shown that the settlement of such box-foundations is smaller than it would be in the case of conventional groups of piles or diaphragm wall panels. Avoiding the lateral deformation of the soil core and minimizing its shear deformation leads to a significant reduction of settlements, because the foundation system acts like a pot turned upside down. For the design and calculation of such deep box-foundations, several hypotheses have proved suitable:

Half-space hypothesis

Limit case hypotheses

Subgrade reaction models

Numerical models.

-
-

Figure 12. Design charts for deep box-foundations. Settlement curves for a cylindrical box foundation under a unit load of Q = 1 kN. Slenderness l/D of the foundation as parameter, whereby l = depth of pile or diaphragm wall foundation. Unit modulus of soil Es = 20 MN/m², d = wall thickness. For non-cylindrical foundations:

D = equivalent diameter.

Elastic-isotropic half-space hypothesis

Figure 12 shows a design chart for the determination of the unit-settlement of a cylindrical box-foundation depending on its diameter and slenderness. It is based on the half-space hypothesis (Brandl 1987, 2001). Originally, the integration of Mindlin’s equations was per performed for a circular diameter referring to the axis of the

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circumference wall (Hazivar, 1979). Therefore, if the box has a rectangular or polygonal shape, an equivalent diameter must be chosen (see also Figure 29). The theoretical diameter should be somewhat smaller than the outline of the cell (e.g. minus d/2), depending on the pile spacing (intermittent, contiguous or secant). This is an allowable approximation that has proven suitable in practice, especially for commonly designed and utilised rectangular box- foundations. In the case of a rectangular foundation box, the transformation into an equivalent diameter means a theoretically stronger stress concentration – especially in the case of long-stretched boxes (e.g. Figure 6, Box S). This effect justifies an equivalent diameter somewhat larger than the axial wall spacing and fits better to that area where friction forces are transferred in reality.

Single elements within the enclosed soil core reduce the settlement, but not significantly. Transverse walls have a greater effect. Another purpose of such additional inner elements is to stiffen the foundation-box and to gain a statically optimal support for the capping raft. Furthermore, the bearing capacity for horizontal loads and moments increases, and the earthquake resistance is improved significantly.

and the earthquake resistance is improved significantly. Figure 13. Cell-factor α c of (multi-cellular) deep

Figure 13. Cell-factor α c of (multi-cellular) deep box-foundations versus the ratio A/U/d. Number of cells, n, of the box-foundation as parameter.

The settlement assessment curves of Figures 12 and 27 were developed for cylindrical box-foundations without stiffening elements inside. But comprehensive model tests on box-shaped pile foundations with and without inner piles disclosed that the installation of inner walls increases the bearing capacity and reduces the settlement. From model tests and in situ measurements on numerous sites a cell-factor α c could be deduced, which describes the effect of a multi-cellular shape of the box-foundation (Figure 13). It was determined for service loads corresponding to about 50% of the limit loads. Commonly it varies between

0.5

α

c

1.0

,

(4)

The maximum value occurs if no inner piles are installed, the minimum refers to a multi-cellular pattern with relatively small cells. In the latter case the pile (or diaphragm wall) foundation behaves increasingly like an idealized quasi-monolithic block foundation with a deep-lying foundation base.

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Figure 13 illustrates that the cell-factor depends on the “hydraulic radius” A/U of the box foundation, on the pile diameter d (or wall thickness d), and on the number of cells within the box. The relatively greatest settlement- reducing and stiffening effect is gained with two or three cells. Usually, large foundations should exhibit at least three cells. The theoretical minimum of α c is obtained if the entire box is filled with concrete elements (or jet grouting columns or deep mixing columns). But this is uneconomical. A cost-effective compromise, however, could be a local soil core improvement by (jet) grouting. Nevertheless, experience has shown that the cell-factor used for practical settlement assessment should not be assumed smaller than α c = 0.5.

From Figures 12 and 13 the settlement s of a box-shaped deep foundation with an equivalent diameter D can be calculated as follows:

s =

α

c

Q

Q

tot

1

  E   ∆′

   

s ,1

E

s

z

,

(5)

α c = cell factor of the deep box-foundation (from Figure 13)

Q

tot

[kN] = settlement-effective total load on top of the pile group (or diaphragm wall group)

Q

1

E

s

= unit load, i.e.

Q

1

= 1 kN

[kN/m²] = modulus of soil (mean value)

E

s,1

= unit modulus, i.e.

= 20 MN/m²

z = unit settlement from Figure 12

Equation (5) is primarily valid for a wall thickness of about d = 1m, but may be used for d = 0.8 to 1.5m with sufficient accuracy. (In the case of diaphragm walls even for d = 0.6 m). It is – strictly speaking – based on a Poisson’s ratio of ν = 0.3 and on a modulus ratio of structural members to soil of about 10 3 . But values of 0.2 < ν ≤ 0.5 have no relevant influence on the result. Furthermore, a variation of the ratio E pile : E soil between 5.10 2 to 5.10 3 is allowable if the soil modulus is properly chosen. Hence equation (5) and Figure 12 have proved suitable for a wide range of different soils. Only for very soft clays too large settlements are calculated, and for very stiff overconsolidated clays the cell-factor should be neglected (hence approximately α c = 1 also for multi-cellular boxes). Furthermore, this formula is usually limited to soils with a modulus of about E s 100 MN/m 2 .

Limit case hypotheses

Limit case hypotheses and analyses refer to theoretically idealized limit assumptions (upper and lower bound approaches) and are not necessarily identical with limit load analyses or ultimate load conditions of deep foundations.

For assessing the bearing capacity of box-shaped foundations, two methods have proved successful in design practice:

Calculating the bearing capacity of the single pile or single diaphragm element (Figs. 14, 15) safety factor

F 1 .

Calculating the bearing capacity and settlement of the box-foundation as a quasi-block according to the monolith theory (Fig. 16) safety factor F 2 .

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Evaluating the bearing capacity of single elements provides only fictitious limit case values because the bond effect between concrete elements and enclosed soil core is neglected. Thus, maximum pile or diaphragm wall loads are calculated. But actually, single elements cannot fail because of the composite effect and the rigid (reinforced) connection of the piles or diaphragm panels with the capping raft. Moreover, deep box-foundations exhibit a self- regulating bearing behaviour, especially if the boxes are stiffened with inner walls: in the case of a local overloading of the soil around a pile, stress redistribution is possible.

the soil around a pile, stress redistribution is possible. Figure 14. Scheme of load transfer in

Figure 14. Scheme of load transfer in a box-shaped deep foundation with inner pile- or diaphragm walls.

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12 Figure 15. Subgrade reaction model for a strengthened foundation of the central river pier of

Figure 15. Subgrade reaction model for a strengthened foundation of the central river pier of an old Vienna Danube bridge showing soil responses to superimposed loads. Box-shaped new pile foundation consisting of secant piles and soil improvement in the upper part. Hatching on the diagram (below) indicates the difference between actual settlement and idealised model in the case of load increase.

settlement and idealised model in the case of load increase. Figure 16. Box-shaped foundation (consisting of

Figure 16. Box-shaped foundation (consisting of bored piles or diaphragm walls and the enclosed soil core) loaded by vertical and horizontal forces and moments: Idealised model “quasi – monolith” of the limit case hypothesis for determining the safety factor F 2 against ground failure and evaluating the settlements.

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Therefore, very low safety factors are sufficient for this theoretical model: usually F 1 1.15. For short construction stages or catastrophic conditions even values of F 1 = 1.05 have been allowed. Contrary to the monolith-theory, skin friction may be taken into consideration along the outside and inside face of the foundation-box, but not between the single elements. The other limit case hypothesis is an idealised “monolith-theory”. According to Fig. 16, a full bond effect between deep foundation elements and the closed soil is assumed. This compound body comprises the outer circumference of the foundation if secant piles or diaphragm walls are installed. In the case of contiguous piles, the theoretical area should be reduced by at least half a pile diameter. For the quasi-monolith, only skin friction along the outside surface of the foundation box may be taken into account. The monolith-theory provides minimum pile or diaphragm wall loads. However, a full composite effect occurs only theoretically but hardly in practice. Therefore, relatively high safety factors are required: about F 2 3.0 if conventional calculation methods for evaluating the base failure of equivalent “shallow” foundations are used. Short-term traffic loads do not reach the toe of the deep box-foundations but are more or less directly transferred into the upper soil zone, unless the box has an exclusively end-bearing character. For settlement analyses, the monolith-theory has proved practicable and sufficiently accurate in engineering practice by assuming the base of the box-foundation as the fictitious surface of the half space. The theoretical contact pressure includes the reduction of the total load Q by the skin friction Q s . Case histories General Numerous data from in-situ measurements have been collected over a period of about 35 years. They comprise stress and deformation/settlement measurements of box-shaped deep foundations of bridges, hydropower plants, industrial buildings and high-rise buildings. The ground plan of the box-foundations was rectangular, circular, elliptical or polygonal and mostly stiffened by transversal and/or longitudinal wall elements. Sometimes single piles or diaphragm wall panels were additionally installed within the cells (for static reasons; to compensate installation failures, etc.). The ground conditions varied from very soft clay to stiff overconsolidated clay, from loose to dense sands, gravel, heterogeneous colluvium, from weathered slope deposits to decomposed rock.

colluvium, from weathered slope deposits to decomposed rock. Figure 17. Ground plan of a box-shaped foundation

Figure 17. Ground plan of a box-shaped foundation for a highway bridge in silty river sediments. Bored piles, diameter d = 0.9 m. Single piles (hatched) only additional to overcome construction difficulties and local inhomogenities in the subsoil. Black piles: reinforced; white piles: not reinforced.

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The wall systems and the way of installation were also different. Both have an influence on the load-settlement behaviour of the box-shaped foundations. Diaphragm walls, for instance, provide a better transfer of shear forces

between the concrete panels than contiguous pile walls, but on the other hand have frequently a smaller skin friction. The in-situ measurements confirmed that the percentage of load taken either by the capping raft or by the piles (or diaphragm walls) depends on various parameters, such as:

Cross section (incl. pile pattern etc.) and slenderness of the foundation-box;

Ratio of stiffness of concrete elements and soil;

Magnitude and distribution of external loads (V,H,M);

Ratio of service load to ultimate (failure) load;

Ground properties;

Vertical and horizontal soil displacement;

Magnitude and distribution of the contact stress between raft and soil;

Foundation depth;

Depth of excavation (construction pit);

Installation factors.

Highway bridge, Austria

Consequently, the results of in-situ measurements scatter relatively widely, including several changes also during the construction period. In the following, a case history is selected which represents rather weak soil conditions.

The piers of a highway bridge had to be founded in deep-reaching young river sediments: Sandy gravel of about 4 m thickness, underlain by weak silts (sandy to clayey); the natural water content varied between the plastic and liquid limit, the dry density was ρ d = 1,6 - 1,7 t/m³. Figure 17 shows the pile arrangement, thus forming a box- shaped foundation. The enveloping piles are secant, therefore only every second one is reinforced. The interior piles are throughout reinforced and improve the load transfer from the bridge pier to the deep foundation. The construction was exe cuted in the year 1971. Nowadays the inner piles would be rather installed in a secant form to increase the stiffness of the box.

in a secant form to increase the stiffness of the box. Figure 18. Partial view of

Figure 18. Partial view of a power station founded on a box-shaped arrangement of diaphragm walls (slurry trench walls) in soft clayey silt.

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For the bridge design, the (differential) settlements were assessed rather cautiously, because this was one of the first box foundations. The measured value of s = 55 mm for the central bridge pier lies clearly below the prognosticated maximum of s = 100 mm, but coincides very well with the result derived from Figure 12 and Equation (5):

ground area of the box-foundation, A = 155.6m²

circumference of box-foundation, U = 50.7m

equivalent diameter of a cylindrical foundation, D = 14m

pile length, l = 11m

pile diameter, d = 0.88m

slenderness of the foundation box, 1 : D = 0.8

total load (life load reduced), Q’ tot = 55000 kN

modulus of subsoil (mean value), E s = 8 MN/m²

From Figure 13 a cell factor of α c = 0.5 is derived (for 6 cells) and provides a unit settlement of z’ = 0.810 -3 mm. This leads to a total settlement of

s = 0.5   55000   20

 

1

8

Hydro-power plants

0.8 10

3

s = 55 mm ,

(6)

Figure 18 shows the ground plan of a hydro-power plant in the South of Austria. It comprises an operation hall, two

pier-power houses and three weirs. The equipment consists of Kaplan turbines with vertical shafts, the machinery being extremely sensitive towards differential settlements. The entire power station is situated in a flood plain. The subsoil consists of river deposits (sandy gravel of medium density), which are underlain by soft fine-graded sediments. Though silty clays pre-dominate, sandy silts or uniform sands are locally embedded too. Accordingly, the soil characteristics scatter widely:

natural water content w n = 15 - 50%

dry density ρ d = 1,3 - 1,7 t/m³

liquit limit w l = 20 - 60%

plasticity index I p = 0 - 30%

w l = 20 - 60%  plasticity index I p = 0 - 30% Figure

Figure 19. Cross section (in river flow direction) through a partition pier of the river Danube hydropower plant in Vienna (14 000 m 3 /s flood capacity). Box-shaped foundation on diaphragm walls arranged as stiffening cells.

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The stiffness of the weak clays and silt increases with depth: Moduli of E s = 4 - 10 MN/m² near the surface of the sediments and E s = 10 – 20 MN/m² in a depth of 30 – 40 m. Standard penetration tests showed values of N 30 = 1 to 10 in 4 to 36 m depth below the original ground.

Though the base of the power station lies clearly beneath the original surface (i.e. in the soft sediments), and the additional load on the ground is relatively small, a deep foundation was unavoidable. It was designed as a box foundation of longitudinal and transversal diaphragm walls (0.8m thick) in order to:

reduce differential settlements;

increase the safety factor against earthquake (the power station is situated in an active seismic zone);

prevent an unallowable under seepage of the power station.

No open joints were designed between the power houses and the weirs. But the connections were reinforced in such a way that – in the case of differential settlements – they serve as a hinge.

-
-

Figure 20. Vertical section through a box foundation with raked piles – for a pier of a river bridge.

The deformation behaviour of the power plant coincided very well with the design prognosis: Due to the deep excavation, the subsoil heaved during the first construction stages. With increasing load, settlements occurred – also depending on the required ground-water lowering in the construction pit. The total settlement finally has reached a maximum of s = 55 mm. Because of the rigid box-shaped foundation and structure, the differential settlements are practically negligible. Though the large scale foundation of this power station cannot be compared with a cellular box-foundation of bridge piers or high rise buildings, the diagram of Figure 12 provided even for this case an appropriate settlement assessment:

Cross sectional area (ground area) of the of the effective box-foundation, A = 3000m²

equivalent diameter of a cylindrical foundation, D = 61m

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depth of diaphragm walls (mean value), l = 16m

slenderness of the foundation box, 1 : D = 0,3

settlement-effective load (reduced by excavation masses), Q tot = 270000kN

modulus of the subsoil (mean value beneath the diaphragm wall bases), E s = 15 MN/m²

From Figure 12 or 27 a unit settlement of z’ = 0,3.10 -3 mm is derived and from Figure 13 cell factor of α c = 0,5. This leads to a total settlement of

s = 0.5   270000   20

 

1

15

0.3 10

3

s = 54 mm ,

(7)

Figure 19 shows a cross section through the hydropower plant Vienna at the river Danube (designed for 14 000 m 3 /s, width = 450 m). This is the first facility constructed in a densely populated area, situated on a geological fault and in a seismic area. Consequently, a deep box-shaped foundation consisting of slurry trench walls forming stiffening cells was executed. Such foundation schemes have proved suitable for all kinds of buildings with high vertical and/or horizontal loads.

of buildings with high vertical and/or horizontal loads. Figure 21. Horizontal section through the pile heads

Figure 21. Horizontal section through the pile heads of Figure 50. Position of pile toes indicated by broken line circles.

50. Position of pile toes indicated by broken line circles. Figure 22. Horizontal sections through a

Figure 22. Horizontal sections through a box foundation with raked piles: Example of a small box. Section 1-1 is in the level of pile heads, section 3-3 in the level of pile toes.

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Box-shaped foundations with raked piles

In rivers with shipping, high flow velocity and danger of scouring bridge piers (including their foundation) should be as small as possible and hydraulically friendly. Consequently, truncated cone box foundations are an interesting alternative to the classical prismatic shape. Figure 20 shows a vertical cross section of such a foundation, and Figure 21 illustrates the horizontal sections on top and toe of the piles. The Figures 22 and 23 show a smaller box foundation.

In both cases the piles were excavated through a fly ash body which was filled into the box of precast elements placed on the river bed (and fixed by the pilot piles).

This measure facilitated a precise installation of the raked piles and increased the composite behaviour of the box foundation. The pilot piles were installed before (from ships) in order to have fixing points for further equipment and for sinking the r.c. precast elements on the river bed. Therefore the steel casing was not withdrawn near their head zone. Moreover, the pilot piles were excavated to a greater depth than the standard piles in order to gain detailed additional information about the in-situ ground properties beneath the bottom of the box foundation. The installation of raked piles for a box foundation like a frustum of a cone or pyramid is rather difficult, especially if they have to be excavated from a ship or swimming platform.

Consequently, but also for geometrical reasons, the box effect decreases with depth. Such a foundation may be considered a structure behaving between a box-foundation and a piled raft foundation.

between a box-foundation and a piled raft foundation. Figure 23. To Figure 22: View of the

Figure 23. To Figure 22: View of the longer side of the pile box.

19

Beska Bridge, Serbia

The Beska Bridge crosses the river Danube carrying the E-75 highway between Novi Sad and Belgrade. The new bridge had to be erected parallel to the existing one (from the early 1970s) and was opened in 2011. The total length of the bridge is 2005 m; the central part of the new structure consists of 5 spans (60+105+210+105+60 m) with a prestressed concrete hollow box girder of changing height. This “Main Bridge” was founded on a box-shaped pile system (Fig. 24), whereas the approach bridges rest on conventional pile groups.

The main reasons for the “box-foundation” were as follows:

Minimisation of (differential) settlements of the nearby existing bridge during the construction phases and in the long-term.

Minimisation of (differential) settlements of the new structure.

High resistance against possible effects from riverbed erosion (deep scouring).

High resistance against seismic impacts.

High resistance against ship impact and excessive ice pressure.

resistance against ship impact and excessive ice pressure. Figure. 24. Beska Bridge, Serbia. Foundation of old

Figure. 24. Beska Bridge, Serbia. Foundation of old structure on caissons, of new structure on box-shaped pile arrangements. Also indicated is the riverbed shaping against deep scouring at river pier No. 43.

20

20 Figure. 25. Cross section to Fig. 24. To cope with these requirements the new foundation

Figure. 25. Cross section to Fig. 24.

To cope with these requirements the new foundation had to be deeper than the existing caisson of the old bridge. Additionally, a possible riverbed erosion was considered by neglecting the topmost 6 m of pile-box embedment in the geotechnical/static design. From Fig. 25 it can be seen that the minimum distance between old and new foundation was only 2.5 m. Therefore, an interaction between both bridges was unavoidable and required an extremely cautious installation of sheet piles and large diameter bored piles (d = 1.2 m). Within the quaternary sediments and the top zone of the tertiary sediments the spaces between neighbouring piles were grouted to provide a full shear force transfer along closed walls, and to increase skin friction (Fig. 25). Moreover, the concreting phases /speeds for the piers and superstructure had to consider the results of continual monitoring of the old and new structure. Fig. 26 shows two construction phases.

At the beginning of the pile work “pilot piles” were excavated 3 m below the designed base of the box-shaped deep foundation to additionally investigate the subsoil at a large scale. Moreover, the excavated soil was continually checked during the entire pile installation (visual inspection, SPTs, soil sampling and laboratory tests). Thus, the in situ ground properties could be compared in detail with the design assumptions. If necessary, local adaptions were performed. All those measures led to differential settlements, which remained clearly below the allowable limit value of 10 mm, and confirmed again the advantages of box-shaped pile foundations under such challenging conditions:

For the main piers of the new bridge settlements of s = 15 to 25 mm were predicted; the measured values were s 20 mm. For the main piers of the old bridge settlements – caused by the new bridge – were predicted between s = 7 to 12 mm. Measurements showed s 8 mm, whereby 5 mm occurred during pile installation. Consequently, it was not necessary to activate the contingency plan comprising the additional installation of Gewi-piles as "settlement brake".

21

21 Figure. 26. Construction views to Figs. 24, 25. Left: Placing the concrete for the scalloped

Figure. 26. Construction views to Figs. 24, 25. Left: Placing the concrete for the scalloped guide wall for the piles and the temporary working platform. Right: Concreting the shaft of river pier No. 43.

COMPARISON OF DEEP FOUNDATIONS

shaft of river pier No. 43. COMPARISON OF DEEP FOUNDATIONS In order to prove the reliability

In order to prove the reliability of geotechnical theories and the general application of test results to the practice, in- situ measurements on construction sites and on completed structures are essential. Figures 27 to 28 show some examples of deep foundations in tertiary sediments, overlain by quaternary river deposits (in Vienna and Lower Austria). The tertiary layers are over-consolidated and consist of sandy to clayey silt (locally silty sand and silty clay). The ground properties, of course, scatter in spite of the same geological genesis along the river Danube in Vienna and nearby. Nevertheless, the site conditions of the structures can be fairly compared. The deep foundations elements were large diameter bored or auger piles (d=0.9 to 1.2 m) or diaphragms walls (thickness, d=0.6 to 0.8 m). The data are again plotted in dimensionless diagrams – similar to the results from the model tests. The normalized graphs enable a direct comparison.

tests. The normalized graphs enable a direct comparison. Figure 27. Normalized load-settlement behaviour of some

Figure 27. Normalized load-settlement behaviour of some high-rise buildings in Vienna, founded on diaphragm walls. s = settlement, d = thickness of diaphragm wall, Q = total load on the foundation, A = foundation area (horizontal sectional area within circumference of diaphragm wall box), γ= density of soil, H = height of building, l = depth of diaphragm wall

22

Figure 27 shows normalized load-settlement curves of several box-shaped foundations with diaphragm walls. A comparison underlines the following interacting influence factors:

Length (depth) of wall elements: Widely superimposed by other factors, because l = 18 – 22 m is roughly of a similar magnitude. Hence of secondary influence in this special case.

Level of foundation head: The high-rise building without deep basement (Mischek Tower) settled more than the others.

Way of installation: The installation from a higher working level improves the bearing- deformation behaviour of diaphragm walls (e.g. IZD-Tower) - and bored or auger piles likewise. The positive effect of an uncast pile length or uncast diaphragm wall depth could be observed on many construction sites. It is achieved because the soil along the top zone of the deep foundation is less disturbed during the installation procedure.

Influence of geological overconsolidation: The Twin Tower is situated in an area of less overconsolidation than the other buildings.

Arrangement of diaphragm walls: The buildings of the UNO-City Vienna are founded on box-shaped as well as on cross-shaped diaphragm wall elements. The latter settled more, because the composite effect between single barrettes or cross-shaped concrete panels and soil is clearly smaller than for box-foundations.

Figure 28, finally, compares high-rise buildings and bridges, whereby the following influence factors played a relevant role:

Load area and total load, hence depth and extent of stress bulb in the ground: Millennium Tower and UNO- City create a deep reaching stress field.

Magnitude of geological overconsolidation: This is greater for both bridges (crossing the river Danube in Lower Austria) than for the high-rise buildings in Vienna.

Stiffening inner pile walls within a box-shaped foundation: The Tulln Bridge has piers with both options.

Length (depth) of piles or diaphragm walls.

Influence of local soil improvement: The top zone of the soil was improved by vibroflotation (Millennium Tower) or by jet grouting (Pöchlarn Bridge, where grouting was conducted within the piled box foundation). Beneath the Millennium Tower the surface of the tertiary sediments lies deeper than on the other sites. Therefore, vibroflotation of the top zone was very effective here and made shorter piles possible.

Composite effect of box-shaped foundations: The Millennium Tower has a piled raft foundation, the Tulln Bridge box-shaped pier foundations with and without stiffening inner pile walls.

The comparison of the load-settlement behaviour of several buildings illustrates very clearly the interaction of more or less relevant influence factors. Therefore, a reliable settlement prognosis can be achieved only by taking into account all these aspects. This means, that theoretical calculations have to be combined with empirical factors gained by in situ measurements (and model tests).

Box-shaped deep foundations provide not only smaller settlements than comparable conventional pile or diaphragm wall foundations. They also make stress rearrangement easier, thus reducing stress constraints in the capping raft or beam and in the rising structure.

23

23 Figure 28. Normalized load-settlement behaviour of bridges and high-rise buildings, depending on several factors.

Figure 28. Normalized load-settlement behaviour of bridges and high-rise buildings, depending on several factors. Bridges and Millenium Tower rest on piles. Notations see Fig. 27, whereby also d = pile diameter, l = pile length.

CONCLUSIONS

Since the early 1970s box-shaped deep foundations have proved most suitable, as long-term measurements and site observations have confirmed. The scheme comprises a box-shaped arrangement of (bored or auger) piles or diaphragm wall panels, deep-mixing columns or jet grouting columns. From theory, comprehensive model tests, and numerous in situ measurements and observations it can be concluded that box-shaped deep foundations exhibit the following advantages:

Concrete elements and enclosed soil form a quasi-composite body with a high bearing capacity.

Transfer of high, concentrated loads at smaller total and especially differential set settlements than in the case of conventional groups of piles or diaphragm wall panels.

Smaller foundation area required than in the case of conventional pile groups with axial pile spacing of a 2d to 3d (d = pile diameter). This is especially important for bridge piers situated in rivers.

High resisting moment against lateral forces from high embankments on soft soil (acting on bridge abutments) or from unstable slopes (e.g. creeping pressure).

Very suitable in the case of strongly heterogeneous and anisotropy ground.

High resistance to earthquake and soil liquefaction.

High resistance to scouring (foundations in rivers, torrents, harbours).

Very suitable in the case of dynamic loading processes: E.g. ship impact, dynamic loads due to waves and unstable currents, (turbulent) wind loading of tall structures, shock loads due to unstable silo flow.

Suitable for post-strengthening existing buildings, for instance piers of river bridges: Increase of stability against ground failure in the case of scouring.

Very suitable in the case of fluctuating and cyclic loading processes: E.g. cycles of (ground-)water level, storage level fluctuations (oil tank farms, storage silos) or wave induced cyclic loads.

24

24 Figure 29. Settlement curves for a cylindrical box foundation under a unit load of Q

Figure 29. Settlement curves for a cylindrical box foundation under a unit load of Q = 1 kN. Slenderness l/D of the foundation as parameter, whereby l = depth of pile or diaphragm wall foundation. Unit modulus of soil Es = 20 MN/m², d = wall thickness. For non-cylindrical foundations: D = equivalent diameter. See also Fig. 12.

REFERENCES

Brandl, H. 1987. Deep box-foundations with piles and diaphragm walls in weak soils. Proceedings of 9th Southeast Asian Geotechnical Conference. Bangkok. Brandl, H. 2001. Box-shaped pile and diaphragm wall foundations for high loads. Proceedings of the 15th ICSMGE. Istanbul. Brandl, H. & Hofmann, R. 2002. Tragfähigkeits- und Setzungsverhalten von Kastenfundierungen. Research Report, Volume 528. Federal Ministry for Traffic, Innovation and Technology. Vienna. Hazivar, W. 1979. Tragverhalten von Brunnengründungen, Volume 14, Institute for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology. Hofmann, R. 2001. Trag- und Setzungsverhalten von Pfahlkästen. Doctoral Thesis, Vienna University of Technology. Japanese Geotechnical Society, 1998. Remedial measures against soil liquefaction. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. Mindlin, R.D. 1936. Force at a Point in the Interior of a Semi Infinite Solid. Physics, Vol. 7.

25

UDK: 624.131.3 Izvorni (naučni) članak ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPER

A STATIC LOADING PILE TEST AT THE SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE

Ludvik Trauner, Andrej Štrukelj, Mirko Pšunder, Borut Macuh University of Maribor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Smetanova ulica 17, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia; E-mail: trauner@uni-mb.si, andrej.strukelj@uni-mb.si, mirko.psunder@uni-mb.si, borut.macuh@uni-mb.si

ABSTRACT

A static vertical and horizontal loading test of a pile was performed when constructing the covered

excavation 8-1 on the under section of the highway Ponikve–Hrastje, Slovenia. The engineering structure is located on the section at about 1600 km of the deviation 1-12 of the regional road. Besides the standard testing procedures with vertical loading, the horizontal loading test was performed and additionally there was new monitoring technology based on specially developed strain sensors installed

inside the pile body. Along the four verticals circularly beside the longitudinal reinforcement bars of the pile, 32 specially developed sensors were introduced. On the basis of the measured results the normal strains along four verticals at the distance of three-quarters of the radii of the pile from the pile axis were measured. Taking into consideration the elastic modulus of the concrete the normal stresses in the axial direction of the pile were also calculated and afterwards the shear stresses along the pile shaft were estimated as well as the normal stresses below the pile toe. The estimation was made by considering a constant value for the pile diameter. The measured results were also compared to a computer simulation

of the pile and the soil behaviour during all the successive test phases. The strain measurements inside

the pile body during the vertical and horizontal loading tests in the present case did not have the purpose

to develop an alternative method of pile loading tests. It gave, in the first place, the possibility of a closer

look at the strains and stresses of the most unapproachable parts of different types of concrete structure elements, especially the piles and the other types of deep foundations. The presented monitoring

technology proved itself to be very accurate and consistent.

KEY WORDS: piles, deep foundations, static loading test, strain measurement technologies, elasto- plastic modelling, finite-elements method

TEST STAIČKOG OPTEREĆENJA PRI GRANIČNOM STANJU UPOTREBLJIVOSTI

REZIME

Statički test za vertikalno i horizontalno opterećenje šipa je obavljen kada je građen pokrivač iskopa 8-1 ispod preseka autoputa Ponikve – Hrastje u Sloveniji. Inženjerski objekat je lociran u preseku oko 1600

26

km devijacije I – 12 regionalnog puta. Pored standardnog postupka ispitivanja pod vertikalnim opterećenjem izveden je i test pod horizontalnim opterećenjem za koji je korišćena nova tehnologija osmatranja zasnovana na specijalno razvijenim senzorima registracije dilatacija instalisanih izvan tela šipa. Poduž četiri vertikale kružno pored podužnih šipki armature šipa uvedena su 32 razvijena senzora. Na bazi rezultata merenih normalnih dilatacija poduž četiri vertikale na rastojanju tri četvrtine radijusa šipa od ose šipa. Uvodeći u razmatranje modul elastičnosti betona normalni naponi u pravcu ose su procenjivani kao i naponi ispod nožice šipa. Procena je obavljena usvajajući konstantnu vrednost prečnika šipa. Izmerene vrednosti su upoređene sa rezultatima numeričkih simulacija ponašanja šipa i tla za sve sukcesivne faze opterećivanja. Merenje dilatacija izvan tela šipa tokom testa pod vertikalnim i horizontalnim opterećenjem u ovom slučaju nije imalo za cilj razvoj alternativne metode probnog opterećenja šipa. To daje, na prvom mestu mogućnost da se pobliže ima uvid u dilatacije i napone najteže pristupačnih delova različitih tipova elemenata betonske konstrukcije, naročito šipova i drugih tipova dubokog fundiranja. Predstavljen aje tehnologija mlnitoringa pokazala se da koa veoma tačna i konsistentna.

KLJUČNE REČI: šipovi, duboki temelji, statičko probno opterećenje, tehnologija merenja dilatacija, elasto-plastično modeliranje, metoda konačnih elemenata

INTRODUCTION

The bearing capacity and settlement of a vertically loaded pile can be estimated using a variety of methods (Bowles, 1996 and Škrabl, 2002), as can the passive earth resistance of the retaining walls (Vrecl-Kojc, 2005, Škrabl and Macuh, 2005, and Vrecl-Kojc and Škrabl, 2007). In order to identify the pile’s behaviour and its interaction with the surrounding soil layers, knowledge of the state of the strains along the pile axis inside the pile body is of great importance (Škrabl, 2008). To make this possible, a chain of measurement points has to be included outside the pile structure, and this chain should be fixed to the appropriate position on the pile reinforcement before the reinforcement is placed in the pile pit. After that the standard procedure for concreting the pile must be executed. The first opportunity for testing this idea was an estimation of the testing pile shaft’s resistance, as described in the papers of Štrukelj et al. (2005 and 2009). The basis of this estimation was a measurement of the normal strains of the pile in its axial direction at measuring points, distributed over equal distances along the pile axis. These strains are proportional to the axial forces in the pile. When the course of the axial force along the pile axis is known, the resistance of the pile shaft can be estimated. The first five measurement points in each of the four measurement chains were distributed over equal distances of 1.00 m, starting 0.75 m above the pile toe. The remaining three measurement points in each measurement chain were distributed over distances of 1.50 m. Since the strain gauges, the electrical contacts and the communication cables are very sensitive, any moisture and mechanical loading could be very harmful to their performance. Therefore, the measuring points were protected with special care. The measurement system fulfilled expectations and the measured results were accurate and stable. The only disadvantage of this measurement system is its non-flexibility. It can only be used to build measurement chains where the measurement points are placed along one line and oriented in the same direction. The loading test included two loading cases, i.e., the vertical and the horizontal. Each represented the introduction of the force in predefined loading steps: vertical in steps of 250 kN and horizontal in steps of 100 kN. The location of the testing pile was chosen to be on a construction site of the covered excavation 8-1 on the under section of the highway Ponikve–Hrastje, Slovenia.The geological conditions of the testing pile’s location and the positions of the 32 sensors are shown in Fig.1, and described in Section 2.1. In the following sections, the measuring equipment, its installation, the performance of the static vertical and horizontal loading test, and, finally, the evaluation of the measurement results is presented. In the last part of the paper a comparison of the measured results with the results of numerical axis-symmetry and three-dimensional analyses using the finite-element method (FEM) are presented.

27

PRELIMINARY WORK AT THE TESTING SITE

Geological field and laboratory investigations

The geological conditions of the wider location of the testing site were acquired from the geotechnical report for the design of a covered excavation on the highway deviation (GI ZRMK, 2006). The strength and deformability parameters were defined on the basis of field investigations using a standard penetration test and probe measurements, as well as by laboratory testing of samples taken by sounds of depths up to 20 m from seven different locations. The half-space of the region of the covered excavation comprises clayey and clayey-gravel layers of depths 9.0 to 15.0 that lie on a limestone that is weathered in the first 1–3 m. At the location of the testing pile, additional sounding works during the pile pit excavation to a depth of 10.0 m were performed. The strength and deformability parameters at some depths of this additional sounding works on the basis of field investigations by standard dynamic penetration tests, and also on the basis of the laboratory testing of samples, were defined. The ground water level in this sounding was not encountered. The cross-section of the ground space with the pile (Fig. 1.) is composed of an original space with two characteristic layers: a 12-m clayey gravel overlays limestone – weathered and compact. Fig. 1 shows the geological conditions of the testing pile’s location and the positions of the 32 sensors, ordered in four vertical measurement chains. Each vertical measurement chain was assigned a different colour in order to avoid confusion during the connection of the cables to the data-acquisition unit. Table 1 presents the strength parameters and the classification (ϕ is the internal friction, c is the cohesion, E oed is the oedometer elasticity modulus, and γ is unit weight) of the soil layers presented in Fig. 1, which were determined on the basis of laboratory and field testing on additional soil samples.

28

28 Figure 1. Section of the testing site with the disposition of the soil layers and

Figure 1. Section of the testing site with the disposition of the soil layers and the measuring points on the pile.

Table 1. The strength parameters of the soil layers.

depth

c

E

oed

γ

soil classification

[m]

[°]

[kPa]

[kPa]

[kN/m 3 ]

0.0-12.0

32.0

28.0

10.000

19.0

GC/CH

12.0-14.0

40.0

3.000.0

100.000

25.0

weathered limestone

14.0

50.0

150.000.0

10.000.000

27.0

limestone

Measuring equipment

Besides the standard equipment that is needed for an estimation of the bearing capacity of the pile on the basis of a static loading test (ASTM, 1994), additional specially produced strain sensors were built into the pile body. They were placed along four verticals, circularly beside the longitudinal reinforcement bars of the pile (Fig. 1). The patented sensor design used for this purpose is very efficient, easy to build in, and robust enough to stand the water pressure and all the possible mechanical burdens during the concreting of the pile. Such a sensor can be placed in

29

the desired position in a very short time. It is insensitive to moisture and dust and its vital parts are very well protected against mechanical damage. The basis for such a sensor is a standard reinforcement bar of length about 150 cm and a diameter of 16 mm. In the middle of the reinforcement bar its surface is ground on one or both sides, depending on the number of strain gauges that should be installed. These strain gauges can be connected in a full, half, double-quarter or quarter Wheatstone bridge (Hoffman, 1989 and 1996). The connecting cable is protected by a polyethylene tube and fixed to the reinforcement bar. The protection coating consists of two layers of polyurethane varnish, a layer of special silicone putty and a layer of permanently plastic sealant putty coated with aluminium foil. This combination of protection was tested and remained waterproof even 30 m under water. The final layer represents the physical protection and can be made of polyethylene tube (Fig. 2) when the dimensions of the measured concrete elements are not too small to be significantly weakened by the built-in sensor. Otherwise, the physical protection of the measurement area can be made of cement mortar with the addition of an acrylic emulsion. This type of strain sensor proved to be very reliable, easy to build and cost effective, and can also be used together with the appropriate equipment and software (Brinkgrave and Vermeer, 1998 and 2005) for the purposes of monitoring the other parts of structures. The successive phases of the sensors’ preparation and their placing in the planned positions of the pile reinforcement are shown in Figs. 2–5.

of the pile reinforcement are shown in Figs. 2–5. Figure 2. The first phase of the

Figure 2. The first phase of the sensor preparation:

applying the strain gauges to the specially prepared surfaces of the reinforcement bar and wiring.

prepared surfaces of the reinforcement bar and wiring. Figure 4. The strain sensor fixed to the

Figure 4. The strain sensor fixed to the reinforcement of the testing pile

strain sensor fixed to the reinforcement of the testing pile Figure 3. Finished sensor after applying

Figure 3. Finished sensor after applying all the layers of protection against moisture and physical protection

of protection against moisture and physical protection Figure 5. The pile reinforcement equipped with strain

Figure 5. The pile reinforcement equipped with strain sensors prepared for placing into the pile pit.

30

Construction of the testing pile

The testing pile was constructed as a bored, reinforced concrete pile (Bowles, 1996) of 80 cm in diameter. The final length of the testing pile was 10.5 m. The length of the underground part of the pile was 10.0 m. As the thickness of the clayey gravel and gravel layer was about 12.0 m, the toe of the testing pile was about 2.0 m above the limestone base. After the pile was cleaned up to the level of the working area a 0.5-m-high reinforcement of the pile head was additionally concreted (Fig. 6).

Installation of the static loading equipment

The vertical and horizontal loads were applied with a hydraulic press. In the case of the vertical loading the hydraulic press was installed between the pile cap and a system of two mutually perpendicular girders positioned on the top of four columns, rigidly connected to the frame-shaped base surrounding the pile cap. Both steel girders were anchored to the limestone layer by four geotechnical anchors for the vertical load (Figs. 6 and 7). In the case of the horizontal loading the hydraulic press was installed between the vertical plane of the pile cap and the reinforced concrete block, which was leaned against the slope (Figs. 6 and 7).

block, which was leaned against the slope (Figs. 6 and 7). Figure 6. The top of

Figure 6. The top of the testing pile before the installation of the loading equipment.

Figure 7. The testing site during the static load test.

THE PERFORMANCE OF THE STATIC LOADING TEST

Static vertical loading test

During the vertical test the load was applied by a hydraulic press placed between the steel girders and a horizontal surface of the pile-head at regular steps of 250 kN until the serviceability limit state of the pile (2500 kN) was reached. The serviceability limit was state established on the basis of the vertical loads, predicted by the design

31

project. After the first load step the pile was unloaded. Then it was re-loaded with the same intensity of load. All further load steps were applied without any interim relief. The next load step was performed only when the vertical displacement of the pile head, measured by the inductive displacement gauge simultaneously with the pile deformations, eased. The disposition of the measurement and loading equipment is shown in Fig. 8.

Static horizontal loading test

Before the horizontal test the soil was excavated to a depth of 2 m opposite the pushing side. The load was applied by a hydraulic press placed between the additional foundation and a vertical surface of the pile-head at regular steps of 150 kN until the serviceability limit state of the pile (750 kN) was reached. The serviceability limit was state established on the basis of horizontal loads, predicted by the design project. All the load steps were applied without interim relief. The next load step was performed only when the horizontal displacement of the pile head, measured by inductive displacement gauge simultaneously with pile deformations, eased.

gauge simultaneously with pile deformations, eased. Figure 8. Measurements during the vertical loading test.

Figure 8. Measurements during the vertical loading test.

Figure 8. Measurements during the vertical loading test. Figure 9. The configuration of the loading and

Figure 9. The configuration of the loading and measurement equipment during the horizontal loading test.

EVALUATION OF THE MEASUREMENT RESULTS

Evaluation of the measurement results for the vertical test

The time course of the displacement measurements using the inductive displacement transducer during successive steps of the loading and unloading is shown in Fig. 10. In Fig. 11 the time course of the normal strains for one vertical measurement chain assigned a yellow colour (see Fig. 1) for each of eight levels is shown. The review of the peak values of the measured strains for the last vertical loading step at all measurement points of the same vertical measurement chain are shown in Fig. 12 as a curve representing the normal strains versus the distance along the pile axis. Since the strain values at the pile head and the pile toe could not be directly measured, they were extrapolated. In each of eight levels the average strains of all four measurement chains were calculated. The review of the peak values of the measured strains for the last vertical loading step at all the measurement points of the same vertical measurement chain are shown in Fig. 12 as a curve representing the normal strains versus the distance along the pile axis. Since the strain values at the pile head and the pile toe could not be measured directly, they were extrapolated. From the obtained average strains the pile contraction can be evaluated (Table 2). To evaluate the pile-toe settlement the obtained pile contraction should be subtracted from the measured value of pile head’s vertical displacement. In our case the pile toe was 0.28 mm. For each of the eight levels the average strains of all four measurement chains were calculated. By taking the value of the Young’s modulus of the pile concrete to be E = 27.5 GPa, the curve of the normal stresses along the pile axis was obtained (Fig. 13). If the pilot is divided into segments whose boundaries are defined by the levels of the monitoring sites, on both ends of each segment the resulting axial force can be calculated from the average normal stress. Given that each of the segments are in balance, the force that balances the difference between the axial force

32

on the top of the segment and the axial force on the bottom segment thus represents the resultant shear stresses along the shaft of the segment. From these values the average values of the shear stresses on the pile shaft shown in Fig. 14 can be easily obtained. This is data from which it is possible to slim down the dimensions of the pilot in the event that the expected computational bearing-capacity values are distinctly smaller than the values obtained on the basis of the measurement results.

Table 2: The evaluation of the partial and cumulative pile contractions

distance from the pile head

average strains

distances between

middle strain

levels [m]

values [µm/m]

partial pile

cumulative

[m]

[µm/m]

contractions [mm]

contractions [mm]

0.00

-218.15

 

0.75

-217.24

-0.163

-0.163

0.75

-216.33

 

1.50

-210.02

-0.315

-0.478

2.25

-203.70

 

1.50

-191.92

-0.288

-0.766

3.75

-180.14

 

1.00

-108.84

-0.109

-1.255

5.25

-147.24

 

1.00

-134.28

-0.134

-1.146

6.25

-121.31

 

1.50

-163.69

-0.246

-1.012

7.25

-96.36

 

1.00

-85.33

-0.085

-1.340

8.25

-74.30

 

1.00

-65.34

-0.065

-1.405

9.25

-56.37

 

0.75

-50.87

-0.038

-1.443*

10.00

-45.37

* The value of the entire pile contraction

33

33 Figure 10. Vertical displacements versus time measured by the inductive displacement transducer during successive

Figure 10. Vertical displacements versus time measured by the inductive displacement transducer during successive vertical loading/unloading.

transducer during successive vertical loading/unloading. Figure 11. Measured strain signal recorded in the vertical

Figure 11. Measured strain signal recorded in the vertical chain of sensors assigned with a yellow colour for successive vertical loading/unloading.

34

strain [mm/m]

-250.00 -200.00 -150.00 -100.00 -50.00 0.00 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8
-250.00
-200.00
-150.00
-100.00
-50.00
0.00
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10
distance from the pile head [m]

Figure 12. The review of the peak values of the measured strains for the last vertical loading step at all the measurement levels (the shown strain values represent the average of all four values measured at each level; the values at the pile head and pile toe are extrapolated)

average normal stress [MPa]

-8.00 -6.00 -4.00 -2.00 0.00 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9
-8.00
-6.00
-4.00
-2.00
0.00
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10
distance from the pile head [m]

Figure 13. The review of the average values of the normal stresses in the pile’s axial direction calculated from the averaged peak strain values for the last loading step

average shear stress on the contact surface [kPa]

-250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8
-250
-200
-150
-100
-50
0
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10
distance from the pile head [m]

Figure 14. Curves of the average values of the shear stresses on the pile shaft calculated from the average values of the normal stress for the last loading step

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Evaluation of the measurement results for the horizontal test

The time course of the displacement measurements using two inductive displacement transducers during successive steps of the loading and unloading for the horizontal test is shown in Fig. 15. The normal strains along the four measurement chains (yellow, green, blue and red in Fig. 1) of the pile were simultaneously measured. In Fig. 16 the time course of the normal strains for the measurement chain assigned with the green colour (see Fig. 1) for each of the eight levels is shown. The review of the peak values of the measured strains for the last vertical loading step at all the measurement points of the same vertical measurement chain are shown in Fig. 17 as a curve representing the normal strains versus the distance along the pile axis. Since the strain values at the pile head and the pile toe could not be directly measured, they were extrapolated like in the case of the interpretation of the vertical test results. From the strain data measured on the two opposite sides of the pile (in measurement chains assigned with the green and red colours) the horizontal displacements along the pile axis can be estimated. The comparison of the horizontal displacements of the pile obtained on the basis of the measurement results and the horizontal displacements obtained by the computer simulation are shown in Fig. 24.

time [s]

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 transducer 1 -25
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
transducer 1
-25
transducer 2
-30
horizontal displacements [mm]

Figure 15. Horizontal displacements versus time simultaneously measured by two inductive displacement transducers during successive horizontal loading/unloading

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time [s]

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 50.00 0.00 -50.00 -100.00
0
100
200
300
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500
600
700
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50.00
0.00
-50.00
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-7.25m
-8.25m
-9.25m
-250.00
-6.25m
-5.25m
-0.75m
-2.25m
-300.00
-3.75m
strain [mm/m]

Figure 16. Measured strain signal recorded in the vertical chain of sensors assigned with the green colour for successive horizontal loading/unloading.

strain [µm/m]

-300 -250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6
-300
-250
-200
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-50
0
50
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10
distance from the pile head [m]

Figure 17. The review of the peak values of the measured strains where the peak strain values for the last horizontal loading step at all measurement points of one (green in Fig. 1) vertical measurement chain (values at the pile head and pile toe are extrapolated)

37

FINITE-ELEMENT ANALYSIS

The results of the field investigations were compared with a set of numerical analyses using the finite-element method (FEM). The analyses considered a 10.0-m-long pile that is placed in a 12.0-m-deep single soil clayey gravel layer resting on a limestone base. The reinforced concrete of the pile was considered to be linear elastic with a Young’s modulus E = 27.5 GPa, a Poisson’s ratio ν = 0.2 and a unit weight γ = 25 kN/m 3 . The strength properties of the ground (see Table 1) were determined on the basis of the laboratory and field-testing results of additional sound samples. The soil half-space can be designed in numerical methods using different material models (Desai, 2010). In the paper it was designed by the Hardening-Soil material model with isotropic hardening (using PLAXIS software – Brinkgrave and Vermeer, 1998). This model considers the nonlinear elastic hyperbolic dependence between the stresses and strains; it enables a consideration of the increasing soil yielding as a function of ground stresses, dilatation and cap yield surface, and is not based on the theory of plasticity (Brinkgrave and Vermeer, 1998). The parameters in the elasto-plastic Hardening-Soil model E oed ref = E 50 ref and E ur ref = 3 E 50 ref , where E oed ref is the tangent stiffness for the primary oedometer loading at the reference pressure, and E ur ref is the unloading/reloading stiffness (Brinkgrave and Vermeer, 1998).

Static vertical loading test

An axis-symmetric analyses of the interaction between a bored reinforced pile loaded with vertical static loading and the ground were performed for this purpose. The cross-section of the analyzed model and the corresponding finite-element mesh are presented in Fig. 18(a) and the displacements in Fig. 18(b). Fig. 19 presents the absolute displacement after each loading and unloading step (at the pile head). Each vertical loading and unloading step is equal to 250 kN, only the first step consisted of loading/unloading and reloading phases. The results of the FEM analysis of the Serviceability Limit State (SLS); the vectors of the vertical displacements after the last step where u max = 2.13 mm at the pile head and u max = 0.80 mm at the pile toe (see Fig. 22). Static horizontal loading test

The three-dimensional analyses of the interaction between a bored reinforced pile loaded with horizontal static loading and the ground were performed for this purpose. The cross-section of the analyzed model and the corresponding finite-element mesh is presented in Fig. 19. Fig. 20 presents the deformed mesh after the last horizontal loading step (at the pile head) and the deformation vectors of the horizontal loaded pile. The results of the FEM analysis; the vectors of the horizontal displacements after the last loading step where u max = 33.80 mm at the pile head.

38

38 Figure 18. (a) Cross-section of the model with a finite-element mesh and soil layers and

Figure 18. (a) Cross-section of the model with a finite-element mesh and soil layers and (b) vectors of the vertical displacements after the last vertical loading step.

39

39 Figure 19. Mesh of 3D analysis of the horizontal pile test horizontally loaded at the

Figure 19. Mesh of 3D analysis of the horizontal pile test horizontally loaded at the pile head.

(b)

33.80 mm
33.80 mm

(a)

Figure 20. (a) Deformed mesh of 3D analysis of the horizontal pile test loaded at the pile head, and (b) vectors of horizontal deformations at last loading step.

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COMPARISON OF THE MEASUREMENT RESULTS WITH THE FINITE-ELEMENT ANALYSIS RESULTS

The finite-element analyses of the pile and the surrounding soil gave results that are comparable with the results of the methods based on measurements. The vertical loading was analysed using the axis-symmetrical FE model, while the horizontal loading was analysed using the three-dimensional FE model. Fig. 21 shows the relationship between the time and the vertical movements of the pile head, while Fig. 22 shows the relationship between the

pile head, while Fig. 22 shows the relationship between the vertical loading and the vertical movements

vertical loading and the vertical movements of the pile head. In both figures the results obtained with the analysis on the axis-symmetrical model were compared to the measured values. Figure 21. Comparison of the calculated (using FEM) and the measured values of the vertical displacement versus the time of the pile head.

the vertical displacement versus the time of the pile head. Figure 22. Comparison of the calculated

Figure 22. Comparison of the calculated (using FEM) and the measured values of the vertical displacement versus the loading of the pile head.

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Fig. 23 shows the relationship between the horizontal displacement and the depth of the horizontally loaded pile. The results obtained with the analysis of the three-dimensional model were compared to the measured values.

model were compared to the measured values. Figure 23. Comparison of the calculated (FEM) and measured

Figure 23. Comparison of the calculated (FEM) and measured values of the horizontal displacement versus the depth for the last horizontal loading step.

CONCLUSIONS

This paper describes the development and application of a new measuring technology that proved itself to be very useful for investigating the behaviour of piles and other embedded structures as well as the surrounding soil loaded by different kinds of static and dynamic loads. The presented results show that the state of the strains inside the pile body can be obtained in a very accurate and cost-efficient way, even for events that show an extreme nature. In addition, using the described measurement method with the appropriate distribution of measurement points and measurement directions, the most complex states of the strain can be followed. Even though the conclusions were written before, the results of the field investigations were compared with a set of numerical analyses using the finite-element method (FEM). In the presented computer simulation the model with the axial symmetry was used for the interaction between a bored, reinforced pile loaded in the vertical direction and the three-dimensional model for loading in the horizontal direction. The comparison of the results obtained with the described measurement method and the computer simulation is acceptable. In addition, the further analysis of the results shows that the agreement between the calculated and measured values is even better after using some parameters for the soil model employed in a computer simulation and obtained from the analysis of the measured results.

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Acknowledgment The present research work is a part of a project supported by EUREKA (Trauner and all. 2010), a pan-European network founded to enhance European competitiveness through its support of businesses, research centres and universities that carry out pan-European projects to develop innovative products, processes and services.

REFERENCES

ASTM (1994). “Standard test methods for deep foundations under static axial compressive load, Designation:

D1143/D1143M-07e1.” Philadelphia. Bowles, J.E. (1996). “Foundation analysis and design.” McGraw –Hill, New York. Brinkgrave, R.B.J., and Vermeer, P.A. (1998). “PLAXIS 2D users manual, version 8.” Balkema, Rotterdam. Brinkgrave, R.B.J., and Vermeer, P.A. (2005). “PLAXIS 3D Tunnel user’s manual, version 2.” Balkema, Rotterdam. Desai, C., M. (2010). Constitutive Modeling and Computer Methods in Geotechnical Engineering. Acta geotechnica Slovenica, 7(1), 4-29. GI ZRMK (2006). “Geomechanical report, AC A2 Bič – Hrastje, 8-1.” Gradbeni inštitut ZRMK d.o.o., Ljubljana (in Slovene). Hoffman, K. (1989). “An Introduction to Measurements using Strain Gages.” Hottinger Baldwin Messtechnik GmbH, Darmstadt. Hoffman, K. (1996). „Hinweise zum Applizieren von Dehnungsmeßstreifen (DMS), 4. erweiterte Fassung.“ Hottinger Baldwin Messtechnik GmbH, Darmstadt. Škrabl, S. (2002). “Bearing capacity and settlement of vertically-loaded piles.” Proc. Interntl. Deep Foundations Congress, Geotechnical special technical publication, 116, Reston, VA: Geo-Institute, American Society of Civil Engineers, Orlando, Florida, 53-63. Škrabl, S. (2008).” The limit values and the distribution of three-dimensional passive earth pressures.” Acta geotechnica Slovenica, 5(1), 21-34. Škrabl, S., and Macuh, B. (2005).” Upper-bound solutions of three-dimensional passive earth pressures.” Canadian geotechnical journal, 42(5), 1449-1460. Štrukelj, A., Škrabl, S., Štern, K., and Logar, J. (2005). “The assessment of pile shaft resistance based on axial strain measurements during the loading test.” Acta geotechnica Slovenica, 2(2), 12-23. Štrukelj, A., Pšunder, M., Vrecl -Kojc, H., and Trauner, L. (2009). “Prediction of the pile behaviour under dynamic loading using embedded strain sensor technology.” Acta geotechica Slovenica, 6(1), 64-77. TRAUNER, Ludvik, ŠTRUKELJ, Andrej, PŠUNDER, Mirko, ŠUMAN, Nataša, MACUH, Borut. Rationalization of deep bridging structure foundations using new deformation monitoring techniques : končno poročilo : EUREKA E!4207, akronim Eureka PILE-SAFETY : trajanje projekta 01.02.2008- 01.02.2010. Maribor: Fakulteta za gradbeništvo; Velenje: Vegrad; [S. l.]: Vorspann- Brückentechnologie GmbH, 2010. 34 f., graf. prikazi. [COBISS.SI-ID 15094038] Vrecl -Kojc, H. (2005). “The anchored pile wall optimization using NLP approach.” Acta geotechnica Slovenica, 2(2), 5-11. Vrecl -Kojc, H., and Škrabl, S. (2007). “Determination of passive earth pressure using three-dimensional failure mechanism.” Acta geotechnica Slovenica, 4(1), 10-23.

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UDK: 627.136.2 Pregledni (naučni) članak

PRIRODNE BRANE S OSVRTOM NA NAJVEĆU POZNATU BRANU USOI U TAJIKISTANU

Tanja Roje-Bonacci

Sveučilište u Splitu, Fakultet građevinarstva, arhitekture i geodezije, Matice hrvatske 15, 21000 Split, HR Hrvatska, bonacci@gradst.hr

REZIME

Prirodne brane sastavni su dio oblikovanja reljefa. Nastaju kada tlo s padine pregradi vodotok. Postoje dva ekstrema koja su u takvom slučaju poželjna ali rijetka: da brana u što kraćem vremenu popusti i propusti vodu, odnosno da brana trajno ostane na mjestu gdje je nastala, uz određeni način evakuacije vode iz nastalog jezera prije nego što dođe do prelijevanja brane. Sve između ta dva ekstrema predstvlja opasnost koja najčešće rezultira katastrofalnim poplavama s neprocjenjivim štetama. Najveća poznata takva brana, koja traje već 100 godina, je brana Usoi u Tajikistanu, visine preko 500 metara. Brana se nalazi u slivu Amur Darje.

KLJUČNE RIJEČI: brana, klizište, elementarna nepogoda, potres, poplava

LANDSLIDE DAMS WITH OVERVIEW TO USOI DAM IN TAJIKISTAN

ABSTRACT

Natural dams an integral part of the landscape formation. They are formed when the soil from slopes blocks the watercourse. The development of such dam may lead to two rare but desirable extreme outcomes: quick easing of the new dam and leakage of water accumulated behind it or stabilization of the dam and the establishment of a permanent outflow of water from the newly formed lake before it overflows the dam. All outcomes between these two extremes pose a threat commonly resulting in catastrophic floods causing massive damage to the flooded areas. The largest known dam of this kind, more than 500 meters high and existing already 100 years, is the Usoi dam in Tajikistan. The dam is located in the Amur Darya river basin.

KEYWORDS:dam, landslide, disaster, earthquake, flood

UVOD

Velika klizišta i odroni nastaju, kada se pokrenu padine na rubu stabilnosti, potaknute nekom od prirodnih sila koje izazivanju katastrofe. One nastaju tijekom cijele geološke prošlosti pod djelovanjem egzogenih sila, u procesu

44

oblikovanja Zemljine površine. Pod djelovanjem gravitacije, pokreću se nestabilni dijelovi površinskog pokrivača u nastojanju da se neravna površina Zemlje izravna. Pri tom neke od tih nakupina raznorodnog tla i svega što se na njemu u trenutku pokretanja našlo, zapune korito vodotoka privremeno ili trajno i oblikuju jezera, također privremena ili trajna. Danas je poznato da je u geološkoj prošlosti jedna takva pojava zatrpala dolinu bujice Vajont u talijanskim Dolomitima. Kroz geološku povijest je vodotok izdubio novo korito, a sudbina paleo jezera nije poznata. Istraživanja su izvedena više desetaka godina nakon što se na istom mjestu dogodilo tragično klizanje u umjetno jezero, nastalo izgradnjom lučne brane Veliki Vajont visine 262,2 metra, najviše brane na svijetu u trenutku izgradnje (1963. godine), kada je poplavni val potopio naselje Longarone i još neka druga i uzrokovao više od dvije tisuće žrtava (Roje-Bonacci 2013.) . Velika klizanja tla događaju se na kopnu i pod morem. Niz podataka može se naći u radu Costa i Schuster, 1991.

Dvije geofizičke pojave su najčešći okidač za pokretanje masa tla s padina na granici stabilnosti. To su intenzivne oborinae i potresi. Rjeđe su izazvane erozijom, a mogu biti izazvane i kombinacija svih prethodnih učinaka. Pokretanje masa i nastanak prirodnih brana izazvanih vulkanskim erupcijama spadaju u posebnu grupu pokreta. Dobar je primjer erupcija vulkana Mount St. Helen u državi Washington u SAD-u 1980. godine. Ova je erupcija osim toka lave izazvala muljni tok uslijed topljenja snijega na vrhu vulkana i kamenu lavinu nastalu usljied potresa kao posljedice erupcije. (Wikipedia)

Kada pokrenuto tlo pregradi korito vodotoka u dnu padine, može nastati prirodna brana, potpuno nekontrolirana građevina iza koje se oblikuje jezero. Ne mora uvijek nastati prirodna brana. Njen nastanak ovisi o geometrije doline u koju je masa kliznula u odnosu na geometriju i količinu pokrenutog tla, svojstvima klizne mase i protoku vodotoka koji će masa pregraditi. (Evans, 2006.) Pokreti mogu biti u obliku odrona, kamenih lavina, klizišta i/ili muljnih tokova.

Postoji podatak da se nakon potresa 1783. godine u Kalabriji (Južna Italija) pojavilo 215 jezera nastalih pregrađivanjem korita (Canuti i dr. 1988.). U Kini je 12. svibnja 2008. godine, nakon potresa u provinciji Wenchuan (jugozapadna Kina) zabilježen nastanak 256 prirodnih brana (Qiang Xu i dr. 2009.). Slika 1 prikazuje klizanja (koja nisu izazvana vulkanskom erupcijom) zabilježena tijekom 20. stoljeća (1900.-2000.) volumena većeg od 20×10 6 m 3 .

(1900. - 2000.) volumena većeg od 20×10 6 m 3 . Slika 1 Značajna klizanja u

Slika 1 Značajna klizanja u 20, stoljeću (prema Keefer 1984,; nadopunjeno Ambraseys i Bilham 2012,) Figur 1 Important landslides in 20th centuri (after Keefer 1984,; update Ambraseys i Bilham 2012,)

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Prva poznata prirodna brana nastala klizanjem tla je 1737. godine prije Krista, u Hunan provinciji u središnjoj Kini potaknuta potresom. Dvije povjesne poplave nastale rušenjem prirodnih brana, za koje se zna, zbile su se u Švicarskoj godine 563. i na otoku Javi godine 1006. (Schuster 2000.). Osim prirodnih brana nastalih pregrađivanjem vodotoka kliznom masom, postoje i brane nastale kao posljedica otapanje leda iza morenskih naslaga, ali o njima ovdje nije riječ, iako mogu biti jednako opasne.

PONAŠANJE PRIRODNIH BRANA NASTALIH KLIZANJEM

Prirodne brane potpuno su nekontrolirane građevine. Njihov učinak je uvijek opasan, ali je opasnost to veća što je njihovo postojanje dulje, ali ne i trajno. Učinak ove pojave osjeća se uzvodno i nizvodno duž vodotoka koji je pregrađen. Učinci su prikazani na slici 2. Mehanizmi nastanka šteta nisu jednoznačni. Najmanja je šteta od trenutne poplave nastale muljnim tokom niz korito, iako i to ima katastrofalne posljedice. Kada nastane jezero iza brane koja nije odmah popustila, područje zahvaćeno štetama postaje znatno veće.

područje zahvaćeno štetama postaje znatno veće. Slika 2 Učinci prirodne brane u okolišu korita

Slika 2 Učinci prirodne brane u okolišu korita pregrađenog vodotoka (modificirali Qiang Xu i dr, 2009, prema Korups-ovom modelu (2005)) Figure 2 Impact of landslide dams in sourroundings of streanflow bed (modify by Qiang Xu at all. 2009, acording Korup's model (2005))

Analizom niza prirodnih brana Costa i Schuster (1988.) su tipizirali oblike koji nastaju uslijed klizanja obronaka u korito vodotoka. Ova tipizacija zadržala se do danas (Qiang Xu I sur. 2009.). Pokazalo se da se radi o šest različitih mogućnosti oblikovanja brane u prirodnom vodotoku, opisanih u nastavku. Grafički su prikazani na slici 3. Tip I Nepotpuno pregrađeno korito; Tip II Potpuno pregrađeno korito s uzdizanjem mase tla na susjedni bok; Tip III potpuno pregrađeno korito i razlijevanje mase tla uzvodno i nizvodno. Ovaj tip može uzrokovati i pregrađivanje ušća pritoka, oblikovati više jezera. Tip IV Brana nastala uslijed klizanja obaju bokova koji se mogu susresti čeona ili bočno. Tip V Više brana, nastalih usljed prstastog klizanja s više izdanaka koji pregrade korito i oblikuju više jezera. Tip VI Brane koje nastaju kada je klizna površina ispod dna korita, koje se uslijed klizanja proširi.

Prema gradivu, brane nastale klizanjem tla mogu biti sastavljene od (Qiang Xu I dr., 2009.):

1) Tla i kršja, koje sadrži više od 50% čestica promjera od 20 do 200 mm; 2) Tla i kršja s nešto većih blokova, ali koji sadržavaju više od 50% čestica tla i stijena promjera od 20 do 200 mm, dok su blokovi i komadi stijena veći od 200 mm; 3) Gromada i blokova s malo čestica tla i kršja, više od 50% ukupne mase čestica ima promjer veći od 200 mm; 4) Gromada i blokova promjera preko 200 mm, bez sitnijih čestica.

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46 Slika 3 Tipovi prirodnih brana prema Swanson i dr. 1986. i Costa i Schuster 1988.

Slika 3 Tipovi prirodnih brana prema Swanson i dr. 1986. i Costa i Schuster 1988. Figure 3 Typs of natural dams (Swanson at all. dr. 1986.Costa and Schuster 1988.)

Prema masi koja zatrpa vodotok postoji i slijedeća podjela:

1) Muljni tok, izazvan obilnim oborinama, sadrži u početku kretanja znatnu količinu vode, nema nikakav otpor na smicanje; 2) Obrušavanje, kamena lavina, većinom kao posljedica potresa, ali može biti potaknuta intenzivnim oborinama; 3) Klizanje tla po kritičnoj kliznoj plohi, izazvano potresom, obilnim oborinama i/ili promjenom razine podzemne vode.

Poprečni presjek prirodnih brana, (u smjeru vodotoka) bitno je veći i blažih nagiba od umjetnih, nasutih brana s propisanim svojstvima gradiva, za razliku od prirodnih, koje imaju najrazličitija svojstva parametara čvrstoće na smicanje, ovisno o vrsti tla i ostalih sastavnica koje ih tvore.

Prirodne brane ruše se iz više razloga. Najčešće je to prelijevanje, bilo zbog intenzivnih oborina koje pune novonastalo jezero ili zbog valova nastalih klizanjem obala u novo nastalo jezero. Drugi razlog je iznošenje sitnijih čestica iz rahlog (potpuno prirodno nastalog) nasipa, nekontroliranog sastava, (sufozija), koje izaziva unutarnju eroziju i postepeno stvaranje prioritetnih putova u masi tla. Treća je mogućnost da rušenje nastaje uslijed klizanja nizvodne kosine, potpomognuto strujanjem vode kroz nekontrolirani nasip. Naravno moguća je i njihova kombinacija. Kako ove brane nastaju u izrazito trusnim područjima, uzrok njihovog rušenja mogu biti i potresi koji se pojave niz godina nakon nastanka brane. Ovakvi su događaji izrazito opasni.

Njergov dijagram

U svom radu iz 1988. godine Costa daje rezultate analize trajanja niza prirodno nastalih brana prikazan je na slici 4.

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47 Slika 4 Trajanje prirodnih brana nastalih klizanjem obala vodotoka (Costa, 1988.) Figure 4 Duration of

Slika 4 Trajanje prirodnih brana nastalih klizanjem obala vodotoka (Costa, 1988.) Figure 4 Duration of natural dams arise from landslides of streamflow banks (Costa, 1988.)

Prema analizama koje je izradio Costa, prelijevanje je najčešći uzrok rušenja prirodnih brana. Njegov dijagram prikazan je na slici 5.

prirodnih brana. Njegov dijagram prikazan je na slici 5. Slika 5 Najčešći uzroci rušenja prirodnih brana

Slika 5 Najčešći uzroci rušenja prirodnih brana (Costa, 1988.) Figure 5 Most frequently reason of collapse of landslide dams (Costa, 1988.)

Štete koje nastaju uslijed rušenja brana nastalih klizanjem su ogromne. Danas se sve više vodi računa o ovim događanjima pa je moguće naći i veliki broj radova na temu prirodnih brana nastlih klizanjem, s njihovi opisom i načinima smanjenja mogućih šteta. Evans (2003) je predložio izračun indeksa razaranja klizišta (Landslide Destructive Indeks, LDI), vezano na nastanak prirodnih brana, na način da se poveže veličina klizanja s razaranjem koje nastaje kao posljedica klizanja. Indeks je određen jednadžbom (1) kao omjer gubitka u odnosu na jediničnu zapreminu kliziša koje razaranje prouzrokuje.

LDIvol = L/V

(1)

pri čemu je L šteta ili gubitak izražen u broju žrtava; novčano izraženoj šteti; oštećenjima stambenih jedinica ili bilo koje druge mjerljive štete, a V je volumen kliznule mase izražen u m 3 . Na slici 6 prikazana je šteta, potapanje hidroelektrane i njenog okoliša. Šteta je nastala uslijed poplave novo nastalim jezerom, uzrokovanim Kuzhuba klizištem na rijeci Jian u Kini (Qiang i sur. 2009.)

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48 Slika 6 a) hidroelektrana prije poplave, b) potopljeni prostor iza brane nastale klizištem Kuzhuba (Qiang

Slika 6 a) hidroelektrana prije poplave, b) potopljeni prostor iza brane nastale klizištem Kuzhuba (Qiang i sur.

2009.)

Figure 6 a) hydroelectric power-plant before flood, b) flooded space after occurrence of Kuzhuba landslide dam (Qiang et all. 2009)

BRANA USOI I JEZERO SAREZ

Jezero Sarez nalazi se u Pamir gorju u Tajikistanu. Nastalo je 18. veljače 1911. godine nakon što je potresom pokrenuto klizište ogromnih razmjera, procijenjeno na oko 2-3 km 3 tla. Klizna masa zatvorila je korito rijeke Murghab, pritoke rijeke Amu Darya, koja utječe u Aralsko more. Površina mu je na nadmorskoj visini od cca 3200

Jezero je dugačko oko 60 km i duboko oko 500 m. Današnja količina vode u jezeru, oko 17 km 3 , iznosi

dvije trećine količine vode Ženevskog jezera. Klizište je zatrpalo selo Usoi po kojem je brana dobila ime (Alford i

sur. 2000.)

m n.m

Prirodna brana Usoi je, procjenjuje se, visoka između 500 i 700 metara, te je kao takva apsolutno najviša brana na svijetu. Dužina u kruni iznosi 1370 metara. U uzdužnom presjeku, duž korita, duga je oko 4000 m (slika 9). Iz povijesnih podataka zna se da je dvoje ljudi iz sela Usoi preživilo katastrofu jer su na vrijeme pobjegli. Oni su ispričali da se prašina nakon klizanja taložila puna tri dana. Također je iz postojećih podataka poznato da su povremena obrušavanja stijenja s padine nastale nakon klizanja, trajala još gorovo 15 godina (Agakhanjanz 1989, 1996). Na slici 7 prikazana je brana Usoi i dio jezera Sarez i manje jezero nazvano „Shadau ozero“ (Preobrazhenski

1920.)

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brana Usoi rijeka Murghab
brana Usoi
rijeka Murghab

jezero Shadau

Slika 7 Brana Usoi, dio jezera Sarez i malo jezero Shadau

Figure 7 Usoi dam, part of Sarez lake and little lake Shadau

jezero Sarez

Da bi se ova brana mogla usporediti s umjetnim građevinama treba reći da je najviša izgrađena nasuta brana, brana Nurek, visine 300 m, također u Tajikistanu (Wikipedia). Od nje je danas viša samo brana Jinping-I Dam, 305 m, betonska, lučna u Kini. Na slici 8 prikazana je brana Usoi u poprečnom presjeku, duž korita Murghab-a u usporedbi s branom prirodnom Bairaman, papua Nova Gvinea i nasutom građenom branom Oroville u Kaliforniji. Može se uočiti golemost ove brane.

u Kaliforniji. Može se uočiti golemost ove brane. Slika 8 Usporedba presjeka tri brane duž korita

Slika 8 Usporedba presjeka tri brane duž korita vodotoka Figure 8 Comparison of along sections of Usoi dam with Bairaman dam and Oroville dam

Jezero je ime dobilo po selu Sarez, koje je potopilo. Razina jezera Sarez je u početku rasla brzinom od 75. metara godišnje. Postepeno se brzina punjenja smanjila i na kraju stala. Danas razina oscilira oko ± 6,00 metara. Područje na kojem se jezero nalazi okruženo je planinskim lancima visine i preko 6000 m n.m. Ovaj prostor ima vrlo malu godišnju količinu oborina, svega oko 100 mm godišnje. S obzirom na veliku površinu jezera od 7970 hektara, evapotrenspiracija odnosi dio vode iz jezera. Utvrđeno je da brana nikada nije bila poplavljena t.j prelivena. Evakuacija vode odvija se procjeđivanjem kroz branu na oko 150 metara ispod krune. Na slici 9 prikazani su izvori na nizvodnoj kosini brane (Alford i sur. 2000.).

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50 Slika 9 Izvori na nizvodnoj kosini brane (Alford i sur. 2000.) Figure 9 Springs on
50 Slika 9 Izvori na nizvodnoj kosini brane (Alford i sur. 2000.) Figure 9 Springs on

Slika 9 Izvori na nizvodnoj kosini brane (Alford i sur. 2000.) Figure 9 Springs on the downhill slope of dam (Alford et all 2000)

Brana Usoi nalazi se u seizmički vrlo aktivnom području. Stoga postoji bojazan da bi neki od jačih potresa mogao prouzročiti njeno veće oštećenje ili čak i rušenje. Kroz 90. godine prošlog stoljeća utvrđeno je da vodostaj raste oko 5 cm/god pa bi i to jednog dana moglo ugroziti branu. Obale jezera je moguće obići isključivo čamcem, što je ekspedicija UN-a i učinila. Utvrđeno je da na pojedinim mjestima postoji mogućnost pojave klizanja obala u jezero To je još jedna moguća prijetnja stabilnosti brane. Stoga je u tim godinama (nakon što je Tajikistan postao samaostalna država), pokrenuto niz inicijativa za ojačanje ove brane i za eventualno njeno osiguranje do mjere da bi se vode iz jezera mogle koristiti za razne hidrotehničke svrhe, prvenstveno proizvodnju energije. Bilo je nekoliko pokušaja od strane Svjetske banke, UN-a i nekih privatnih donacija da se istraži mogućnosti iskorištavanja ovog jezera i provjeri stabilnost brane.

1999. godine je organiziran obilazak brane i jezera sa zadatkom: procijeniti opću stabilnost brane Usoi; procijeniti trenutno stanje i učinak procjeđivanja vode kroz branu i mogućnost pojave „Cijevljenja“; procjeniti vjerojatnost pojave klizišta na desnoj obali jezera; u suradnji s domaćim seizmolozima procijeniti seizmičnost područja i mogući učinak potresa na branu. Slika 10 pokazuje uvjete prilaza ekspedicije UN-a brani Usoj kroz Batang dolinu.

Eksperti su predvidjeli slijedeće scenarije moguće procjene rizika: Rušenje brane uslijed potresa; prolom brane uslijed unutarnje erozije; prolom brane uslijed prelijevanja izazvanog valom nastalim klizanjem desne obale u jezero; destabilizacija brane izazvana pritiskom vode na branu; klizanje uzvodne i nizvodne kosine; progresivni gubitak stabilnosti brane i njene okoline uslijed novih klizanja i muljnih tokova. Rad grupe eksperata detaljno je opisan u radu Alford i sur. 2000.

Najčešći način zaštite prirodnih brana od rušenja je izrada sigurnog i stabilnog preljeva, ili nekog drugog načina evakuacije velikih voda (na pr. tunelom). Izrada preljeva često je vrlo opasan zahvat jer se radi o općenito nestabilnoj masi tla. Brana Usoi je i u tom smislu posebna. Ozbiljnim pregledima, proračunima i izračunom potrebnih sredstava za bilo kakav zahvat, uvijek se dolazilo u slijepu ulicu. Brana se naime nalazi u vrlo nepristupačnom, slabo naseljenom području i u vrlo siromašnoj državi. Cijena izgradnje prometnice potrebne da se pristupi samoj brani, iziskivala bi golema sredstva.

Slika 10 zorno prikazuje krajolika kroz koji bi trebalo dovesti mehanizaciju za uređenje brane. Radi se o kanjonu dugom oko 120 km od ušća rijeke Mughrab u Batang do brane Usoi, a i dolina Batang ne izgleda nimalo gostoljubivo.

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51 Slika 10 Istraživački tim UN -a u doli ni Batang (Alford i sur. 2000.) Figure

Slika 10 Istraživački tim UN-a u doli ni Batang (Alford i sur. 2000.) Figure 10 UN research team in the Batang Valley (Alford et all. 2000)

LITERATURA

Agakhanjanz, O. E. (1989) Sarez. Leningrad: Leningrad Press, 110 pp. Agakhanjanz, O. E. (1996). A night in the Year of the Pig. In Around the Roof of the World, ed. N. Shoumatoff and N. Shoumatoff, 122– 143. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. Alford, D; Schuster, R, at all,, (2000,), Usoi Landslide Dam and Lake Sarez, An Assessment of Hazard and Risk in the Pamir Mountains, Tajikistan, (D, Alford nabd R, Schuster eds,), United Natiorns Publication, ISDR Prevention series N˚ 1 Ambraseys, N, Bilham, R, (2012,) The Sarez-Pamir Earthquake and landslide of 18 February 1911, SRL 83:2- Historical seizmologist, str 1-29 Canuti, P,, Cascini, L,, Dramis, F,, Pellegrino A,, Piscarelli, L, (1988,), Lanslides in Italy: Occurrence, Analisis and Control, International Workshop on natural disasters in European-Maditerranean Countries, WAREDOC, 27,06,-01, 07,1988,, Peruggia, Italia Costa, J, E, (1988,), Investigations of Landslide Dams, International Workshop on natural disasters in European- Maditerranean Countries, WAREDOC, 27,06,-01, 07,1988,, Peruggia, Italia Costa, J,E,, Schuster, R,L,: (1988,) The formation and failure of natural dams, Geol Soc Am Bull 100: 1054 –1068 Costa, J.E., Schuster, R.L., (1991) Documented historical landslide dams from around the world, US Geological Survey Open-File Report: 91–239, 486 Evans S.G.: (2006.) The formation and failure of landslide dams: An approach to risk assessment, Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, Special Issue 1 (2006), str, 15-19, http://en,wikipedia,org/; Wikipwdia, the Free Encyclopedia, (2013), List of tallest dams in the world http://en,wikipedia,org/; Wikipwdia, the Free Encyclopedia, (2013), 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens Keefer, D, K,, and R, C, Wilson (1989), Predicting earthquake-induced landslides, with emphasis on arid and semi- arid environments, In Landslides in a Semi-Arid Environment with Emphasis on the Inland Valleys of Southern California, vol, 2, ed, P, M, Sadler and D, M, Morton, part I, 118–149, Riverside, CA: Inland Geological Society of Southern California Publications,

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Korup, O, (2005,) Geomorphic hazard assessment of landslide dams in South Westland, New Zealand: fundamental problems and approaches, Geomorphology 66:167–188 Preobrazhenski, I. A. (1920). Usoiskii zaval. Trudi Geologiska Kommitte Materiali po Obshchei Prikladnoi Geologis 4, Petrograd. Qiang Xu, Xuan-Mei Fan, Run-Qiu Huang, Cee Van Westen, (2009), Landslide dams triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan Province, south west China, Bull Eng Geol Environ (2009) 68:373–386 Roje-Bonacci, T. (2013.): Vajont (1963.-2013.) Hrvatske vode: časopis za vodno gospodarstvo. 21, 84; 156-163 Schuster, R. (2000,), Chap 2,: A worldwide perspective on landslide dams, U Usoi Landslide Dam and Lake Sarez, An Assessment of Hazard and Risk in the Pamir Mountains, Tajikistan, (D, Alford nabd R, Schuster eds,), United Natiorns Publication, ISDR Prevention series N˚ 1str 19-22 Swanson, F,J,, Oyagi, N,, i Tominaga, M, (1986,), Lanslide dams in Japan. U L, Schuster (ur,), Landslide dams:

process, tisk and mitigation, American Society of Civil Engineering, Geotechnical Special Publication No, 3, 131-145,

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UDK: 624.12:001.38(497.5) (091) Pregledni (stručni) rad

MEHANIKA STIJENA-50 GODINA NAKON OSNIVANJA ISRM-A

Ivan Vrkljan

Institut IGH d.d. i Građevinski fakultet Sveučilišta u Rijeci,Janka Rakuše 1, 10000 Zagreb, Hrvatska. e-mail: ivan.vrkljan@igh.hr

REZIME:

Prošle smo godine obilježili 50-tu godišnjicu formiranja ISRM-a. U radu se raspravlja o pojavi mehanike stijena kao prepoznatljive znanstvene i inženjerske discipline, događajima koji su doveli do formiranja ISRM-a te o razvoju i dostignućima mehanike stijena u posljednjih 50 godina. Također su navedeni neki od glavnih neriješenih problema u mehanici stijena i mogućnosti njenog daljnjeg razvoja.

KLJUČNE RIJEČI: ISRM, mehanika stijena, znanstvena disciplina, inženjerska disciplina, povijest, 50- ta godišnjica

ROCK MECHANICS-50 YEARS SINCE THE ISRM WAS FOUNDED

ABSTRACT:

Last year we celebrated 50-year anniversary of the ISRM. This paper discuss the emergence of rock as a distinctive scientific and engineering discipline, the events leading up to formation of the ISRM and the development and achievements of the rock mechanics in the 50 years since 1962. Also, some of the major unsolved problems in rock mechanics will be outlined and the possibilities for future rock mechanics development.

KEYWORDS: ISRM, rock mechanics, scientific discipline, engineering discipline, history, 50-year anniversary

PREDGOVOR

Sudjelovanje u radu ovog savjetovanja za mene ima posebno značenje iz više razloga. Prvi puta sam na jednom savjetovanje u Srbiji nakon 1989. kada sam bio sudionik 7. Jugoslavenskog simpozija za mehanike stijena i podzemne radove. U svome profesionalnom radu surađivao sam s brojnim kolegama iz Srbije naročito tokom moga rada u Tuzli i kasnije na projektu Bekhme dam u Iraku. S posebnim emocijama se sjećam svog profesora Branislava Kujundžića, kao osobe, kao znanstvenika i kao profesora. Prof. Kujundžić značajno je utjecao na moje opredjeljenje da se bavim mehanikom stijena što je u konačnici dovelo i do moga izbora za potpredsjednika ISRM- a, 40 godina nakon što je tu dužnost obavljao prof. Kujundžić. Na ovim prostorima nastalo je više država u kojima

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se govori jezicima koji su razumljivi i drugima. To vidim kao veliku priliku tješnjeg povezivanja na stručnom, znanstvenom i drugim poljima. Bit će mi posebno drago ako ovaj moj dolazak u Sokobanju i ovaj moj referat budu mali doprinos češćem i boljem povezivanju kolega koje se bave geotehnikom na ovim prostorima. Pri tome naročito mislim na mlade kolege koje nemaju iskustvo međusobne suradnje koje mi stariji imamo.

UVOD

Kada empirizam nije mogao objasniti neke pojave tokom građenja zahtjevnijih geotehničkih građevina, rješenja je ponudila geologija. Kada geologija nije mogla objasniti ponašanja stijenske mase, rodila se inženjerska geologija. To je naročito izraženo tokom građenja dubokih alpskih tunela. Rušenje nekih brana s tragičnim posljedicama pokazalo je da inženjerska geologija nije dorasla ovim problemima. Klizanje obala Panamskog kanala navelo je i Terzaghija da zaključi da geotehnika toga doba nema odgovor na pitanja koja su ta klizanja otvorila. Problemi su uvijek poticali razvoj geotehnike pa tako i mehanike stijena kao jedne od geotehničkih disciplina. Uobičajeno je bilo da se mehanika stijena smatra znanstvenom a stijensko inženjerstvo inženjerskom disciplinom. Mehanika stijena kao znanstvena disciplina, pomogla je razvoju stijenskog inženjerstva ali jednako je tako stijensko inženjerstvo pomoglo razvoju mehanike stijena kao znanstvene discipline. Zato se danas pod mehanikom stijena uobičajeno podrazumijeva i stijensko inženjerstvo.

Prošle je godine obilježena 50. godišnjica osnivanja Međunarodnog društva za mehaniku stijena (ISRM- International Society fro Rock Mechanics) čime je mehanika stijena priznata kao samostalna znanstvena i inženjerska disciplina. Do danas je puno toga učinjeno što je pomoglo da donekle razumijemo ponašanje stijenske mase. Razvile su se nove metode terenskih i laboratorijskih ispitivanja, zabilježeni su mnogi slučajevi klizanja, urušavanja i drugih nepoželjnih pojava, prikupljeno je puno podataka koji su bili baza za formiranje raznih klasifikacijskih sustava. Međutim, i danas brojni problemi mehanike stijena ostaju neriješeni i možda će stanje biti puno bolje na 100-tu godišnjicu mehanike stijena.

OKOLNOSTI

U

KOJIMA

JE

FORMIRANO

MEĐUNARODNO

DRUŠTVO

ZA

MEHANIKU

STIJENA

Zašto su prije 50 godina eksperti iz tzv. Austrijskog kruga ocijenili da se mehanika stijena kao znanstvena i inženjerska disciplina, treba razvijati samostalno? Mehanika stijena svoje početke bilježi znatno ranije. Još je Coulomb 1773. ispitivao stijenski materijal. Albert Heim je uočio razliku u ponašanju stijene i stijenske mase. Do 1962. godine definirane su razne metode laboratorijskih i terenskih ispitivanja mehaničkih svojstava stijena i stijenskih masa. Metoda graničnog ravnotežnog stanja za analizu stabilnosti bloka koristili su K. Terzaghi i K.W. John. T. Kármán. je već 1911. ispitivao stijene u troosnoj ćeliji. Do tada su već bili izgrađeni dugački alpski tuneli Mont Cenis (12 km, 1857), St. Gothard (15 km, 1872) Arlberg (10 km, 1880), Simplon (19 km, 1898), Mont Blanc (12 km, 1959). U tunelima se počela koristiti čelična podgrada i mlazni beton. Od 1872. iskop se vrši dinamitom a 1960. u praksu ulaze strojevi za iskop u punom profilu (TBM). Bogata iskustva tunelogradnje iznjedrila su koncept koji obično prepoznajemo kao Novu austrijsku tunelsku metodu (NATM) koju je 1948. patentirao Rabcewicz (Rabcewicz, 1948).

Razvoju mehanike stijena su, na žalost, značajno pridonijele katastrofalne posljedice nestabilnosti brana (Malpasset, Francuska 1959, 450 mrtvih) i klizanje stijenske mase u jezero brane Vajont (Italija, 1963, 2.500 mrtvih). I prije ovih nesreća mehanika stijena je bila prepoznata kao disciplina od koje se očekuju rješenja za razne probleme pri izgradnji hidroenergetskih objekata (temelji brana, tlačni tuneli i slično). Zato je Jaeger još 1951. predložio ICOLD-u (International Commission on Large Dams) da osnuje potkomitet za mehaniku stijena. U ranim šezdesetim prošlog stoljeća, mnogi problemi su bili prepoznati, razvijale su se razne tehnike ispitivanja i analize ponašanja stijenske mase. Tada, kao što je to slučaj još i danas, mnogi problemi mehanike stijena čekali su rješenja. Leopold Müller je još 1967. postavio pitanje: Kako odrediti čvrstoću stijenske mase? Znamo li danas, skoro 50 godine poslije, odgovor na ovo pitanje? Na ovo pitanje pokušava odgovoriti Fairhurst kroz Prvo Müllerovo predavanju u Beču 2009. (Fairhurst, 2009). Na obalama Panamskog kanala je u periodu 1910-1964. aktivirano oko 60 klizišta. Kasnija su istraživanja pokazala da su ova klizanja pretežno bila kontrolirana diskontinuitetima i da se analize korištene u mehanici tla ne mogu primijeniti na ove slučajeve. Terzaghi je na prvoj konferenciji ISSMFE-a (International Society for Soil Mechanics

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and Foundation Engineering) 1936, kada je komentirao ova klizanja, utvrdio da ja „pređena granica naših mogućnosti u predviđanju posljedica naših aktivnosti“.

Međunarodno društvo za mehaniku stijena osnovano je u maju 1962. godine u Salzburgu pod jakim utjecajem Leopolda Müllera i ostalih iz tzv. Austrijskog kruga (Müller, Pacher, Rabcewicz). Za njegovo osnivanje bitne su tri stvari: (a) Dostignuta je kritična količina znanja o ponašanju stijenskih masa; (b)Tehnologije iskopa i stabilizacije su počele bitno utjecati na inženjerstvo u stijenskoj masi; (c) Tvrdi stav stručnjaka sa područja mehanike tla da se mehanika stijena treba razvijati u sklopu mehanike tla.

Oko promoviranja mehanike stijena kao samostalne znanstvene i inženjerske discipline mišljenja su bila podijeljena. Stav da se mehanika stijena treba razvijati u okviru mehanike tla zastupali su čelnici ISSMFE-a čiji je predsjednik bio Casagrande. Bjerrum je u ime Casagrandea jasno izrazio ovo stajalište na godišnjem kongresu Austrijskog društva za mehaniku stijena u Salzburgu 1962. god. Izgleda da je ovo istupanje imalo suprotan učinak te je kongres reagirao odlukom o pokretanju postupka za formiranje ISRM-a. Godina održavanja ovog kongresa računa se za godinu osnivanja ISRM-a. Leopold Müller je 25.05.1962. u Salzburgu službeno registrirao društvo pod nazivom „Internationale Gesellschaft für Felsmechanik“ (International Society for Rock Mechanics). Treba naglasiti da je Müller jako vodio računa o stajalištima čelnih ljudi ISSMFE-a, naročito Terzaghija koji mu je bio profesor. Među dokumentima se može naći prepiska Müllera i Bjerruma iz koje se vidi da je konačno ime društva bilo usklađeno sa stajalištima Terzaghija, Skemptona i Cassagrandea. Tek kada su oni prihvatili naziv „Internationale Gesellschaft für Felsmechanik“, Müller i Pacher su pokrenuli postupak registracije društva (Hudson and Lamas, 2012).

Još i danas, 50 godina nakon osnivanja ISRM-a, čelništvo ISSMFE-a nekim svojim akcijama zastupa stajališta Terzaghija da se mehanika stijena treba razvijati u sklopu mehanike tla. Na to ukazuje i promjena imena 1997. u International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMGE). Tokom svoga mandata (2009- 2013) predsjednik ISSMGE-a prof Jean-Louis Briaud predložio je još jednu promjenu imena u International Society for Geotechnical Engineering (ISGE). Međutim, delegati ISSMGE Council meeting u Torontu 2011. odbili su taj prijedlog. Uvođenjem pojma „geotehničko inženjerstvo“ u ime društva jasno je kazano da se i „stijensko inženjerstvo“ predmetom interesa ISSMGE-a.

MEHANIKE STIJENA U PRVIH 50 GODINA ISRM-a

Mehanika je stijena u zadnjih 50 godina značajno utjecala na razvoj terenskih istraživanja i karakterizaciju terena, određivanje svojstava stijena i stijenskih masa, razvoj projektnih analiza, uvođenje novih metoda iskopa i podgrađivanja, široku upotrebu monitoringa i povratnih analiza te primjenu mehnike stijena u stijenskom inženjerstvu (Brown (2011).

Dobro karakteriziranje stijenske mase sa geološkog, hidrogeološkog i geotehničkog aspekta, osnovni je preduvjet za uspjeh svakog geotehničkog projekta. Bušenja su se značajno poboljšala što omogućuje dobivanje neporemećene jezgre, mogućnost orijentiranja jezgre, geofizička ispitivanja u bušotini, snimanje zidova bušotine i drugo. Iako geofizičke metode nemaju uspjeh koji su postigle u medicini, one značajno obećavaju jer su ne razorne i jeftine. Značajno su se poboljšale metode snimanja diskontinuiteta (lasersko skeniranje i 3D digitalno predstavljanje) što je od ključne važnosti znajući da diskontinuiteti kontroliraju ponašanje stijenske mase. Klasifikacijski sustavi su međunarodno prihvaćeni i igraju značajnu ulogu u preliminarnim istraživanjima i karateriziranju stijenske mase. (Bartonova Q klasifikacija (Barton, et al., 1974) , RMR sustav Bieniawskog (Bieniawski, 1976), GSI Hoeka (Hoek and Brown, 1980, Hoek, 1994; Hoek, et al., 1995)). Razvijene su brojne tehnike mjerenja naprezanja u stijenskoj masi kao jednog od ključnih ulaznih parametara svake naponsko-deformacijske analize. Na ovom je polju puno toga učinjeno ali još uvijek na mnoga pitanja odgovore tek trebamo naći.

Do danas su razvijene razne metode laboratorijskih i terenskih ispitivanja koje su opisane u ISRM preporučenim metodama (Ulusay and Hudson, 2007). Treba istaknuti uvođenje servo kontrolirane tehnike za dobivanje kompletne naponsko-deformacijske krivulje. Za definiranje čvrstoće i deformabilnosti stijenske mase, danas se bez sumnje najčešće koristi Hoek-Brownov empirijski kriterij čvrstoće (Hoek i Brown, 1980, Hoek, 1983). U nemogućnosti određivanja čvrstoće stijenske mase u laboratoriju i na terenu (zbog utjecaja diskontinuiteta), ovaj je kriterij prihvaćen kao jedan od načina da se dođe do parametara potrebnih za numeričke analize stanja naprezanja i

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deformacija u zoni geotehničkog objekta. Međutim, kao što Hoek (1994a) upozorava, ovaj se kriterij često koristi i u situacijama kojima on nije namijenjen. Kod diskontinuiteta razvijene su tehnike ispitivanja njihove čvrstoće i deformabilnosti metodama konstantnog normalnog naprezanja (CNL-Constant normal load) i konstantne posmične krutosti (CNS-Constant Normal Stiffness). U širokoj je upotrebi i Bartonov empirijski kriterij čvrstoće diskontinuiteta (Barton, 1973, 1974). Što se čvrstoće stijenske mase tiče, Bieniawski (2008) i Fairhurst (2010) obećavajućim ocjenjuju koncept sintetičke stijenske mase (SRM-Synthetic Rock Mass) koji je predstavio Loring

(2007).

Za projektiranja u i na stijenskoj masi razvijene su brojne procedure. Sve se one oslanjaju na numeričke naponsko- deformacijske analize ili empirijske pristupe. Široko je prihvaćen pristup projektiranju temeljen na klasifikacijskim sustavima (Bartonova Q klasifikacija, RMR sustav Bieniawskog). Brojni numerički programi razvijeni u proteklom periodu temeljeni su na metodama konačnih elemenata i konačnih razlika. Oni su inicijalno nastali za modeliranje kontinuuma ali su kasnije prilagođeni i diskontinualnim sredinama. Od programa za modeliranje diskontinuuma, najviše se koristi metoda diskretnih elemenata (DEM-Discrete Element Method), Goodmanova blokovska teorija i metoda graničnog ravnotežnog stanja. Posljednjih se godina pojavljuju i elementi umjetne inteligencije, ekspertni sustavi, neuralne mreže te razni hibridni modeli. Međutim, i pored izvanrednih mogućnosti koje pružaju razni numerički programi, njihova je upotrebljivost ograničena s obzirom na još uvijek nedovoljno poznavanje ulaznih parametara i rubnih uvjeta s kojima se analiza obavlja. Zbog toga svaki rezultat koji se dobije ovim analizama treba kritički sagledati i ne vjerovati mu beskrajno. Numeričke analize su skratile muke projektantima jer su brze i obavljaju puno manualnog posla. Ali, ne treba se zavaravati da su prekrasni izlazni rezultati o pomacima i naprezanjima doista takvi (Barton, 2011). Pored toga, mnogim korisnicima je teorija na kojoj su programi napravljeni potpuno nepoznata pa zapravo i ne znaju uz koja su sve ograničenja i pretpostavke rezultati dobiveni.

Tehnike iskopa i podgrađivanja značajno su napredovale u posljednjih 50 godina. Sve se one mogu svrstati u dvije skupine: Tehnike bušenja i miniranja (konvencionalni način) i tehnike mehaničkog iskopa. Primjenom modernih tehnika, miniranje je postalo sredstvo za rezanje stijena a ne nekontrolirano razaranje. Kontrolirano bušenje minskih bušotina, novi eksplozivi i drugo, učinili su ovu tehniku pouzdanom, brzom i sigurnom. Mehanički iskop je postigao enorman napredak. Strojevi za iskop tunela u punom profilu dostigli su promjere preko 15 m. Razne tehnike bušenja bušotina velikog promjera i strojni iskop okana, strojevi sa pokretnom glavom i još puno toga, posljedica su naglog razvoja strojarske industrija. Uloga geotehničara kod mehaničkih iskopa svodi se na definiranje mehaničkih svojstava intaktne stijene (trošenje reznih alata) i mehaničkih svojstava stijenske mase (stabilnost iskopa, opterećenja podgrade, podzemna voda, krški fenomeni i slično). Koncept interakcije podgrade i stijene razvijen u Austrijskom krugu kasnije je proširen metodom ograničavanja konvergencije (Panet, 1993). Obično ovaj koncept prepoznajemo pod nazivom Nova Austrijska tunelska metoda (NATM) ali treba napomenuti da se o ovome vodi žestoka polemika od istupa Kovarija koji negira postojanje NATM-a na način kako ju vide Austrijanci (Kovari 1993;1994). Što se tehnika podgrađivanja tiče razvijeni su razni tipovi sidara (sidra s popustljivom glavom, frikcijska sidra, karbonska sidra), mokri postupak ugradnje mlaznog betona, mikroarmirani mlazni beton, popustljiva podgrada u tunelogradnji i slično.

Monitoriranje je odavno prihvaćeno kao neizostavni dio svakog geotehničkog projekta te kao jedna od metoda za dokazivanje da nije dostignuto granično ravnotežno stanje. Kao što navodi Peck (1969) , ljudsko oko je jedan od najvažnijih „uređaja“ za monitoriranje. Međutim, ljudske oči ne vide puno toga pa su se razvili brojni uređaji za mjerenje pomaka, tlaka i slično. Pored klasičnih geodetskih (totalna stanica) i geotehničkih (inklinometar, ekstenzometar) metoda, sve se više koriste tehnike kao što su, fotogrametrija, lasersko skeniranje (LiDAR), radar i satelitske tehnike za mjerenje pomaka (GPS). Moderni sustavi za prikupljanje, procesuiranje i prenošenje podataka omogućavaju brz uvid u pomake te mogućnost ranog uzbunjivanja u kritičnim situacijama. Monitoriranje otvara još jednu veliku mogućnost-izvođenje povratnih analiza kojima se na osnovi izmjerenih pomaka određuju mehaničkih svojstava stijenske mase ili diskontinuiteta. Naime, svako pomjeranje ili lom stijenske mase može se promatrati kao veliko in-situ ispitivanje koje kontroliramo stabilizacijskim mjerama (armiranje i slično). U ovim slučajevima je volumen stijenske mase višestruko veći od onih uključenih u najveće moguće terensko ispitivanje. Time se problem efekta mjerila, kao jednog od najvećih problema mehanike stijena, umanjuje.

Napredak stijenskog inženjerstva vidljiv je na svim poljima, građevinarstvu, rudarstvu, naftnom inženjerstvu i zaštiti okoliša. U građevinarstvu građevine kod kojih mehanika stijena igra dominantnu ulogu postižu rekordne dimenzije kao u slučaju dvocijevnog željezničkog tunela Gotthard u Švicarskoj (57 km), olimpijske podzemne

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sportske dvorane u Gjøviku u Norveškoj raspona 62 m, Three Gorges brane u Kini i mnogim drugima. U rudarstvu površinski kopovi postaju sve veći i dublji što zahtjeva optimalne nagibe radnih i završnih kosina. Podzemni iskopi dostižu zapanjujuće dubine u uvjetima visokih naprezanja u rudnicima zlata Južne Afrike. I u naftnom inženjerstvu mehanika stijena dobiva na važnosti pri oživljavanju ležišta hidrauličkim frakturiranjem, pri kontroliranim devijacijama bušotina, mjerenju primarnih naprezanja i slično. Skladištenje visoko radioaktivnog otpada u podzemlje snažno doprinosi razvoju mehanike stijena. Ova su skladišta prvi inženjerski objekti kojima se vijek trajanja ne mjeri desecima već u milijunima godina.

OČEKIVANJA OD MEHANIKE STIJENA U NAREDNOM PERIODU

Nakon prvih 50 godina, nameće se pitanje, kako će se mehanika stijena i ISRM razvijati u sljedećih polja stoljeća. Prognozirati budućnost ove discipline znači prognozirati razvoj tehnologija koje će sigurno podariti nove mogućnosti. Ove su prognoze vrlo nepouzdane s obzirom na eksponencijalni razvoj novih tehnologija. Hoće li one biti sposobne pomoći rješavanju još uvijek neriješenih problema, ostaje da se vidi.

U referatu posvećenom obilježavanju 50 godina mehanike stijena, Hudson (2008, 2011) izdvaja sljedeća područja u kojima se krije najviše neriješenih problema: geologija, naprezanja u stijeni, intaktna stijena, ispucanost, tečenje vode, modeliranje i projektiranje. Točno znamo što nam treba od geoloških podloga za projektiranje i izvođenje neke građevine ali još uvijek nemamo pouzdane metode identifikacije svih bitnih parametara. Međutim, ono što možemo već sada učiniti na poboljšanju je uključivanje inženjerskih geologa u ranoj fazi projekta radi definiranja inženjerskogeološkog modela. Poznavanje in-situ (primarnih) naprezanja osnovni je preduvjet pouzdanog modeliranja bilo koje vrste. Međutim, mi još uvijek nemamo pouzdane metode za mjerenje i određivanje primarnih naprezanja. Hudson (2011) naglašava da još uvijek nemamo pouzdan način za određivanje šest komponenti tenzora naprezanja niti u potpunosti razumijemo utjecaj diskontinuiteta, heterogenosti i anizotropije na naponska stanja.

Iako je još davno uočeno da diskontinuiteti kontroliraju ponašanje stijenske mase, još uvijek nismo u mogućnosti pouzdano odrediti geometriju (položaj u prostoru) i mehanička svojstva diskontinuiteta. Ispucanost stijenske mase kontrolira i njenu vodopropusnost tako da bez pouzdanog modela ispucanosti stijenske mase nije moguće odrediti putove vode. Modeliranje u mehanici stijena započelo je s fizikalnim i analognim modelima (fotoelastični) da bi kasnije bili gotovo u cijelosti zamijenjeni numeričkim modelima i metodama osnovanim na klasifikacijama (Barton, 2011). Što se numeričkih modela tiče, oni danas uglavnom modeliraju samo jednu disciplinu, na primjer stanje naprezanja i deformacija u zoni utjecaja inženjerskog zahvata. Drugi model modelira, na primjer, tečenje vode. Cilj je napraviti jedinstvene programe koji će modelirati i jedno i drugo. To su tzv. vezani (coupled) modeli. Ako se zna da promjenom naponskog stanja dolazi do otvaranja ili zatvaranja diskontinuiteta što izravno utječu na vodopropusnost, onda je jasno zašto je dobro imati jedinstven model. Za očekivati je da će se razviti vezani modeli koji će uključiti i druge poddiscipline a ne samo mehaničku i hidrauličku.

Međutim, i pored gornjih ograničenja, podzemne građevine su sve većih dimenzija, iskopi su sve dublji i strmiji, grade se brane sve većih visina. Kako se to može objasniti? Prije svega je odlučujuću ulogu odigrao razvoj modernih tehnologija. Tako su strojevi za iskop tunela (TBM) sve veći i moćniji, razvojem novih tipova sidara njihova ugradnja postaje sve jednostavnija, tehnologije ugradnje mlaznog betona omogućavaju lakši i čistiji rad. Novi materijali i patenti kojima se postiže popustljiva podgrada omogućavaju kontrolirano rasterećenje podgrade. Često se puta ugrađuje sekundarna podgrada iako je primarna u cijelosti stabilizirala tunel.

Hudson (2011) očekuje da će se u narednih 50 godina razvoj mehanike stijena očitovati kroz: Poboljšanje metoda za sakupljanje informacija; Razvoj geofizičkih metoda; Integraciju različitih pod disciplina (fully coupled numerički model); Više međunarodne suradnje; Češću upotrebu neuralnih mreža; Povećanje dubine i dužine iskopa; Povećanje brzine mehaničkog iskopa; Naglasak na važnost očuvanja okoliša; Prilagodbu ISRM-a novim vremenima; Prednosti koje donosi neslućena snaga budućih računala; Konferencije; Primjenu mehanike stijena na drugim planetima i asteroidima.

U intervjuu koji je autoru ovog referata dao Nick Barton 2011. prilikom njegova boravka u Zagrebu, na pitanje:

„Kako gledate na daljnji razvoj mehanike stijena i stijenskog inženjerstva? Što su prioriteti u bliskoj budućnosti?”, Barton je odgovorio: U toku nedavno održane radionici koju je organizirao predavač iz jednog od najvećih poduzeća koje pruža usluge u naftnoj industriji, rečeno je da je geomehanika jako važna ali da se "zapravo uopće

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nije razvijala u posljednjih 100 godina". U stvari, sudeći i po tome što koriste neodgovarajuće metode, multidisciplinarnim timovima naftnih kompanija očito nije poznato u kojoj se mjeri ovo područje razvilo. Naime, upravo je ove godine uveden novi kriterij čvrstoće stijena koji je bolji od Mohr-Coulomb-ovog i Hoek-Brown- ovog, jer mu je zakrivljenost točnija pa je potreban manji broj troosnih ispitivanja. Osim toga u nekim su područjima pokrenute inicijative (kao na pr. u Kanadi, SAD-u, Švedskoj, Norveškoj, Indiji) radi modeliranja posmičnog popuštanja stijenske mase na realniji način, i to bez uključivanja kohezije i trenja, ali sa zasebnim degradiranjem i mobilizacijom. U ovom se segmentu još dosta treba napraviti jer dilatacija, godinama modelirana u sklopu određivanja ponašanja stijenskih pukotina, treba također biti uključen u modeliranje stijenske mase kao varijabla ovisna o naprezanju i deformaciji. Treba također shvatiti da se modul deformacije (i seizmičke brzine) može povećavati s dubinom i to samo zbog naprezanja, a ne samo zbog poboljšanja kakvoće stijene. Treba još dosta toga napraviti u ovoj složenoj problematici, pa će se tu naći i dosta tema za buduće doktorate. Ponašanje pukotina i dalje ostaje, nakon 50 i više godina, ključ za bolje razumijevanje ovog pitanja. Modeliranjem izotropnog kontinuuma i dalje nećemo puno toga saznati, jer će stijenska masa i dalje odbijati suradnju (Barton, 2011).

ZAKLJUČCI

Svaka moderna disciplina treba biti temeljena na teoriji, edukaciji i praksi jer to osigurava njenu obnovu i razvoj (Bieniawski, 2008). Mehanika stijena je mlada disciplina opterećena još uvijek ne rješivim problemima. Zato edukacija treba imati posebno mjesto kako na sveučilištima i istraživačkim institutima tako i u svakodnevnoj praksi. Teško je danas ocijeniti dali mehanika stijena kao znanstvena disciplina više doprinosi stijenskom inženjerstvu kao inženjerskoj disciplini ili je to obrnuto. Sigurno ja da jedna disciplina ne može bez druge i samo čvrsta međusobna suradnja garantira njihov razvoj. U proteklih pola stoljeća puno je toga napravljeno i nikome više ne pada na pamet da mehaniku stijena smatra poddisciplinom geologije ili mehanike tla. Klasifikacijski sustavi, čvrstoća i deformabilnost diskontinuiteta, kriteriji čvrstoće stijenske mase, mnogobrojne laboratorijske i terenske metode ispitivanja mehaničkih svojstava stijena i stijenskih masa, podzemne građevine enormnih dimenzija, strojevi za iskop tunela u punom profilu promjera do 15 m i drugo, pozicionirali su mehaniku stijena kao priznatu znanstvenu i stijensko inženjerstvo kao relevantnu inženjersku disciplinu.

Nesumnjivo je da će nove tehnologije značajno utjecati na razvoj mehanike stijena u narednom periodu. Naročito su velika očekivanja od geofizičkih ispitivanja inženjerskogeoloških i geotehničkih svojstava stijenske mase. Samo dobar geotehnički model može osigurati pouzdane ulazne parametre i rubne uvjete sve snažnijim računalnim programima. Prije 50 godina, ispitivanja stijena i stijenskih masa prednjačila su u odnosu na mogućnosti proračuna. Danas je to obrnut slučaj. Programi koje danas imamo neizmjerno pomažu inženjerima i znanstvenicima ali uvijek treba voditi računa da su rezultati onoliko dobri koliko je dobro definiran geotehnički model. Svaki rezultat treba kritički promatrati. Ovo se posebno odnosi na mlade generacije koje su odrasle uz računala i pretraživače koji stvaraju iluziju da su sva znanja na dohvat ruke i da će programi sve sami riješiti. Svaki je program napravljen uz brojna pojednostavljenja i pretpostavke a njih bi svaki korisnik trebao dobro poznavati.

LITERATURA

Barton, N. 2011. From empiricism through theory to problem solving in rock engineering. ISRM Müller Lecture. Proc. 12th ISRM Int. Congress on Rock Mechanics: Harmonising Rock Mechanics and the Environment. London: Taylor & Francis.

ISRM News Journal, Vol 13, December 2010.,

http://www.isrm.net/adm/newsletter/ver_html.php?id_newsletter=63&ver=1#nickbarton; www.hgd- cgs.hr (prijevod na hrvatski). Barton, N.R. 1973. Review of a new shear strength criterion for rock joints. Engng Geol. 7, 287-332. Barton, N.R. 1974. A review of the shear strength of filled discontinuities in rock. Norwegian Geotech. Inst. Publ. No. 105. Oslo: Norwegian Geotech. Inst. Barton, N.R., Lien, R. and Lunde, J. 1974. Engineering classification of rock masses for the design of tunnel support. Rock Mech. 6(4), 189-239.

Barton, N., 2011, Interview,

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Bieniawski Z.T. 2008. Reflections on new horizons in rock mechanics design:theory, education and practice. In A. Majdi & A. Ghasvinian (eds.), Proc. ARMS5 New Horizons in Rock Mechanics. Tehran: Iranian Soc.

Rock Mech., p. 105–118. Bieniawski, Z.T. 1976. Rock mass classification in rock engineering. In Exploration for rockengineering, proc. of the symp., (ed. Z.T. Bieniawski) 1, 97-106. Cape Town: Balkema. Brown, T. 2011. 50 Years of the ISRM and Associated Progress in Rock Mechanics. In Proc. 12th ISRM International Congress on Rock Mechanics "Harmonizing Rock Mechanics and the Environment" 18 -

21 October 2011, Beijing, China p. 29-45.

Fairhurst, C. 2010. First Vienna-Leopold-Müller Lecture: What is the strength of a rock mass? Progress in answering Müller’s (implicit) question. Proc. 5th Colloquium, Rock Mechanics –Theory & Practice, Vienna, 26–27 November 2009, Mitteilungen für Ingenieurgeologie und Geomechanik, Band 9: 87–110.

Hoek E. and Brown E.T. 1980. Underground Excavations in Rock . London: Institution of Mining and Metallurgy 527 pages. Hoek E., 1994a. The challenge of input data for rock engineering. Letter to the editor. ISRM, News Journal,. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2 p. Hoek, E. 1983. Strength of jointed rock masses, 23rd. Rankine Lecture. Géotechnique 33(3), 187-223. Hoek, E. 1994. Strength of rock and rock masses, ISRM News Journal, 2(2), 4-16. Hoek, E., Kaiser, P.K. and Bawden. W.F. 1995. Support of undergroundexcavations in hard rock. Rotterdam:

Balkema ,215 p. Hudson and Lamas (editors), 2012, ISRM 50th Anniversary Commerative Book, International Society for Rock Mechanics, Lisboa, 191 p. Hudson, J.A. 2008. The future for rock mechanics and the ISRM. In A. Majdi & A. Ghasvinian (eds.), Proc. ARMS5 New Horizons in Rock Mechanics. Tehran: Iranian Soc. Rock Mech., 105–118. Hudson, J.A. 2011. The next 50 years of the ISRM and anticipated future progress in rock mechanics. In Proc. 12th ISRM International Congress on Rock Mechanics "Harmonizing Rock Mechanics and the Environment"

18 - 21 October 2011, Beijing, China, p.p.47-55.

Kovari, K., 1993, Is there a NATM, Geomechanical Colloquium, Salzburg. Kovari, K., 1994, On the Existence of the NATM: Erroneous Concepts behind the New Austrian Tunnelling Method, Tunnel 1/94 p. 16-25. Lorig, Loren J. "Using numbers from geology- Synthetic Rock Mass". Proc. 11th ISRM Congress, Lisbon, 2007, vol. 3, pp. 1369-1377. Also see: vol. 1, pp. 485-490, The Synthetic Rock Mass Approach, by D. Mas Ivars et al. Panet, M. 1993. Understanding deformations in tunnels. In J.A. Hudson, E.T. Brown, C. Fairhurst & E. Hoek (eds), Comprehensive Rock Engineering, 1: 663–690. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Peck, 1969, Advantages and limitations of the Observational Method in applied soil mechanics, Geotechnique, 19(2), pp171-187. Rabcewicz, L. v.: Patentschrift Nr. 165573. Österr. Patentamteinge-reicht 1948. Ulusay, R.&Hudson, J.A. (eds) 2007.The Complete ISRM Suggested Methods for Rock Characterization, Testing and Monitoring: 1974–2006, 628 p. Ankara: ISRM Turkish National Group.

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UDK: 624.131.5 Pregledni (naučni) rad

SLIJEGANJE TERENA GRADA TUZLA

Enver Mandžić

Akademija nauka i umjetnosti Bosne i Hercegovine

REZIME

Slijeganje terena grada Tuzla nastalo je eksploatacijom slane ovde iz podzemlja gdje se nalaze naslage soli. Slijeganje je prvi puta evidentirano 1907. godine. Uslovljeno je to prelaskom na indistrijsku eksplotaciju slane vode od 1879.godine, kada Bosna i Hercegovina postaje dio Austrijskog carstva, taj proces slijeganja se intenzivirao. Krajem 19. i početkom 20 vijeka, za vrijeme Austrije, dvije solane podignute su za proizvodnju soli ukuhavanjem slane vode a zatim je sa vremenom podignuta i druga vrsta industrije koja koristi slanu vodu kao mineralni resurs; fabrika sode a zatim i hemijska industrija modernog doba. Intenzivno slijeganje terena rezultiralo je rušenjem velikog broja individulanih, istorijskih, školskih, medicinskih, i drugih objekata. Tuzla je u užem gradskom jezgru postepeno nestajala a nastajala je druga Tuzla na perifieriji, izvan zone zahvaćene slijeganjem. Ta površina, zahvaćena slijeganjem, osamdesetih godina 20. vijeka, prostirala se na oko 500 hektara. Izučavanje procesa slijeganja grada od 1945. do 1992. godine bila je „zabranjena tema“ i ako su rezultati slijeganja vidljivi na svakom koraku gdje se to slijeganje odvijalo. Godine 1955. pokrenuta je akcija koja je rezultirala jednom godišnje geodetskim mjerenjima od 1956. godine, koja su tačno ustanovila upravo ta godišnja slijeganja grada i kumulativna slijeganja od te godine na dalje. Nakon 1995. godine pokreće se akcija da se prekine sa eksplotacijom slane vode iz podzemlja i sa vremenom zaustavi proces slijeganja. Konačno je 29.5.2007. godine potpuno prestalo bilo kakvo crpljenje slane vode iz podzemlja. Tako je konačno moglo da se kaže da je crpljenjem slane vode iz podzemlja proizvedeno 80.000.000 m³ slane vode i ostvaren deficit sone mase od oko 12.000.000 m³ (što znači ostvareno je 12.000.000 m³ praznog prostora u podzemlju). Najveća slijeganja zabilježena su u starom dijelu grada od 1941. do 1991. koji je za to vrijeme potonuo preko 12 m. Slijeganje i površinske deformacije uzrokovale su rušenje od 2.700 stambenih jedinica, oko 67.000 m² proizvodnih objekata i 130.888 m² obrazovnih, zdravstvenih, kulturnih i sportskih objekata. Sa područja slijeganja iseljeno je oko 15.000 stanovnika. Ovim radom želimo prikazati problem slijeganja i konsolidacije masiva, što će biti predmet izučavanja još duži niz godina.

UVOD

Područje Tuzle se u pisanim dokumentima prvi puta pominje sredinom 10 vijeka i vezano je za so. Razni nazivi, rimski, persijski, turski uvijek su značili so. U grbu Tuzle nalazi se godina 950. a tava za iskuhavanje soli pokazuje da je ovo područje mnogo starije od zabilježene godine. Po istorijskim nalazima područje je bilo nastanjeno i u doba neolita. So je uvijek bila strateška sirovina i kod primitivnih naroda i kasnije kod onih visoko tehnološki razvijenih, jer se na bazi soli mnogo toga moglo proizvesti u hemijskoj industriji.

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62 OSNOVNI PODACI O GEOLOGIJI Slika 1. Grb grada Tuzla I ako u svjetskim razmjerama spada

OSNOVNI PODACI O GEOLOGIJI

Slika 1. Grb grada Tuzla

I ako u svjetskim razmjerama spada u mala ležišta, so u Tuzli je značajna jer ne postoji drugo ležište u vrlo širokom pojasu a bila je jedini ležište za svu hemijsku industriju bivše Jugoslavije. Nastanak basena soli vezan je za više orogenih faza koje su se smjenjivale nakon mezozoika. U srednjem miocenu (badenu) nastaju tvorevine koje su svrstane u burdigal-helvetske stijene, stvarajući tz. sonu formaciju u području Tuzle. Stijene koje su zastupljene u krovini slojeva kamene soli su: slojeviti laporci, glinci i anhidriti.

kamene soli su: slojeviti laporci, glinci i anhidriti. Slika 2. Karakterističani geološki presjeci kroz ležište

Slika 2. Karakterističani geološki presjeci kroz ležište soli.

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USLOVI I NAČIN EKSPLOATACIJE LEŽIŠTA SOLI

Dobivanje soli na području današnjeg grada Tuzla seže u daleku prošlost, do neolita. Pisani dokumenti o dobivanju i početnim uslovima „prave“ eksplotacije soli vezani su za osmanski period, kada su ručno kopani bunari iz kojih se crpila slana voda. Od 1879. godine, dolaskom Austrije, počinje industrijska eksplotacija soli tako što su u gradskom području bušene duboke bušotine i iz njih crpila slana voda za potrebe prve solane podignute 1885. i druge u Tuzli 1891., kao i fabrike sode u Lukvacu (blizu Tuzle) 1891. godine. Iz bušotina je crpljena slana vode koja je prirodnim dotokom otapala sone naslage što je nazvano nekontorlisana eksplotacija soli. Karte iz 1910. i 1912. pokazuju porast broja bušotina iz kojih se crpila slana voda. Bušotine su se nalazile i u strogom centru urbanog naselja grada Tuzla.

se nalazile i u strogom centru urbanog naselja grada Tuzla. Slika 3. Karta grada Tuzla sa

Slika 3. Karta grada Tuzla sa 27 bušotina 1910 godine

Tuzla. Slika 3. Karta grada Tuzla sa 27 bušotina 1910 godine Slika 4. Karta grada Tuzla

Slika 4. Karta grada Tuzla sa 51 bušotinom 1912 godine

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POSLJEDICE EKSPLOTACIJE LEŽIŠTA SOLI

Prva slijeganja terena nastala usljed eksplotacije slane vode iz podzemlja, na području grada Tuzla, evidentirana su 1907. godine. Gradska uprava je već tada angažirana najbolje stručnjake da analziraju pojavu i daju rješenja. Godine 1914. slijeganja su bila već značajno evidentna ali ratni uslovi su obustavili svaku aktivnost na daljem istraživanju te pojave. Tek 1955. godine Prof. dr Fehtulah Smailbegović obilazi teren i locira geodetske tačke za opažanje ponašanje terena i da se utvrde granice do kojih slijeganje dopire, kao i da se utvrdi godišnja veličina slijeganja u pojedinim zonama grada. Više od 20 godina podaci o slijeganju bili su strogo čuvana tajna tadašnjeg

režima i ako je već početkom šezdesetih godina počelo rušenje pojedinih objekata koji su toliko deformisani od uticaja slijeganja da njihov opstanak ugrožava ljude i okolinu. Centar grada je polako nestajao jer su srušene zgrade iz osmanlijskog a zatim i iz austrijskog doba; kameni sud, izuzetna građevina hotela „Bristol“, zgrada Gimnazije i mnoge druge. Posljedice slijeganja bivaju sve očitija. Deformacije na terenu su se mogle svrstati u tri kategorije;

- Zona kontinualnih deformacija, sa zakonitošću razvoja koje se mogu opisati nekom o postojećih teorijskih rješenja

(Salustović, Bubrik Knote, NCB, Patarić, i dr.)

- Zone razloma, sa izraženim skokovima, kao rasjedi gdje se linije razloma mogu pratiti dužinski na površini terena,

od mjesta nastanka, preko područja sa izraženim maksimumom skoka, do potpunog nestaka razloma,

- Zona klizišta, nastala iz različitih uzroka, gdje je slijeganje terena jedan od mogućih uticajnih faktora, u sadejstvu sa drugim faktorima koji nastaju kao posljedica slijeganja. Svakao od ovih zona ima svoje karakteristike i područje izraženih karakteristika.

svoje karakteristike i područje izraženih karakteristika. Slika 4. Hotel „Bristol“ podignut u vrijeme Austrije

Slika 4. Hotel „Bristol“ podignut u vrijeme Austrije srušen šezedestih godina 20.vijeka.

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65 Slika 5. Zgrada Gimanazije podignuta 1898. godine, srušena 1965. godine. Slika 6. Ulica sa zgradama

Slika 5. Zgrada Gimanazije podignuta 1898. godine, srušena 1965. godine.

Gimanazije podignuta 1898. godine, srušena 1965. godine. Slika 6. Ulica sa zgradama podignutim za vrijeme Austrije

Slika 6. Ulica sa zgradama podignutim za vrijeme Austrije prije 1900. godine

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66 Slika 7. Današnji terena sa slike 6. Slika 8. Izdizanje stepeništa, izdizanje ivičnjaka, utiskivanje ivičnjaka,

Slika 7. Današnji terena sa slike 6.

66 Slika 7. Današnji terena sa slike 6. Slika 8. Izdizanje stepeništa, izdizanje ivičnjaka, utiskivanje ivičnjaka,
66 Slika 7. Današnji terena sa slike 6. Slika 8. Izdizanje stepeništa, izdizanje ivičnjaka, utiskivanje ivičnjaka,
66 Slika 7. Današnji terena sa slike 6. Slika 8. Izdizanje stepeništa, izdizanje ivičnjaka, utiskivanje ivičnjaka,