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MASTER’S PROJECT

for the MSEE degree

Low-Pass Filter
Design Project

Date: July 23rd, 2003 Signature of the Adviser

Dr. Ercument Arvas

Author:
Nisha Kunder
MS Project Low-Pass Filter

Table of Contents

No. Topic Page


1. Abstract 3

2. Theory 4

4. Filter Specifications 5

5 Design Method 6

7. Measured Results 7

8. Conclusion 10

9. Acknowledgement 11

11. References 12

List of Figures

No. Topic Page


1 Circuit Schematic in Microwave Office 6

2 Filter Characteristics Before Optimization 7

3 Filter Characteristics After Optimization 8

4 Pass Band Attenuation 8

5. Return Loss Profile 9

6. 3-D Layout of the Designed Filter 9

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MS Project Low-Pass Filter

Abstract
This project is intended to build a microstrip low pass filter with a pass band till 3 GHz. The filter
is designed by using design procedure described in Microwave Engineering by David Pozar. The
design specifications for this filter were not very demanding (compared to the industry) due to the
nature of it being a first time design. Simulation was done using Microwave Office (AWR Suite
2002).

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MS Project Low-Pass Filter

Theory
As you all probably know the function of a filter is to allow a certain range of frequencies to pass
while to attenuate the others. Thus clearly there is a passband and a stopband. Ideally in the
passband there should be no attenuation while in the stopband there should be maximum
attenuation. However, with real components, such as inductors, capacitors, transmission lines and
waveguides that is not the case. Contrary to the ideal case in the passband there is some
attenuation, which can be controlled by improving the design and by proper choice of components.
Similarly in the stopband the attenuation can be controlled. Fliters can be low-pass, high-pass,
band-pass, and bandreject type.

Filters are one of the most widely used components for radio frequency as well as for microwave
communications. At lower frequencies lumped element inductors and capacitors can be used to
design filters while at microwave frequencies usually transmission line sections and waveguide
elements are used. In mobile wireless devices a different type of filter is used. It is called the SAW
(surface acoustic wave) filter. In this scheme a piezoelectric material is used in interdigitated form
to create surface acoustic waves that provides the filter characteristic.

Filters are essentially frequency selective elements. The filtering behavior results frequency
dependent reactances provided by inductors and capacitors. In microwave frequencies lumped
element inductors and capacitors cannot be used and thus transmission line sections are used which
behave as inductors and capacitors. Minimizing the losses in the passband of a filter is extremely
important since it not only reduces the overall losses for a transmitter but also improves the noise
figure when used with a receiver.

Filters can be designed using the image parameter or the insertion loss methods. In the image
parameter method design is rather simple. However, the response in the passband and the stopband
cannot be precisely controlled. In the insertion loss method design starts with a low-pass prototype
based on maximally flat or Chebyshev response and the insertion loss in the passband as well as in
the stopband can be defined and controlled based on the number of sections chosen and the
components used.

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MS Project Low-Pass Filter

Filter Specifications

• Equal-ripple Chebyshev Filter response


• Passband cut-off frequency: 3 GHz
• Passband Ripple < 0.5 dB
• Passband attenuation < -20 dB
• Stopband attenuation at 6 GHz > 40 dB

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MS Project Low-Pass Filter

Design Method
From the above analysis the length of the microstrip line and shunt stub for the input and output
matching networks is calculated in Serenade for the RT/Duroid 6002 substrate with the following
specifications:
• Thickness: 60 mils
• Єr: 2.78
• Loss Tangent: 0.0012

For the design of the filter the following steps are followed. From the lowpass prototype equations
and the attenuation curves, the filter order, n, is determined to be maximum of 5. The case where
n=5 is the optimum order to fulfill the 0.5 dB passband requirement. The filter prototype is
simulated and tested using the AWR Microwave Office software.

The circuit schematic is drawn with the AWR Microwave Office tool as shown below:

Figure 1. Circuit Schematic in Microwave Office

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MS Project Low-Pass Filter

Measured Results

The prototype lowpass LC structure employs series inductors, so a direct conversion to


transmission line stubs by Richard's transformation would result in series stubs. However, we can
use the Kuroda identity for series inductors to create a structure that has only series transmission
line sections and shunt open stubs. In order to do this we must be aware that we should begin by
adding unit elements (λ/8 transmission lines of Zo = 1) at each end of the filter, so that there will
be structures that are of the form of the Kuroda identities. The filter is designed as follows:
• Lumped element low pass prototype (from tables, typically)
• Convert series inductors to series stubs, shunt capacitors to shunt stubs
• Add l/8 lines of Zo = 1 at input and output
• Apply Kuroda identity for series inductors to obtain equivalent with shunt open stubs with
λ/8 lines between them
• Transform design to 50. and fc to obtain physical dimensions (all elements are λ/8).

Figure 2. Filter Characteristics Before Optimization

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MS Project Low-Pass Filter

Figure 3. Filter Characteristics After Optimization

Figure 4. Pass Band Attenuation

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MS Project Low-Pass Filter

Figure 5. Return Loss Profile

Figure 6. 3-D Layout of the Designed Filter

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MS Project Low-Pass Filter

Conclusion:

The degree of success of this project was quite satisfactory. The filtering obtained was reasonably
good with the passband ripple constantly below 0.3 dB. The attenuation profile shown above in
figure 4 shows that all the filter specifications are satisfied.

Conclusively, the time spent in studying the design process of a microwave filter and the designed
tools learned served as a great experience and preparation for the future designing endeavors.

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MS Project Low-Pass Filter

Acknowledgement

I take the pleasure to thank Dr. Ercument Arvas for his support and guidance throughout the
project. I would also like to specially thank Lokman Kuzu for going out of his way to help us with
the design

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MS Project Low-Pass Filter

References

[1]. Reinhold Ludwig, Pavel Bretchko, RF Circuit Design: Theory and Applications, Pearson Education
Asia, 2001.
[2]. D. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, 2nd ed., Wiley and Sons, New York, 1998.

Online Resources:
[1]. http://home.sandiego.edu/~ekim/e194rfs01/filterek.pdf
[2]. http://www.ee.sc.edu/classes/Fall02/elct891D/lecture1.pdf

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