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A FUNCTIONAL APPROACH TOWARD SENTENCE CONNECTIVES IN ENGLISH: A CASE STUDY ON ADVERSATIVES By YUKO OTA Bachelor of Arts, Yamagata University,

1995 Master of International Cultural Studies, Tohoku University, 1997 Master of Arts, Yamagata University, 1999 A Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fullfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (INTERNATIONAL CULTURAL STUDIES) The Department of Linguistic Communication The Graduate School of International Cultural Studies Tohoku University We accept this dissertation as conforming to the required standard

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Takeshi Nakamoto, Associate Professor, Superviser (Department of Linguistic Communication)

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Naoyuki Ono, Ph.D., Professor, Commitee Member (Department of Linguistic Communication)

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Tadao Miyamoto, Ph.D., Professor, Commitee Member (Department of Linguistic Communication)

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Narrog, Heiko, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Commitee Member (Department of Linguistic Communication)

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Yoshio Kawahira, Professor, Commitee Member (Department of Language Generation)

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2008

TABLE OF CONTENTS

P a ge

Chapter 1 Introduction
1 . 1 . P u r p o s e o f t h e Re s e a r c h 1 1 . 1 . 1 . Ty p e s o f C o n j u nc t i o n s a n d C o n j u nc t i v e A d v e r b s 3 1.1.2. Problem Presentation 4 1 . 2 . T h e o r e t i c a l Fr a me w o r k 11 1 . 2 . 1 . R e l e v a n c e Th e o r y 1 2 1.2.1.1. Code Model and Inference Model12 1.2.1.2. Principles of Relevance 13 1.2.1.2.1. Cognitive Principle of Relevance 14 1 . 2 . 1 . 2 . 2 . C o m mu n i c a t i v e Pr i n c ip l e o f R e l e v a n c e 1 6 1 . 2 . 1 . 2 . 3 . O p t i ma l R e l e v a n c e 1 8 1 . 2 . 1 . 2 . 4 . Pr a g ma t i c I n f e r e n c e B a s e d o n S e ma n t i c D e c o d i n g 1 9 1 . 2 . 1 . 3 . E x p l i c a t u r e a n d I mp l i c a t u r e 2 3 1 . 2 . 1 . 4 . Tw o Ki n d s o f M e a n i n g 2 5 1.2.2. Discourse Analysis 26 1 . 3 . S u m me r y 3 0

Chapter 2 An Adversative Conjunction But


2.1. Introduction 31 2 . 2 . A Ra n g e o f Di ff e r e n t U s e s o f B u t 3 2 2 . 3 . I s t h e c o r e me a n i n g o f b u t t o s i g n a l C O N T R A S T? 3 5 2 . 4 . Re l e v a n c e T h e o r y 4 0
i

2 . 5 . Ha l l ( 2 0 0 4 , 2 0 0 5 / 20 0 7 ) v s . Bl a k e mo r e ( 1 98 7 , 1 9 9 2 , 2 0 0 0 , 2 0 0 2 ) /Iten (2005) 46 2.6. Considerations 57 2 . 6 . 1 . P r e s e n c e o f C o g n i t i v e E ff e c t 5 7 2 . 6 . 2 Ad d i t i o n a l To p i c u s e 5 8 2 . 6 . 3 Cr u p i s ( 2 0 0 4 ) A n a l y s i s o n t h e F u n c t i o n o f B u t 6 2 2.7. Conclusion 69

Chapter 3 The Previous Studies on However


3.1. Introduction 71 3 . 1 . 1 . H o w e v e r i n a L o c a l D o ma i n 7 1 3 . 1 . 2 . H o w e v e r i n a G l o b a l D o ma i n 7 4 3 . 2 . Pr e v i o u s St u d i e s o n B u t a n d H o w e v e r 7 8 3 . 2 . 1 . B l a k e mo r e s (2 0 0 2 ) A n a l y s i s 8 0 3 . 2 . 2 . S c h o u r u p s ( 2 0 0 5 ) A n a l y s i s 8 5 3 . 3 . Tw o F u n c t i o n s o f H o we v e r a s a D i s c o u r s e M a r k e r 8 8 3 . 3 . 1 . C o u n t e r e x a mp l e s t o Bl a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) a n d S c h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) 8 8 3 . 3 . 2 . P r o b l e ms w i t h L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 ) 9 3 3 . 3 . 2 . 1 . D i s c o u r s e M a r ke r U s e i n Wr i t t e n D i s c o u r s e 9 3 3.3.2.2. The Possibility of Integrating Several Usages into One 95 3 . 4 . S o me Re ma i n i n g P r o b l e m s 1 0 8 3.4.1. On Positioning of However 108 3 . 4 . 2 . Th e C o - o c c ur r e n c e o f H o w e v e r a n d B u t 1 0 9 3 . 5 . S u m ma r y 111

ii

Chapter 4 Alternative Proposal for However


4 . 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n 11 3 4 . 2 . C o - o c c u r r e n c e o f Bu t a n d H o w e v e r 11 4 4 . 3 . A n A l t e r n a t i ve Pr o p o s a l 1 2 6 4 . 3 . 1 . C o n c e p t u a l I n f or ma t i o n a n d P r o c e d u r a l I n f o r ma t i o n 1 2 9 4 . 3 . 2 . C o n c e p t u a l I n f o r ma t i o n o f H o w e v e r 1 3 1 4 . 4 . S p e c u l a t i o n o n t h e C o - o c c u r r e n c e o f Bu t a n d Ho w e ve r 1 4 5 4 . 5 . O n C o- oc c ur r e nc e o f A l t h o u g h a n d H o w e v e r 1 4 9 4 . 6 . C o n c l u d i n g R e ma r k s 1 5 6

Chapter 5 On a Difference Caused by Positioning of However


5.1. Introduction 158 5 . 2 . Pr e f e r r e d Po s i t i o n o f H o w e v e r 1 6 0 5.3. A Sentence-Internal However 164 5.3.1. Garner (1998) 165 5 . 3 . 2 . P r o b l e ms w i t h Ga r n e r ( 1 9 9 8 ) 1 6 8 5 . 4 . A H y p o t he s i s 1 7 5 5.4.1. Analysis on buthowever 177 5 . 5 . A Re ma i n i n g P r o b l e m 1 8 7

Chapter 6 On Adversative Connectives Still and Yet


6.1. Introduction 201 6 . 2 . T h e Pr e v i o u s Stu d i e s b a s e d o n R e l e v a n c e T h e o r y 2 0 3 6 . 3 St i l l a n d Ye t 2 0 5 6 . 4 . Pr o b l e ms 2 0 8
iii

6 . 5 . Pr o p o s al 2 1 0 6 . 5 . 1 . Th e C o n c e p t u a l I n f o r m a t i o n o f St i l l 2 1 4 6 . 5 . 2 . Th e C o n c e p t u a l I n f o r m a t i o n o f Ye t 2 1 8 6 . 5 . 3 . O n C o- o c c u r r e n c e H o w e v e r, St i l l a n d Ye t 2 2 2 6 . 6 . S u m ma r y 2 2 5

Chapter 7 Conclusion 2 2 7 Reference 2 3 3

iv

Chapter 1 Introduction

1 . 1 . T h e P ur p o s e o f R e s e a rc h T h e p u r p os e o f t hi s t he s i s i s t o r e c o n s i d e r a n d c r y s t a l l i z e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e a d v e r s a t i v e c o o r d i n a t e c o n j u n c t i on b u t a n d t h e o t h e r d i s c o u r s e c o n n e c t i v e s , h o we v e r, s t i l l a n d y e t , b a s e d o n R e l e v a n c e T h e o r y. Previous studies on

connectives based on Relevance Theory are not perfect and I will indicate t h a t t h e r e i s r oo m t o r e c o n s i d e r t he m. S o w h a t i s R e l e v a n c e t h e or y? The section 1.2 will give you detail

e x p l a n a t i o n o n R e l e v a n c e T h e o r y, b u t I w o u l d l i k e t o b r i e f l y me n t i o n o n i t here. In H a g a s hi mo r i and Yo s h i mu r a (2003), R e l e v a nc e T he or y is

introduced as follows:

R e l e v a nc e T h e o r y i s c o n s i de r e d t o d e v e l o p a n i n f e r e n c e mo d e l o f t h e t wo c o mp e t i n g mo d e l s w h i c h h a v e b e e n s u g g e s t e d o n c o m mu n i c a t i o n . O n e i s a c o d e mo d e l . I n t h i s mo d e l , c o m mu n i c a t i o n i s a c c o m p l i s h e d

b y e n c o d i n g a n d d e c o d i n g a me s s a g e . I n t h i s t h e o r y, i n f e r e nc e s , w h i c h i n r e a l i t y pl a y a n i mp or t a nt r ol e i n c o m mu n i c a t i o n , d o n o t h a v e any room to contribute to the interpretation. A n o t h e r t h e o r y i s a n i n f er e n c e m o d e l p r o p o s e d b y G r i c e ( 1 9 7 5 ) . Sp e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n ( 1 9 8 6 ) s u g g e s t R e l e v a n c e T h e o r y a s a r e v i s e d mo d e l o f G r i c e s a n d e mp h a s i z e t h e i mp o r t a n c e o f t h e r o l e o f i n f e r e n c e

in the interpretation of utterances. ( Ha g a s h i mo r i a n d Yos h i mu r a 2 0 0 3 : 11 )

I n G r i c e s ( 1 9 7 5 ) i n f e r e nc e mo d e l , w h a t i s s a i d a n d w h a t i s i mp l i c a t e d , h a v e t o b e s e p a r a t e d . G r i c e ( 1 9 7 5 ) f i r s t ma d e a s h a r p

d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n w ha t i s s a i d a n d w ha t i s i mp l i c a t ed , c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n t e n t o f ut t e r a n c e ( H a g a s h imo r i a n d Yo s h i mu r a 2 0 0 3 : 2 4 ) . I n t hi s t h e s i s , I w i l l f o c us o n a dv e r s a t i v e c o nn e c t i ve s . and Relevance Theory both are b as e d on inference G r i c e ( 19 7 5 ) but the

mo d e l s ,

h y p o t h e s e s o n c o n n e c t i ve s a r e di ff e r e n t f r o m e a c h ot he r.

I n Gr i c e s t he or y, Ca r s t o n

connectives are considered to carry conventional implicature.

( 2 0 0 2 ) s s u m ma r y o n Gr i c e s t h e o r y i s c on c i s e a n d e a s i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . Wh i l e t h e w h a t i s s a i d o f a n ut t e r anc e i s t h e pr op o s i t i o na l c o m p on e n t o f the basic (or ground-level) speech acts of the utterance, such as asserting, t e l l i n g , a n d a s k i n g , t he s e i mp l i c a t u r e - g e n e r a t i n g e l e me nt s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l me a n i n g c o m me n t o n , o r r e l a t e o n e t o a n o t h e r, t h e g r o u n d - l e v e l s p e e c h a c t s ( Ca r s t o n 2 0 0 2 : 1 0 8 ) .

( 1 ) H e i s a n E n g l i s h ma n ; h e i s , t h e r e f o r e , b r a v e . ( 2 ) a . H e ( J o h n ) i s a n E n g l i s h ma n . b. John is brave. c. (b) is a natural conclusion of (a).

(Grice 1989:25)

T h e u t t e r a n c e o f ( 1) w o u l d b e d i v i d e d i n t o t w o g r o u n d - l e v e l s t a t e me n t s shown in (2b) and (2c). ( 2 c ) s h o w s t h e h i g h e r- l e ve l c o m me n t o n t h o s e

s t a t e me nt s .

G r i c e ( 1 9 8 9 :3 6 2 ) s a y s , t h e t r u t h o r f a l s i t y o f h i s w or d s i s To

d e t e r mi n e d b y t h e r e l a t i o n o f h i s g r o u n d - fl o o r s p e e c h a c t s t o t h e w o r l d .

p u t i t s i m p l y, c o n v e n t i o n a l i mp l i c a t u r e i s e n c o d e d me a ni n g, w hi c h d o e s n o t t o u c h t h e t r u t h - v a l u e o f s p e a k e r s w or ds ( G r i c e 1 9 8 9 : 3 6 2 ) . I n R e l e v a n c e t h e o r y, t h e r e a r e a l s o t wo t y p e s o f me a n i n g ; t h e c o n c e p t u a l a n d t h e p r o c e dur a l . p r o c e d u r a l i n f o r ma t i o n . I t i s a s s u me d t ha t t he c on n e c t i ve s b e a r

I would like to think about whether all the I n my o p i n i o n , s o me

c o n n e c t i v e s r e a l l y h a v e p r o c e du r a l i n f o r ma t i o n . c o n n e c t i v e s s h o u l d h a v e c o n c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n .

A d d i t i o n a l l y, I w i l l f o c u s o n w h a t d i ff e r e n c e w i l l b e b r o u g h t b y p o s i t i o n i n g o f a d v e r s a t i v e c o nj u nc t i on s . b e a n a l y z e d i n t hi s t h e s i s . M a i nl y f u n ct i o n s o f h o w e v e r wi l l

1 . 1 . 1 . Ty p e s o f C o nj u n c t i o n s a n d C o nj u n c t i v e A d v e r bs We w i l l s e e t y p e s o f c o n j u n c t i o n s a n d c o n j u n c t i v e a d v e r b s i n 1 . 1 . 1 . s e c t i o n 1 . 1 . 2 s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s c r i b e s ma i n p r o b l e ms t o b e d i s c u s s e d . C o o r d i n a t e c o n j u n c t i o n s m a y b e u s e d t o s h o w t h e r el a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e i d e a e x pr e s s e d i n a c l a u s e a nd t he i de a e x p r e s s e d i n t h e r es t o f a s e nt e n c e . S o me t i me s , t he y a r e u s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e r e l a t i o ns hi p b e t w e e n t he i de a s e x p r e s s e d i n s e p a r a t e s e n t e n c e s i n i n f o r ma l E n g li s h . On the other hand, The

c o n j u n c t i ve a d ve r b s a r e us e d t o g i ve a s i g n o f t h e r e l a t io n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e idea expressed in a preceding clause, sentence or paragraph. They are also

u s e d t o s h o w t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t he i de a s e x pr e s s e d i n s e pa r a t e s e n t e n c e s i n f o r ma l E n g l i s h . Co n j u n c t i v e a d v e r b s a r e s i mil a r t o c o o r d i n a t e

conjunctions in that both can be used to introduce a clause and to indicate

t h e r e l a t i o ns hi p b e t we e n t h e i de a s e x p r e s s e d i n s e p a r a t e s e n t e n c e s . To clarify functions o f e ac h , I wi l l w e i gh d i ff e r e n c e s be t w e e n Araki

c o o r d i n a t e c o n j u n c t i o n s a n d c o nj u nc t i ve a dv e r b s , c omp a r i n g t he t w o .

e t a l . ( 1 9 9 2 ) d i v i d e c o o r d in a t e c o n j u n c t i o n s i n t o f o u r g r o u p s ; ( a) c o p u l a t i v e c o n j u n c t i o n s , ( b ) d i s j u n c t i v e c o nj u nc ti o n s , ( c ) a d v e r s a t i v e c o n j u n c t i o n s , a n d ( d ) c a u s a l c o nj u nc t i o ns . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c o n j u n c t i ve a d ve r b s i s n ot a l wa y s

u n i f o r m, b u t I w o u l d l i k e t o g r o u p c o n j u nc t i ve a d v e r bs i nt o f o ur c l a s s e s a s s h o w n b e l o w, b a s e d o n O t s u k a s ( 1 9 7 0 ) c la s s i fi c a t i o n .

coordinate conjunctions (a) Copulative ( b ) D i s j u n c t i ve ( c ) A d v e r s a t i ve (d) Causal and or b ut so Fi g u r e 1

conjunctive adverbs a l s o , b e s i d e s , mo r e o v e r, e t c . o t h e r wi s e , e l s e , e t c . h o we v e r, n e v e r t h e l e s s , s t i l l , y e t , though, etc. s o , t he r e f o r e , t h u s , e t c .

For

the

pu r p o s e

of

c l a r i fy i ng

w ha t

functions

adversative

coordinate

c o n j u n c t i o n s a nd c o n j u n c t i ve a d ve r bs h a v e , I wi l l t r y t o a n s we r s o m e q u e s t i o n s , w h i c h a r e p r e s e nt e d i n t h e n ex t s e c t i o n .

1 . 1 . 2 . P ro bl e m P re s e nt a t i o n I t i s w e l l - k n o w n t h a t t h e c o o r d i n a t e c o n j u n c t i o n b u t c a n b e r e p l a c e d wi t h h o we v e r i n ma n y c a s e s .

(3) a. b. (4) a.

J o h n i s a R e p u bl i c a n , b u t h e s h o n e s t . J o h n i s a R e p u bl i c a n ; h o w e v e r h e s h o n e s t . ( B l a k e mo r e 2 0 0 2 : 11 9 )

N e w Yo r k w a s t h e w i n di e s t c i t y i n t h e U n i t e d St a t e s t o d a y, b u t C h i c a g o h a d l i gh t w i n d s .

b.

N e w Yor k w a s t he w i n d i e s t c i t y i n t h e U ni t e d St a t e s t o d a y ; ho w e v e r C h i c a g o h a d l i g h t w i n ds . ( i b i d. )

( 5) a .

A : D o a l l t h e b u s e s f r o m t hi s s t op g o t o Pi c c a d i l l y Ga r d e ns ? B : Th e 8 5 a n d 8 6 d o , b u t t h e 8 4 a n d 8 7 g o t o Cr o s s St r e e t .

b.

A : D o a l l t h e b u s e s f r o m t hi s s t o p g o t o Pi c c a d i l l y Ga r d e n s ? B : Th e 8 5 a n d 8 6 d o ; h o w e v e r t he 8 4 a n d 8 7 g o t o Cr o s s St r e e t . (ibid.)

H o w e v e r, t h e r e a r e s o m e c a s e s w h e r e i t i s n o t a l l o w e d .

Fr a s e r ( 1 9 9 8 : 3 1 3 )

remarks that but and however are closely related and that however is the mo r e r e s t r i c t e d o f t he t w o .

( 6 ) [ s p e a k e r, w h o i s i n s h o c k , h a s b e e n g i v e n a w h i s k y ] a. Bu t I d o n t d r i n k . ( B l a k e mo r e 2 0 0 2 : 11 8 )

b . ? H o w e v e r, I d o n t d r i n k . (7) a. H e s n ot c l e ve r, b u t h a r d w o r k i n g .

b . ? He s n o t c le ve r ; h o we v e r no t [ s i c . ] h a r d w o r k i n g .

( o p . c i t . : 11 7 )

M y f i r s t q u e s t i o n i s w ha t a r e d i ff e r e n c e s b e t w e e n b u t a n d h o we v e r . As pa r t o f m y r e s e a r c h , I w i l l t a k e u p t h e i s s u e s o n t h e c o- oc c ur r e n c e of but and however. Q u i r k ( 1 9 8 5 ) s a y s t h a t i t i s r e d un da nt a nd t h e r e f or e ,

not preferable.

( 8 ) a * Yo u c a n p h o n e t he d o c t o r i f y o u l i k e , b u t h o we v e r , I v e r y mu c h d o u b t w h e t h e r y o u w i l l g e t h i m t o c ome o u t o n a Sa t u r d a y n i g h t . b . ? Yo u c a n p h o n e t h e d o c t o r i f y o u l i k e , b u t I v e r y mu c h d o u b t , h o we v e r , w h e t h e r y o u w i l l g e t h i m t o c ome o u t o n a Sa t u r d a y n i g h t . ( Qu i r k e t a l . 1 9 8 5 : 6 4 6 )

I n f a c t , h o we v e r, t h e r e a r e ma n y to k e n s i n p u b l i s h e d m a t t e r s .

(9)

Wh e n s h e w a s o n l y f i f t e e n , t h e re w a s a g e n t l e m a n a t m y b r o t h e r G a r di ne r s i n t o w n, s o mu c h i n l o v e wi t h h e r, t h a t my s i s t e r- i n - l a w w a s s u r e h e w o u l d m a k e h e r a n o ff e r b e f o r e w e c a m e a w a y. he did not. But however

( J a n e A u s t e n ( 1 8 1 3 / 1 9 0 6 ) . Pr i d e a n d Pre j u d i c e , p 6 4 . Ed i n b u rg: J . G r a n t )

( 1 0 ) T h e c h i e f d i p l o m a t i c a n d m i l i t a r y o ff i c e r s o f t h i s G o ve r n me n t a l l w e r e i n s t r u c t e d t o f o l l o w t h e s a me c o u r s e . A n d s i n c e t h a t n i g h t o n M a r c h 3 1 , e a c h o f t he c a n d i d a t e s h a s h a d d i ffe r i n g i d e a s a b o u t t h e G o v e r n me n t s p o l i c y, b u t g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , ho we ve r , t h r o u g h o u t t h e c a mp a i g n w e h a v e b e e n a b l e t o p r e s e n t a u n i t e d v o i c e , s u p p o r t i n g o u r G o v e r n me n t a n d s u p p o r t i n g o u r me n i n Vi et na m. ( No v e mb e r 1 , 1 9 6 8 , Te x t o f P r e s i d e n t J o h n s o n s B ro a d c a s t t o t h e N a t i o n A n n o u n c i n g a B o mb i n g H a l t . F o l l o w i n g i s a t r a n s c r i pt o f Pr e s i d e n t J o h n s o n s a d d r e s s t o t h e n a t i o n l a s t n i g ht a s r e c or de d b y T h e N e w Yo r k Ti m e s )

T h e e x a m p l e s s h o w t h a t t he a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h e c o - o c c u r r en c e i s l o w e r w h e n h o we v e r o c c u r s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e n te nc e t ha n i n t h e mi d dl e o f t h e s e nt e nc e . So me g r a m ma r i a n s o b s e r ve t he d i ff e r e n c e o f t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y, As y ou c a n s e e i n ( 9 ) a n d ( 1 0 ) , b o t h c as e s a r e f o u n d i n Questions arise here:

b u t c a n i t be t r u e ?

l i t e r a t u r e , a r t i c l e s , a n d t r a n s c r i p t s o f p r o g r a ms . w h a t ma k e s t he c o - o c c ur r e n c e p o s s i b l e ?

I f b u t a n d h o we v e r f u nc t i on i n

e x a c t l y t h e s a me w a y, i t s h o u l d b e r e d u n d a n t . Re me mb e r t ha t o t h e r a d v e r s a t i ve c o n n e c t i v e s s t i l l a n d y e t c a n b e u s e d w i t h t h e c o- or di n a t e c o n j u n c t i o n b u t .

( 11 ) a . I t s c e r t a i n l y c o l d , b u t s t i l l i t mi g h t b e c o l d e r. ( Ot s u k a e t a l . 1 9 6 9 : 5 0 6 ) b . C l a r e d i d n t d o mu c h w o r k , b u t s h e s t i l l pa s s e d t he e x a m . (LDOCE3) (12) I t s v e r y f i n e w e a t h e r f or a w a l k, b u t y e t I d o n t t h i n k I l l g o o u t . 1 ( Ot s u k a e t a l . 1 9 6 9 : 5 0 6 )

Wh y i s i t p os s i bl e t ha t t h e a d v e r s a t i v e s t i l l a n d y e t c o - o c c u r w i t h t h e adversative conjunction but? B y t h e w a y, h o w e v e r c a n a p p e a r i n s o me p o si t i o n s o f a s e n t e n c e , d i ff e r e n t l y f r o m c o n j u n c t i o n s . s e n t e n c e - i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n. I n t h e n e x t e x a mp l e , y o u c a n s e e h o we v e r i n

R u d o l p h ( 1 9 9 6 : 3 2 0 ) s a y s t h a t t he e x a mp l e ( 1 3 )

a n d ( 1 4 ) a r e e xa m pl e s o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f h o w e v e r i n s c i e nt i f i c t e xt s w i t h t h e c o u n t e r- a rg u me nt e x p r e s s e d a n o b j e c t i o n t o t h e t h e s i s i n t h e f o r e g o i n g

Ye t i s i m m o b i l e i n f r o n t o f i t s c l a u s e .
7

sentence.

T h i s u n d e r l i e s t h e o b s e r va t i on t h a t i t i s t y pi c a l o f w r i t t e n

l a n g u a g e w he r e i t i s e ve n u s e d f or i n t r o d u c i n g a n e w p a r a g r a p h ( R u d o l p h 1996:321).

( 1 3 ) T h e t h e o r y i s q u a n t u m g r a v i t y.

We d o n o t y et k n o w t h e e x a c t fo r m t h e H o we v e r , c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s

correct theory of quantum gravity will take.

c a n b e e x p e c t e d t o b e p r e s e n t i n a n y v i a b l e t h e o r y. ( Ru d o l p h 1 9 9 6 : 3 2 0 , T h e Ti me s 1 9 9 3 ) ( 1 4 ) T h e t wo e l e m e n t s , t h e p r e s u p p os i n g a n d t h e p r e s u p p o s e d , ma y b e s t r u c t u r a l l y r e l a t e d t o e a c h o t h e r, o r t h e y m a y n o t ; i t m a k e s n o d i ff e r e n c e t o t he me a n i n g o f t he c o h e s i ve r e l a t i o n . H o w e v e r , t he r e i s a s e n s e i n w hi c h t he s e n t e nc e i s a s i g ni f i c a nt u ni t f o r cohesion precisely because it is the highest structure: it tends to d e t e r mi n e t he wa y in u ni t o f gr a m ma t i c a l cohesion is

w hi ch

EXPRESSED.

( Ru d o l p h 1 9 9 6 : 3 2 0 )

H o w e v e r i s p o s i t i o n e d r i g h t a f t e r t h e s u bj e c t o f t h e s e nt e n c e i n t he f ol l o wi n g e x a mp l e .

( 1 5 ) O n e c o u l d a s s u m e t h a t t h i s s t y l e w o u l d s o o n b e s u p e r s e d e d b y s o me t h i n g s t e r ne r. Bu t t h e g e n e r a l i mp r e s s i o n w a s o f c l e a n n e s s , a l e r t ne s s , a T h i s , h o we v e r , s e e me d n o t t o

p l e a s a n t r e a d i n e s s t o t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y.

be his attribute, but rather the result of an act of willthe collective act o f wi l l . ( R u d o l p h 1 9 9 6 : 3 2 0 , L es s i n g S u m m e r 1 8 0 )

I n t h e e x a mp l e ( 1 5 ) , y o u w i l l fi n d h o w e v e r i n t h e f i n a l p o s i t i o n .

Rudolph

( 1 9 9 6 : 3 2 1 ) a l l e g e s t ha t t h e c o n n e c t i v e i n f i n al p o s i t i o n c a n b e u n d e r s t o o d a s i f t h e wr i t e r o f t hi s l e t t e r t o t h e e di t o r w i s h e d t o g i v e hi s w or ds a ma r k e d adversative touch at the end. I n h i s e n d e a v o u r t o e mp h a s i z e t h e c o n t r a s t , h e

c o n t i n u e s wi t h a n ot he r e xp l i c i t a dv e r s a t i v e e x pr e s s i o n p oi nt i n g i nt o t he s a me direction.

( 1 6 ) A l l m y s t u d y i n g f o r my p r o f e s s i o n a l a nd u ni ve r s i t y e x a mi n a t i o ns w a s b y h o me w o r k i n my s p a r e t i me a s I c o u l d n o t a ff o r d t h e f e e s f o r l a w s c h o o l o r u n i ve r s i t y. h o we v e r . T h e s e d i ff i c u l t i e s d i d n o t m a k e me f e e l a g g r i e v e d ,

O n t he c o nt r ar y , I f e l t p r i v i l e g e d t o w o r k a n d l e a r n m y

trade with a very fine firm of solicitors. ( Ru d o l p h 1 9 9 6 : 3 2 0 , T h e Ti me s 1 9 9 3 )

I n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a mp l e , h o w e v e r c a n n o t b e s u b s t i t u t e d b y b u t .

Th a t i s

b e c a u s e , i n r e l a t i v e c l a us e , t h e fi r s t p o s i t i o n i s r eg u l a r l y r e s e r v e d f or t h e r e l a t i v e p r o n o u n a n d b u t c a n n o t b e p o s i t i o n e d i n t he fi r s t p o s i t i o n o f t h e clause.

( 1 7 ) At t h e mo me n t t he b o a t s l o wl y s a n k b e n e a t h t h e m t o t h e a c c o mp a n i me n t o f p i t e o u s c r i e s f r o m t h e r e s t o f t h e p a s s e n g e r s , w h o s o o n , h o we v e r, f o u n d t h a t t h e y a r e fl o un d e r i n g i n o n l y t w o f e e t o f w a t e r, t h e i r v e s s e l h a v i n g f o r t u n a t e l y d r i ft e d o v e r a s a n d b a n k . ( Ru d o l p h 1 9 9 6 : 3 2 0 , Lo d g e S W 2 2 5 )

We c o n f i r me d h e r e t h a t mi d d l e , f i n a l , a n d i ni t i a l p o s i t i o n s a r e e q u a l l y acceptable. R u d o l p h ( 1 9 9 6 : 3 2 0 ) c l a i ms t h a t t h e d i ff e r e n c e d e p e n d s o n Wh a t a r e t he s t yl i s t i c a n d s e ma n t i c r e a s o n s ?

s t y l i s t i c a n d s e ma n t i c r e a s o n s .

R u d o l p h s ( 1 9 9 6 ) w o r d s r emi n d me o f t h e f u n c t i on o f i n t e n s i f i e r s . L e t u s h a v e a l o o k a t o n e o f i n t e n s i fi er s h e r e . To t a k e a n i n s t a n c e o f o n l y ,

o n l y i s s u p p o s e d t o b e p l a c e d ne a r t h e s e g me n t w h i c h i t mo d i f i e s ; o n l y a p p e a r s r i g h t b e f o r e a v er b , a n a d j e c t i v e , o r a n a d v e r b . c o me s r i g h t b e f o r e o r a ft e r n o u n s a n d pr o no u ns . p o s i t i o n e d b e f o r e t h e w o r d i t mo d i f i e s . only occurs after it.2 Otherwise, only

I n mo s t c a s e s , o n l y i s

O n l y i f o n l y mo d i f i e s a p r o n o u n ,

(18) a. He had only six apples. b . H e o n l y l e n t t h e c a r. c . H e l e n t t he c a r t o m e o n l y .

( n o t mo re t h a n s i x) ( H e d i d n t g i v e i t . ) (not to anyone else)

d. I believed only half of what he said. ( P r a c t i c a l En g l i s h G r a m m a r 1 9 8 6 )

T h e s c o p e o f a n a d v e r b d o e s n o t a l wa y s c h a n g e b y p o s i t i o n i n g a d v e r b s . J u s t a l s o a p p e a r s p r i o r t o t h e w o r d i t mo d i f i e s l i k e o n l y. a r e t h e a u t h o r s . ) ( T h e o u t e r f r a me s

(19) a. b.
2

Ill buy just one . I h a d j u s t e n o u gh mo n e y. ( o p . c i t .)

I t i s i n d i c a t e d b y M r. Yo s h i o K a w a h i r a t h a t o n l y c a n o c c u r a f t e r p r e p o s i t i o n phrase, too.

10

H o w e v e r, j us t c a n be p l a c e d r i g ht be f or e a v er b a s s h o w n i n ( 19 a ) , a n d i n t h a t c a s e t h e me a n i n g d o e s n ot di ff e r f r o m t ha t o f t he e xa mp l e s ( 1 9a ) . In

s h o r t , i t s e e ms t h a t t h e me a n i n g d oe s n ot ne c e s s a r i l y c h a n ge w i t h a s hi f t o f an adverb. ( Th e o u t e r fr a m e s a r e t h e a u t h o r s )

(20) a. b.

Ill just buy one . I j u s t h a d e n o u g h mo n e y. (op.cit.)

I n s p o k e n l a n g u a g e , i t i s c o m mo n t h a t o n l y o c c u r s b e f o r e a v e r b a n d t h e s e g m e n t i t f o c u s e s i s p u t s t r e s s o n. o u t e r fr a me s a r e t h e a u t h o r s . ) Th a t i s i l l u s t r a te d b e l o w. ( Th e

(21)

(a) (b) (c)

He only had

s i x a p pl e s
|

He only lent the car to I only believed


|

me ( op . c i t . )

half of what he said.

Si n c e a d ve r b s a n d c o nj u nc t i v e a d ve r bs h a v e a l o t o f p r o p e r t i e s i n c o m mo n w i t h e a c h ot he r, t h e s c o p e o f a d v e r b s c a n b e t r u e o f t h a t o f conjunctive adverbs. questions: S o , I w o u l d l i k e t o t a c kl e e s p e c i a l l y t h e f ol l o wi n g

Do e s p o s i t i o ni n g o f c o n j u n c t i v e a d v e r b s ma k e a n y d i ff e r e n c e s i n Ar e t he r e a n y f u n c t i on s w h i c h c o n j u n c t i v e a d v e r b s h a v e ,

i n t e r p r e t a t i o n?

while conjunctions do not?

1 . 2 . T h e o re t i c a l Fr a m e wo r k Si n c e t h e y a r e c o n n e ct i v e s , i t w o u l d b e a g o o d i d e a t o d o r e s e a r c h f r o m t h e

11

p e r s p e c t i ve o f P r a g ma t i c s .

Pragmatics specifically focuses on how context The central concern of studies

i n f l u e n c e s t he i nt e r pr e t a t i o n o f me a ni ng s .

i n P r a g m a t i c s h a s b e e n f a c t or s i n f l ue n c i ng t he d e c i s i o n s o f c h o i c e s o f w r i t e r s / s p e a k e r s a s t h e y us e w o r d s i n t h e s e r v i c e o f a c o m mu n i c a t i v e g o a l ( Cr u p i 2 0 0 4: 1) . I n t h e r e s t o f t h i s C h a p t e r, I w i l l i n t r o d u c e t he b a s i c i d e a s The basic ideas of

o f t h e o r i e s t h a t I w i l l t o u c h o n f o r my r e s e a r c h .

R e l e v a n c e T h e o r y w i l l b e s u m ma r i z e d i n 1 . 2 . 1 , a n d Di s c o u r s e A na l y s i s i n 1.2.2

1.2.1. Relevance Theory 1 . 2 . 1 . 1 . C o de M o d e l a n d I nf e re n c e M o de l T h e r e a r e t w o mo d e l s p r o p o s e d o n c o m mu n i c a t i o n , w h i c h a r e c o m p e t i n g w i t h e a c h o t h e r ( K i n s u i a n d I m a k u n i 2 0 0 0 : 11) . Ac c o r d i n g t o K i n s u i a n d I ma k u n i

( 2 0 0 0 : 11 ) , o n e i s t he c o de mo d e l , w hi c h ha s n ot hi ng t o d o w i t h i n fe r e n c e , a n d t h e o t h e r i s t h e i n f er e n c e mo d e l , wh i c h i s p r o p o s e d b y G r i ce ( 19 7 5 ) . S p e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n ( 2 0 0 2 : 2 5 0 ) s a y t h e R e l e v a n c e T h e o r y i s b a s e d o n a n o t h e r o f Gi r c e s c e n t r a l c l a i ms : t ha t u t t e r anc e a ut o ma t i c a l l y c re a t e s e x p e c t a t i o n s w h i c h g u i de t h e h e a r e r t o w a r ds t h e s p e a k e r s me a n i n g . Wi l s o n a n d S p e r b e r ( 20 0 2 : 2 4 9 ) b r i e f l y e x p l a i n t h o s e t w o mo d e l s a s f o l l o ws .

(22)

T h e c od e m o d e l : A c o m mu ni c a t o r e n c o d e s h e r i n t e n de d me s s a ge i nt o a s i g na l , w h i c h i s d e c o d e d b y t h e a u d i e n c e u s i n g a n i de nt i c a l c o p y o f c o d e . ( Wi l s o n a n d S p e r b e r 2 0 0 2 : 2 4 9 )

12

(23)

T h e i n f e r e n c e mo d e l : A c o m mu n i c a t o r p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e o f h e r i n t e n t i o n t o c o n ve y a c e r t a i n me a n i n g , w h i c h i s i n f e r r e d b y t h e a u d ie n c e o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e evidence provided. ( i bi d . )

Wi l s o n a n d Sp e r b e r ( 2 0 0 2 : 2 4 9 ) c o n t i nu e , A n u t t e r a n c e i s , o f c o u r s e , a linguistically involves an coded e l e me n t piece of of e vi d e n c e , so t ha t ve r b a l t he c o m pr e h e n s i o n me a n i n g

decoding.

Ho w e v e r,

linguistic

recovered by decoding is just one of the inputs to a non-demonstrative i n f e r e n c e p r o c e s s w h i c h y i e l d s a n i n t er p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s p e a k e r s me a n i n g .

1 . 2 . 1 . 2 . P r i nc i pl e s o f R e l e v a n c e R e l e v a n c e T h e or y a s s u me s t h a t e v e r y a s p e c t o f c o m mu n i c a t i o n a n d c o g n i t i o n i s g o v e r n e d b y t h e s e a r c h f o r r e l e v a n ce . principle of relevance. It is u ni q u e T hi s i s e x pr e s s e d i n t he f i r s t to overt communication that,

a p p r o a c h i n g a n u t t e r a n c e a d d r e s s e d t o y o u , y o u a r e e nt i t l e d t o h a ve no t j u s t hopes but steady expectations of relevance. principle. T h i s i s d e fi n e d i n t h e s e c o n d

T h e p r i n c i p l e s o f r e l e v a n c e p r o p o s e d b y S p e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n

( 1 9 9 5 : 2 6 0 - 7 8 ) a r e i l l u s t r a t e d b e l o w.

( 2 4 ) Pr i n c i p l e s o f R e l e v a n c e 1 . Fi r s t ( c o g n i t i v e ) p r i nc i p l e o f r e l e v a n c e : H u ma n c o g n i t i o n i s g e a r e d t o w a r ds t h e ma x i mi z a t i o n o f r e l e v a n c e ( t h a t i s , t o t h e a c h i e v e me n t o f a s ma n y c o n t e x t ua l ( c o g n i t i v e ) e ff e c t s a s p o s s i b l e f o r a s l i t t l e p r o c e s s i n g e ff o r t a s p os s i bl e .

13

2 . S e c o n d ( c o m mu n i c a t i v e ) p r i n c i p l e o f r e l e v a n c e : E v e r y a c t o f o s t e n s i v e c o m mu ni c a t i o n ( e . g . a n u t t e r a n c e ) c o m mu n i c a t e s a s a s s u mp t i o n o f i t s o w n o p t i ma l r e l e v a n c e . ( S p e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n 1 9 9 5 : 2 6 0 - 7 8 )

I n 1 . 2 . 1 . 2 . 1 , w e wi l l s e e a b o u t c o g ni t i v e p r i n c i p l e o f r el e v a n c e . I n 1 . 2 . 1 . 2 . 2 , c o m mu n i c a t i v e p r i n c i p l e o f r e l e v a n c e w i l l b e b r i e f ly d e s c r i b e d . In 1.2.1.2.3,

I w i l l g e t o n t o w h a t S p e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n ( 1 9 9 5 : 2 6 0- 7 8 ) me a n b y o p t i ma l relevance. Pragmatic inference based on semantic decoding will be briefly

explained in 1.2.1.2.4.

1 . 2 . 1 . 2 . 1 . C o g n i t i v e P r i n c i p l e o f Re l e v a n c e S p e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n ( 20 0 2: 2 5 0 ) c l a i m t ha t t he c e nt r a l c l a i m o f r e l e v a n c e theory is that the expectations of relevance raised by an utterance are precise e n o u g h , a n d p r e d i c t a b l e e n o u g h , t o g u i d e t h e h e a r e r t o w a r d s t h e s p e a k e r s me a n i n g . S p e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n ( 1 9 8 6 / 1 9 9 5 : 2 6 0 - 7 8 ) a rg u e t ha t r e l e v a n c e i s C o g n i t i v e e ff e c t s

d e f i n e d i n t e r m o f c o g n i t i v e e ff e c t s a n d p r o c e s s i n g e ff o r t .

a r e a c h i e ve d w h e n n e wl y - p r e s e n t e d i n f or ma t i o n i nt e r a c t s w i t h a c o nt e xt o f e x i s t i n g a s s u mp t i o n s . N e wl y p r e s e n t ed i n f o r m a t i o n p r o d uc e s o n e o f t h r e e

p o s s i b l e c o nt e x t u a l e ff e c t s :

( 2 5 ) a ) i t ma y y i e l d a c o n t e x t u a l i mp l i c a t i o n . b ) i t ma y s t r e ng t h e n a n e xi s t i n g a s s u m pt i o n . c ) i t m a y c o n t r a d i c t a n d l e a d t o t h e e l i mi n a t i o n o f a n e x i s t i n g a s s u mp t i o n . ( Bl a k e mo r e 2 0 0 2 : 6 1 )

14

L e t s t a k e a l o o k a t e a c h c a s e .

F i r s t o n e i s t he c a s e o f ( a ) .

(26) Joan is lying in bed. run.

S he d e c i d e s t ha t i f i t s r a i n i n g s h e w o n t g o f o r a

S h e g e t s u p , o p e ns t h e s h u t t e r s a n d s e e s t h a t i t s r a i n i n g . (Iten 2005:63)

I t e n ( 20 0 5 : 6 3 - 6 4 ) n o t e s t h a t , i n ( 2 4) , t he n e w i n f o r ma t i o n t h a t i t s r ai n i n g i n t e r a c t s w i t h J o a n s e x i s t i n g a s s u mp t i o n t h a t s h e w o n t g o f o r a r u n i f i t s raining. A n d t h e t w o a s s u mp t i o n s t o g e t he r l o gi c a l l y i mp l y t h e t hi r d T h i s t hi r d a ss u m p t i o n i s a

a s s u m p t i o n t h a t J o a n w o n t g o f o r a r u n . c o n t e x t u a l i mp l i c a t i o n o f t he n e w i n f o r ma t i on .

( 2 7 ) J o a n i s l yi n g i n be d . t h a t i t s r a i ni n g . i n d e e d r a i ni n g.

She can hear a patter on the roof and conclude

Sh e g e t s u p , o p e n s t h e s h u t t e r s a nd s e e s t h a t i t i s (ibid.)

I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 : 6 3 ) s t a t e s t h a t , i n t h i s s c e n a ri o , t h e n e w i n f o r ma t i o n J o a n g a i n s f r o m l o o k i n g o u t o f t h e wi n d o w i n t e r a c t s w i t h a b e l i e f s h e s a l r e a d y f o r me d . T h e n e w i n f o r ma t i o n r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t i t s r a i n i n g - s t r e n g t h e n s J o a ns e x i s t i n g a s s u mp t i o n t ha t i t s r a i ni n g.

( 2 8 ) J o a n i s l y i n g i n b ed .

G i v e n t h a t t h e r e s n o a u d i b l e p a t t e r o n t h e r o o f , She gets up, opens the shutters and (ibid.)

s h e a s s u me s t h a t i t i s n t r a i n i n g . s e e s t h a t i t i s r a i ni n g .

15

I t e n ( 20 0 5 : 6 3 ) s a y s t h a t , i n ( 2 8) , t he ne w i n f or ma t i o n t h a t i t s r a i ni n g a g a i n i n t e r a c t s wi t h a n e xi s t i n g a s s u mp t i o n t h a t i t s r a i n i n g . H e r e , t h e n e w i n f o r ma t i o n c on t r a di c t s a n d e l i mi na t e s J oa ns e xi s t i n g a s s u mp t i o n. A s f o r p r o c e s s i n g e ff o r t , S p e r b e r a nd Wi l s o n ( 1 9 9 8 : 9 ) c l a i m t h e g r e a t e r t he c o g ni t i v e e ff e c t s , t h e g re a t e r t h e r e l e v a n c e wil l be . The

p r o c e s s i n g e ff o r t r e q ui r e s t i me a n d e ff o r t i n t w o wa y s ( B l a k e m o r e 1 9 8 7 : 54-60). To u s e C r u p i s ( 20 0 4) w or ds , I w i l l s u m ma r i z e i t a s f o l l o w s .

( 2 9 ) 1 ) T h e c o s t r e l a t e d t o t he c o mp l e x i t y o f l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e . 2 ) T h e c o s t i n v o l v e d i n a s s e s s i ng a n d u s i n g c o n t e x t ua l a s s u mp t i o ns . ( Cr u pi 2 00 4: 4 )

S p e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n ( 1 9 9 8 : 2 6 0 - 7 8 ) a rg ue t ha t t he gr e a t e r t h e pr oc e s s i n g e ff o r t i s r e q ui r e d , t he l o w e r w i l l be t h e r e l e v a n c e , a n d t h e g r e a t e r t h e r i s k o f l o s i n g t h e h e a r e r s a t t e n t i o n .

1 . 2 . 1 . 2 . 2 . C o m m u n i c a t i v e P ri nc i pl e o f R e l e v a n c e Wi t h i n t h e f r a me w or k o f R e l e va n c e T he o r y, l i n g u i s t i c c o m mu n i c a t i o n i s s e e n i n t h e b o r de r c o nt e xt o f h u m a n c o gni t i o n a n d o s t e n s i v e c o m mu n i c a t i o n ( I t e n 2005:63). N o w, l e t s start taking a look at w ha t t he ostensive

c o m mu n i c a t i o n i s .

Wi l s o n a n d S p e r b e r ( 2 0 0 2 : 2 5 5 ) a rg u e t h a t i t mu s t r e a l i z e

t wo k i n d s o f s p e a ke r s i n t e n t i o ns .

16

( 3 0 ) O s t e ns i v e - i n f e r e nt i a l c o m mu n i c a t i o n a. The informational intention: T he i nt e n t i o n t o i n f or m a n a u d i e n c e o f s o me t h i n g . b . Th e c o m mu n i c a t i v e i n t e n t i o n : T he i nt e n t i o n t o i n f or m a n a u di e n c e o f o n e s i n f o r ma t i v e i n t e n t i o n. ( Wi l s o n a n d S p e r b e r 2 0 0 2 : 2 5 5 )

A c c o r d i n g t o Wi l s o n a nd S p e r b e r ( 2 00 2 : 2 5 5 ) , u n d e r s t a n di n g i s a c h i e v e d w h e n t h e c o m mu n i c a t i v e i n t e n t i o n i s f u l f i l l e d . He r e is an e xa mp l e . Iten ( 20 0 5: 6 6) states t ha t , f or Joan to

c o m mu n i c a t e o s t e n s i v e l y t h a t s h e i s I r i s h , s h e n ot o nl y mu s t ha v e a n i n f o r ma t i v e i n t e n t i o n, b ut s h e mu s t a l s o i nt e n d t hi s i n f o r ma t i ve i nt e n t i o n t o b e m u t u a l l y m a n i f e s t t o h e r a n d P e t e r. o f t h e o s t e n s i v e c o m mu n i c a t i o n . Both (31a) and (31b) are the cases

( 3 1 ) a . P e t e r a s ks J oa n w he r e s he s f r o m.

In reply she utters: Wa s t h e r e

Wh y, w h a t c o ul d s h e ha v e d o ne , be i ng w ha t s h e i s ? a n o t h e r Tr o y f o r h e r t o b u r n ? In an obviously Irish accent. Sh e s a y s I m I r i s h .

b . P e t e r a s k s J oa n w he r e s h e s fr o m.

(Iten 2005:66)

Iten (2005:66-67) says that there is nothing about the linguistically encoded c o n t e nt o f J o a n s u t t e r a n c e i n ( 3 1 a ) t h a t me a n s s he i s I r i s h. A c c or di n g t o

I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 : 6 6 - 6 7 ) , P e t e r w i l l d e r i v e t h a t a s s u mp t i o n p u r e l y i n f e r e n t i a l l y, o n t h e b a s i s t ha t s o me o n e s I r i s h a c c e n t me a n s t h a t t he y a r e I r i s h . On the

17

o t h e r h a n d , i n ( 3 1 b ) , J o a n m a k e s i t m u t u a l l y m a n i f e s t t h a t s h e w a n t s t o ma k e i t ma n i f e s t t h a t s h e s I r i s h b y s a y i n g t h a t s h e i s ( I t e n 2 0 0 5 : 6 6 - 6 7 ) . Wi l s o n a n d S p e r b e r ( 1 9 8 6 : 3 9 ) d e fi n e n o t i o n o f mu t u a l ma ni f e s t n e s s a s f o l l o ws .

( 3 2 ) a . A n a s s u mp t i o n i s ma ni f e s t t o a n i n d i v i d u a l a t a c e r t a i n t i me i f a n d only she capable of entertaining the assumption at that time and a c c e p t i n g i t a s t r u e o r p r o b a b l y t r u e . ( Wi l s o n a n d S p e r b e r 1 9 8 6 : 3 9 )

I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 : 6 7) c l a i ms t ha t a n a s s u mp t io n A i s mu t u a l l y ma n i f e s t t o t w o ( o r mo r e ) p e o p l e i f a n d o n l y i f t h e y a r e c a p a b l e o f e n t e r t a i n i n g a n d a c ce p t i n g a s t r u e o r p r o b a b l y t r u e , n o t o n l y A b u t a l s o t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t A i s ma n i f e s t to them.

1 . 2 . 1 . 2 . 3 . O pt i m al R e l e v a n c e I n t h e c o m mu n i c a t i v e pr i n c i p l e o f r e l e v a n c e , t h e r e l e v a n c e - t he o r e t i c t e r m o p t i ma l r e l e va nc e i s u s e d , a s w e s a w a bo v e . Wi t h r e ga r d t o o pt i m a l

r e l e v a n c e , S p e rb e r a n d Wi l s o n ( 1 9 9 5 : 2 7 0 ) d e fi n e a s f o l l o ws .

( 3 3) O p t i ma l R e l e v a n c e A n u t t e r a n c e , o n a g i v e n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i s o p t i m a l l y r el e v a n t i ff : ( a ) I t i s r e l e v a n t e n o u g h f o r i t t o b e w o r t h a d d r e s s e e s e ff o r t t o p r o c e s s it; ( b ) I t i s t h e m o s t r e l e v a nt on e c o mp a t i bl e w i t h t he c o m mu n i c a t o r s abilities and preferences. ( S p e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n 1 9 9 5 : 2 7 0 )

18

S p e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n ( 2 0 0 2 : 2 5 6) s a y t h a t , a c c o r di n g t o c l a u s e ( 3 3 a ) o f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f o p t i ma l r e l e v a n c e , t he a u di e n c e i s e nt i t l e d t o e x pe c t t h e o s t e n s i v e s t i mu l us t o be a t l e a s t r e l ev a n t e n o u g h t o b e w o r t h p r o c e s s i n g . S p e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n ( 2 0 0 2 : 2 5 6 ) c o n t i n u e ; Fo r e x a mp l e , i f y ou j u s t h a p p e n t o n o t i c e my e mp t y g l a s s , y o u ma y b e e n t i t l e d t o c o n c l u d e t h a t I m i g h t l i ke a drink. I f I d e l i b e r a t e l y wa v e i t a b o u t i n f r o n t o f y o u , y o u w o u l d g e n e r a l l y

b e j u s t i fi e d i n d r a w i n g t h e s t r o n g e r c o n cl u s i o n t h a t I w o u l d l i ke a d r i n k ( S p e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n 2 0 0 2 : 2 5 6 ) . Th e e x a mp l e r e l a t e d t o c l a u s e (3 3 b ) i s a s f o l l o w s : t he c o m mu ni c a t o r s g o a l mi g h t b e t o i n f o r m h e r a u d i e n c e t h a t s h e h a s b e g u n w r i t i n g h e r p a p e r. I t m a y b e e ff e c t i v e f o r h e r, i n p u r s u i t o f t hi s g o a l , t o v o l u n t e e r m o r e s p e c i f i c i n f o r ma t i o n a n d s a y, I h av e a l r e a dy w r i t t e n a t h i r d o f t h e p a p e r. In the

c i r c u ms t a n c e s , h e r a u d i e nc e w o ul d t he n be e nt i t l e d t o u n d e r s t a n d h e r a s s a y i n g t h a t s h e h a s w r i t t e n o n l y a t h i r d o f t h e p a p e r. For if she had written

t wo t h i r d s , s h e w o u l d n o r ma l l y b e e x p e c te d t o s a y s o , g i v e n c l a u s e ( 3 3 b ) o f t h e d e fi n i t i o n o f o p t i ma l r e l e v a n ce ( S p e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n 2 0 0 2 : 2 5 6 ) .

1 . 2 . 1 . 2 . 4 . Pr a g m a t ic I n f e re n c e B a s e d o n S e m a nt i c De c o di n g S p e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n ( 2 0 0 2 :2 6 1 ) s t a t e t h a t R e l e v a n c e Th e o r y t r e a t s t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f e x p l i c i t c o n t e n t a s e q u a l l y i n f e r e n t i a l , a n d e q u a l l y g ui d e d by the C o m m u n i c a t i ve Principle of Re l e v a n c e , as t he recovery of

i mp l i c a t u r e s .

T h e r e l e va n c e - t he or e t i c c o mp r e h e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e c a n b e

b r o k e n d o w n i n t o a n u mb e r o f t a s k s ( Sp e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n 2 0 0 2 : 2 6 1 ) :

19

( 3 4 ) S u b - t a s k s i n t h e o v e r a l l c o m p re h e n s i o n p ro c e s s a. Constructing an appropriate hypothesis about explicit content (in r e l e v a n c e - t h e or e t i c t e r ms , E X P L I CAT U R E S) via decoding,

d i s a mb i g u a t i o n , r e f e r e n c e r e s o l u t i o n, a n d o t h e r p r a g ma t i c e n r i c h m e n t p r oc e s s e s . b . C o n s t r u c t i n g a n a p p r o p r i a t e h y p o t h e s i s a b o u t t h e i nt e nd e d c o n t e x t u a l a s s u mp t i o n s P R E M I S E S) . c. C o n s t r u c t i n g a n a p p r o p r i a t e h y p o t h e s i s a b o u t t h e i nt e nd e d c o n t e xt u a l i mp l i c a t i o ns (in relevance-theoretic t e r ms , I M PL I C AT E D (in r e l e v a nc e - t h e or e t i c t e r ms , I M PL I C AT E D

CONCLUSIONS). ( S p e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n 2 0 0 2 : 2 6 1 )

S p e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n ( 20 0 2 : 2 6 1 - 2 6 2 ) n ot e s t h a t c o m p r e h e n s i o n i s a n o n - l i n e process, and hypotheses about explicatures, i mp l i c a t e d p r e mi s e and

i mp l i c a t e d c o n c l us io n s a r e d e v e l o p e d i n p a r a l l e l a g a i n s t a b a c k g r o u n d o f e x p e c t a t i o n s ( o r a n t i c i p a t o r y h y p o t h e s e s ) w h i c h ma y b e r e v i s e d o r e l a b o r a t e d as the utterance unfolds. Sp e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n ( 2 0 0 2 : 2 6 2) t a k e o n e i l l u s t r a t i o n a s f o l l o w s .

(35) a. Peter: b . M ar y :

D i d J o h n p a y b a c k t h e mo n e y h e o we d y o u ? No. He f o rg o t t o g o t o t h e b a n k . ( S p e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n 2 0 0 2 : 2 6 2 )

20

(36) ( a ) M a r y h a s s a i d t o P e t e r, Hr f o rg o t t o g o t o t he B A N K 1 / BANK2 [Hex=uninterpreted pronoun] [ B A N K 1 = f i n a nc i a l i n s t i t u t i o n ] [BANK2=river bank] (b) M a r ys u t t e r a nc e will be o p t i ma l l y r e l e v a n t t o Pe t e r. Embedding of the decoding ( i n c o m p l e t e ) l o g i c a l f o r m o f M a r y s utterance into a description of M a r y s o s t e n s i v e b e h a v i o u r

E x p e c t a t i o n r a i s e d b y re c o g n i t i o n o f M a r y s ostensive behaviour and a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e p re s u mp t i o n o f re l e v a nc e i t c on v e y s . ( c ) M a r y s u t t e r a nc e w i l l a c h i e v e E x p e c t a t i o n r a i s e d b y ( b ), t o g e t h e r r e l e v a n c e b y e xp l a in i n g w h y J o h n h a s w i t h the fact t ha t s uc h an n o t r e p a i d t o t h e mo n e y h e o w e d h e r. e x p l a n a t i o n w o u l d b e m o s t re l e v a n t to Peter at this point. ( d ) F o rg e t t i n g t o g o t o t h e B A N K 1 F i r s t a s s u m p t i o n t o o c c u r t o P e t e r ma y ma k e o n e u n a b l e t o r e p a y t h e w hi c h, t o ge t he r wi t h ot h e r mo n e y o n e o w e s . a p p ro p r i a t e p re m i s e s , mi g h t s a t i s f y expectation (c). Accepted as an i mp l i c i t p re mi s e of M a r y s ut t e r a n c e . ( e ) J o h n f o rg o t t o g o t o t h e B N A K 1 . Fi r s t e nr i c h m e nt of t h e l o g i c a l f o r m of M ar y s ut t e r an c e t o o c c u r t o P e t e r w hi c h mi g ht c o mb i ne wi t h ( d ) t o l e a d t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f ( c ). A c c e p t e d as an e x p l i c a t u re of M a r y s utterance. ( f) J o h n w a s u n a b l e t o r e p a y M a r y I n f e r re d f or m ( d ) a n d ( e ) , s a t i s f y i n g t h e mo n e y h e o w e s b e c a u s e h e f o rgo t ( c ) a n d a c c e p t e d a s a n i m p l i c i t t o g o t o t he B A N K 1 . c o n c l u s i o n o f M a r y s u t t e r a n c e . ( g ) J o h n ma y r e p a y M a r y t h e mo n e y Fro m ( f ) p l u s b a c k g rou n d k n o wl e d g e . he owes when he next goes to the One of several possible we a k BNAK1. i mp l i c a t i o ns of M a r y s ut t e r a n c e w hi c h, t o ge t h e r w i t h ( f ), s at i s f y expectation (b). ( S p e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n 2 0 0 2 : 2 6 3 )

Sp e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n ( 2 0 0 2 : 2 6 2 ) e x p l a i n c o mp r e h e n s i o n p r o c e s s a s f o l l o ws .

Ta b l e

(36)

is

s c h e ma t i c

o nl i n e

of

how

P e t er

mi g h t

use

the

r e l e va n c e - t h e o r e t i c c o mp r e h e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e t o c o n st r u c t h y p o t h e s e s

21

a b o u t t he e xp l i c a t u r e s a nd i mp l i c a t u r e s o f M a r ys u t t e r a n c e , H e f o rg o t to go to the bank. Pe t e r a s s u me s i n ( 36 b) t h a t M a r y s u t t e r a n c e , Since what he wants

d e c o d e d a s i n ( 3 6 a ) , i s o pt i m a l l y r e l e v a n t t o h i m.

t o k n o w a t t h i s p o i n t i s w h y J o h n d i d n o t r e p a y t h e mo n e y h e o w e d , h e a s s u m e s i n ( 3 6 c ) t h a t M a r y s u t t e r a n c e w i l l a c h i e ve r e l e va n c e by answering this question. In the situation described, the logical form of

t h e u t t e r a n c e p r o v i d e s e a s y a c c e s s t o t h e c o nt e xt ua l a s s u mp t i on i n ( 3 6 d ) t h a t f o rg e t t i n g t o g o t o t h e b a n k ma y p r e v e nt o n e f r o m r e p a y i n g mo n e y one owes. T h i s c o u l d b e u s e d a s a n i mp l i c i t pr e mi s e i n de r i vi n g t h e

e x p e c t e d e x pl a na t i o n o f J o h n s b e h a v i o u r, p r o v i d ed t h a t t h e u t t e r a n c e i s i n t e r pr e t e d o n t h e e x pl i c i t s i d e ( v i a d i s a m b i g u a t i o n a n d r e f e r e n c e r e s o l u t i o n ) a s c o n v e y i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n ( 3 6 e ) : t h a t J o h n f o rg o t t o g o t o t h e B A N K 1 . B y c o mb i n g t h e i mp l i c i t p r e mi s e i n ( 3 6 d ) a n d t h e e x pli ci t p r e mi s e i n ( 36 e ) , P e t e r a r r i ve s a t t h e i mp l i c i t c o n c l u s i o n i n ( 3 6 f ) , f r o m w h i c h f u r t h e r, w e a k e r i mp l i c a t u r e s , i n c l u d i n g ( 3 6 g ) a n d o t h e r s , c a n b e de r i ve d . The resulting ov e r a l l i nt e r pr e t a t i o n satisfies P e t e r s

expectations of relevance. ( S p e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n 2 0 0 2 : 2 6 2 )

On

t he

relation

b e t we e n

decoding

and

inference

in

c o mp r e h e n s i o n ,

B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 6 0 ) s t a t e s t h a t t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n - b e t w e e n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e c o d i n g me s s a g e s a n d t h e p r o c e s s o f ma k i n g i n f e r e n c e s f r o m e v i d e n c e - i s the basis of their d i st i n c t i o n between s e ma n ti c s and p r a g ma t i c s .

C o n c e r n i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f d e c o d i n g , B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 02 : 6 0 ) n o t e s t h a t i t i s p e r f o r me d b y a n a u t o n o mo u s l i n g u i s t ic s y s t e m , - t h e g r a m ma r- w hi c h i s

22

d e d i c a t e d t o t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f m a p p i n g b e t w e e n a l i n g u i s t i c s t i mu l u s ( u t t e r a n c e ) a n d a s e ma n t i c r e p r e s e nt a t io n f o r t h a t u t t e r a n ce . O n t h e ot h e r

h a n d , t h e p r o c e s s o f i n f e r e n c e i nt e g r a t e s t h e ou t p u t o f t h e d e c o d i n g p r o c e s s w i t h c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n i n o r d er t o d e l i v e r a hy p ot he s i s a b ou t t h e s p e a k e r s i n f o r ma t i ve i n t e nt i o n ( Bl a k e mo r e 2 0 0 2 : 6 0 ) .

1 . 2 . 1 . 3 . E x pl i c a t u re a n d I m pl i c a t u re I n R e l e v a n c e T h e o r y, t h e a s s u mp t i o n s c o m mu n i c a t e d b y u t t e r a n c e a r e d i v i d e d i n t o t wo c l a s s e s , o r e x p l i c a t u r e a n d i mp l i c a t ur e . ( 1 9 8 6 : 1 8 2 ) d e f i n i t i o n s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d b e l o w. S p e r be r a n d Wi l s o n s

( 3 7 ) A n a s s u mp t i o n c o m mu n i c a t e d b y a n u t t e r a n c e U i s e x p l i c i t [ h e n c e a n e x p l i c a t u r e ] i f a n d o nl y i f i t i s a d e v e l o p me n t o f a l o g i c a l f o r m e n c o d e d b y U. ( 3 8 ) A n a s s u mp t i o n c o m mu n i c a t e d b y a n u t t e r a n c e U i s n o t e x p l i c i t i s i mp l i c i t [ he n c e a n i mp l i c a t ur e ] ( S p e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n s 1 9 8 6 : 1 8 2 )

C a r s o n s ( 2 0 0 2 ) d e fi n i t i o ns a r e mu c h c l e a r e r t ha n S p e r be r a nd Wi l s o n s (1995:182) definitions.

(39)explicature: inferentially

an

ostensively from

c o m mu n i c a t e d one of the

a s s u mp t i o n i nc o mp l e t e

which

is

developed

c on c e pt u a l

r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ( l o g i c a l f o r ms ) e n c o d e d b y t h e u t t e r a n c e . (Carston 2002:377)

23

( 4 0 ) i mp l i c a t u r e ( c o nv e r s a t i o na l ) : a n o s t e n s i v e l y c o m m u ni c a t e d a s s u mp t i o n w h i c h i s n o t a n e x p l i c a t u r e ; a c o m mu n i c a t e d a s s u mp t i o n w h i c h i s derived solely via processes of pragmatic inference. An alternative

c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n : a c o n t e xt ua l a s s u mp t i on o r c on t e xt ua l i mp l i c a t i on i n t e n d e d ( c o m mu n i c a t e d ) b y t h e s p e a k e r ; h e n c e a n i mp l i c a t u r e i s e i t h e r a n i mp l i c a t e d p r e m i s e o r i mp l i c a t e d c o n c l u s i o n . (ibid.)

H e r e i s C a r s t on s ( 2 0 0 6 : 6 3 5 ) e x p l a na t i o n . e x a mp l e .

L e t s t a k e a l o o k a t t h e f o l l o wi n g

( 4 1 ) X: H o w i s M a r y fe e l i n g a ft er h e r f i r s t y e a r a t u n i v e r s i t y ? Y: S h e d i d n t g e t e n o u g h u n i t s a n d c an t c o n t i n u e . ( Ca r s t o n 2 0 0 6 : 6 3 5 ) ( 4 2 ) a . M A RY D I D N O T PA S S E N O U G N U N I V E R S I T Y C O U R S E U N I T S TO Q U A L I F Y F O R A D M M I S I O N TO S E C O N D - Y E A R S T U D Y A N D , A S A R E S U LTS , M A RY C O N N O T C O N T I N U E WI T H U N I V E R S I T Y S T U D Y. b. M A RY I S N O T F E E LI N G V E RY H A P P Y. ( i b i d .)

C a r s t o n ( 2 0 0 6 : 6 3 5 ) t e l l s u s t o s u p p o s e t h a t , i n p a r t i c u l a r c on t e x t , X t a k e s U t o h a v e c o m m u n i c a t e d t h e a s s u mp t i o n s s h o w n i n ( 4 1 ) . Carston (2006:635)

a rg u e s t h a t ( 4 1 a ) i s a n e x pl i c a t u re o f Ys u t t e r a n c e a n d ( 4 1 b ) i s a n i mp l i c a t u r e on the b a s is of the d e fi n i t i o n s . According to Carston

( 2 0 0 6 : 6 3 5 ) , t h e d e c o d e d l o g i c a l f o r m o f Y s u t t e r a n c e , s t i l l m o r e o r l e s s v i s i b l e i n ( 4 1 a ) , h a s b e e n t a k e n a s a t e mp l a t e f or t he d e v e l o p me n t o f a

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p r o p o s i t i o n a l f o r m, wh i l e ( 4 2 b ) i s a n i n d e p e n d e n t a s s u mp t i o n , i n fe r r e d a s a w h o l e f r o m ( 4 2 a ) a n d a f u r t h e r p r e m i s e c o n c e r ni n g t he r e l a t i on b e t w e e n M a r y s r e c e nt f a i l u r e a t u n i v e r s i t y a n d h e r c u r r e n t s t a t e o f mi n d . To s u m u p , t h e c o n c e p t u a l c o nt e n t o f a n i mp l i c a t ur e i s s u p p l i e d wholly by pragmatic inference, while the c o n c e pt ua l c o nt e n t of an

e x p l i c a t u r e i s a n a m a l g a m o f d e c o d e d l i n gu i s t i c me a n i n g a n d p r a g ma t i c a l l y i n f e r r e d me a n i n g ( Ca r s t o n 2 0 0 6 : 6 3 6 ) .

1 . 2 . 1 . 4 . Two K i n d s o f M e a n i n g B l a k e mo r e ( 20 0 2: 7 8) s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e t w o d i s t i n c t p r o c e s s e s i n v ol ve d i n u t t e r a n c e i nt e r pr e t a t i o n- de c o di ng a nd i n f e r e nc e , t h e f i r s t be i n g a n i n p u t t o the second, and, second, that the inferential phrase of u t t e r a n ce

c o mp r e h e n s i o n i n v o l v e s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c o n c e p t u a l ( o r p r o p o s i t i o n a l ) r e pr e s e n t a t i o n s w h i c h e n t e r i n t o i n f e r e nt i a l c o mp u t a t i o ns . B l a ke mo r e

( 2 0 0 2 : 7 8 ) c o n t i n u e s ; t h i s me a n s t h a t , i n p r i n c i p a l , l i n g u i s t i c f o r m c o u l d e n c o d e n o t o nl y t he c o ns t i t u e n t s o f t he c o nc e pt u a l r e p r e s e nt a t i o ns t ha t e nt e r i n t o i n fe r e nt i a l c o mp u t a t i o ns b ut a l s o i n f or ma t i o n w hi c h c o n s t r a i ns t h e computations in which these computations are involved. In other words, it

i s p o s s i b l e f o r l i n g u i s t i c f o r m t o e n c o d e e i t h e r c o n c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n o r p r o c e d u r a l i n f o r ma t i o n . B l a k e mo r e contextual (1987) claims They that do discourse not connectives to a introduce

i mp l i c a t i o n s.

contribute

propositional

r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , b u t s i mp l y e n c o d e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r p r o c e s s i n g p r o p o s i t i o n a l representations. I n o t h e r w o r ds , s uc h e x pr e s s i o ns a r e c o n s i de r e d t o

c o n t r i b u t e t o r e l e v a n c e b y l e a di n g h e a r e r s t o de r i ve a n i nt e n de d c o g ni t i v e

25

e ff e c t a n d b y r e d u c i n g n ee d e d p r o c e s s i n g e ff or t s a s a wh ol e ( K i n s ui a n d I ma k u n i 2 0 0 0 : 7 7 ) . He r e i s Bl a ke mo r e s ( 2 0 0 2 : 8 9 - 9 0 ) a n a l y s i s .

( 4 3 ) B e n c a n o p e n To ms s a f e .

A f t er a l l , h e k n o ws t h e c o mb i n a t i o n . ( Bl a k e mo r e 2 0 0 2 : 8 9 )

( 4 4 ) a . B e n k n o ws t h e c o mbi n a t i o n o f To ms s a f e . b . I f B e n k n o w s t h e c o mb i n a t i o n o f To ms s a fe , t h e n h e c a n o p e n To ms safe. c . B e n c a n o p e n To ms s a f e . ( o p . c i t . : 9 0)

B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 8 9 ) e x p l a i n s o n t h e e x a mp l e a b o ve a s f ol l o ws :

A hearer

w h o i nt e r p r e t s ( 4 3 ) wi l l t a k e t h e c o nc e p t u a l r e p r e s e nt a t i o n i n ( 4 4a ) t o ge t h e r with the conceptual representation in (44b) and derive the conceptual r e pr e s e n t a t i o n i n ( 4 4 c ) . Th e e ff e c t o f t hi s i n f e r e nc e wi l l be t o s t r e n gt he n a n

a s s u m p t i o n , o r, i n o t h e r w o r d s , a c o n c e pt ua l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n wh i c h i s he l d w i t h a d e g r e e o f s t r e n g t h t h a t i s h i g h e r t h a n i t w o u l d h a v e be e n p r o pe r t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e c o n d s e g me n t . B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 9 0 ) c o n t i n u e s ;

wh i l e a f t e r a l l p l a y s a r o l e i n t h e r e c o v e r y o f t h i s c o n c e p t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , i t d o e s n o t d o t h i s b y e n c o d i n g a n yt hi n g t ha t i s a c o ns t i t u e n t o f i t . Ra t h e r i t

e n c o d e s i n f or ma t i o n a bo ut t he i n f e r e nt i a l pr o c e s s t ha t t he h e a r e r s ho u l d use.

1.2.2. Discourse Analysis C r u p i ( 2 0 0 4 ) a n d L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 ) p a y a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p r a g m at i c f u n c t i o n s t h a t

26

discourse

connectives

have

for

structuring

discourse,

especially

when

l o o k i n g a t l o n g e r s t r e t c h e s o f di s c o ur s e .

Wh a t a r e a na l yz e d i n R e l e v a nc e

T h e o r y a r e f u n c t i o ns o f d i s c o u r s e c o n ne c t i v e s i n r a t he r s h or t di s c o u r s e s e g me n t s , o ft e n e v e n o n l y l o o k i n g a t u t t e r a n c e p a i r s . B o t h Cr u p i ( 2 0 0 4 )

a n d L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 ) c o n ce nt r a t e o n t h e f un c t i o n s t h a t d i s c o u r s e c o n n e c t i v e s h a v e i n l o n g e r s t r e t c h e s o f d i s c o u r s e , t h a t i s , n o t fr o m a l oc a l v i e w p oi nt b u t from a global one. As a me a n s t o wa r d u n d e r s t a n di n g w h a t e ve r s e ma n t i c di s t i n c t i o n mi g ht e x i s t b e t w e e n y e t , b u t a n d s t i l l , Cr u p i s ( 2 0 0 4 : 2 ) c l a i ms t h a t t h e s t u d y reserves the s e ma n t i c s - t o - p r a g ma t i c s directionality by using easily

a c c e s s i b l e p r a g ma t i c p h e n o m e n a .

C r u pi ( 20 0 4: 1 7) s t a t e s t ha t t h e g o a l o f

s t u d y i s t o i nv e s t i ga t e c o m mo n f e a t u r e s o f me s s a g e s t ha t c oi nc i d e wi t h a w r i t e r s c h o i c e o f y e t , b u t a n d s t i l l i n w r i t t e n t e x t s . C r u p i ( 2 0 0 4: 2 ) n o t e s

that the term semantics is used to describe the relationships that exist b e t we e n t he c o n c e p t u a l c o r r e l a t e s o f w o r d s a n d p r a g ma t i c s w i l l b e u s e d t o r e f e r t o t he c o m m u ni c a t i v e g o a l s t h a t u n d e r l i e o r mo t i v a t e t h e c h o i c e s t ha t l a n g u a g e u s e r s ma k e a s t h e y i mp l e me n t t h i s i n v e n t o r y o f c o n c e pt u a l t o ol s t o c o n s t r u c t me s s a g e s . T h e r e f o r e , Cr u pi ( 2 0 0 4 : 3 ) c o n s i d e r s p r a g ma t i c s o r Crupi

c o m mu n i c a t i v e p u r p o s e a s t h e ke y t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g s e ma n t i c s .

( 2 0 0 4 : 4 ) s a y s t h a t , s i n c e t he d i r e c t i o na l i t y o f t hi s r e s e a r c h i s f r o m p r a g m a t i c i n t e r p r e t at i o n t o w or d me a ni n g, t he a n a l y s i s c a n b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s wr i t e r- or i e nt e d r a t he r t h a n r e a d e r- or i e nt e d . T h a t i s b e c a u s e wo r d s d o

n o t a p p e a r r a n do ml y i n a t e xt ; w r i t e r s / s p e a k e r s c h o o s e t h e w o r d s t h e y d o b e c a u s e e a c h c o n t r i b u t e s i n s o me w a y t o t h e o v e r a l l me s s a g e s t h e y a r e t r yi n g t o c o m mu n i c a t e ( C r u p i 2 0 0 4 : 3 ) . I n r e f e r e nc e t o t he di s t i n c t i o n be t w e e n

27

m e a n i n g a n d m e s s a ge , Cr u p i ( 2 0 0 4 : 3 ) d e fi n e s me a n i n g a s i n t e r r e l a t e d c o n c e p t u a l c o n s t r u c t s e n c o d e d i n l a n g u a g e , a n d me ss a ge a s p r a g ma t i c interpretation (2004:3) u l t i ma t e l y that by assigned to spoken or wr i t t e n texts. Crupi

c l a i ms

e x a mi n i n g t h e o ve r a l l m e s s a g e o r p r a g ma t i c

i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t e xt s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o l o o k f o r a c o m m o n s e m a n t i c f e a t u r e t h a t a c c o m p a n i e s a l l i n s t a n c e s o f a pa r t i c ul a r f or m. T he t e r m me a n i n g

s e e ms s i mi l a r t o t h e r e l e v a n c e - t he o r et i c t e r m e x pl i c a t u r e a n d t h e t e r m me s s a g e s e e ms l i ke t h e r e l e v a n c e - t he o r e t i c t e r m i m p l i c a t u r e . The

d i ff e r e n c e b e t we e n R e l e v a n c e T he or y an d h e r r e s e a r c h i s t h a t C r u p i ( 2 0 0 4 ) extends beyond analytical scope of traditional sentence-based linguistics to t h e m o r e g l o b a l f o c u s o f d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s ( Cr u p i 2 0 0 4 : 5 ) . Crupi

( 2 0 0 4 : 5 ) s t a t e s t h a t t he a na l ys i s i s fr a me d wi t hi n a di s c o u r s e pe r s pe c t i v e t h a t a s s u me s i n d i v i d u a l s e n t e n c e s c a n n o t p r o vi d e a d e q u a t e d a t a f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h y y e t , b u t , or s t i l l a r e c h o s e n . T h e g o a l o f Le n k (1 9 9 8 : 4 ) i s t o g i v e a n a c c o u n t o f h o w d i s c o u r s e ma r k e r s , w hi l e s i g na l i n g t h e r e l e va n c e o f t he c ur r e nt ut t e r a nc e wi t h i n t he c o n v e r s a t i o na l c on t e x t , a re a l s o us e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e he a r e r s u n de r s t a n d i n g o f h o w t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c o n t r i b u t i o n fi t s i n t o t h e e n t i r e c o n v e r s a t i o n , o r i n t o p a r t s o f i t , i . e . h o w t h e y a r e u s e d t o s u g g e s t c o h e r e n ce . 1998) uses is gathered from spoken language. L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 ) a rg u e s t h a t ma r k i n g o f g l o b a l c o h e r e n c e r e l a t i o n s i s o n e e s s e n t i a l me a n s t h a t a s p e a k e r c a n u s e t o ( w i l l i n gl y) i n fl u e nc e a he a r e r s understanding of her contribution. T h r o u g h ma r k i n g t h e r e l at i o n s o f h e r T he da t a L e n k

c o n t r i b u t i o n t o p r i o r d i s c o u r s e a s s h e p e r c e i v e s t h e m, t h e s p e a k e r g i v e s mo r e i n f o r ma t i o n a b ou t he r ut t e r a n c e t o t h e he a r e r t ha n i t s me r e pr o po s i t i o n a l

28

content (Lenk 1998:35).

L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 : 4 9 ) s h o ws h o w d i s c o u r s e ma r k e r s a r e

u s e d a s d i s c o ur s e s t r u c t ur i n g e l e me n t s f o r s i g n a l i n g i d e a t i o n a l , r h e t o r i c a l a n d s e q u e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s , a n d h o w t h e y a r e e ff e c t i v e a s c o he r e n c e i n di c a t o r s on a global coherence or t o pi c l ev e l within seem spoken to be d i s co u r s e , when a topical c oh e r e n t

i n c o n s i s t e nc i e s

c ha n ge s

t hr e a t e n i n g

understanding of the overall discourse.

A c c or d i n g t o L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 : 4 9 ) , t h e

t e r m d i s c o ur s e m a k e r s i s u s e d t o r e f e r s o l e l y t o t h e s e i t e ms ; t h e y a r e c o n s i d e r e d a g r o u p o f p r a g m a t i c i t e m s s i nc e t h e i r f u nc t i o n wi t hi n di s c o u r s e d o e s n o t i n v o l ve t h e p r o p o s i t i o n a l l e v e l o f t he u t t e r a n c e , b u t a p p l i e s o n a n o n - p r o p o s i t i o n a l , p r a g ma t i c p l a n e o f t h e d i s c o ur s e . Le n k ( 1 9 9 8 : 5 3 )

d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e di s c o ur s e m a k e r f u n c t i o n f r o m t he p ro p o s i t i o n a l u s e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Le n k ( 1 9 9 8 : 5 3 ) , p r o p o s i t i o n a l me a n in g s a r e t h e me a n i n g g i v e n i n d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s , w h e r e a s t h e p r a g ma t i c me a ni n g i s r a r e l y fo u n d i n dictionary definitions. H o w e v e r, L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 : 1 0 8 - 1 0 9 ) me n ti o n s t h a t t h e r e

a r e s o me c a s e s w h e r e i t i s v e r y di ff i c ul t t o d e t e r mi n e w he t he r h o we v e r i s us e d i n e i t h e r o n e o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e t w o f u n c t i o n s .

( 4 5 ) a d o e s o p e r a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i s i t i s i t . . p r i ma r i l y c o n c e r n e d wi t h q u e s t i o n s o f d i s t r i b u t i o n ma r k e t i n g b . i n d e e d n o . . o pe r a t i on r e s e a r c h s t a r t e d . . b y s t u d i e s o f m i l i t a r y p r o b l e m s . . o n e o f t h e f i r s t e x e r c i s e s e v e r c a r r i e d o ut . . t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g t h e wa r . . w h e n . . t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r . s ma l l b o a t s s h o u l d c a r r y a n t i - c r a f t g u n s . . wa s c o n s i d e r e d . . t h e s e s ma l l b o a t s h a d b e e n e q u i p p e d . . wi t h a n t i - c r a ft g u n s a n y mo r e e n e my a i r c r a f t . . b u t t h e y w e r e n t s h o o t i n g d o w n . .

and therefore certain people concluded

29

t h a t t he s e gu n s w e r e n t f u l fi l l i n g t h e i r f u nc t i on

h o we v e r w h e n t h e

o p e r a t i o n r e s e a r c h m a n l o o k e d . . a t t h e d at a m o r e c l o s e l y h e d i s c o v e r e d t h a t f e w er b o a t s w e r e b e i n g s u n k i n o t h e r w o r ds

L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 : 1 0 9 ) e xp l a i n s t h e e x a mp l e a s f o l l o ws ; On o n e h a n d , t h e u s e o f h o we v e r i n h i s e x a mp l e c o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d a n i n d i c a t o r o f c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e s i t u a t i o n a s i t h a d b e e n n a r r a t e d e a r l i e r, a n d t h e a c t u a l o u t c o me o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n b y o p e r a t i on a l r e s e a r c h e r s a s n a r r at e d a ft e r t h e u s e o f h o we v e r . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t c a n b e a l s o b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s a d i s c o u r s e ma r k e r, b e c a u s e i t ma r k s t h e e n d s o f a s h o r t d i g r e s s i o n w hi c h wa s c o n s i de r a b l e i mp o r t a n c e t o t h e d e v e l o p me n t o f t he t o pi c .

1 . 3 . S um m e r y I n t h i s C ha p t e r, t h e g o a l o f my r e s e a r c h w a s s h o w n : t o r e c o n s i de r a n d

crystallize functions of adversative coordinate conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs. To d o t h e r e s e a r c h , s e v e r a l pr o bl e ms w e r e p r e s e nt e d. T he f i r s t

q u e s t i o n i s w h y h o w e v e r i s mo r e r e s t r i c t e d t h a n b u t .

The second question is

w h a t ma k e s i t p o s s i b l e t ha t a d v e r s a t i v e c o n n e c t i v e s h o w e v e r, s t i l l a nd y e t c a n be u s e d w i t h t h e c o - o r d i na t e c o nj u nc t i on b u t . T h e t hi r d q ue s t i o n i s

w h e t h e r h o we v e r i n t he mi d d l e o f t h e s e n te n c e h a s a n o t h e r f u n c t i o n . T h e n , I o ut l i ne d t h e ba s i c i d e a s o f t he or i e s t h a t I w i l l t o u c h o n f o r m y research.

30

Chapter 2 An Adversative Conjunction But

2 . 1 . I n t ro d uc t i o n A s me n t i o n e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r, o ne o f t h e g o a l s o f t hi s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s t o c l a r i f y f u n c t i o n s o f a c o o r d i n a t e c o n j u n c t i on b u t a n d c o n j u n c ti v e a d v e r b s h o we v e r , s t i l l , a n d y e t , w e i g h i n g d i ff e r e n c e s a mo n g t h e m. B e f o r e ma k i n g

d e t a i l e d e xa mi na t i o ns o f t he s e w o r d s , w e w i l l t a k e a l o o k a t p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s o n b u t i n t hi s c ha pt e r s o t h a t we c a n c o m p a r e t h e c o n j u n c t i o n wi t h a d v e r b i a l c o n n e c t i v e s s u c h a s h o w e v e r , s t i l l , y e t i n t h e s ub s e q u e n t c ha pt e r s . Si n c e b u t i s o n e o f t h e s u b j e c t s w h i c h h a v e a r o u s e d e n t h u s i a s m a n d c o n t r o v e r s y, I w i l l r e v i e w b r i e f l y s o me r e c e n t i mp o r t a n t s t u di e s o n t h e c o n j u n c t i v e b e f o r e p r o p o si n g a n e w d e s c r i p t i o n o f f u n c t i o n s o f t h e w o r d . I n s e c t i o n 2 . 2 , a r a n g e o f d i ff e r e n t u s e s o f b u t w i l l b e s u m m a r i z e d , f o l l o wi n g Ha l l ( 2 0 0 4 , 2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 ) . In section 2.3, we will see Fraser (1998), B l a k e mo r e

w h o a rg u e s t ha t t h e c o r e m e a ni n g o f b u t i s t o s i g n a l c o nt r a s t .

( 1 9 8 7 , 1 9 9 2 , 2 0 0 0 , 2 0 0 2 ) , H a l l ( 2 0 0 4 , 2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 ) a n d I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 ) o ff e r a c o u n t e r a rg u me n t a g a i n st t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t he c or e me a ni n g o f b u t i s contrast. Bl a k e mo r e s ( 1 9 8 7 , 1 9 9 2 , 2 0 0 0 , 2 0 0 2 ) , H a l ls ( 2 0 0 4 , 2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 )

a n d I t e n s ( 2 0 0 5 ) a n a l y s e s a r e b a s e d o n R e l e v a n c e T h e o r y, wh e r e b u t h a s p r o c e d u r a l i n f o r ma t i o n . Yo u c a n s e e d i ff e r e n t i d e a s b e t we e n H a l l ( 2 0 0 4 , In section

2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 ) a n d B l a k e mo r e ( 19 8 7 , 1 9 9 2 , 20 0 0 , 2 0 0 2 ) / I t e n ( 2 0 05 ) .

2 . 4 , B l a k e mo r e s ( 1 9 8 7 , 1 9 9 2 , 2 0 0 0 , 2 00 2 ) a n a l y s i s o n f u n c t i o n s o f b u t wi l l

31

be taken up.

I n s e c t i o n 2 . 5 , w e wi l l b r i e f l y t a k e a l o o k a t t h e d e b a t e o v e r

B l a k e mo r e s ( 2 0 0 2 ) p r o p os a l b e t we e n H a l l ( 2 0 04 , 2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 ) a n d I t e n (2005). I n s e c t i o n 2 . 6 , t he c o n s i d e r a t i o n o n w h i c h i s m o r e p l a u s i b l e , H a l l Section 2.7 is the

(2004, 2005/2007) or Iten (2005) will be given. c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r.

2 . 2 . A R a n g e o f Di f f e re nt U s e s o f B u t I n t h i s s u b s e c t i o n , f o l l o w i n g H a l l s ( 2 0 0 4 , 2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 ) c l a s s i f i c at i o n , f i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f b u t wi l l b e d e s c r i b e d b r i e f l y ; t h a t i s , d e n i a l o f e x p e c t a t i o n , c o n t r a s t , c o r r e c t i o n , o b j ec t i o n , a n d d i v e r s i o n . L e t s b e g i n w i t h d e n i a l o f e x p e c t a t i o n . on but recognize this use. e x a mp l e . Most of the previous studies

Th e f o l l o win g i s R . La k o ff s ( 1 9 7 1 : 6 7 ) f a mo u s

(1)

Denial of expectation John is a Republican but he is honest. ( L a k o ff 1 9 7 1 : 6 7 )

To b o r r o w Ha l l s ( 2 0 0 5 : 4 ) w o r d s , t h e fi r s t c l a us e i mp l i e s s o me c o nc l u s i o n w h i c h i s t h e n d e n i e d b y t h e c l a us e i nt r o du c e d by b u t .

(2)

a. b. c.

J o h n i s a R e p u b l ic a n . John is dishonest. John is honest.

(preceding context) ( d e r i v e d a s s u mp t i o n ) ( as s u mp t i o n mo d i f i c a t i o n )

T h e n e x t u s e o f b u t w e c o ns i d e r i s t h e c o n t r a s t i v e o ne .

In this

32

e x a mp l e , b u t s e e ms t o s i mp l y i n d i c a t e t h e c on t r a s t s i n s y m m e t r i c u t t e r a n c e s ( F r a s e r 1 9 9 8 , Ha l l 2 0 0 5 ) .

(3)

Contrast a . J o h n i s En g l i s h b u t B i l l i s We l s h . b . A n n a l i k e s r e a d i n g b u t To m l i k e s t e n n i s . c . To m l i k e s t e n n i s b u t A n n a l i k e s r e a d i n g . ( Ha l l 2 0 0 4 : 2 2 2 ) ( Bl a k e mo r e 2 0 0 2 : 1 0 3 ) (ibid.)

N o w, w e w i l l l o o k a t a n e x a mp l e o f b u t w h i c h h a s t h e c or r e c t i o n me a n i n g . Wh e n but had t he c or r e c t i o n me a ni n g , it has di ff e r e n t

d i s t r i b u t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s f r o m b u t w h i c h h a s a d e n ia l o f e x pe c t a t i o n me a n i n g . The first s e g me n t including correction but must contain an explicit

unincorporated negation. c o r r e c t i on but u n d e rg o e s

I n a d d i t i o n t o t h a t , t he s e c o n d c l a u s e c o n t a i n i n g conjunction reduction obligatorily and the

b u t - c l a u s e r e p l a c e s t h e n e g a t e d a s s u mp t i o n .

T h e s e a r e n ot t h e c a s e o f

u t t e r a n c e s r e l a t e d t o d e n i a l o f e x p e c t a t i o n . ( B l a k e m o r e 2 0 0 2 : 11 0 , H a l l 2004:202)

(4)

Correction H e i s n t c l e ve r, b u t h a r d w o r k i n g . ( Bl a k e mo r e 2 0 0 2 : 11 0 )

T h e f o u r t h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f b u t i s t h e o bj e c t i o n us e .

( 5) i s a n

e x a mp l e o f a d i s c o u r s e - i n i t i a l u s e o f b u t w h i c h i s u s e d t o i n t r o d u c e a n objection.

33

( 5)

Objection a. [ s p e a k e r, w h o i s i n s h o c k , h a s b e e n g i v e n a w h i s k y ] B u t I d o n t d r i n k . b. A : We h a d a v e r y n i c e l u n c h . B : B u t w h a t a b o u t t h e mo n e y ? (op.cit.:105) I h a d a n e xc e l l e nt l o bs t e r. ( o p . c i t . : 11 9 )

The last use of but is diversion.

Se e ( 6 ) .

In (6a), after the first

c l a u s e o f B s ut t e r a nc e , t he r e i s n ot hi n g t o s t o p t h e s p e a k e r c o n t i n u i n g w i t h s o me t h i n g l i k e a n d s o d o t h e 8 4 a n d t h e 8 7 . Wh i l e h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t o b e

a n e x p e c t a t i o n o f t he h e a r e r s , i t i s o n e p os s i bl e r o ut e t h a t i s l e ft o pe n a f t e r the first clause. So the use of but is acceptable, as the hearer is being I n ( 6 b ) , i t s p e r fe c t l y c o n c e i v a b l e

di ve r t e d f r o m a p o t e n t i a l c o nc l u s i o n .

t h a t A a n d B c o u l d b e me e t i n g o n b o t h Tue s da y a nd We d ne s da y, s o a ft e r t h e f i r s t c l a u s e o f Bs r e p l y, t he r e s n o t h i n g t o e x c l u d e B c o n t i n u i n g w i t h a n d o n We d n e s d a y 1 5 . by the use of but. So t hi s i s w h a t t h e h e a r e r c o u l d b e d i v e r t e d a wa y f r o m

(6)

Diversion a. A : D o a l l t h e b us e s f r o m t hi s s t op g o t o Pi c c a d i l l y Ga r d e ns ? B : Th e 8 5 a n d 8 6 d o , b u t t h e 8 4 a n d 8 7 g o t o Cr o s s St r e e t . (op.cit.:104) b. A : A r e w e me e t i n g o n Tu e s d a y o r We d n e s d a y ? B : We r e me e t i n g o n Tue s d a y, b u t n o t o n We d n e s d a y. ( Ha l l 2 0 0 4 : 2 2 7 )

34

T he q u e s t i o n i s : W h a t c a n b e a u ni f i e d de s c r i pt i o n o f t he s e fi v e u s a g e s ? I n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n , w e s h a l l s e e B l a k e mo r e s ( 1 9 8 7 , 1 9 9 2 , 2 0 0 0 , 2 0 0 2 ) o b s e r v a t i o n , o n e o f t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s b a s e d o n R e l e v a n c e T h e o r y, w h i c h s a y s c o n n e c t i v e s h a v e p r o c e d u r a l m e a n i n g s n o t c o n c e p t u a l me a ni n g s f or t he first time in the Linguistics.

2 . 3 . I s t h e c o re m e a ni n g o f b ut t o s i g n a l C O N T R A S T ? T he r e a r e ma n y p r e vi o u s s t u d i e s o n b u t . denial of expectation but. external but. but. S c h ff r i n L a k o ff ( 1 9 7 1 ) s t u d i e s s e ma n t i c a n d

H a l l i d a y a n d H a s a n ( 1 9 76 ) o b s e r v e i nt e r na l a n d (1987) observes 1992, referential, 2000, functional, Hall and

contrastive

Bl a k e m o r e

(1987,

2002),

(2004,

2005/2007) and Iten (2005) tries to capture denial of expectation and c o n t r a s t b u t b y a rg u i n g t h a t b u t h a s p r o c e d u r a l i n f o r ma t i o n . s p e a k i n g , t h e r e a r e t w o v i e wp o i n t s . but is to signal contrast. Roughly

So me a rg u e t h a t t h e c or e me a n i n g o f

G r i c e ( 1 9 7 5 / 1 9 8 9 ) , S c h ff r i n ( 1 9 8 7 ) , Ri e b e r ( 1 9 9 7 ) ,

Fr a s e r ( 1 9 9 8 ) , a n d Ba c h ( 1 9 9 9 ) u s e a n o t i o n o f c o n t r a s t a t l e a s t , i n o r d e r t o e x p l a i n t h e me a n i n g o f b u t . T h e o t he r c l a i m t h a t i t i s t o s i g na l de ni a l o f

e x p e c t a t i o n ; f o r e x a mp l e , L a k o ff ( 1 9 7 1 ) , Bl a k e mo r e ( 19 8 7 , 1 9 9 2 , 2 0 0 0 , 2002), and Iten (2005). I n t h i s s e c t i o n , w e wi l l s e e t h e f o r me r a rg u me n t .

B a c h ( 1 9 9 9 ) i s t h e l a t e s t r e s e a r c h , b u t h i s g o al i s t o c o u n t e r a rg u me n t G r i c e a n a p p r o a c h w h e r e t h e n o t i o n o f c o n v e nt i o n a l i mp l i c a t u r e i s u s e d , a n d n o t t o c l a i m t ha t t he me a n i n g o f b u t i s c o n t r a s t . Fr a s e r ( 1 9 9 8 ) h e r e . signal contrast. Therefore, I will review

F r a s e r ( 1 9 98 ) c l a i ms t ha t t h e c or e me a n i n g o f b u t i s t o

Fraser (1998:310) says:

35

I f i n d t h a t t h e c o r e me a n i n g o f b u t i s t o s i g n a l s i mp l e c on t r a s t , no t h i n g mo r e , a n d t h e s p e a k e r w i l l s e l e c t i t w h e n i n t e n d i n g t o h i g h l i g ht a contrast. H o we v e r, t h e S 1 me s s a g e w i t h w h i c h t h e d i r e c t S 2 me s s a g e

i f c o n t r a s t e d t h e t a rg e t m a y b e t h e d i r e c t , i n d i r e c t , p r e s u p p o s e d , o r e n t a i l e d me s s a g e o f S 1 . B u t w h i c h e v er t he me s s a g e , t h e r e i s on l y o n e

c o r e me a n i n g o f b u t , a l t h o u g h t h e p r e c i s e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n t r a s t ma y b e i n t e r p r e t e d fr o m t h e S 1 me s s a g e i n v o l v e d a n d t h e c o n t e x t . (op.cit.:310)

Let us have a look at each case one by one. t h e t a rg e t o f c o n t r a s t i s t h e d i r e c t S 1 .

In the following example,

(7)

Direct S1 message J o h n g a v e t o y s t o M a r y, b u t Sa r a g a v e d o l l s t o J a n e . (Fraser 1998:310)

Fr a s e r ( 1 9 9 8 : 3 1 0 ) s a y s t ha t t he t w o me s s a g e s c o nt r a s t i n a t l e a s t t wo corresponding areas. 1998:310). Th e ne xt e x a mp l e s s ho w t h a t S2 ma y b e ( r o u g h l y ) t he n e g a t i v e o f S 1 . T h e e x a m p l e ( 7) h a s t h r e e a r e a s o f c on t r a s t ( F r a s e r

(8) protest a. A: H a r r y i s h o n e s t . B : B u t h e s N O T h o n e s t .

36

b.

A : We c a n g o . B : B u t I C A N T g o s i n c e I m n o t r e a d y. ( o p . c i t . : 3 1 0 - 3 11)

Fr a s e r ( 1 9 9 8 : 3 1 0 ) o b s er v e s t h a t S 2 d i r e c t l y c o ntr a d i c t s S 1 , a n d i n s o d o i n g denies S1. F r a s e r ( 1 9 9 8 : 3 1 0 ) t hi n k s t h a t t h e d e n i a l a r i s e s f r o m c o n t r a s t o f

a s p e c i a l s o r t , wh i c h i n v o l v e s t h e c o n t e n t o f S 2 a n d S 1 , n o t a s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e c o r e me a n i n g o f b u t . B a c h ( 1 9 9 9 : 3 5 8 ) a l s o d o e s n t t h i n k t h a t p r o t e s t u s e o f b u t s h o ws s i mp l e c o nt r a s t , s a yi n g t h a t s e nt e nc e - i ni t i a l b u t i s g e n e r a l l y t he b u t o f rebuttal, used to introduce a reason or evidence against something previously asserted. I f s o me o n e s a y s t h a t S h a q u i l l e O N e a l i s w e l l - c o o r d i n a t e d a n d

y o u r e p l y, B u t S h a q c a n t ma k e f r e e t h r o ws , y o u a r e n o t e x p r e s s i n g a c o n t r a s t o f t h e s o r t e x p r e s s e d i n ( 9) b u t r a t h e r a r e o bj e c t i n g t o t h e c l a i m j u s t ma d e .

(9) S h a q i s h u g e b u t h e i s a g i l e .

(Bach 1999:327)

a . Sh a q i s h u g e a n d , u n l i k e m o s t h u g e p e o p l e , h e i s a g i l e . b. Shaq is huge and, unlike others on the list, he is agile. c . Sh a q i s h u g e a n d , c o n t r a r y t o w h a t y o u s ai d , h e i s a g i l e . (op.cit.:346)

Fr a s e r ( 1 9 9 8 : 3 1 0 ) s a y s t h a t S 2 m a y c o n s i s t o f o n l y t h e r e a s o n o r justification for an assertion which had been deleted.

37

( 1 0 ) a . We l l , s h e s n e a r l y a l wa y s i n b y 1 0 .

B u t ( s h e ma y b e i n a f t e r 1 0

s i n c e ) s h e h a s l o t o f w o r k t o d o a t t h e l i b r a r y. b . [ C o n t e x t : a s t r a n g e r t a k i n g a w a y J i m m y s b i k e ] J i m my : B u t ( y o u s h o u l d n o t t a k e t h a t a w a y s i n c e ) t h a t s m y b i k e . ( F r a s e r 1 9 9 8 : 3 11 )

I n t he ne xt e x a mp l e , t h e t a rg e t o f c o n t r a s t i s p r e s u pp o s e d me s s a g e o f S1.

( 11 ) Pr e s u p p o s e d S 1 M e s s a g e A: T h r e e o f my k i d s a r e i n s c h oo l . [Presupposed:The fourth is not.] ( i b i d. )

B: Bu t a l l o f y o u r c h i l d r e n a r e i n s c h oo l .

T h e r e a r e c a s e s w h e r e t he h e a r e r i s f o r c e d t o f i n d a n e nt a i l e d me s s a g e of S1.

( 1 2 ) E n t a i l e d M e s s a ge A: Na n c y i s e n j o y i n g b e i n g a b a c h e l o r. B: B u t N a n c y i s f e ma l e . [entailed:Nancy is a male] ( i b i d. )

Fr a s e r ( 19 9 8: 3 10 ) r e g a r d s t he f o l l o w i ng e xa mp l e a s t h e c a s e w he r e t h e t a rg e t o f c o n t r a s t ma y b e i mp l i e d .

38

( 1 3 ) I mp l i e d S 1 M e s s a g e John is a politician. [Politicians are dishonest.] But he is honest. (op.cit:312)

T h e p r o b l e m w i t h F r a s e r ( 1 9 9 8 ) i s t h a t t he y s e e m t o t r e a t r e b ut t a l u s a g e a s a s pe c i a l c o nt r a s t . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h a t , t h e c o r e me a n i n g o f b u t B l a k e mo re ( 1 9 8 7 : 1 3 4 - 7 , 1 9 8 9 ) c l a i m s To p r o v e t h i s , B l a k e mo r e

c a n n o t b e t o s i g n a l a s imp l e c o n t r a s t .

t h a t t h e c o r e me a n i n g o f b u t c a n n o t b e c o n t r a s t .

( 1 9 8 7 : 1 3 4 - 1 3 7 , 1 9 8 9 ) t a k e s u p t h e f o l l o wi n g e x a mp l e s w h e r e a c o n t r a s t r e a d i n g i s i n e vi t a bl e b e c a us e o f t he c o nt r a s t i ve s t r es s . I f c o nt r a s t we r e

e n c o d e d b y b u t , i t s ho ul d b e us e d i n t h e c o nt e x t w he r e t h e r e i s a c o nt r a s t b e t we e n t w o t h i n g s . a wk w a r d . A s c a n b e s e e n be l o w, h o we v e r, t he u s a g e o f b u t i s

( 1 4 ) A: W ha t s t h e c a pi t a l o f Ge r ma n y n o w? - B o n n o r B e r l i n ? B: I t s B E R L I N , a n d n o t B o n n .

B : ? ? I t s B E R L I N, b u t n o t B o n n . ( Bl a k e mo r e 1 9 8 7 : 1 3 4 - 7; Ha l l 2 0 0 4 : 2 1 9 )

H a l l ( 2 0 0 4 : 2 1 9 ) s u p p o r t s B l a k e mo r e s ( 1 9 8 7 , 1 9 92 , 2 0 0 0 , 2 0 0 2 ) a rg u me n t t h a t a c o n t r a s t r e a d i n g o f b ut c a nn ot b e t h e c or e me a n i n g o f i t , s h o w i n g t h e e x a m p l e s b e l o w.

(15) A:

Wh y d i d y o u r l a n d l o r d s e n d r o u n d t h e o n e a r me d p l a s t e r e r a g a i n when the other guy worked twice as fast?

39

B:

Be c a u s e h e s h a l f p r i c e , w he r e a s / wh i l e t h e o t h e r g u y c h a rg e s mo r e t o w o r k o n a w e e k e n d.

B:

B e c a u s e h e s h a l f p r i c e ; t he o t h e r g u y, i n c o n t r a s t / o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , c h a rg e s m o r e t o w o r k o n a we e k e n d .

B : ? ? Be c a u s e h e s h a l f p r i c e , b u t t h e o t h e r g u y c ha rg e s mo r e t o w o r k o n a weekend. ( Ha l l 2 0 0 4 : 2 1 9 )

I n ( 1 5 ) , b u t i s u na c c e pt a bl e i n c on t e xt w he r e c o n t r a s t i v e c o n n e c t i v e s s u c h a s w h e re a s a n d i n c o nt r a s t c a n a p p e a r. Hall (2004:219) states that if but

me a n s c o nt r a s t , t h e r e w o ul d s e e m t o b e n o r e a s o n w h y i t c an n o t r e p l a c e o t h e r indicators of contrast. Be s i d e s , Fr a s e r ( 19 9 8) d o e s no t a na l yz e t h e c or r e c t i o n u s a ge o f b u t . I t i s i mp o s s i b l e t o c a p t u r e t he c o r r e c t i o n c a s e b y c o n t r a s t . I n t h e n e x t s u b s e c t i o n , we w i l l r e v i e w p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s b a s e d o n R e l e v a n c e T h e or y, w he r e i t i s s t a t e d t h a t b u t h a s p r o c e d u r a l i n f o r ma t i o n o n h o w t h e h e a r e r s h o u l d ma k e a n i n f e r e n c e .

2 . 4 . Re l e v a n c e T h e o r y O n e o f t h e g oa l s o f t hi s t h e s i s i s t o d e mo n s t r a t e h o w R e l e va n c e T he or y c a n explain functions of connectives well. studies. me a n i n g s . I w i l l r e v i e w h e r e s o me i mp o r t a n t

B l a k e m o r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) i s t h e p i o n e e r i n t he f i e l d o f p r o c e d u r a l C h a l l e n gi n g B l a k e mo r e (1987, 1992, 2000, 2002), Ha l l

( 2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 ) t r i e s t o e s t a b l i s h a u n i t a r y t h e or y f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f b u t i n a d i ff e r e n t w a y. I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 ) , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , d e fe n d s a n d r e v i s e s

B l a k e mo r e s ( 2 0 0 2) a s s e r t i o n .

40

B l a k e mo r e connectives, suggestions. contextual

(1987, on

1992, the

2000,

2002)

studies and

the

function

of

based

Re l e v a nc e

Theory

ma k e s

i n t r i g ui n g

Sh e s u g ge s t s t h a t b u t i s r e l a t e d t o o ne o f t h e t hr e e t y pe s o f e ff e c t s t ha t S pe r b e r and Wi l s o n ( 19 9 5: 8 3- 11 7) s u g ge s t e d .

C o n t e x t u a l e ff e c t s a r e d e f i n e d a s f o l l o w s :

(16) a.

T h e d e r i v a t i o n o f c o nt e x t u a l i mp l i c a t i o ns : t h e d e r i v a t i o n o f a n e w a s s u mp t i o n i n a d e d u c t i on w hi c h c r uc i a l l y i n vo l v e s t he s y nt h e s i s of P and C.

b.

St r e n gt h e ni n g e xi s t i n g a s s u mp t i o n s : t h e e ff e c t d e r i ve d w he n a n assumption in C is independently derived from a new set of pr e mi s e s t h a t i n c l u de s P, o r i n ot h e r w or d s , w he n P i s i n vo l v e d i n a backwards inference.

c.

C o nt r a di c t i o n

&

e l i mi n a t i o n :

the

e ff e c t

derived

when

c o n t r a d i c t i o n b e t w e e n P a n d C i s r e s ol ve d by e l i mi n a t i n g C . ( Bl a k e mo r e 2 0 0 0 : 4 7 8 )

T h e r e ma i n de r o f t hi s s e c t i o n w i l l de s c r i be t he a na l ys e s b y Bl a k e mo r e ( 1 9 8 7 , 1 9 9 2 , 2 0 0 0 , 2 0 0 2 ) , w h i c h t r i e d t o g i v e a u n i fi e d a c c o u n t o f t h e f i v e u s a g e s o f b u t u s i n g t h e n o t i o n o f c o gn i t i v e e ff e c t s . B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) c l a i ms t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n o f b u t i s t o b r i n g a b o u t t h e cognitive e ff e c t w hi c h e n ds in contradiction and e l i mi na t i o n of an

a s s u mp t i o n A.

41

( 1 7 ) B u t e n c o de s t he i n f or ma t i o n t h a t t h e h e a r e r i s e x p e c t e d t o f o l l o w a n i n f e r e nt i a l r o u t e w hi c h r e s ul t s i n t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n d e l i mi n a t i o n o f a n a c c e s s i b l e a s s u mp t i o n A . ( B l a ke mo r e 2 0 02 : 1 2 2 )

( 1 8 ) B u t d o e s n o t e n c o d e a n y i n f o r ma t i o n a b o u t t h e c on t e x t s w h e r e t h e e ff e c t o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n d e l i mi n a t i o n i s a c h i e v e d . ( o p . c i t . : 11 8 - 1 2 1 )

N o w ho w c a n Bl a ke mo r e s p r o p o s a l s a c c o u n t f o r t h e fi v e u s e s o f b u t i n the section 2.2? Le t u s s t a r t w i t h t h e c a s e o f d e n i a l o f e x p e c t a t i o n .

B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 1 0 6 ) a t t e m p t s t o m a k e i t c l e a r w h a t t h e d i ff e r e n c e i s b e t we e n t he ut t e r a n c e i n ( 19 a ) a n d L a k o ff s o r i g i n a l e x a m pl e i n ( 19 b) , w h i c h has a similar contrast. ( T h e e m p h a s e s a r e t h e a u t h o r s . In the rest of this

c h a p t e r, t he e mp h a s e s a r e t h e a ut ho r s u n l e s s t h e r e i s a n o t i c e . )

(19) a. John is a Republican and he is

H O N E S T.

( o p .c i t . : 10 6 )

b. John is a Republican but he is honest. (= (1))

B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 1 0 6 ) a rg u e s t h a t b u t i n ( 1 9 b ) a c t i va t e s a n i n f e r e n t i a l p r o c e s s w h i c h r e s u l t s i n t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n d e l i mi na t i o n o f t h e a s s u mp t i o n that John is dishonest. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , B l a ke mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 1 0 7 ) s a y s , t h e

u s e o f a n d i s j u s t i f i e d o n l y i f t he s p e a ke r c a n b e u nd e r s t o od t o b e e x pr e s s i n g a n a t t i t u d e t o t h e t r u t h o f t h e c o n j o i n e d p r o p o s i t i o n e x pr e s s e d . B l a ke mo r e

( 2 0 0 2 : 1 0 6 ) a d d s , h o we v e r, t h a t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s pe a k e r o f ( 1 9 a ) c a n b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s c o m mu n i c a t i n g a n e mo t i o n a l a t t i t u d e ( f o r e x a mp l e , o f s u r p r i s e o r o u t r a g e ) d o e s n o t me a n t h a t a n d e nc o de s e mo t i on a l i n v ol ve m e n t . T h e e x a m p l e s o f t h e c o n t r a s t u s e o f b u t i n ( 3) a r e r e p e a t e d h e r e .

42

( 2 0 ) a . A n n a l i ke s r e a di n g b u t To m l i k e s t e n n i s . b . To m l i k e s t e n n i s b u t A nn a l i k e s r e a di n g.

( B l a k e mo r e 2 0 0 2 : 1 0 3 ) (ibid.)

B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 1 0 3 ) d oe s n o t e x p o u n d u p o n h o w b u t f u n c t i o n s i n t h e s e e x a m p l e s , b u t s h e m e n t i o n s t h a t t h e s i mi l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n e x a mp l e s ( 2 0a ) a n d ( 2 0 b ) a r e s u p e r f i c i a l a n d d i s a p p e a r w h e n w e c o n s i de r t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h they are appropriate. Bl a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) , p e r h a p s , mea n s t h a t i n ( 2 0 a ) i t wi l l

f i t t h e c o n t e x t w h e r e t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i f A n n a l i k e s r e a di n g , To m l i k e s r e a d i n g i s e l i mi n a t e d . In (20b), on the other hand, it will suitable for the

c o n t e x t w he r e t h e a s s u mp t i o n t ha t i f Tom l i k e s t e n n i s , A n n a l i k e s t e n n i s i s e l i mi n a t e d . I n t h i s s e ns e , t he r e i s n o n e e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n a c o n t r a s t

b u t a n d a d e n i a l o f e x p e c t a t i o n b u t , b ot h o f w hi c h a c t i v a t e a n i n f e r e n t i a l p r o c e s s w hi c h r e s u l t s i n t he c o n t r a d i c ti o n a nd e l i mi n a t i o n o f a n a s s u mp t i o n . T h e e x a m p l e s ( 4 ) a s a c or r e c t i o n r e a di n g o f b u t w i l l b e r e p e a t e d i n (21). B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 11 7 ) s h o ws t h e e x a m p l e s ( 2 1 ) a s a c o r r e c t i o n

r e a d i n g o f b u t , w hi c h m e a ns i t i s n ot c l e v e r t h a t he i s , b ut r a t he r h a r d w o r k i n g , b o r r o wi n g S c h o u r u ps ( 2 0 0 5 : 8 7 ) e x p r e s s i o n .

(21) Correction H e i s n t c l e ve r, b u t ha r d w o r k i n g . ( B l a k e mo r e 2 0 0 2 : 11 0 )

B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 11 0 - 111 ) s a y s t h a t t h e c o r r e c t i o n r e a d i n g o f t h e s e e x a mp l e s a s d e p e n d i n g o n a d o u b l e el i mi n a t i o n o f t h e s a me a s s u m p t i o n h e i s c l e v e r , b y v i r t u e o f b o t h t h e n e g a t i o n i n t h e f i r s t s e g me nt , a nd t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n d e l i mi n a t i o n i n i t i a t e d b y b u t i t s e l f .

43

( 2 2 ) H e i s c l e v e r.

A c c o r d i n g t o B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 111 ) , i f b u t i s a me a ns o f a c t i v a t i n g a n i n f e r e n c e w hi c h r e s ul t s i n t he c o n t r a d ic t i o n a n d e l i mi n a t i on o f a n a s s u mp t i o n m a n i f e s t t o t he h e a r e r w h i c h i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o a n a s s u mp t i o n h e i s c o m mu n i c a t i n g . Pr o v i d e d t h a t t h e f i r s t s e g m e n t i s i t s e l f r e l e v a n t a s a

c o n t r a d i c t i o n , ( 2 2 ) i s a n a s s u m p t i on w hi c h w o u l d b e p r e s u me d t o b e ma n i f e s t t o t h e h e a r e r. activates an T h e f i r s t s e g me n t i s d e n y i n g t h e t r u t h o f ( 22 ) a n d b u t i n f e r e nc e which r e s ul ts in e l i mi na t i o n of t he ma n i f e s t

a s s u mp t i o n .

I n s h or t , t he m a n i f e s t a s s u mp t i o n , H e i s c l e v e r i s d e n i e d b y

t h e f i r s t s e g me n t , H e i s nt c l e v e r a n d b u t . T h e b u t i n ( 2 3 ) r e p r e s e n t s i t s f o ur t h i n t e r pr e t a t i o n, t h a t i s , ob j e c t i o n .

( 2 3 ) [ s p e a k e r, w h o i s i n sh o c k , h a s b e e n g i v e n a w h i s k y ] B u t I d o n t d r i n k . ( o p . c i t . : 11 8 )

Speaking of the function of but, in (23), it is to indicate that an a s s u mp t i o n l i k e ( 2 4 ) mu s t be e l i mi na t e d .

( 2 4 ) T h e s p e a k e r o f ( 2 3 ) c a n b e e x p e c t e d t o dr i nk t h e w hi s ky t h a t i s be i n g o ff e r e d . ( o p .c i t .: 1 2 1 )

Fr o m t h i s e x a mp l e , i t c a n b e s a i d t h a t t he e l i mi n a t e d a s s u mp t i o n d o e s n o t always need to be derivable from a previous explicit discourse segment. N o w, t h e d i v e r s i o n u s e o f b u t w i l l b e d e s c r i b e d . I r e p e a t t h e e x a mp l e

44

(6) as (25).

( 2 5 ) A: D o a l l t he b us e s f r o m t hi s s t o p g o t o Pi c c a d i l l y G a r d e n s ? B : Th e 8 5 a n d 8 6 d o , b u t t h e 8 4 a n d 8 7 g o t o Cr o s s St r e e t . (op.cit.:104)

B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 1 0 4 - 10 5 ) g i v e s a n a c c o u n t o f t h e p r o c e s s o f i n f e r e n c e t h a t b u t g u i d e s t h e h e a r e r. B s r e p l y i n ( 2 5 ) ma y b e u n d e r s t o o d t o c o n t r a d i c t t h e

a s s u mp t i o n i n ( 27 a ) , bu t t hi s a s s u mp t i o n i s n o t d e r i v e d f r o m t h e f i r s t s e g me n t o f t h e u t t e r a n c e . Wi t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e i n t o n a t i o n , t hi s s e g me n t

w o u l d s u g ge s t t h a t t he r e a re o t h e r b u s e s fr o m t h e s t op w hi c h a r e n o t l i k e t he 8 5 a n d t h e 8 6 i n t h i s r e s p e c t , w h i c h g i ve n t h e c o nt e x t u a l a s s u mp t i o n i n ( 2 7b ) , c o n t e x t u a l l y i mp l i e s t ha t t he 84 a nd t he 8 7 d o n ot go t o Pi c c a di l l y G a r d e n s . B u t - s e g m e n t a c h i e v e s t h e r e l e v a n c e t h r o u g h i n f o r mi n g t h e h e a r e r n o t j u s t w h e r e t h e 8 4 a n d t he 8 7 b u s e s g o , b u t w h e r e t h e y g o g i v e n t h a t t h e y d o n o t g o t o Pi c c a d i l l y G a r d e n s .

( 2 6 ) 8 4 a n d 8 7 b u s e s g o t o P i c c a di l l y G a r de n s . ( 2 7 ) a . A l l t h e o t h e r b u s es f r o m t h i s s t o p d o n o t g o t o Pi c c a d i l l y G a r de n s . b . 8 4 a n d 8 7 b u s es g o f r o m t h i s s t o p . (op.cit:104)

T he r e i s a n o t h e r c a s e .

I n t h e c a s e o f l a c k f or t he c o nt e xt ua l a s s u mp t i o n i n

( 2 7 b ) , t h e h e a r e r ma y f i n d i t r e l e v a n t t o k n o w w h i c h b u s e s d o n o t g o t o Pi c c a d i l l y G a r d e n s , a nd t he s p e a k e r w o u l d t h u s b e p r o v i d e d w i t h r e a s o n f o r e n c o u r a g i n g t h e h e a r e r t o s e e t h e r e l e v a n c e o f t h e s ec o n d s e g me n t a s l y i n g i n

45

t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n d e l i mi n a t i o n o f ( 27 b) . I n t hi s s e c t i on , w e s a w Bl a k e mo r e s pr op o s a l t h a t b u t a c t i v a t e s a n i n f e r e n c e w hi c h r e s ul t s i n t he c o n t r a d i ct i o n a n d e l i mi n a t i o n o f a n a s s u mp t i o n , w h i c h s h e c l a i ms c a n a c c o un t f o r t h e f i v e u s e s o f b u t . A l t h o u g h B l a k e mo r e s a n a l y s i s h a s ma n y i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s a n d h a s b e e n v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l , i t h a s b e e n c r i t i c i z e d b y s o me a u t h o r s . Ha l l ( 2 0 0 4 ,

2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 ) a rg u e s t h a t b u t d o e s n o t a c t i v a t e a n i n f e r e n c e b u t i t s u s p e n d s a n inference. be manifest. I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 ) ma i n t a i n s t ha t t h e a s s u mp t i o n t o b e e l i mi n a t e d mu s t In the next subsection, we will see the detailed discussions by

H a l l s ( 2 0 0 4 , 2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 ) a n d I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 ) .

2 . 5 . H a l l ( 2 0 0 4 , 2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 ) v s . Bl a k e m o re ( 1 9 87 , 1 9 9 2 , 2 0 0 0 , 2 0 0 2 ) / I t e n (2005) I n t h i s s u b s e c t i o n , w e w i l l r e v i e w t w o a l t e r na t i v e s t o B l a k e m o r e s a n a l y s i s . Fi r s t , w e w i l l t a k e a q u i c k l o o k a t p r o p o s a l s b y H a l l ( 2 0 0 4 , 2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 ) a n d Iten (2005). detail. H a l l ( 2 0 0 4 : 2 2 3 ) c h a l l e n g e s B l a k e m o r e s ( 1 9 8 7 , 1 9 9 2 , 2 0 0 0 , 2 0 0 2 ) p r o p o s a l , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t b u t d o e s n o t e n c o d e r e s u l t s i n t h e e l i mi n a t i o n o f a ma n i f e s t a s s u mp t i o n . According to Hall (2004:226), but can derive any of Ha l l ( 2 0 0 4: 2 2 6 ) a l l e g e s t h a t t h e c a s e N e x t , w e w i l l s e e h o w t h e y a c c o u n t f o r t h e fi v e u s e s o f b u t i n

t h e t h r e e k i n d s o f co g n i t i v e e ff e c t s .

o f c o r r e c t i o n b u t o n B l a k e m o r e s ( 2 0 0 2 ) a n a l y s i s d e r i v e s t h e c o g n i t i v e e ff e c t of strengthening. To b e mo r e p r e c i s e , H a l l ( 2 0 0 4 : 2 2 6 ) s t a t e s t h a t t h e ma i n

r e l e v a n c e , e v e n i n d e n i a l u s e s , l i e s n o t i n t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n d e l i mi n a t i o n o f t h e a s s u mp t i o n , b u t i n ge t t i n g t he he a r e r t o e n t e r t a i n t he i mp l i c a t e d

46

p r e mi s e a n d t h e f a c t t ha t t h e s t a t e o f a ff a i r s i n t r o d u c e d b y t h e b u t - c l a us e i s a n e x c e p t i o n , f r o m w h i c h t h e c o g n i t i v e e ff e c t s o f t h e u t t e r a n c e f o l l o w. In

s u m , s h e c l a i m s t h a t B l a k e mo r e s a c c o u n t o f b u t a s e n c o d i n g c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n d e l i mi n a t i o n i s t o o r e s t r i c t i ve ; t h e c o n s t r a i n t e n c o d e d b y b u t i s t o s us p e n d an inference that would result in a contradiction with what follows, so d i v e r t s h i m f r o m a c o n cl u s i o n t h a t h e c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y h a v e d r a w n .

(28) The constraint encoded by but The function of but is to suspend an inference that would result in a c o n t r a d i c t i o n wi t h w h a t f o l l o ws . (Hall 2004:228)

F o r H a l l ( 2 0 0 4 , 2 0 0 5 / 20 0 7 ) , d i ff e r e n t i nt e r p r e t a t i o n s o f b u t i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e d e g r e e s o f s a l i e n c e o f s o me p a r t i c u l a r c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i s u n d e r mi n e d , a n d this depends on the r el a t i o n be t w e e n the two c o nj u nc t s . In the

d e n i a l - o f - e x p e c t a t i o n u se , i t s o b v i o u s w h a t i s d e n i e d b y t h e c l a u s e i n t r o d u c e d b y b u t : i n ( 2 9 a ) , f or e xa mp l e , t h e b u t - c l a u s e i s c u t t i n g o ff t h e i n f e r e n c e t o ( 2 9 b) . If the but-clause contradicts an assumption that was

e a s i l y a c c e s s i bl e o n t h e ba s i s o f t he f i r s t c l a u s e , i t ma ke s t h i s a s s u mp t i o n mo r e s a l i e n t , a n d t h e u t t e r a n c e h a s a d e n i a l - o f- e x p e c t a t i o n r e a d i n g .

(29) a. b.

A n n e i s r i c h b u t u n h a p p y. A n n e i s h a p p y.

I n t h e c o n t r a s t u s e o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t i s n o t c l e ar w h a t l i n e o f i n f e r e n c e i s b e i n g c u t o ff : t h e r e ma y b e a r a n g e o f w e a k l y s a l i e n t p o t e n t i a l

47

i mp l i c a t i o ns o f t h e f i r s t c l a u s e t h a t a r e i n s o me w a y i n c o n s i s t e nt w i t h i mp l i c a t i o ns o f t h e b u t - c l a u s e , a n d a n y o n e o f t he s e w o u l d s a t i s f y t h e constraint encoded by but. F o r e x a m p l e , t he f i r s t c l a u s e o f ( 3 0 ) m a y l i c e n s e

a c o n c l u s i o n l i k e w e d o n t h a v e a c a n d i d a t e f or o u r b a s k e t b al l t e a m ; o r t h e h e a r e r mi g h t h a v e a s k e d a q ue s t i o n t h a t a s s u me s t h a t J o h n a n d Bi l l wi l l b e a l i k e i n s o me r e l e v a n t r e s pe c t w he t h e r t he y a r e a l i k e o r n o t i s l e f t o p e n b y the first clause.

( 3 0 ) J o h n i s t a l l b ut B i l l i s s h o r t .

I n t h e m e a n t i me , I t e n s ( 2 0 0 5 ) p r o p o s a l i s a s f o l l o ws , w h i c h i s t h e r e v i s e d v e r s i o n o f B l a ke mo r e s ( 1 9 8 7 , 1 9 9 2 , 2 0 0 0 , 2 0 0 2 ) o r i g i n a l o n e :

( 3 1 ) Wh a t f o l l o w s ( Q ) c o n t r a d i c t s a n d e l i mi n a t e s a n a s s u mp t i o n t h a t i s ma n i f e s t i n t h e c o n t e x t . ( I t e n 2 0 0 5 : 1 4 7)

I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 : 1 4 6 ) c l a i ms t h a t t h e r e i s e v e r y r e a s o n t h a t t he a s s u m p t i o n t o b e d e n i e d s h o u l d b e ma n i f e s t . F i r s t , i t i s h a r d t o s e e h o w s o me t h i n g t h a t w a s

n e v e r r e p r e s e n t e d a s t r u e o r p r o b a b l y t r u e c o u l d b e c o n t r ad i c t e d a n d e l i mi n a t e d . S e c o n d , i f a n a s s u mp t i o n n ee d b e s i mp l y a c c e s s i b l e r a t h e r t h a n

ma n i f e s t , b u t s h ou l d be a c c e p t a b l e i n ( 3 2 ) , b e c a u s e t h e b u t c l a u s e w o u l d d e n y t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t M a r y i s n i c e , w hi c h i s s u r e l y ma d e a c c e s s i bl e b y the first clause.

( 3 2 ) ? J o h n d o u b t s t ha t M a r y i s n i c e b u t s h e i s n t .

(op.cit.:146)

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I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 : 1 5 5 ) c o u n t e r s H a l l 's ( 2 0 0 4 , 2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 ) a rg u m e n t s a y i n g t h a t i f t h e r e s a n i n fe r e n c e t o b e c ut o ff , t he n t h e r e i s a l s o l i k e l y t o b e a n a s s u mp t i o n ( c o n c l u s i o n ) t h a t i s ( or w o ul d be) t h e r e s u l t o f s u c h a n i n f e r e n c e . Si n c e t h e b u t c l a us e o nl y o c c u r s a ft e r t h e a s s u mp t i o n t h a t mi g h t h a ve t r i g g e r e d a n i na p p r o p r i a t e i n f e r e n c e , i t s l i k e l y t h a t t he i nf e r e n c e w i l l h a v e y i e l d e d a n u n d e s i r a b l e c o n c l u s i o n, w hi c h wi l l h a ve t o be e l i mi n a t e d i f t h e i n f e r e n c e i s c ut o ff ( I t e n 2 0 0 5 : 1 5 5 ) . N o w l e t s c o m p a r e t h e i r a n a l y s e s t o m ak e d i ff e r e n c e s c l e a r e r. F i r s t l y,

H a l l ( 2 0 0 4: 2 21 ) po i nt s o ut t h a t i n di r e c t d e n i a l p r o v e s s o m e w h a t p r o b l e m a t i c f o r B l a k e mo r e s ( 2 0 0 2 ) p r o p o s a l .

(33)

A: D o y o u t h i n k we c a n r e l y o n h i m? B : We l l h e i s h o n e s t , b u t h e i s a Re p u b l i c a n , s o I d o n t k n o w. ( Ha l l 2 0 0 4 : 2 2 1 )

H e r e , t h e b u t - c l a us e do e s n t s e e m t o be e l i mi n a t i n g a n a s s u mp t i o n , bu t j u s t i n t r o d u c i n g a n a rg u me n t t h a t p oi nt s i n a d i ff e r e n t di r e c t i o n . I n B s r e pl y,

t h e fi r s t c l a us e i mp l i c a t e s We c a n re l y o n h i m ; t h e s e c o n d i mp l i c a t e s We c a n t . I f t h e a s s u mp t i o n We c a n re l y o n h i m h a s b e e n e l i mi n a t e d b y t h e t i m e t he h e a r e r ge t s a s f a r a s t h e e n d o f t h e b u t - c l a us e , t he n , on h e a r i ng I d o n t k n o w , h e w o u l d h a v e t o g o b ac k a n d r e p r o c e s s Bs r e p l y, a n d i t s h o u l d s o u n d ma r k e d . H o we v e r, t h e r e i s n o t h i n g ma r k e d a b ou t t h i s ut t e r a nc e , i nd i c a t i n g

t h a t t h e c o g n i t i v e e ff e c t h e r e i s n o t o n e o f c o n t r ad i c t i o n a n d e l i mi n a t i o n . ( Ha l l 2 0 0 4 : 2 2 1 ) Iten (2005:153-154) doubts this reasoning and takes up the following

49

e x a mp l e f or a r e b ut t a l .

( 3 4 ) A: D o y o u t h i n k we c a n r e l y o n h i m? B : We l l , h e i s h o n e s t , b u t h e i s a Re p u b l i c a n , s o I d o n t k n o w. B : I d o n t k n o w. B : ? We l l , h e i s h o n e s t , b u t h e i s a Re p u b l i c a n , s o i t c o u l d g o e i t h e r w a y. (Iten 2005:153-154)

I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 : 1 54 ) m a k e s a po i nt t h a t I d o n t k n o w i t s e l f i s mo s t l i k e l y t o b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s a ne ga t i v e . T h e r e s p o n s e , I d o n t k n o w, i s mo s t l i k e l y t o b e In addition

i n t e r pr e t e d a s m e a n i n g t h a t J o h n p r o b a b l y c a n b e t r u s t e d b y A .

to that, Iten (2005:154) adds that the conclusion is not genuinely up in the a i r, b e c a u s e i t c o ul d g o e i t he r w a y i s l e s s a p p r o p r i a t e a s y o u c a n s e e . S e c o n d l y, H a l l ( 2 0 0 5 : 2 0 ) c l a i m s t h a t B l a k e mo r e s ( 2 0 0 2 : 1 0 0 ) a c c o u n t t h a t b u t a c t i v a t e s a n i n f e r e nc e w h i c h r e s u l t s i n t h e c o nt r a di c t i o n a n d e l i mi n a t i o n o f a n a s s u mp t io n r u n s i n t o d i ff i c u l t i e s wi t h c o n t r a s t u s e s o f but.

( 3 5 ) J o h n i s En g l i s h b u t Bi l l i s We l s h .

(Hall 2004:222)

B l a k e mo r e s ( 2 0 0 2 : 1 0 1 - 1 0 2 ) a c c o u nt i s t ha t t h e y s i mp l y i n v ol ve a de n i a l o f e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e r e s n o c o n t r a s t . To b o r r o w H a l l s ( 2 0 0 4 : 2 2 2) w o r d s ,

in (35), the hearer would have to expect that Bill will be English, the same as John. Ha l l ( 2 0 0 4 : 2 2 2 ) a rg u e s t h a t t h e r e i s a p r o b l e m t h a t B l a k e mo r e

( 2 0 0 2 ) d o e s n t e x p l a i n w h y t h e h e a r e r mi gh t h a v e b e e n h o l d i n g a n y s u c h

50

a s s u mp t i o n .

B e s i de s t ha t, H a l l ( 2 0 0 4 : 2 2 2 ) s t a t e s t ha t i t s e e ms t o be

enough for the hearer to recognize that the speaker is drawing attention to t h e f a c t t h a t t he t h i n g s a r e d i ff e r e n t , w h i c h ma y o r ma y n o t h a v e b e e n ma n i f e s t t o h i m a l r e a d y. B l a ke mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 111 ) a rg u e s that for an utterance to achieve

r e l e v a n c e a s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n , i t mu s t c o m mu n i c a t e a n a s s u mp t i o n w h i c h i s contradictory to an assumption which the hearer believes to be true. A c c o r d i n g t o H a l l ( 2 0 0 5 : 2 0 ) , h o w e v e r, i t d o e s n t s e e m t h a t a n y e x p e c t a t i o n o f h e a r e r s g e t s d e n i e d i n ( 3 5 ) o r t ha t a n y a s s u mp t i on s u p p o r t e d b y t h e fi r s t clause is contradicted. F o r I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 ) , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e c l a i m t h a t t h e d e ni e d a s s u m p t i o n i s r e q u i r e d t o b e m a n i f e s t do e s n ot me a n t ha t t h e a s s u mp t i o n i s r e pr e s e n t e d or expected. I n f a c t , s h e a l s o a d mi t s t h a t i t i s f a r f r o m o b v i o u s t h a t t h e

first clause in (35) raises an expectation that the second clause denies. F o l l o w i n g t h e l i n e o f th o u g h t p r o p o s e d b y I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 : 1 4 9 ) , i t i s a t l e a s t p o s s i b l e t h a t J o h n i s En g l i s h ma k e s ma n i f e s t t h e a s s u mp t i o n t h a t Bi l l ( o r a n y o t h e r p e r s o n t h a t mi g h t b e t a l k e d a b o u t n e x t ) i s En g l i s h , e v e n i f j u s t ve r y w e a k l y. I t c o u l d b e t h a t t h e me r e f a c t t h a t t h e s pe a ke r i s t a l ki n g a b o ut J o h n

a n d B i l l i n t h e s a m e u t t e r a n c e ma k e s i t mo r e l i k e l y t ha t t h e y s h a r e t h e property being talked about. H e r e a r e t w o q u e st i o n s . should be? Fi r s t , h o w s a l i e n t a ma ni f e s t a s s u mp t i o n

S e c o n d , i s t h e r e a n y s p e c i f i c a s s u mp t i o n , ma n i f e s t o r n o t , t h a t

is denied in the contrast uses of but? A s f o r t h e f i r s t q u e s t i on , t h e a n s w e r i s c l e a r i n t h e R e l e v a n c e T h e o r y. A s S p e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n ( 1 9 8 6 / 9 5 : 3 9 ) p u t i t , f o r a n a s s u m p t i o n t o b e ma n i f e s t

51

d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y me a n t h a t i t i s me n t a l l y r e pr e s e nt e d j u s t t h a t i t s c a p a b l e o f b e i n g r e p re s e nt e d ( a n d a c c e p t e d a s t r u e o r p r o b a b l y t r u e ) . We

d o n o t s e e a n y d i s c r e p a n c y i n t hi s p oi nt b e t w e e n H a l l ( 2 0 0 4 , 2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 ) a n d Iten (2005). A s f o r t h e s e c o n d q u e s t i o n , H a l l ( 2 0 0 4 , 2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 ) s a y s a p p a r e n t l y, n o , w h i l e I t e n r e p li e s y e s , t h o u g h i t s v e r y w e a kl y m a n i f e s t . I would like

t o s u p p o r t I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 ) , b e c a u s e t h e r e s h o u l d b e a n a s s u mp t i o n i f a n i n f e r e n c e i s s u s p e n d e d a s I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 ) p o i nt s o ut . T h i s ma n i f e s t n e s s pr o bl e m 1 r e a p p e a r s i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f Di v e r s i o n u s e s o f b ut . L e t u s s e e h o w H al l ( 2 0 0 4 : 2 2 2 - 2 2 3 ) r e a n a l y z e s B l a ke mo r e s T h e e x a mp l e i n ( 2 5 ) w i l l b e r e c i t e d a s ( 3 6 ) .

( 2 0 0 2 ) e x a mp l e b e l o w.

( 3 6 ) A: D o a l l t he b u s e s f r o m t h i s s t o p g o t o P i c c a di l l y G a r de n s ? B : T h e 8 5 a n d 8 6 d o , b u t 8 4 a n d 8 7 g o t o Cr o s s St r e e t . ( Bl a k e mo r e 2 0 0 2 : 1 0 4 )

Iten (2000:228) also takes a skeptical view of the requirement by Blakemore

(1987, 1989) that the contradicted and eliminated assumption be manifest to the h e a r e r. She suggests that this assumption is required to be only accessible to him.

Hall (2004:225) refutes this downgrading of manifestness and alleges that if but guides the hearer to make inference that results in the contradiction and H a l l s

elimination of assumption, then this assumption must be manifest.

(2004:222) observation is that it might be enough for the hearer to recognize that t h e s p e a k e r i s d r a w i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f a c t t h e t w o t h i n g s a r e d i ff e r e n t , w h i c h m a y o r m a y n o t h a v e b e e n m a n i f e s t t o h i m a l r e a d y.

52

B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 1 0 4 ) c l a i m s t ha t t h e a s s u mp t i o n w h i c h i s u n d e r l y i n g As q u e s t i o n i s t h a t a l l b u s e s fr o m t h e s t o p a r e a l i ke i n r e s p e c t o f w h e t h e r t he y g o t o P i c c a di l l y G a r de n s , a n d t h a t t h e re i s a s i n g l e ye s o r n o a n s w e r t o her question here. H a l l ( 2 0 0 4 : 2 2 3 ) a rg ue s t ha t i t d oe s nt l o o k l i ke a n y

a s s u m p t i o n s t h a t A i s m a k i n g a b o u t B s a n s w e r a r e ma n i f e s t l y g e t t i n g c o n t r a d i c t e d , b e c a u s e t h e a s s u mp t i o n u n d e r l y i n g As q u e s t i o n h a s t o b e t h a t a t l e a s t s o m e o f t he m d o . Ot h e r wi s e , s h e w o u l d h a v e a s k e d w h e t h e r

any of them do, not all of them do. Ha l l ( 2 0 0 4 : 2 2 7 ) t a k e s u p t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a mp l e s i n o r d e r t o s h o w t h e advantage of her proposal.

( 3 7 ) A: D o a l l t he b us e s f r o m t hi s s t o p g o t o Pi c c a d i l l y G a r d e n s ? B : Th e 8 5 a n d 8 6 d o , b u t t h e 8 4 a n d 8 7 g o t o Cr o s s St r e e t . B : ? ? O n l y t h e 8 5 a n d 8 6 d o , b u t t h e 8 4 a n d 8 7 g o t o Cr o s s St r e e t . B : O n l y t h e 8 5 a n d 8 6 d o . T he 8 4 a n d 8 7 g o t o Cr o s s St r e e t . ( Ha l l 2 0 0 4 : 2 2 7 )

H e r e i s H a l l s ( 20 0 4 : 2 2 7 ) e x p l a n a t i o n : I n ( 2 5 B) , a ft e r t he fi r s t c l a u s e , t h e r e i s a p o t e n t i a l i n f e r e nt i a l r o ut e , s u c h a s a n d s o d o t h e 8 4 a n d 8 7 , w h i c h i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t o b e a n e x p e c t a t i o n o f t he h e a r e r s . but is acceptable. T h e r e f o r e , t he u s e o f

I n ( 2 5 B ) , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e u s e o f o nl y e xc l u d e s T h a t i s w h y b u t i s u na c c e pt a b l e .

any potential inferential route.

I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 : 1 5 4 - 1 5 5 ) t a k e s u p a c o u n t e r- e x a mp l e .

53

( 3 8) A: N o t a l l t h e b u s e s f r o m t h i s s t o p g o t o Pi c c a d i l l y G ar d e n s , d o t h e y ? B : N o . T h e 8 5 a n d 8 6 d o , b u t t h e 8 4 a n d 8 7 g o t o Cr o s s St r e e t . (Iten 2005:154-155)

I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 : 1 5 4 - 1 5 5 ) a na l y z e s a s f o l l o w s : i t c a n b e s a i d t h a t n o t al l b u s e s f ro m t h i s b u s s t o p g o t o Pi c c a di l l y Ga rd e ns i s t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i s ma n i f e s t t o A . H o w e v e r, t h e fi r s t p a r t o f B s u t t e r a n c e i s l i k e l y t o ma k e i t

w e a k l y m a n i f e s t t h a t t he ne xt bu s e s me n t i o ne d wi l l a l s o g o t o Pi c c a d i l l y Gardens. Fo r e xa mp l e , t he r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y o f Bs s a y i n g l i k e ( 3 9 ) .

(39) The 85 and 86 do, as do the 84 and 87. though.

Th e 11 6 a n d t h e 1 9 5 d o n t , (op.cit:155)

F o u r t h l y, H a l l ( 20 0 4: 2 25 ) m e n t i o ns t ha t f o r a n ut t e r a nc e t o a c h i e v e r e l e v a n c e a s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n , t h e r e m u s t h a v e b e e n a p o ss i b i l i t y t h a t t h e h e a r e r w o u l d h a v e p r e s e nt e d t h e c o n t r a d i c t e d a s s u mp t i o n a s t r u e . So if the

r e l e v a n c e o f b u t s c o nt r i b ut i o n l i e s i n t he c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n d e l i mi na t i o n o f a s s u mp t i o n , t h e n t h i s a s s u mp t i o n m u s t b e m a n i f e s t . Wi t h c o r r e c t i o n

r e a d i n g , h o we v e r, H a l l ( 2 0 0 4 : 2 2 5 ) c l a i ms t h a t i t i s d i ff i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y t h e e x a c t a s s u mp t i o n i n q u e s t i o n . As t o t h e e x a mp l e i n ( 4 0 ) , Ha l l ( 2 0 0 4 : 2 2 4 ) s t a t e s a s f o l l o w s : s i n c e t h e first clause was obviously intended to achieve relevance as a denial, (40b) is n o l o n g e r ma n i fe s t t o t he he a r e r f o r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e b u t - c l a us e , s o a constraint requiring t ha t a ma n i f e s t a s s u mp t i o n be contradicted and

e l i mi n a t e d wo n t b e s a t i s fi e d .

54

( 4 0 ) a . T h a t i s n o t my s i s t e r, b u t my m ot he r. b . S h e i s my s i s t e r. ( Ha l l 2 0 0 4 : 2 2 3 )

H a l l ( 2 0 0 7: 1 72 ) l i mi t e d h e r s e l f t o s u g ge s t t h a t a f ul l a c c o u nt o f c o r r e c t i o n b u t i s l i k e l y t o i n v ol ve t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e c o n j u n c t io n r e d u c t i o n w h i c h encourages the correction reading, plus metalinguistic negation, and

c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s w hi c h de t e r mi n e w h e th e r t he c or r e c t i o n o r d e n i a l r e a d i n g is preferred. I t e n s ( 2 0 0 5 ) p r o p o sa l , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s c l e a r e r. (2005:149-150) observation. L e t u s s e e I t e n s

( 4 1 ) A : Yo u r s i s t e r l o o k s a l o t l i ke yo u . B : T h a t i s n o t my s i s t e r, b u t my m ot he r. ( I t e n 2 00 5: 1 49 )

I n ( 4 1 ) , As u t t e r a n c e t e l l s u s t h a t h e t hi nk s t ha t wo ma n i n q u e s t i o n ( l e t s c a l l h e r C ) i s Bs s i s t e r. T h e mo r e s t r o ng l y A b e l i e ve s t h i s , t he mo r e l i k e l y

i t i s t h a t B s a s s e r t i o n t h a t C i s n t h e r s i s t e r i s n o t e n o u g h t o ma k e A d i s c a r d t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t C i s B s s i s t e r. T he a s s e r t i o n C i s B s mo t h e r i s l i k e l y

t o s u c c e e d i n e l i mi n a t i n g As mi s t a ke n a s s u mp t i o n. Umbach (2004:172) also alleges that both contrast and correction but are related to denial of expectation. there are di ff e r e nt i mp l i c i t A c c o r d i n g t o U mb a c h ( 2 0 0 4 : 1 7 2 ) , w hi c h br i n g a b ou t di ff e r e n t

q u e s t i o ns

expectations.

T h e c o n t r a s t i n d u c e s t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t J o h n we n t t o B e r l i n

a n d t o Pa r i s , w h i l e t he c or r e c t i o n i n d uc e s t he e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t J o h n w e n t t o Berlin.

55

( 4 2 ) a J o h n d i d n t g o t o B e r l i n b ut he w e n t t o P a r i s . b . D i d J o h n g o t o Be r l i n a n d a l s o t o Pa r i s ? c . J o h n mi g h t h a v e g o n e t o Be r l i n , i n a d d it i o n t o P a r i s . ( 4 3 ) a . J o h n d i d n t g o t o B e r l i n b u t t o P a r i s . b . D i d J o h n g o t o Be r l i n ? c . H e mi g h t h a v e g o n e t o Be r l i n i n s t e a d o f P a r i s . ( U mb a c h 2 0 0 4 : 1 7 2 )

I t e n s ( 2 0 0 5 ) a rg u m e n t i s s u p p o r t e d b y t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n . I t e n s ( 2 0 0 5 ) p r o p os a l n e e d n o t e x c l u d e t h e c o r r e c t i o n u s e , wh e r e a s B l a k e mo r e ( 1 9 8 7 , 1 99 2 , 2 0 0 0 , 2 0 0 2 ) a n d Ha l l ( 2 0 04 , 2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 ) a p p e a r t o treat it as an exception. In that point, Iten (2005) is superior to Hall (2004,

2 0 0 5 ) , a l t h o u g h I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 ) d o e s n o t s h o w a n y e vi de n c e a g a i ns t t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t c o r r e c t i o n b u t s h o u l d b e t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y. 2
2

I n s o m e o t h e r l a n g u a g e s , t h e r e i s a d i ff e r e n t w o r d f o r c o r r e c t i o n b u t . and German, for example, but is translated into p e r o / a b e r,

In and

Spanish

sino/sondern is used for correction but.

(i)

a. b.

I t w a s n t h e r b u t S h e i l a w h o t o l d m e . No fue ella sino Sheila quien me lo dijo. not was she but Sheila who me it told

(ii)

a. b.

I t a p p e a r s t h a t s h e s n o t G r e e k b u t A l b a n i a n . Parece que no es griega, sino albanesa. I t . a p p e a r s t h a t n o t i s G re e k b u t A l b a n i a n

(iii)

a.

Not only did she hit him, but she also

56

2 . 6 . C o ns i d e r a t i o n s A s w e s a w i n t h e p r e vi o u s s e c t i o n , o nl y B l a k e mo r e s ( 1 9 8 7 , 1 9 9 2 , 2 0 0 0 , 2 0 0 2 ) a n d I t e n s ( 2 0 0 5 ) fr a me w o r k c an p r e s e r v e a u n i t ar y a n a l y s i s o f b u t . B l a k e mo r e s ( 1 9 8 7 , 1 9 9 2 , 2 0 0 0 , 2 0 0 2 ) s u g g e s t i o n s a r e a l mo s t t h e s a me a s I t e n s ( 2 0 0 5) . H o w e v e r, I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 ) a p p e a r s t o s u c c e e d i n c a p t u r i n g t h e B l a k e mo r e

c o r r e c t i o n u s e b e t t e r t h a n Bl a k e mo r e ( 1 9 8 7 , 1 9 9 2 , 2 0 0 0, 2 0 0 2 ) .

(1987, 1992, 2000, 2002) and Hall (2004, 2005/2007) seem to treat it as an e x c e p t i o n , s a y i n g t h a t c o n j u nc t i o n r e d uc t i on i s r e l a t e d t o t he c o r r e c t i on u s e . F o r t h a t r e a s o n , I t e n ( 20 0 5 ) d e mo n s t r a t e s a n a d v a n t a g e o ve r H a l l ( 2 0 0 4 , 2005/2007). I n t h i s s e c t i o n , I w i l l t a k e u p s om e o t h e r p r o b l e ma t i c e x a mp l e s

t o H a l l ( 2 0 0 4 , 2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 ) a n d d e mo n s t r a t e t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 ) .

2 . 6 . 1 . P re s e n c e o f C o g ni t i v e Ef f e c t Fi r s t , i t s h o u l d b e p oi n t e d o u t t h a t H al l s ( 2 0 0 4 : 2 2 6 ) a s s e r t i o n t h a t b u t d o e s n o t e n c o d e t h e c o g n i t i ve e ff e c t o f c o nt r a di c t i o n a n d e l i mi n a t i o n i s o pe n t o dispute. Le t u s t a k e a l o o k a t t h e f o l l o wi n g e x a mp l e s .

b.

No slo le peg sino que tambin not only him hit but that as.much

(iv)

a. b.

not that book but this one nicht das Buch, sondern dieses not only but also nicht nur sondern auch

(v)

a. b.

57

( 4 4 ) A: J o h n a n d P e t e r d o n t l i v e i n t h e s a me p l a c e , d o t h e y ? B : No , J o h n l i v e s i n A ms t e r d a m a n d / ? ? b u t P e t e r l i v e s i n R o t t e r d a m . ( 4 5 ) A: J o h n a n d P e t e r b o t h l i v e i n t h e s a me p l a c e , d o n t t h e y ? B : No , J o h n ( i n d e e d ) l i v e s i n A ms t e r d a m b u t / ? ? a n d P e t e r l i v e s i n R ot t e r d a m. ( I t e n 20 0 5: 13 8)

T h e s e e x a mp l e s a p p e a r t o b e p r o b l e ma t i c t o H a l l ( 2 0 0 4 , 2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 ) .

In

( 4 4 B) , a f t e r t h e fi r s t c l a u s e , t he r e c a n no t b e a p o t e n t i a l i n f e r e n t i a l r o ut e , s u c h a s a n d s o d o P e t e r, b e c a u s e B a l r e a d y a n s w e r s No . On the other hand, As

I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 ) d o e s n o t c l a i m t h a t t h e p r e v i o u s s e g me n t t r i g g e r s i n f e r e n c e .

q u e s t i o n c o n v e y s t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t J o h n a n d Pe t e r b o t h l i v e i n t h e s a me place. The expectation is denied by but-clause.

2 . 6 . 2 A d d i t i o n a l To pi c Us e L e t u s g o o n t o t h e n e x t p r o b l e m w i t h H a l l s ( 2 0 0 4 , 2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 ) a n a l y s i s . U mb a c h ( 2 0 0 1 / 2 0 0 5 ) a rg u e s t h a t i n c o n t r a s t e x a mp l e s , b u t de ni e s a n expectation wh i l e and does not. Let us t ak e a look at U mb a c h s

(2001/2005) analysis on the topic change use of but.

U mb a c h ( 2 0 0 1 : 1 7 5 )

e x p l a i n s t he f ol l o w i n g e xa m pl e s a s f o l l ow s : i n ( 4 6 ) A d a m a s k s a b o u t a l l o f t h e c h i l d r e n , a n d B en a dd r e s s e s o n e p a r t o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e f i r s t c o n j u n c t a n d t h e o t h e r p a r t i n t he s e c o n d c on j u n c t .

58

( 4 6 ) T h e Top i c C h a n ge 3 a . A d a m: Wh a t d i d t h e c h i l d r e n d o t o d a y ? b . B e n : T h e s m a l l c h i l d r e n s t a y e d a t H O M E a nd / b ut t he bi g g e r o n e s we n t to the ZOO. c . B e n s q u ae s t i o wh e n u s i n g a n d : Wh a t di d t h e s ma l l c h i l d r e n d o a n d w h a t d i d t h e b i g g e r o n e s d o ? d . Be n s q u a e s t i o wh e n u s i n g b u t : Wh a t d i d t h e s ma l l c h i l d r e n d o , a nd d i d t h e b i g g e r o n e s d o t h e s a me ? ( U mb a c h 2 0 0 5 : 2 2 8 )

I n ( 4 7 ) , a l t h o u g h A d a m a s k s a b o u t t h e s ma l l c h i l d r e n o n l y, B e n fi r s t r e f e r s t o the bigger ones, and Adam had to wait for the second conjunct to get the r e q u i r e d i n f o r ma t i o n .

( 4 7 ) a . A d a m: Wh a t d i d t h e s ma l l c h i l d r e n d o t o d a y ? b . B e n : Th e b i g g e r c h i l d r e n w e n t t o t h e Z O O , b ut / * a n d t he s m al l o n e s stayed at HOME.

3 Boldface type denotes a contrastive topic accent and CAPS denote a focus accent. She suggests distinguishing between the overt question posed in a dialog and the implicit quaestio addressed in the answer. The quaestio of an utterance is supposed to be a question which is a posteriori reconstructed from the utterance. In the unmarked case in (46), for example, the quaestio reconstructed from Bens answer is equal to Adams question. But in (47) and ( 4 8 ) t h e q u a e s t i o o f t h e a n s w e r i s s l i g h t l y d i ff e r e n t f r o m t h e o v e r t q u e s t i o n .

59

c . B e ns q ua e s t i o: Wh a t d i d t h e b i g g e r c h i l dr e n d o , a n d d i d t h e s ma l l o n e s do t he s a me ?

I n ( 4 8 ) A d a ms q u e s t i o n i s a l r e a d y a n s w e r e d b y t h e f i r st c o n j u n c t a n d t h e c o n j u n c t g i v e s i n f o r ma t i o n A d a m d i d n o t a s k f o r.

( 4 8 ) a . A d a m: Wh a t di d t he s ma l l c h i l d r e n d o t o d a y ? b . B e n : T h e s m a l l c h i l d r e n s t a y e d a t H O M E , b u t / * a n d t he bi g g e r o n e s went to the ZOO. c . B e ns q ua e s t i o: Wh a t d i d t h e s ma l l c h i l d r e n d o , a nd d i d t h e b i g g e r o n e s d o t h e s a me ? ( U mb a c h 2 0 0 1 : 1 7 5 - 1 7 6 )

A s y o u c a n s e e , i n ( 4 6 b ) , b o t h a n d a nd b u t a r e a c c e pt a bl e .

U mb a c h

( 2 0 0 1 : 1 8 5 / 2 0 0 5 : 2 2 7 - 2 2 8) a rg u e s t h a t i t i s b e c a u s e B e n ma y i n t e n d h i s a n s w e r a s e i t h e r r e f e r r i ng t o t he q ue s t i o n ( 46 c) or t o t h e o ne i n ( 4 6d ) . T he c r u c i a l

d i ff e r e n c e i s t ha t b u t - q u a e s t i o t r i g ge r s t he e xp e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e bi g g e r c h i l d r e n d i d t h e s a m e t h i n g a s t h e s ma l l o n e s d i d , wh i l e a n d - q u a e s t i o d o e s not. U mb a c h s (2001:186/2005:228) observation is as f o l l o ws : Ben

d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n v e y s t hi s e x p e c t a t i o n b y u s i n g b u t .

It is true that Ben

d e v i a t e s f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l t o p i c o f A d a ms q u e s t i o n , b u t B e n p r e s e n t s t h e a d d i t i o n a l t o p i c a s b e i n g c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t he or i g i n a l o n e . U mb a c h ( 2 0 0 1 :

186/2005:228) adds that Ben suggests that the additional topic is relevant, t o o , a nd t he d e v i a t i o n i s r e a s o n a b l e . In (47) and (48), the use of but instead of and render and

60

o v e r- i n f o r m a t i v e a n s w e r a c c e p t a b l e . e x p l a i n e d i n t h e s a me w a y.

The dialogues in (47) and (48) can be

T h e p r ob l e m w i t h H a l l s ( 2 0 0 4 : 2 2 6 ) p r o p o s a l i s t h a t i n ( 4 8 ) , A d a ms q u e s t i o n i s o nl y a b ou t t h e s ma l l c h i l dr e n , s o i t i s d i ff i c u l t f o r t he h e a r e r A d a m t o f i n d o ut a p ot e nt i a l i n f e r e n c e a f t e r t he f i r s t c o nj un c t . T ha t i s

be c a u s e i t s l i k e l y t h a t t h e i n f e r e nc e w i l l h a v e y i e l d e d a n u n d e s i r a b l e c o n c l u s i o n t o b e e l i mi n a t e d i f t h e i nf e r e n c e i s c ut o ff , g i v e n t h a t t h e b u t c l a u s e o n l y o c c u r s a f t e r t h e a s s u mp t i on t ha t mi g h t ha v e t r i g g e r e d a n inappropriate inference, as Iten (2005:155) point outs. Following Iten

( 2 0 0 5 ) , t h e a s s u m p t i o n t o b e d e n i e d s h o u l d b e ma n i f e s t t o t h e h e a r e r a f t e r t h e w h o l e u t t e r a n c e e me rg e s . The clause proceeding but, The bigger

c h i l d r e n w e n t t o t h e Z O O c a n m a k e a n a s s u mp t i o n m a n i f e s t , e ve n i f v e r y w e a k l y.

( 4 9 ) T h e s ma l l o n e s w e n t t o t h e Z O O , t o o .

The

hearer

will

find

what

the

a s s u mp t i o n

is

and

t he

relevance

is

a c c o m p l i s h e d b y e l i mi n a t i n g i t . S c h i ff r i n ( 1 9 8 7 ) a l s o r ec o g ni z e s t hi s u s e o f b u t . S c h i ff r i n ( 1 9 8 7 : 1 6 0 )

m e n t i o n s t h a t b u t p r e f a c e s t h e p a r t o f t h e a n s we r w h i c h , a l t h o u g h e x t r a n e o u s t o t h e a c t u a l i n f or ma t i o n r e q ue s t e d , pr o vi de s a mo r e s oc i a l l y c o op e r a t i v e response.

( 5 0 ) S a l l y : D i d y o u e v e r h a v e a d r e a m, w h e r e y o u w o k e u p a n d y o u f o u n d y o u r s e l f l i k e o n t he f l o o r : o r s l e e p w a l k i n g o r a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t ?

61

Z e l da : N o I d i d n t . B u t m y e h Sally: kids?

yeh. My older boy

Z e l d a : u h : e h : h e : e s p e c i a l l y s - h e - h e u s e d t t a l k , i n h i s s l e e p , b e f o r e h e ma r r i e d . ( S c hi ff r i n 19 8 7: 1 60 )

T h e r e s e e ms t o b e n o p o t e n t i a l i n f e r e nc e be c a u s e Z e l da gi ve s t h e r e qu e s t e d i n f o r ma t i o n b y S a l l y w h e n Z e l da u t t e r s N o , I d i d n t . T hi s pr o bl e m c a n b e In Iten

s o l v e d b y I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 ) i n t h e s a me w a y a s t h e p r e v i o u s e x a mp l e .

( 2 0 0 5 ) , a n a s s u mp t i o n i s s u pp o s e d t o be ma ni f e s t t o t h e h e a r e r w h e n but-clause is processed. T h e p r e v i o u s s e n t e n c e , N o , I d i d n t ma k e s a n

a s s u mp t i o n ma n i fe s t e v e n i f w e a k l y.

(51)

I h a v e n o t h i n g t o d o w i t h t h i s k i n d o f d i s o r d e r.

T h i s a s s u mp t i on w i l l b e de l e t e d by t h e b u t - c l a us e .

It can be said that

b u t - c l a u s e c o n t r a d i c t s a n d e l i mi na t e s a n a s s u mp t i on t h a t i s ma n i fe s t i n t he context.

2 . 6 . 3 Cr u pi s ( 2 0 0 4 ) A n a l y s i s o n t h e F u nc t i o n o f B u t A n o t h e r e v i d e n c e o f t he v a l i d i t y o f B l a k e mo r e ( 1 9 8 7 , 1 9 9 2 , 2 0 0 0 , 2 0 0 2 ) a n d I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 ) c o me s fr o m C r u p i ( 2 0 0 4 ) . C r u p i s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e g me n t f o l l o wi n g b u t i s t h e ma t i c a l l y r e l e v a n t a n d s h o w s u s t he e vi d e nc e f r o m t he p e r s p e c t i v e o f c o m mu n i c a t i v e p u r p o s e . H e r a n a l y s i s s e e ms t o b e i n f a v o r o f In this subsection,

B l a k e mo r e ( 1 9 8 7 , 1 9 9 2 , 2 0 0 0 , 2 0 0 2 ) a nd I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 ) .

62

C r u p i s ( 2 0 0 4 ) e x a mi n a t i o n w i l l b e b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d . F i r s t o f a l l , I w i l l s h o w t h e e s s e n t i a l p o i n t o f C r u p i s ( 2 0 0 4 ) p r o p o s a l o n t h e f u n c t i o n o f b u t b e l o w.

( 5 2 ) B u t , O V E R R I D E: A b a n d o n a s s u mp t i o n o f i n for ma t i o n A in favor of mo re t h e ma t i c a l l y r e l e v a n t i n f or m a t i o n B. ( Cr u p i 2 0 0 4 : 1 3 8 )

C r u p i ( 2 0 0 4 ) s u g ge s t s t h a t t he d i s t r i b u t i o n a l p r e d i c t i o n o f b u t c a n b e f o r ma l i z e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g ma n n e r.

( 5 3 ) Bu t w i l l b e f o u n d m o r e f r e q u e n t l y t h a n y e t or s t i l l i n c o n t e x t w h e r e i n f o r ma t i o n A r e c e i ve s l i t t l e e l a bo r a t i o n ( - E L A B ) o r n o a d d i t i o n a l me n t i o n ; a n d i n f o r ma t i o n B i s h ig hl y e l a b or a t e d ( + EL A B ) i n t h e subsequent text.

I n f or ma t i o n A b u t i n f o r ma t i o n B i n f o r ma t i o n B (Crupi 2004:140)

A s y o u c a n s e e , Cr u p i s ( 2 0 0 4) p r o p o s a l r e q u i r e s t h e p r e v i o u s s e g me n t t o b e e x p l i c i t , b u t t h e r e q u i r e m e nt s e e ms t o b e i m pr o pe r t o c a p t u r e t h e v a r i o u s functions of but. A n y wa y, t h e i n t e n t i o n o f r e f e r r i n g t o C r u p i s ( 2 0 0 4 )

a n a l y s i s i s n o t t o f i n d f a u l t w i t h i t , b u t t o s h o w i t c a n s u p p o r t B l a k e mo r e (1987, 1992, 2000, 2002) and Iten (2005). N o w, I w i l l i l l u s t r a t e C r u p i s ( 2 0 0 4 ) e x p l a n a t i o n o n t he f u n c t i on o f b u t f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f c o m mu n i c a t i v e p ur p os e . To s h o w O V E R R I DE e ff e c t

63

o f b u t , C r u p i ( 2 0 0 4 : 9 8 ) c i t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a ge f r o m J a n e G o o d a l l s ( 1 9 9 9 ) a u t o b i o g r a p h y, R e a s o n t o H o p e .

( 5 4 ) T h e h o p i n g , p r a y i n g , d e s p e r a t e l y s e e k i ng a w a y t o c o p e , d a m n i n g m y s e l f for failure, praying. f a i l u re . [New Paragraph] Yo u s e e : d a m n i n g m y s e l f f o r

I l l o gi c a l , b ut we a r e n o t l o g i c a l i n s i t u a t i o n s s u c h a s t hi s (Crupi 2004:98)

(1999, p.160).

A c c o r d i n g t o Cr u p i ( 2 0 0 4 : 9 8 - 9 9 ) , i n t h i s s e g me n t o f t e x t , G o o d a l l d e s c r i b e s he r e mo t i o n a l a n d s p i r i t u a l t u r mo i l d u r in g t h e i l l n e s s a nd e v e nt ua l de a t h o f h e r h u s ba n d . I n t h i s c a s e , i n f o r ma t i o n A , G o o d a l ls i l l o g i c a l b e h a v i o r i n

b l a m i n g h e r s e l f f o r h e r i n a b i l i t y t o s a ve h e r h u s b a nd i s a s p e c i fi c i ns t a n c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n B , We a l l a r e i l l o g i c a l i n e mo t i o n a l l y t r y i n g s i t u a t i o ns . The flow of informational content is as follows: t h e i n f o r ma t i o n a l c o n t e n t

o f A , s p e c i f i c a s pe c t s o f G o od a l l s i l l o g i c a l r e s p o n s e , a r e r e p e a t e d a n d h i g h l y e l a b o r a t e d i n t h e s u b s e qu e n t t e x t ; w h e r e a s i n f o r ma t i o n , t he g e n e r a l e mo t i o na l t e n d e n c i e s o f a l l h u ma n b e i n g s i s n o t me n t i o n e d a g a i n i n t h i s s e g me n t o f t h e b o o k . Crupi (2004:99) states this kind of the flow of

i n f o r ma t i o n s e e ms i n c o n s i s t e nt wi t h h e r o w n f o r mu l a o f b u t . H o w e v e r, C r u pi ( 2 0 0 4 : 9 9 ) e x t e n d s h e r p r o p o s a l , s h o wn i n ( 5 2 ) , t o a b a n d o n t h e a s s u mp t i o n o f i n f o r ma t i o n A . Cr u p i ( 2 0 0 4 : 9 9 ) c l a i ms t h a t

w h a t i s i mp o r t a n t h e r e i s t h a t i n f o r ma t i o n B d o e s n o t o v e r r i d e t h e i n f o r ma t i o n c o n t e n t o f A , r a t h e r B o ve r r i de s t h e c o m mu n i c a t i ve p u r p o s e o f A . C r u p i ( 2 0 0 4 ) g i v e s a n a c co u n t o f i t a s f o l l o w s :

64

I n f o r m a t i o n A i s a s e l f- c r i t i c i s m G o o d a l l , t h e s c i e n t i s t , c o n d e mn s h e r s e l f f o r b e i n g i l l o gi c a l . I n f o r ma t i o n B i s di s mi s s a l o f t h a t c r i t i c i s m

o n t h e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p a l t h a t h e r r e a c t i o ns a r e c o ns i s t e nt w i t h w h a t mo s t o f u s d o u n d er e m ot i o n a l s t r e s s . I n t h e l i gh t o f i n f or m a t i o n B , G o o d a l l

f e e l s j u s t i f i e d i n c o nt i n ui n g t he de s c r i p t i o n o f h e r s t r u g g l e t o c o p e w i t h h e r h u s b a n d s d e a t h . Wh i l e s h e o nc e a g a i n pi c k s u p t he t h e me o f

i n f o r ma t i o n A , s h e d oe s n ot r e p e a t t h e a t t i t u d e o f s e l f- c r i t i c i s m. ( Cr u p i 2 0 0 4 : 9 9 )

C r u p i s ( 2 0 0 5 : 1 9 5 ) p r o p o s a l w i l l b e s u p p o r t e d b y t h e fr e q u e n c y r a t e s as well. books. Cr u p i ( 2 0 0 5 : 1 9 5 ) sh o w s t h e fr e q u e n c y r a t e s o f b u t f o u n d i n t e n I wi l l t a k e u p s o me r e s ul t s f r o m h e r r e s e a rc h . The source of the

first one is Kingsolver 5.

Fi g u r e 1
Full text Even now they resist affinity like cats in a bag.But gamely enough they climb together over logs of rank decay that fallen across the path. Information A Even now they resist affinity like cats in a bag [disunity of sisters] Information B gamely enough they climb together over logs of rank decay [unity(?) of sisters in movement] comments Repeat B: [logs] that have fallen across the path. Rest of passage children act in unison: The c h i l d r e n . . f o rg o t to complain about f o o d t h e y s w a l l o w, shake off crumbs and drift downstream for a swim..

( Cr u p i 2 0 0 4 : 3 0 5 )

I n f o r ma t i o n A i s t h e c o n j u n c t p r i or t o t h e c o n ne c t i v e s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n B i s

65

t h e c o n j u n c t f o l l o w i n g t he l i n k i n g w o r d .

E L A B ( lo w e l a b or a t i o n) me a n s In this See

t h a t t h e r e p e a t i s j us t a s i n g l e w o r d o f t w o o r a n o b l i q u e r e f e r e n c e .

c a s e , i n f o r ma t i o n B i s r e p e a t e d a n d e l a b o r a t e d i n f o r ma t i o n B i s f o u n d . figure 2.

Fi g u r e 2
Info B previous 0 Info A repeat 0 Repeat A +elaborate 0 Repeat A -elaborate 0 Info B repeat 1 Repeat B +elaborate 1 Repeat B -elaborate 0

( Cr u p i 2 0 0 4 : 3 0 5 )

The source of the second one is Kingsolver 103.

Fi g u r e 3
Full text Ive always believed any sin was easily rectified if only you let Jesus Christ into your heart, but here it gets complicated. Information A Ive always believed any sin was easily rectified Information B here it gets complicated. comments P r i o r B : i t s h a r d t o k n o w what to pray for; Info A:simple solution to sin; I n f o B L e a h s c o n f l i c t i n applying info A in Africa; Te x t t u r n s t o A f r i c a n women who know on conflict; Repeat A (-Elab) Mama B2 is not fazed by her situation [state of sin].

( Cr u p i 2 0 0 4 : 3 0 5 )

Fi g u r e 4 s h o w s t h a t y o u c a n s e e i n f o r ma t i o n B i n t he e a r l y p a r t .

Be s i d e s ,

r e p e a t e d i n f o r ma t i o n A a nd a l i t t l e e l a b o r a t e d i n f or m a t i o n A a r e r e c o g n i z e d .

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Fi g u r e 4
Info B previous 1 Info A repeat 1 Repeat A +elaborate 0 Repeat A -elaborate 1 Info B repeat 0 Repeat B +elaborate 0 Repeat B -elaborate 0

( Cr u p i 2 0 0 4 : 3 0 5 )

T h e s o u r c e o f t h e t hi r d o n e i s B r y s o n 1 9 1 .

Fi g u r e 5
Full text From time to time over the ages since the continents have held a kind of grand reunion, floating back to some central spot and bumping together with slow but crushing force. Information A continents bumping together with slow [force] Information B [continents bumping with] crushing force. comments Repeat A: Four hundred seventy million years is a span pretty much b e y o n d g r a s p i n g i t s a long time. Repeat B: ruptured outposts of the AppalachiansIndia is plowing into Asia like a runaway truck into a snowbank.

( Cr u p i 2 0 0 4 : 3 0 7 )

I n t h e t e x t s h o w n i n Fi g ur e 5 , i n f o r m a t i o n A a n d B a r e r e p e a t e d . i n f o r ma t i o n A a n d B a r e a l s o f o u n d .

Elaborated

Fi g u r e 6
Info B previous 0 Info A repeat 1 Repeat A +elaborate 1 Repeat A -elaborate 0 Info B repeat 1 Repeat B +elaborate 1 Repeat B -elaborate 0

( Cr u p i 2 0 0 4 : 3 0 7 )

67

Yo u c a n s e e Cr u p i s ( 2 0 0 5 : 1 9 5 ) r e s e a r c h r e s ul t s b e l o w.

Th e t a b l e 1 s h o w s

p e r c e n t a g e s o f r e p e a t i n f o r m a t i o n i n c o n j u n c t i v e c o n t e x t u a l mo d e l .

Ta b l e 1 : P e r c e n t a g e s o f R e p e a t I n f o r m a t i o n i n C o n j u n c t i v e C o n t e xt ua l M od e l
Repeat A (+)ELAB (-)ELAB Repeat B (+)ELAB (-)ELAB RptB RptA

BUT

24

10

14

98%

93%

5%

74%

( + ) E L A B : h i g h l y e l a b o r a t e d/ ( - ) E L A B : l o w e l a b or a t i o n (Crupi 2005:195)

C r u p i ( 2 0 0 5 : 1 9 5) s a ys t h a t t h e t a b l e 1 r e v e a l s t ha t b u t i s u s e d t o l i n k conjuncts of unequal i mp or t a n c e to a w r i t e r s c o m mu n i c a t i v e goals,

c o n s i s t i n g wi t h t h e O V E R R I D E hy p ot he s i s .

A c c or di n g t o Cr u p i ( 2 0 0 5 : 1 9 5 ) ,

t h e l o w e r t h e ma t i c i mp o r t a n c e o f i n f or ma t i o n A i s c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n i t s p e r c e n t a g e o f r e p e a t s , o nl y 2 4 % , t h e l o we s t f or r e p e a t A . On t h e o t h e r

h a n d , t h e p r e d i c t e d h i g h d e g r e e o f t h e m a t i c i m p or t a nc e o f i n f or m a t i o n B i s r o b u s t l y c o n f i r me d b y 9 5 % r e p e a t r a t e . Crupi (2005:195) claims that the

t o t a l p e r c e n t a g e o f + E l a b ( h i g h l y e la b o r a t e d ) i n f o r ma t i o n A r e p e a t s f o r b u t s t a n d s a t j u s t 1 0 % o f t h e t o t a l s a mp l e , w h i c h i s a s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n o f i t s reduced relevance in the subsequent text. Cr u p i ( 2 0 0 5 : 1 9 5 ) c on t i n ue s , t h e

s t r i k i n g d i ff e r e n c e b e t we e n t he r e pe a t p e r c e n t a g e s o f i n f o r ma t i o n A a n d B o ff e r s c o n v i n c i n g s u p p or t f o r t h e s t r u c t u ri n g v a l u e p o s i t e d f o r b u t : a b a n d o n a s s u mp t i o n s o f i n f o r ma t i o n A f o r t h e m o r e t h e m a t i c a l l y r e l e v a n t a s s u m p t i o n s o f i n f o r m a t i o n B.

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2 . 7 . C o nc l u s i o n I n t h i s c h a p t e r, s o m e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s o n f u n c t i o n s o f b u t w e r e r e v i e we d a n d I e x a mi n e d w hi c h i s b e t t e r, Ha l l s ( 2 0 0 4 , 2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 ) p r o po s a l or I t e n s ( 2 0 0 5 ) o n e , f o r t h e p ur p o s e o f my r e s e a r c h . I n t er ms o f t he c o r e m e a ni n g o f

b u t , H a l l s ( 2 0 0 4 , 2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 ) h y p o t h e s i s s h o u l d b e r e p l a c e d w i t h I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 ) . H a l l ( 2 0 0 4 , 2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 ) c l a i ms t h a t i t i s n o t g o o d t o d e f i n e t h e c o r e me a n i n g o f b u t a s d e n i a l o f e x p e c t a t i o n a s B l a k e mo r e ( 1 9 8 7 , 1 9 9 2 , 2 0 0 0 , 2 0 0 2 ) suggests. H a l l ( 2 0 0 4 , 2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7 ) a s s e r t s t h a t t h e a s s u mp t i o n t o b e

e l i mi n a t e d i s n o t ma n i f e s t t o t h e hea r e r a f t e r t h e f i r s t s e g m e n t , w h e n b u t h a s a c o n t r a s t r e a d i n g , a l t h ou g h t h e a s s u mp t i o n t o b e e l i mi n a t e d s h o u l d b e ma n i f e s t t o h i m. B a s e d o n t h e a n a l y s i s , Ha l l ( 2 0 0 4 : 2 2 3 ) a rg u e s t h a t b u t Ha l l

d oe s n ot e n c o d e r e s u l t s i n t h e e l i mi n a ti o n o f a ma ni f e s t a s s u mp t i o n.

( 2 0 0 4 : 2 2 9 ) c l a i ms t h a t t he h e a r e r d o e s n t h a v e t o r e c o g n i z e n o r r e p r e s e n t w h a t i s b e i ng d e n i e d f o r t h e u s e o f b u t t o be a c c e p t a b l e . Hall (2005:228)

s h o w s u s t h a t , f o r t h e p ur p o s e o f u n i f y i n g wi d e r a n g e o f f u n c t i o n s o f b u t , i t s c o r e me a n i n g s h o u l d b e t o s u s p e n d a n i n f e r e n c e t h a t w o u l d r e s u l t i n a c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h w h a t f o l l o w s , a n d t h a t b u t h a s t he c o g ni t i v e e ff e c t d e n i a l o f e x pe c t a t i o n on l y i f t h e a s s u mp t i o n i s ma n i f e s t t o t h e h e a r e r. H o w e v e r, I s h o w e d t h a t t he r e a r e s o m e p r o b l e m a t i c e xa m pl e s t o H a l l ( 2 0 0 4 , 2 0 0 5 / 2 0 0 7) a n d I t e n ( 2 0 0 5 ) c o u l d c a p t u r e t he e x a m p l e s s u c c e s s f u l l y. C r u p i ( 2 0 0 5 ) f a i l s t o c r e at e a u n i t a r y e x p l a n a t i o n , b u t c a p t u r e s t h e mo s t c o m mo n u s a g e o f b u t s u c c e s s f u l l y. I te n s ( 2 0 0 5 ) a n d B l a k e mo r e s ( 1 9 8 7 ,

1 9 9 2 , 2 0 0 0 , 2 0 0 2 ) as s e r t i o n t h a t b u t h a s t h e p r o c e d u r a l m e a ni n g w h i c h r e s u l t s i n c o nt r a di c t i o n a nd e l i mi n a t i o n o f a n a s s u mp t i o n wi l l b e w e l l supported by her research.

69

H e r e i s I t e n s ( 2 0 0 5 ) p r o p o s a l .

I w i l l r e p e a t ( 3 1 ) a s ( 5 5 ) b e l o w.

(55) The functions of but Wh a t f o l l o w s ( Q ) c o n t r a d i c t s a n d e l i mi n a t e s a n a s s u mp t i o n t h a t i s ma n i f e s t i n t he c o nt e x t . ( I t e n 20 0 5: 1 4 7 )

I n t h e s u c c e e d i n g c h a p t e r s , I w i l l a da p t I t e n s ( 2 0 0 5 ) s u g g e s t i o n t o c o m p a r e t he c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a dv e r b i a l c o n j u n c t i o ns s u c h a s h o w e v e r , s t i l l , yet.

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Chapter 3 The Previous Studies on However

3 . 1 . I n t ro d uc t i o n T h e p u r p os e o f t hi s c h a p t e r i s t o r e v i e w e a r l i e r s t u d i e s a n d i n d i c a t e s o me p r o b l e ms t o b e s o l v e d . I n c h a pt e r 2 , w e s h o w e d f i v e u s e s o f b u t : d e n i a l o f N o w, l e t u s One

e x p e c t a t i o n , c o n t r a s t , c or r e c t i o n , o b j e c t i o n , a n d d iv e r s i o n . u s a g e s o f h o we v e r .

T h e r e a r e t wo a p p r o a c h e s i n t h e p r e v i o us s t ud i e s . T h e o t h e r i s t he g l o b a l - l e v e l a p p r o a c h .

i s t he l o c a l - l e v e l a p p r o a c h .

3 . 1 . 1 . H o w e v e r i n a Lo c al D om a i n I n 3 . 1 . 1 , w e wi l l s e e h o w e v e r i n a l o c a l d o ma i n . Denial of expectation use,

a contrastive use and a diversion use will be illustrated, following Halliday a n d Ha s s a n ( 1 9 7 6 ) , F r a s e r ( 1 9 9 8 ) , a n d B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) . I n 3 . 1 . 2 , t wo

mo r e f u n c t i o n s o f h o we v e r i n a g l o b a l d o m a i n w i l l b e d e m o n s t r a t e d f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e c o m mu n i c a t i v e p u r p o s e , b a s e d o n Le n k ( 1 9 9 8 ) . B u t a n d h o we v e r h a v e c o n t r a s t i v e u s a g e , w h i c h i s a l i t t l e b i t d i ff e r e n t f r o m d e n i a l o f e x p e c t a t i o n u s a g e H a l l i d a y a n d Ha s s a n 1 9 7 6 2 5 2 , F r a s e r 1 9 9 8 : 1 3 5 , Gr e e n b a u m 1 9 6 9 : 6 5 ) . Fraser (1998:135) illustrates it as follows.

(1) a)

I h o p e y o u u n d er s t a n d my d i l e m ma . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d / H o w e v e r / B u t , I m n ot s ur e I un d er s t a n d i t m y s e l f .

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b)

Descartes

thought

that

ideas

we r e

innate.

On

the

ot h e r

h a n d / H o we v e r / B u t , H u me t h o u g h t t h e y c a me f r o m e x p e r i e nc e . c) N e w Yor k u s e d t o be a n i c e c i t y. * O n t h e o t h e r h a n d / H o w e v e r , t o d a y, i t s t i n k s . d) J a n i e s g o o d a t j u m p i n g r o p e . * O n t h e o t h e r h a n d / H o w e v e r , t o d a y, she fell and hurt herself. (Fraser 1998:315)

T h e e x a m pl e s i n ( 1) s h o w t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n o n t h e o t h e r h a n d a n d h o we v e r . Ac c o r d i n g t o F r a s e r ( 1 9 9 8 : 1 3 5 ) , t h e f o r me r d i s c o u r s e ma r k e r h a s T h e i n s u ff i c i e n t s y m me t r y o f t h e If on the

n a r r o w e r r a n g e o f u s e t h a n t h e l a t t e r.

a l t e r n a t i v e i n ( 1c - d ) pr e ve nt s o n t h e o t h e r h a n d f r o m b e i n g u s e d .

o t h e r h a n d i s c l a s s i fi e d i n t o c o nt r a s t i ve c o n n e c t i v e s , w e c a n s a y t h a t t h e e x a mp l e s i n ( 1 a - b ) a r e t h e c a s e s o f c o n tr a s t i v e u s e s a n d t h o s e i n ( 1 c - d ) s h o w denial of expectation uses. I n f a c t , B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 02 ) o b s e r v e s t h r ee i nt e r pr e t a t i o n s c o m mo n t o b u t and however. ( 2 b ) i s a n e x a mp l e o f d e n i a l o f e x p e c t a t i o n , ( 3 b ) s h o w s a ( T h e e mp h a s i s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g

contrastive use, (4b) a diversion use. e x a mp l e s i s t he a ut h o r s .

I n t h e r e s t o f t h i s c h a p t e r, t h e e mp h a s e s a r e t h e

a u t h o r s u n l e s s t he r e i s a n o t i c e . )

(2) a. b. (3) a.

J o h n i s a R e p u b l i c a n , b u t h e s h o n e s t . J o h n i s a R e p u b l i c a n ; h o we v e r h e s h o n e s t . ( B l a k e mo r e 2 0 0 2 : 119 ) N e w Yor k w a s t h e wi n di e s t c i t y i n t h e U ni t e d St a t e s t o da y, b u t C h i c a g o h a d l i gh t w i n d s .

72

b.

N e w Yo r k w a s t h e wi n di e s t c i t y i n t h e U ni t e d St a t e s t o d a y ; h o we v e r C h i c a g o h a d l i g h t w i n ds . (ibid.)

(4) a.

A : D o a l l t h e b u s e s f r o m t hi s s t op g o t o Pi c c a d i l l y Ga r d e ns ? B : Th e 8 5 a n d 8 6 d o , b u t t h e 8 4 a n d 8 7 g o t o Cr o s s St r e e t .

b.

A : D o a l l t h e b u s e s f r o m t h i s s t o p g o t o Pi c c a d i l l y Ga r d e n s ? B : Th e 8 5 a n d 8 6 d o ; h o we v e r t h e 8 4 a n d 8 7 g o t o Cr o s s St r e e t . (ibid.)

B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) f u r t h e r d e mo n s t r a t e s t h a t h o w e v e r d o e s h a v e n e i t h e r o b j e c t i o n u s e s n o r c o r r e c t i o n u s e s , t h e a c co u n t o f w h i c h w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d i n section 3.2.1.

( 5 ) [ s p e a k e r, w h o i s i n s h o c k , h a s b e e n g i v e n a w h i s k y ] a. B u t I d o n t d r i n k . ( o p . c i t . : 11 8 )

b . ? H o w e v e r , I d o n t d r i n k . (6) a. H e s n ot c l e ve r, b u t ha r d w or k i n g .

b . ? H e s n ot c l e ve r ; ho we v e r n o t [ s i c . ] h a r d w o r k i n g . ( o p . c i t . : 11 7 )

I n s e c t i o n 3 . 2 , f o r mu l a t i o n s b y B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) a n d S c h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) o n f u n c t i o n s o f h o w e v e r w i l l b e b r i e f l y e x p l i c a t e d. B a s e d o n t he R e l e v a n c e

T h e o r y, t he y s ug g e s t t ha t h o we v e r h a s t h e s a me p r o c e d ur a l i n f or ma t i o n a s but. T h e y a l s o r e f e r t o t h e d i ff e r e nc e be t w e e n h o w e v e r a n d b u t . Th e y

a rg u e t h a t h o we v e r r e q ui r e s t h e c o n t e xt w he r e t h e a s s u mp t i o n s h o u l d b e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e e x p l i c i t p r e v i o u s s e g me n t . Al t h o u g h t he i r r e s e a r c h w a s

73

c o n d u c t e d w i t h r e g a r d t o h o we v e r i n a l o c a l d o ma i n , t he r e i s a n o t h e r a p p r o a c h i n a g l o b a l d o ma i n .

3.1.2. However in a Global Domain I n t h i s s u bs e c t i on , we w i l l t a ke a l ook a t t h e c o m mu ni c a t i ve p ur po s e o f h o we v e r , wh i c h i s a n a l y z e d b y L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 ) . I w i l l s e pa r a t e be t we e n

p r o p o s i t i o n a l u s e a n d d i s c o u r s e ma r ke r u s e a c c o r d i n g t o L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 ) . D e n i a l o f e x p e c t a t i o n , c o n t r a s t u s e s a n d d i v er s i o n u s e wi l l c o me u n d e r propositional use. L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 ) e x a m i n e s f u n c t i o n s o f h o we v e r , b a s e d o n t h e d i s c o u r s e t h e o r y. L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 : 10 4 ) d i s t i n g u i s h e s h o we v e r o f p r o p o s i t i o n a l u s e a n d

h o we v e r a s a d i s c o u r s e ma r k e r, f o l l o w i n g Q u i r k e t a l . ( 1 9 7 2 : 6 7 4 ) .

( 7 ) Wh e n h o w e v e r i s p o s i t i o n e d i n i t i a l l y, i t i s s o m e t i m e s u s e d i n t h e s p o k e n l a n g u a g e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t he s p e a k e r w i s he s t o di s mi s s t he t o p i c h e i s d e a l i n g w i t h a s o n e t h a t h e d o e s n o t w a n t t o p u r s u e a n y f u r t h e r. ( Qu i r k e t a l . 1 9 7 2 : 6 7 4 )

L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 : 111 ) c o m me n t s o n h o we v e r a s a di s c o ur s e ma r ke r, h o w e v e r , w he n p o s i t i o n e d i n i t i a l l y or a s s i n gl e e l e me nt i n a t o ne u ni t , i s us u a l l y e mp l o y e d a s a di s c o ur s e ma r ke r i n s p o k e n d i s c o u r s e . T h e f u n c t i o n s o f h o we v e r a s a d i s c o u r s e m a r k e r i s d e s c r i b e d a s f o l l o w s . A c c o r d i n g t o Le n k ( 1 9 9 8 ) , t h e r e a r e t w o u s e s i n h o w e v e r a s a d i s c ou r s e ma r k er.

74

( 8 ) To S h o w t h e E n d o f a D i g r e s s i o n However is used to signal the end of a digression which was relevant to the d e v e l o p me n t of the ma i n topic or had s o me interactional

s i g n i fi c a n c e , a nd t h e s u b s e q u e n t r e t u r n t o t h e ma i n t o p i c , o r i n v a r y r a r e c a s e s - a s h i ft t o a ne w t o pi c . (9) F l o o r- H o l d i n g De v i c e A mi n o r f u n c t i o n o f h o w e v e r , w h i c h i s u s e d a s i f s i g n a l i n g u p c o mi n g i n t e r e s t i n g ma t e r i a l t hr o u g h a d d i n g c o n t r a s t i v e a s p e c t s t o t h e m a t e r i a l j u s t t a l k e d a b o u t , i s t o b r i d g e a p l a n n i n g p a u s e b y t h e s pe a ke r. The ( L e n k 1 9 9 8 : 11 9 - 1 2 0 )

ma t e r i a l t h a t f o l l o w s d o e s n ot ne c es s a r i l y a n d t h e c o n t r a s t i v e a s p e c t t h a t wa s pr o mi s e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f h o we v e r . (op.cit.:120)

A c c o r d i n g t o Le n k ( 1 9 9 8 : 111 - 11 2) , t h e t o pi c s t ha t a r e be i n g di s m i s s e d b y h o we v e r a s d i s c o u r s e m a r k e r a r e n o t c o n s i de r e d a s i n d e p e n d e n t t o p i c s i n t h e ms e l v e s b y t he s pe a ke r, b ut a s di gr e ss i o n f r o m t h e ma i n t op i c w hi c h w e r e i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e o f t h e i r r e l e v a nc e t o t h e d e ve l o p me n t o f t h e ma i n t o pi c , o r b e c a u s e t he y b e a r i n t e r a c t i o n a l s i g ni f i c a n c e . A s f or F l o or- Ho l d i n g D e v i c e , L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 : 11 8 ) me n t i o n s t ha t t h e speaker indicates t ha t he wa nt s to c o nt i n ue t a l ki n g , and t ha t that

c o n t i n u a t i o n pr o mi s e s t o be o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o t h e h e a r e r a s i t w i l l a d d a contrastive aspect to what had been said before. For that reason, an

i n t e r r u p t i o n o r s p e a k e r c h a n g e d u r i n g a p l a n n i n g p au s e i s p r e v e n t e d t h r o u g h a p r o mi s e o f mo r e , a n d e x c i t i n g ( i . e . c o n t r a s t i n g ) d et a i l t o f ol l o w ( o p. c i t . ) . L e t u s t a k e a l o o k a t a n e x a m p l e o f t h e r et u r n t o t h e ma i n t o p i c . Lenk

( 1 9 9 8 : 1 0 8 ) s t a t e s t h a t s p e a k e r a a s k s t h e i nt e r vi e w e e b w h a t o p e r a t i o n a l

75

r e s e a r c h i s c o n c e r n e d wi t h , a n d b a n s w e r s b y e x p l a i n i n g o p e r a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h a s a fi e l d t h a t o r i g i n a t e d f o r m t h e s t u dy o f m i l i t a r y p r o b l e m s . L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 : 1 0 8 ) c o nt i n u e s , h e t he n t e l l s h e r a b o u t t h e f i r s t p r o b l e ms o p e r a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s w e r e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h du r i n g t he w a r. Fi r s t h e

r e c o u n t s t h e o r i g i n a l p r o b l e m a n d t h e n e n t e r s i nt o a d i g r e s s i o n e x p l a i n i n g w h a t h a d be e n ha p pe ni n g w i t h t he b oa t s be f or e t he s e g me nt , t h e s e s ma l l boats had been equipped. He closes the digression with however and then

g i v e s a s h o r t o v e r v i e w o f t he s i t u a t i o n a s i t w a s p e r c e i v e d b y t h e o p e r a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s wh e n t h e y b e g a n t he i r i nv e s t i ga t i on , w h i c h i s i n c on t r a s t t o w h a t h a d b e e n me n t i o n e d d ur i n g t h e d i g r e s s i o n .

(10)a does operational research questions of

is it

is it

p r i ma r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h

d i s t r i b u t i o n - ma r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h s t a r t e d - - - b y s t u d i e s - o f mi l i t a r y

b indeed no --- operational

p r o b l e ms - - - o n e o f t h e fi r s t e xe r c is e s e ve r c a r r i e d o u t - - t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g t h e wa r - - - w h e n - - t h a t q ue s t i o n of w h e t h e r s ma l l b o a t s

s h o u l d c a r r y a n t i - a i r c r a f t gu ns - w a s c o n s i de r e d - - - t he s e s ma l l b oa t s h a d be e n e q ui p pe d - - w i t h a nt i - ai r c r a f t g u n s - - b u t t h e y w e r e n t s h o o t i n g d o wn a n y mo r e e n e my a i r cr a f t - - - a n d t h e r e f or e c e r t a i n p e o p l e c o n c l u d e d - t ha t t he s e g u ns w e r e n t f ul f i l l i ng t he i r f u nc t i o n

- - - h o we v e r w h e n t h e o p e r a t i o n r e s e a r c h ma n l o o k e d - - a t t h e d a t a mo r e c l o s e l y - h e d i s c o v e r e d t h a t f e w e r b o a ts w e r e b e i n g s u n k i n other word. ( o p . c i t . : 1 0 9 , q u o t e d wi t h o u t i r r e l e v a n t s i g n s )

L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 : 1 0 8 - 1 0 9) me n t i o n s t h a t t h e s t o r y w h i ch i s n o t c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o

76

t h e ma i n t o pi c i s c o nt r a s t e d w i t h t h e s e g me n t f o l l o w i n g h o we v e r .

H o w e v e r,

i t s e e m s t o m e t h a t t h e p a r t f o l l o w i n g h o we v e r , wh e n t h e o pe r a t i o n r e s e a r c h ma n l o o k e d - - a t t h e d a t a mo r e c l o s e l y - h e d i s c o v e r e d t h a t f e w e r b o a t s we r e b e i n g s u n k i n o t h e r w o r d , c o n t r a d i c t s t h e p r e vi o u s p a r t , a n d t h e r e f o r e c e r t a i n p e o p l e c o n c l u d e d - t h a t t he s e g u ns we r e n t f ul f i l l i n g t h e i r f u nc t i o n . T h e a s s u mp t i o n d e r i v e d fr o m me s s a g e b e i n g a h e a d o f h o we v e r , t h e s e g u n s w e r e n o t us e f ul a t a l l i s e l i mi n a t e d b y t he f ol l o wi n g me s s a g e , f e w e r b o a t s w e r e b e i n g s u n k , wh i c h m e a n s , i n r e a l i t y, i t wa s o f u s e . From this

o b s e r v a t i o n , i t c a n b e s a i d t h a t t h e d i s c o u r s e ma r k e r h o we v e r a l s o h a s t h e s a me f u n c t i o n o f p r o p o s i t i o n a l u s e . Le n k ( 1 9 9 8 ) h e r s e l f s t a t e s t h a t i t i s

d i ff i c u l t t o t e l l f u n c t i o n s o f d i s c o u r s e ma r k e r f r o m p r o p o s i t i o n a l u s e , b u t , i f s o , I w o n d e r i f t he r e i s a n y ne e d t o d i ff e re nt i a t e t he t w o us a ge s o f p r o p o s i t i o n a l u s e a n d d i s c o u r s e ma r k e r. N o w l e t u s t a k e a l o o k a t a n e x a mp l e o f h o w e v e r a s Fl o o r- Ho l d i n g Device.

( 11 ) B ( ( t o ) ) t a k e i t A has he Mhm ( ( b ut ) ) I t h i n k t h a t i t s p os s i bl e f or u s t o ha ve n e w

B o v e r i n a n y w a y.

l i n k s wh i c h d i d n t i n a n y wa y c u t o u t A Mhm B old ones. A m B C y pr us w hi c h i s on c e a g a i n I t hi n k. ( o p .c i t .: 119 ) h o we v e r t hi s we l l w e l l h a ve t o s e e i f n ot I m ol a

77

A c c or d i n g t o Le n k ( 19 9 8 : 11 8 ) , t h e e x a mp l e ( 11 ) s h o w s t ha t t h a t s pe a ke r B uses however as if he wanted to add (another) contrastive aspect to the discussion about whether new business links would be possible without cutting out already existing links. L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 : 11 9 ) me n t i o n s t h a t w h a t

f o l l o ws a f t e r h o w e v e r i s me r e l y a n a t t en u a t i o n o f w h a t h a d b e e n s a i d b e f o r e . T h e u t t e r a n c e be f o r e B u t t e r s h o w e v e r i s a c l e a r s t a t e me nt o f Bs pe r s o na l o p i n i o n a n d i t c a n n o t b e p r o v e n a t t ha t p oi nt i n t he c o n v e r s a t i o n . As Lenk

( 1 9 9 8 : 1 2 0 ) p o i n t s o u t , i n ( 11 ) , i n r e a l i t y, t h e s e g me n t t h a t f o l l o w s h o we v e r does not add contrastive aspect. Al t h o u g h L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 ) d o e s n o t me nt i on i t , t h e s e g me n t s b o t h b e f o r e a n d a f t e r h o w e v e r s e e m t o b e c o n n e c t e d t o t h e ma i n t o p i c ; w h e t h e r n e w b u s i n e s s l i n k s w o u l d b e p os s i b l e w i t h o u t c u t t i n g o u t a lr e a d y e x i s t i n g l i n k s . I n t h a t p oi nt , t he Fl oo r- H o l d i n g De v i c e u s e i s d i ff e r e n t f r o m t h e e n d o f digression use L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 ) c l a i ms t h a t t h e r e i s d i s co u r s e ma k e r u s e w h i c h i s d i ff e r e n t from propositional use. I w i l l e xa mi n e w h e t h er B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 02 ) a n d

S c h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) c a n c a p t u r e a l l t h e e x a mp l e s o f h o w e v e r a s a d i s c o u r s e ma r k e r a n d , mo r e o v e r, p o i n t o u t p r o b l e ms wi t h L e n k ( 1 9 9 8) i n s e c t i o n 3 . 3 . I n s e c t i o n 3 . 4 , I w i l l s h o w y o u s o m e r e ma i n i n g p r o bl e ms w i t h B l a ke mo r e (2002) and Schourup (2005). S e c t i o n 3 . 5 i s t h e s u m ma r y o f t hi s c h a p t e r.

3 . 2 . P re v i o us St u di e s o n B u t a n d H o w e v e r I n c h a p t e r 2 , we s a w f u n c t i o n s o f b u t . c o m p a r i n g b u t w it h h o w e v e r . T h e r e a r e i nt r i g u in g p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s

T h e y a r e b a s e d o n Re l e v a n c e T h e o r y a n d t h e In this section, I will go

u n i t a r y d e fi n i t i o n o f h o we v e r i s p r o p o s e d t h e r e .

78

o v e r Bl a k e mo r e s ( 2 0 0 2 ) a n d S c h o u r u p s ( 2 0 0 5 ) d i s c u s s i o n s a mo n g p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s o n b u t a n d h o we v e r . A s w a s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , t h e r e a r e a l ot o f c a s e s w he re t h e c o o r d i n a t e c o n j u n c t i o n b u t a n d t h e c o n j u nc t i v e a d v e r b h o w e v e r c a n b e e x c h a n ge d w i t h e a c h o t h e r. H o w e v e r, i t i s n ot a l wa y s p o s s i b l e t o r e p l a c e o n e w i t h t h e ot h e r

a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n ( 1 2 ) - ( 1 6) .

( 1 2 ) [ s p e a ke r, w h o i s i n s h o c k , h a s b e e n g i v e n a w h i s k y ] a. B u t I d o n t d r i n k . ( Bl a k e mo r e 2 0 0 2 : 11 8 ) I h a d a n e x c e l l e n t l o b s t e r.

b . ? H o w e v e r , I d o n t d r i n k . (13) A: B: We h a d a v e r y n i c e l u n c h . B u t w h a t a b o u t t h e mo n e y ?

B : ? H o w e v e r , w h a t a b o u t t h e mo n e y ? (14) A: B: S h e s h a d a v e r y d i ff i c u l t t i m e t hi s s e m e s t e r.

( o p . c i t . : 11 9 )

H o w e v e r , I t h i n k s h e s h o u l d h a n d i n a t l e a s t s o me o f t h e w o r k . (op.cit.:121)

(15) a. b. (16) a.

H e s c l e v e r, b u t n o t h a r d wo r k i n g . H e i s c l e v e r ; h o we v e r , n o t h a r d w o r k i n g . H e i s n t c l e v e r, b u t h a r d w o r k i n g .

( o p . c i t . : 11 0 ) ( o p . c i t . : 11 8 ) ( o p . c i t . : 11 8 ) ( o p . c i t . : 11 7 )

b . ? H e i s n o t c l e v e r ; h o we v e r , n o t [ s i c . ] h a r d w o r k i n g . 1

Fr o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f R e l e v a n c e T h e o r y, B la k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) a n d S c h o u r u p
1

A s S c h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) p o i n t s o u t , t h i s e x a m p l e i n B l a k e m o r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 11 7 ) c o n t a i n s Judging from the context, this not should

a n a d d i t i o n a l n o t b e f o r e h a rd w o r k i n g . have been omitted.

79

( 2 0 0 5 ) c l a i m t h a t b o t h b u t a n d h o w e v e r s ha r e t h e c o ns t r a i nt on a c o nt e x t u a l e ff e c t , t h a t i s , t h e c o g n i t i v e e ff e c t o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n d e l i mi n a t i o n o f a n a s s u mp t i o n , b u t o n l y h o w e v e r h a s t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o n t he c on t e xt w he r e t h e c o g n i t i v e e ff e c t i s a c t i v a t e d . Bl a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 118 - 1 2 2 ) c l a i m s t h a t t h e

p r o c e d u r a l me a ni n g s o f b u t i nc l u d e i n f or ma ti o n t ha t t h e pr e c e di ng c o nt e x t h a s n o r e l e v a n c e , w h i l e t h e p r o c e d u r a l me a n i n g s o f h o w e v e r c o nt a i n i n f o r ma t i o n t h a t t h e s e g me nt pr e c e d i n g h o w e v e r i s o f r e l e v a n c e . R e g a r d i n g t h e s e c o n d r e s t r i c t i o n , t h e r e i s a s u b t l e d i ff e r e n c e b e t w e e n B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) a n d S c h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5) . i n Se c t i o n s 3 . 2 . 1 . a nd 3 . 2 . 2 . r e s p e c t i v e l y. I wi l l br i e f l y r ev i e w e a c h o f t h e m

3 . 2 . 1 . B l a k e m o re s ( 2 0 0 2 ) A n a l y s i s I n t h i s s u b s e c t i o n , I wi l l b r i e fl y d e mo n s t r a t e h o w t h e g r a m ma t i c a l i t y o f t h e e x a mp l e s ( 1 2 ) t h r o u g h ( 1 6 ) i s e x p l a i n e d , f o l l o w i n g B l a k e mo r e s ( 2 0 0 2 ) f or mu l a t i o n . Th e p o i n t s a r e s u m ma r i z e d a s f o l l o w s :

(17) a.

B o t h b u t a n d h o w e v e r a c t i v a t e a n i n f e r e n ti a l p r oc e d ur e w h i c h r e s u l t s i n t h e c o nt r a d i c t i o n a n d e l i mi n a t i o n o f a n a s s u mp t i o n a v a i l a b l e / a c c e s s i b l e t o t he h e a r e r.

b.

H o w e v e r , b u t n o t b u t , r e s t r i c t s t h e r e c o ve r y o f t h e e ff e c t o f contradiction and e l i mi n a t i o n to contexts which i n c l ud e

a s s u mp t i o n s c a r r y i n g a g ua r a nt e e o f r e l e va nc e a c c e pt e d by t h e s p e a k e r a n d wh o s e c o g ni t i ve e ff e c t s d o no t i nc l u de t h e e l i mi na t i o n o f t h e a s s u mp t i o n . ( Bl a k e mo r e 2 0 0 2 : 1 2 2 )

80

I n o t h e r w o r d s , b u t a n d h o w e v e r a r e b ot h l i n ke d t he c o g n i t i v e e ff e c t o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n d e l i mi n a t i o n , o n l y h o we v e r e nc o de s t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o n t h e c o n t e x t s i n w hi c h t hi s e ff e c t i s r e c o v e r e d . (17) can account for (12)-(16). A c c o r di n g t o B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 118 - 1 2 1 ) , t h e d i ff e r e n c e b e t w e e n ( 1 2 a ) a n d ( 1 2 b ) i s e x p l a i n e d b y t h e f a c t t ha t b u t d o e s n o t e n c o d e a n y i n f o r ma t i o n a b o u t t h e c on t e xt s w h e r e t he e ff e c t o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n d e l i mi n a t i o n i s a c hi e ve d . T h a t m e a n s t h e e l i mi n a t e d a s s u mp t i o n d o e s n o t a l w a y s n e e d t o b e I n a d di t i on t o t h a t , i n L e t s s e e h o w t h e f o r mu l a t i o n

d e r i v a b l e f r o m a p r e v i o u s e x p l i c i t d i s c o u r s e s e g me n t .

( 1 2 a ) , t h e f u n c t i o n o f b u t i s t o i n d i c a t e t ha t a n a ss u mp t i o n l i k e ( 1 8 ) mu s t b e e l i mi n a t e d . In such a context, but cannot be replaced with however.

( 1 8) T he s p e a k e r o f ( 1 2 ) c a n be e x p e c te d t o dr i n k t h e w hi s k y t h a t i s b e i n g o ff e r e d . ( B l a ke mo r e 2 00 2: 1 2 2)

To p ut i t d i ff e r e n t l y, i n t h e e x a mp l e ( 1 2 ) , n o i n f o r ma t i o n i s c o m mu n i c a t e d which could achieve relevance. B o t h e x a mp l e ( 1 3 ) a n d e x a mp l e ( 1 4 ) a r e u n d e r s t o o d t o p r e f a c e a n objection. T h e e x a mp l e s ( 1 3 ) a n d ( 1 4 ) a r e r e c i t e d b e l o w.

(13) A:

We h a d a v e r y n i c e l u n c h .

I h a d a n e x c e l l e n t l o b s t e r. ( o p .c i t .: 119 )

B : ? H o w e v e r , w ha t a bo ut t h e mo ne y? ( 1 4 ) A : S h e s h a d a v e r y d i ff i c u l t t i me t h i s s e me s t e r.

B : H o w e v e r , I t h i n k s h e s h o u l d h a n d i n a t l e a s t s o me o f t h e w o r k . ( i bi d .)

81

B l a k e mo r e ( 20 0 2) e x pl a i n s t he d i ff e r e n c e a s f o l l o w s .

In (13), B will be

taken to be suggesting that the information communicated by A is of no relevance acceptable. at all ( Bl a k e mo r e 20 0 2: 1 21 ) . T he r e f o r e , however is not

I n ( 1 4 ) , h e w i l l b e t a k e n t o be s u g ge s t i n g t ha t t he i n f or ma t i o n

that has been communicated by A has some relevance, or in other words, that h e h a s a c c e p t e d t h e g u a r a n t e e o f r e l e v a n c e c o m mu n i c a t e d b y A ( B l a k e mo r e 2002:121). T h a t i s , t h e c o n t e x t s a t i s fi e s t he r e s t r i c t i o n o n h o w e v e r . In

t h i s e xa m p l e , a n a s s u mp t i o n d e r i v e d f r o m As u t t e r a n c e , s u c h a s ( 1 9 ) , i s r e p l a c e d w i t h s h e sh o u l d h a n d i n a t l e a s t s o me o f t h e w o r k .

( 1 9 ) S h e d o e s n ot n e e d t o h a n d i n a n y w o r k .

I n o t h e r w o r d s , b u t i s a d i s c o u r s e m a r ke r w h i c h h a s a pr oc e du r a l me a n i n g t h a t a n a s s u mp t i o n d e r i v ed f r o m t h e p r e c e d i n g e x p l i c i t o r i mp l i c i t c o nt e xt h a s n o r e l e v a n c e a n d n o c o g n i t i ve e ff e c t ; t he r e f or e , t h e a s s u mp t i o n mu s t b e e l i mi n a t e d . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , h o we v e r i s a d i s c o u r s e ma r k e r w hi c h ha s a

pr oc e du r a l me a n i n g t h a t a n a s s u mp t io n d e r i v e d f r o m t h e p r e c e d i n g e x p l i c i t c o n t e xt h a s r e l e v a n c e an d c o g n i t i v e e ff e c t , b u t t h e a s s u mp t i o n mu s t b e mo d i f i e d . I n s h o r t , t h e f u n c t i o n o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n d e l i mi na t i o n i s s h a r e d

b y b o t h b u t a nd h o we v e r , o n l y h o w e v e r e n c o d e s t he i n f or ma t i o n w h i c h activates a particular kind of context. ( 1 5 ) c a n b e a c c o u n t e d f o r i n t h e s a me w a y. Th e u s e o f b u t / h o w e v e r i n

( 1 5 ) i s b a s e d o n t h e s p e a k e r s a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e h e a r e r w i l l d e r i v e ( 2 0 ) a s a n i mp l i c a t u r e f r o m t h e fi r s t s e g me n t he s c l e v e r .

82

(15) a. b.

H e s c l e v e r, b u t n o t h a r d wo r k i n g . H e i s c l e v e r ; h o we v e r , n o t h a r d w o r k i n g .

( o p . c i t . : 11 0 ) ( o p . c i t . : 11 8 )

( 2 0 ) H e i s h a r d w o r ki n g .

T h e r e l e v a n c e o f t he s e c o n d ( r e d u c e d ) s e g me n t l i e s i n t h e e l i mi n a ti o n o f t h i s a s s u mp t i o n ( 2 0 ) . Le t us mo v e t o t he e x a mp l e ( 1 6) . I t i s c i t e d a ga i n be l o w.

(16) a.

H e i s n t c l e v e r, b u t h a r d w o r k i n g .

( o p . c i t . : 11 8 ) ( o p . c i t . : 11 7 )

b . ? H e i s n o t c l e v e r ; h o we v e r , n o t [ s i c . ] h a r d w o r k i n g .

T h e f i r s t s e g me n t i n ( 1 6 ) , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , mi g h t d e r iv e t h e a s s u mp t i o n t h a t h e w i l l n o t p a s s t h e e x a mi n a t io n , w h i c h w i l l n o t b e e l i mi n a t e d b y t h e s e c o n d s e g me n t . T h e i n t e r pr e t a t i o n o f e a c h s e g me n t i n v o l v e s a n i n f e r e n t i a l

p r o c e d u r e t h a t r e s ul t s i n t he c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n d e l i mi n a t i o n o f t h e s a m e a s s u mp t i o n . I n o t he r w or d s , t he c o g ni t i v e e ff e c t a c t i v a t e d b y t h e f i r s t

s e g me n t a n d t h e o n e d e r i v ed b y t h e s e c o n d s e g me n t a r e o ne a n d t he s a me . However is excluded in this context. B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 11 7 ) t a k e s u p t h e e x a mp l e s ( 1 5 a ) a n d ( 1 6 a ) t o s h o w but is used with a correction reading; that is, it is not clever that he is, b u t r a t h e r ha r d w or k i n g , i n S c h o u r u p s ( 2 0 0 5 : 8 7 ) p h r a s e . On the other hand,

h o w e v e r i s n ot c o mp a t i b l e wi t h a c o r r e c t i o n i nt e r p r e t a t i o n ( B l a ke mo r e 2 0 0 2 : 11 8 ) . T h e s e n t e n c e s i n ( 1 5 b ) a n d ( 1 6 b ) c a n no t b e g i v e n a c o r r e c t i o n To u s e S c h o u r u p s

r e a d i n g b e c a u s e o f t h e a bs e n c e o f a n e x p l i c i t n e g a t i o n .

( 2 0 0 5 : 8 9 ) w o r d s , B l a k e mo r e ( 20 0 2) s e e s t h e c o r r e c t i o n r e a d i n g o f t h e s e

83

e x a mp l e s a s d e p e n d i n g o n a d o u b l e e l i mi n a t i o n o f t he s a m e a s s u m p t i o n h e i s c l e v e r, b y v i r t u e o f b o t h t h e n e g a t i o n i n t h e f i r s t s e g me n t , a n d t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n d e l i mi n a t i o n i n i t i a t e d b y b u t i t s e l f . We h a v e s e e n t h e di ff e r e n c e b e t w e e n b u t a nd h o we v e r . No w, l e t u s

h a v e a l o o k a t c o n t r a s t i v e u s e o f h o we v e r , w h i c h c a n b e r e p l a c e d w i t h b u t .

( 2 1 ) a . N e w Yo r k w a s t h e w i n di e s t c i t y i n t he U n i t e d St a t e s t o da y, b u t C h i c a g o h a d l i gh t w i n d s . b . N e w Yor k w a s t he wi n di e s t c i t y i n t h e U ni t e d St a t e s t o da y; h o w e v e r , Chicago had light winds. ( o p . c i t . : 11 9 )

A s w e s a w i n C h a p t e r 2 , b u t i n c o nt r a s t i ve u s e s a l s o a c t i v a t e s t he pr o c e d u r e of contradiction and elimination. The accessible a s s u mp t i o n to be

e l i mi n a t e d h e r e i s s h o w n i n ( 2 2 ) .

(22)

Chicago had strong winds.

(ibid.)

B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 1 2 0 ) me n t i o n s t h a t t h e e l i mi n a t e d a s s u mp t i o n i n ( 2 2 ) i s n o t d e r i v e d a s a n i mp l i c a t u r e f r o m t he f i r s t s e g me n t . t o b e p a r t o f t h e h e a r e r s e n c y c l o p e d i c k n o w l e d g e . I t i s o ne t ha t i s pr e s u me d I n t hi s c a s e , B l a ke mo r e

( 2 0 0 2 : 1 2 0 ) s a y s , t he s p e a k e r c a n b e u n d e r s t o o d t o b e c o m mu n i c a t i n g h e r a s s u mp t i o n t ha t t hi s s e g me nt wi l l ha v e r e l e v a n c e t h a t d oe s no t i n vo l v e t h e e l i mi n a t i o n o f ( 2 2 ) . I n o t h e r w o r d s , h o w e v e r r e q ui r e s t he c o nt e x t s w h i c h

i n c l u d e a s s u mp t i o n s c a r r y i n g a g u a r a n t e e o f r e l e va n c e a c c e pt e d b y t h e s p e a k e r a n d w h o s e c o g n i t i ve e ff e c t s d o n o t i n c l u d e t h e e l i mi n a t i o n o f t h e

84

a s s u mp t i o n . B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) s u c c e s s f u l l y c a p t u r e s d i ff e r e nc e s b e t w e e n b u t a n d h o we v e r . leave A s w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d l a t e r, h o w e v e r, t h e r es t r i c t i o n s o f h o w e v e r for further research. Schourup (2005) c o m me n t s that

room

B l a k e mo r e s ( 2 0 0 2 ) r e s t r i c t i o n o n c o n t e x t i s i n t r i c a t e a n d i t i s a s t o p g a p negative condition. (2005) analyses. I n t he f ol l o wi n g s u b s e c t i o n, w e w i l l s e e S c h o u r u p s

3 . 2 . 2 . S c h o ur u ps ( 2 0 0 5 ) A n a l y s i s S c h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) p r o p o s e s a s i mp l e r a l t e r na t i ve , c l a i mi n g B l a k e mo r e s ( 2 0 0 2 ) c o n s t r a i n t o n c o n t e x t s i s c o mp l i c a t e d a nd t h a t i t i s a n a d h o c n e g a t i v e condition. The constraint on cognitive e ff e c t s (contradiction and

e l i mi n a t i o n) i s t h e s a me , s o l e t me f o c u s o n t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o n t h e c o n t e x t w h e r e t h e c o g n i t i v e e ff e c t i s t o be de r i ve d .

( 2 3 ) T h e a s s u mp t i on A i s i n f e r e n t i a l l y c o n t i n g e n t o n t he e x p l i c i t c o n t e n t o f a previous utterance segment. a v a i l a bi l i t y f or de r i vi n g A . H o w e v e r a ff i r ms t hi s c o n t e nt t o e n s u r e i t s ( S c h o u r u p 2 0 0 5 : 1 02 )

I wi l l b r i e fl y d e m o n s t r a t e h o w S c h o u r u p s ( 2 0 0 5 ) f o r m u l a t i o n a c c o u n t s f o r t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h e e x a mp l e s ( 1 3 ) t h r o u g h ( 1 6 ) . First, however cannot grant the explicit content of a prior utterance because none is present. B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) a n d S c h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) b o t h a g r e e

t h a t b u t d oe s n ot n e e d a n e x p l i c i t p r e c e d i n g c o n t e x t , w h i l e h o w e v e r ne e ds i t . Le t u s b e g i n w i t h ( 1 3 ) a n d ( 1 4 ) . T h e y a r e q u o t e d a g a i n b e l o w.

85

(13) A:

We h a d a v e r y n i c e l u n c h .

I h a d a n e x c e l l e n t l o b s t e r. ( o p . c i t . : 11 9 )

B : ? H o w e v e r , w ha t a bo ut t h e mo n e y ? ( 1 4 ) A : S h e s h a d a v e r y d i ff i c u l t t i me t h i s s e me s t e r.

B : H o w e v e r , I t h i n k s h e s h o u l d h a n d i n a t l e a s t s o me o f t h e w o r k . (ibid.)

F o r t h e e x a mp l e ( 1 3 B) , Sc h o u r u p c l a i m s t ha t i t i s n o t u n a c c e p t a b l e b u t o n l y somewhat awkward. H e e x p l a i n s t h i s a w k w a r d n e s s b y t h e f a c t t h a t As Since it is

s e c o n d a s s e r t i o n i s o f a p a r t i c u l a r l y s u bj e c t i ve n a t u r e .

a ff i r ma t i o n t ha t i s i n v ol ve d i n us e s o f h o w e v e r , a w k w a r dn e s s i s e x pe c t e d : B i s n o t w e l l p o s i t i o n e d t o a ff i r m t h a t As l o bs t e r w a s e x c e l l e nt , w hi c h w o u l d s e e m t o r e q ui r e e v i d e n c e b e y o n d As o w n s t a t e me n t . In other words, the

a wk w a r d n e s s d e r i v e s f r o m t h e p r e s u mp t u o u s n e s s i mp l i c i t i n a ff i r mi n g a n i n t e r l o c u t o r s p r i v a t e me n t a l e x p e r i e nc e . I n f a c t , i f As u t t e r a n c e i s n o t

s u b j e c t i v e , Bs u t t e r an c e c e a s e s t o b e a w k w a r d a s i n ( 1 3 ) . N o w, we w i l l s e e S c h o u r u p s ( 2 0 0 5 : 9 5 ) a n a l y s i s o n ( 1 5 ) a n d ( 1 6 ) .

(15) a. b. (16) a.

H e s c l e v e r, b u t n o t h a r d wo r k i n g . H e i s c l e v e r ; h o we v e r , n o t h a r d w o r k i n g . H e i s n t c l e v e r, b u t h a r d w o r k i n g .

( o p . c i t . : 11 0 ) ( o p . c i t . : 11 8 ) ( o p . c i t . : 11 8 ) ( o p . c i t . : 11 7 )

b . ? H e i s n o t c l e v e r ; h o we v e r , n o t [ s i c . ] h a r d w o r k i n g .

T h e e x a m pl e ( 1 5 b) i s pe r f e c t s i nc e h o w e v e r a ff i r ms t h e c o n t e n t h e i s c l e ve r a n d t h e h e a r e r u s e t hi s c on t e n t t o i n f e r a n a s s u mp t i on t o b e de ni e d . In the

me a n t i me , c or r e c t i o n r e a di n g i s o u t i n ( 1 6 b ) , b e c a u s e t he a s s u m p t i o n t o b e

86

d e n i e d h e i s c l e v e r c a n n o t b e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s s e g me n t , i f t he c o n t e n t o f t he pr i o r s e g me n t he i s n o t c l e v e r i s a ff i r me d b y h o we v e r . S c h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 : 9 5 ) e x p l a i n s t h a t e x a mp l e ( 1 6 b ) i s a w k w a r d b e c a u s e t h e s p e a k e r o f ( 1 6 b ) i s a i mi n g p r i ma r i l y a t c o r r e c t i n g h e i s c l e v e r t o h e i s h a r d w o r k i n g. would serve. N o t e t h a t S c h o u r u p s ( 2 0 0 5 ) p r o p o s a l d o e s n ot me a n t h e pr e v i o u s c l a u s e mu s t no t b e a s e n t e n c e w i t h n e g a t i v e p o l a r i t y, s i n c e h o we v e r a ff i r ms t h e C O N T E N T o f t h e p r e v i o u s s e g me n t . T h e r e f or e , i t i s n ot c le a r w ha t p ur po s e s uc h a n a ff i r ma t i o n

( 2 4 ) A f a c e - t o- f a c e i nt e r vi e w, a t t h i s t i me , i s n ot a c c e p t a bl e . mi g h t b e w i l l i n g t o c o r r e s p o n d o n ma t t e r s t h a t i n t e r e s t y o u .

H o we v e r , I

( Ne w Yo r k Ti me s M a g a z i n e : Ap r i l 2 9 , 2 0 0 7 ) ( 2 5 ) E x p e c t a t i o n s we r e n o t h i g h . H o w e v e r , h e d i s p l a y e d a r e ma r k a b l e

i n d e p e n d e n c e t h a t c o n fr o n t e d t he p a p e r 's l o n g - he l d p r e j u d i c e s . ( Wa s h i n g t o n P o s t : Tue s d a y, F e b r u a r y 2 8 , 2 0 0 6 ; P a g e B0 7 )

I n ( 2 4 ) , h o we v e r a ff i r ms t h e pr e v i ou s pr o po s i t i o n A f a c e - t o - f a c e i nt e r vi e w, a t t h i s t i me , i s n ot a c c e pt a b l e . a s s u mp t i o n t o b e e l i mi n a t e d f r o m i t . The hearer is supposed to infer an

(26)

I a m n o t wi l l i n g t o c o n t a c t y o u .

T h e a s s u mp t i on c o nt r a di c t s t h e me s s a ge c o nv e y e d b y t he s e g me n t c o nt a i n i n g h o we v e r a n d t he n i s e l i mi n a t e d . T h e e x a mp l e ( 2 5 ) w i l l b e e x p l a i n e d i n t h e

87

s a m e w a y. S c h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) s u c c e e d s i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e m a rg i n a l i t y o f ( 1 6 b ) m o r e s i mp l y t h a n Bl a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2) . s u p e r i o r t o B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) . p r o b l e ma t i c c a s e s t o b e s ol v e d . A t t h i s p o i n t , S ch o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) s e e ms t o b e I n e i t h e r c a s e , h o w e v e r, t h e r e a r e s o m e

3 . 3 . Two F u nc t i o n s o f H o w e v e r a s a D i s c o u r s e M a r k e r A s w e h a v e a l r e a d y s e e n i n 3 . 1 . 2 , L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 ) p r o p o s e d t h a t h o we v e r h a s t wo d i s c o u r s e f u n c t i o n s : h o w e v e r a s a Fl o o r- H o l d i n g D e v i c e a n d h o w e v e r as an indicator of end of a digression. I w i l l s h o w s o me p r o b l e ma t i c In 3.3.2,

e x a mp l e s t o B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) a n d Sc h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) i n 3 . 3 . 1 . p r o b l e ms w i t h L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 ) w i l l b e t a k e n u p .

3 . 3 . 1 . C o u nt e re x a m p l e s t o B l a k e m o re ( 2 0 0 2 ) a n d S c h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) T h e f i r s t d i s c o ur s e f u n c t i o n o f h o w e v e r i s t o i n di c a t e t h e e n d o f di gr e s s i o n a n d t h e r e t u r n t o t h e ma i n t o p i c .

(27) B but Im which c dear me B d i d n t s o r t o f h e l p y o u k n o w a n d I d i d n o t s o r t o f g o t o n wi t h a n y t h i n g very quickly because I felt lousyand then now I have broken my best glasses so (laughs) c ((youve)) what B b r o k e n my b e s t g l a s s e s . s o i t h a s n t be e n a ve r y s o r t o f s uc c e s s f u l ( t i me ) s o y e s t e r d a y I h a d t o g o u p

88

c dear me B t o t he o pt i c i a ns h o p i n g t o g e t t e m b a c k f o r Tu e s d a y c [ m] B I m w e a r i n g s o m e s o me o l d o n e s t h e y r e n ot ol d b ut t he y r e c yeah. B h o we v e r c have you been stuck with any preparation for your college work B w e l l I v e b e e n t r y i n g b u t [ m ] ( ( I m a w f u l l y ) ) I h a v e n t r e a ll y g o t o n v e r y f a s t { I mu s t d a y } ( o p . c i t . : 11 4 , q u o t e d wi t h o u t i r r e l e v a n t s y mb o ls f o r t r a n s c r i p t i o n) you know a t th e mo me n t w e ll

theyre not

very elegant.

L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 : 11 4 ) s a y s t h a t e x a mp l e ( 2 7 ) i l l u s t r a t e s h o w t h e p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n w h o w a s n o t t he s p e a k e r o f t h e d i g r e s s i o n c a n r e di r e c t t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n t o t h e ma i n t o pi c a ft e r t h e s p e a k e r o f t he di gr e s s i on h a s s i g n a l e d t he e n d o f t h e d i g r e s s i o n w i t h h o we v e r . t h i s e x a m pl e a s f o l l o w s : L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 : 11 4 ) e x p l a i n s

t h e c ur r e n t t o pi c o f c o n ve r s a t i on pr i or t o t h e where she went over the

excerpt was how B spent her Ester vacation:

E s t e r w e e ke n d , t h a t s he t r i e d t o c l e a n he r f l a t , t he s he h a s a c ol d w hi c h a n d k e p t h e r f r o m w o r k i n g q u i c k l y a n d e ff i c i e nt l y, a n d t h e s h e h a d n o w h a d t h e mi s f o r t u n e t o b r e a k h e r g la s s e s . S p e a ke r B e v a l u a t es h e r v a c a t i o n a s a n o t

ve r y s or t o f s u c c e s s f u l t i me a n d e nt er s i n t o d i g r e s s i o n a b o u t w h a t s h e h a s d o n e a b o u t t h e g l a s s e s , h o w s h e i s c o p i n g wi t h o u t t h e m a t t h e mo me n t , a n d ends this digression with h o we v e r . Speaker c then redirects the

c o n v e r s a t i o n t o t he pr i o r ma i n t o p i c o f B s o c c u p a t i o n o v e r E s t e r h o l i d a y s b y

89

a s k i n g B h o w s h e g o t o n w i t h h e r pr e pa r a t i o n f or he r c o l l e ge w or k . T h e r e i s n o c o nt r a s t i v e a s pe c t i n t h i s e x a m pl e . h a s a n a bs e nc e o f t h e s e g me n t a f t e r h o we v e r . S pe a k e r B s ut t e r a nc e We c a n n o t f i n d a n y N o a s s u mp t i o n

c o n t r a d i c t i o n b e t w e e n w h a t p r e c e de s a n d f o l l o w s h o w e v e r . t o b e e l i mi n a t e d i s c l e a r.

I n ot he r w or d s , t h i s i s n ot t h e c o nt e xt w he r e a n

a s s u mp t i o n d e r i v e d fr o m t h e s e g me nt f o l l o w i n g h o w e v e r i s e l i mi na t e d . T h e r e f o r e , i t c a n n o t b e c a p t u r e d b y B l a k e mo r e ( 1 9 8 7 , 2 0 0 2 ) an d Sc h o u r u p (2005). H o w e v e r i n t h e n e x t e x a mp l e a l s o s h o ws t h e e n d o f d i g r e s s i o n , b u t i t i n d i c a t e s i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a n e w t o pi c i n s t e a d o f t he r e t ur n t o t h e ma i n t op i c .

(28) C b C b C b C

t h e y a l l t h ou g ht hi s n a me w a s f u n n y y o u k n o w I suppose theyd never heard of him no no b u t I ma d e t h e m t a k e n o t e s ** a s mu c h a s a n y t h i n g h o we v e r y o u k n o w t h e y c o u l d n t d o t h a t e i t h e r it was an exercise in taking notes

b C b

** h o ws D a n s h e s s p l e n d i d . B l o s s o mi n g s h e s g e t t i n g a b i t s ho r t o f b r e a t h

n o w b e c a u s e t h e r e s o nl y I suppose six weeks or so to go by physically

( o p . c i t . : 1 2 0 , q uo t e d wi t h o u t u n n e c e s s a r y s i g n s )

90

L e n k s ( 1 9 9 8 : 11 4 ) e x pl a na t i o n a b ou t t h e e x a m pl e ( 2 8) i s a s f ol l o w s : B e f o r e t h i s c on v e r s a t i on , s p e a ke r C t a l ke d a bo ut h e r e x pe r i e n c e s wi t h h e r new job. Sp e a k e r C i s s t i l l t e l l i n g s pe a k e r a b o u t i t . S pe a k e r C h a d t o l d

h e r s t u d e nt s a b o u t t h e p r o j e c t a n d t he a i m o f t h e r e s e a r c h , a n d r e p o r t s o n their reactions. From the topic of telling her students about the survey and

s o o n , Sp e a k e r C e n t e r s i nt o a d i g r e s s i o n a b o u t h o w s h e ma d e u s e o f t h e S u r v e y s t or y t o t e a c h he r i n c a pa b l e s t u de nt s h o w t o t a ke no t e s . S pe a ke r C

e n d s t h i s d i g r e s s i o n a n d s ub s e q u e n t l y e mb a r ks o n c o m p l e t e l y n e w t o p i c , b s w i fe . Th e r e i s a n a s pe c t o f c o n t r a s t h e r e , b e c a u s e b s w i f e s p r e gn a n c y

p r o b a b l y i s c o ns i d e r e d a m or e e nj o y a b l e t o pi c t o be t a l ki n g a b o ut t h a n incapable students. I t mi g h t b e a l s o p r o bl e ma t i c t o B l a k e m o r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) a n d Sc h o ur u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) . I t i s b e c a u s e t h e a s s u mp t i o n t o be e l i mi n a t e d h a s t o b e d e fi n i t e f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s s e g me n t i f h o we v e r g u i d e s a l i s t e n e r o r a r e a d e r t o ma k e a n i n f e r e n c e w hi c h e n ds i n c o nt r a di c t i o n a n d e l i mi n a t i o n o f a n a s s u mp t i o n . T h e a s s u mp t i o n t h a t i s s u p p o s e d t o b e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e s e g me n t fo l l o wi n g h o we v e r i s n ot ma n i fe s t w he n l i s t e n e r s c a t c h e s t h e w o r d h o we v e r . We h a v e s e e n t w o t y p e s o f e n d o f d i g r e s s i o n u s a g e o f h o w e v e r , t h a t i s , t h e r e t ur n t o t h e ma i n t o pi c a n d t he i nt r o d uc t i on o f a ne w t o pi c . u s e x a mi n e a n e x a m p l e o f Fl o o r- H o l d i n g D e v i c e . Let

91

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B ( ( I me a n) ) he d oe s n t r e a l i z e negotiation. in fact A m. m. m. m. m. m. B h e s ma k i n g p e o p l e s i c k

he thinks this is high((er)) powered

ho we v e r

t he r e w a s t hi s

b ut t h e r e wa s

a l s o t he fa c t t ha t h e s p e c i f i c a ll y me n t i o ne d [ P e t e r ] Ha r r i n gt o n. y o u v e m e t Ha r r i n g t o n . ( Le n k 1 9 9 8 : 11 9 )

T h e e x a mp l e a b o v e i s e x pl a i ne d b y L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 : 11 9 ) a s f o l l o w s : h o we v e r i s u s e d a s i f t o i n d i c a t e t h a t s o m e c o n t r a s t i ve a s p e c t w i l l b e a d d e d t o t h e d e s c r i pt i o n o f t he u n p l e a s a nt c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f M a l l e t t , t h e p e r s on who is the current topic of the conversation. A f t e r h o we v e r , i n e ff e c t,

speaker B starts to make another report about what Mallett had done, which i m me d i a t e l y s h i ft s i n t o t a l k f oc us i n g o n t h e p e r s o n me n t i o n e d b y M a l l e t t . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e ma t e r i a l t h a t f o l l o w s h o we v e r d o e s n o t a d d c o n t r a s t i v e aspect (Lenk 1998:120). I would like to point out that, unlike the end of

di gr e s s i o n u s e , t h e s e g me nt s b o t h b e f or e a nd a f t e r ho w e v e r a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e ma i n t o p i c . Mallett. I t s e e ms t o be p r o b l e ma t i c t o B l a ke mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) a n d S c h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) . We c a n n o t f i nd a n a s s u mp t i o n w h i c h i s d e r i v e d f r o m w ha t i s me n t i o ne d before however and contradicted what follows after however. Th e f r a me w o r k o f B l a ke mo r e ( 20 0 2 ) a n d S c h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) c a n i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d a c c o u n t o f t h e p r o po s i t i o n a l u s e , b u t i t i s n o t a l w a y s p o s s i b l e t o e x t e n d t h e a n a l y s i s t o h o w e v e r a s a di s c o ur s e m a k e r. t h e p r o b l e m? C h a p t e r 4 e xp l o r e s t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . How should we solve I n t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n , t h e ma i n t o p i c i s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e a b o u t

92

3 . 3 . 2 . P ro bl e m s wit h Le nk ( 1 9 9 8 ) T h e r e a r e t w o p r o b l e ms w i t h L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 ) . Fi r s t l y, i t i s n o t c l e a r w h e t h e r S e c o n d l y, i s i t

L e n k s ( 1 9 9 8 ) o b s e r v at i o n h o l d s t r u e f o r w r i t t e n d i s c o u r s e .

r e a l l y n e c e s s a r y t o di s t in g u i s h d i s c o u r s e ma r k e r u s e f r o m p r o p o s i t i o n a l u s e ? We w i l l c o n s i d e r t h e f i r s t s u b j e c t i n 3 . 3 . 2 . 1 . I t wi l l b e i n v e s t i g a t e d w h e t h e r

there are any things in common with those usages in 3.3.2.2.

3 . 3 . 2 . 1 . D i s c o u r s e M a r k e r U se i n Wr i t t e n Di s c o ur s e I wo u l d l i k e y o u t o r e c a l l Le n k s ( 1 9 9 8 : 111 ) w o r d s o n h o w e v e r a s a d i s c o u r s e ma r k er, h o we v e r , w h e n p o s i t i o n e d i n i t i a l l y or a s s i n gl e e l e me n t i n a t o n e u n i t , i s u s u a l l y e mp l o y e d a s a di s c o ur s e ma r k e r i n s p o k e n d i s c o u r s e . ( 1 9 9 8 ) s e e ms t o s a y t h a t d i g r e s s i o n e n d s w h e n h o we v e r i s u t t e r e d . i t i s i mp o s s i b l e i n t he c a s e s o f t h e s e n t e nc e - i n t e r n a l h o w e v e r. l o o k a t s o me e x a mp l e s . T h e f o l l o w i n g e x a mp l e s h o w s t h e r e t ur n t o t h e ma i n t o pi c . If Lenk Lenk

H o we v e r,

Let us have a

( 1 9 9 8 ) w e r e r i g h t , t he d i g r e s s i o n w o u l d h a v e t o e n d a f t e r t he r e i s i n ( 3 0 ) . M o r e o v e r, t h a t me a ns w ha t p r e c e d e s h o we v e r , t h e r e i s , h a s n o t h i n g t o d o w i t h t h e ma i n t o p i c . t h e a u t h o r s . a notice.) ( E mp h a s i s , a nd i t a l i c s i n t he f o l l o w i n g e x a mp l e a r e

I n t h e r e s t o f t h i s c ha pt er, t h e y a r e t h e a u t h o r s u n l e s s t h e r e i s

93

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S i r, T h e G o v e r n m e n t s d r i v e t o r a i s e t h e a mo u n t o f t i m e d e v o t e d t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i on a nd s p or t ( r e p or t s a nd l e a d i n g a r t i c l e , N o v e m b e r 2 5 ) i s w e l c o me . O ne c a n n o t a rg u e wi t h a n y i n i t i a t i v e a i me d a t r a i s i n g a c t i v i t y l e v e l s a mo n g s t c hi l d r e n a n d y o u n g p e o p l e . T h e re i s , h o we v e r , a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n P E a n d s p o r t . P E i s pr o v i d e d f o r a l l p u p i l s , wh e r e a s s p o r t t e n d s t o d e s cr i b e c h i l d r e n s a c t i v i t i e s b e f o r e , d u r i n g ( br e a ks ) a nd a f t e r s c h oo l . ( T h e Ti m e s ; N o v e mb e r 2 7 , 2 0 0 4 )

H e r e i s a n ot he r e x a mp l e o f t h e r e t ur n t o t h e m a i n t op i c . digression would have to end after if.

I n ( 31 ) , t h e

In addition to that, only what

f o l l o ws w o ul d h a ve t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e m a i n t o p i c , w h i c h w o u l d me a n i f has to be excluded.

( 3 1 ) I f s o me o n e s a y s " t h e N a z i s d i d n 't k i l l s o ma n y J e ws a n d h a d n o p l a n f o r t h e i r s y s t e ma t i c e x t e r mi n a t i o n" , h e i s a d i s t o r t e r o f h i s t o r y w h o d e s e r v e s t o b e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y r e f u t e d a n d mo r a l l y c o n d e mn e d , b u t n o t i mp r i s o n e d . I f , h o w e v e r , s o me o n e s a y s " ki l l t h e J e w s " , or " k i l l t h e M u s l i ms " , o r " k i l l t h e A me r i c a n s " , o r " k i l l t h e a n i ma l e x p e r i me n te r s " , a n d p o i n t s t o p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p s o f J e ws , M u s l i ms , A me r i c a n s o r a n i ma l e x p e r i m e n t e r s , t h e y s h o u l d b e me t w i t h t h e f u l l r i g o u r o f t h e l a w. ( T h e G u a rd i a n ; T h u r s d a y M a r c h 2 , 2 0 0 6 )

A t a g l a n c e , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e c a s e s o f e n d o f d i g r e s s i o n d o n ot n e c e s s a r i l y p r o b l e ma t i c t o Bl a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) a n d S c h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) .

94

T h e n e x t e x a mp l e sh o w s t h e f u n c t i o n o f F l o o r- Ho l d i n g D e v i c e . F o l l o w i n g Le n k ( 1 9 9 8 ) , h o w e v e r w o u l d s i g n a l i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g s a f t e r t h e words, the worst thing. I t d o e s n o t ma k e s e n s e .

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T h e f o r m e r Yu g o s l a v i a i s l i k e a j i g s a w p u z z l e , a n d We s t e r n l e a d e r s h a v e o v e r t h e p a s t f e w y e a r s f o u n d t h e ms e l v e s t r y i n g t o ma k e p e a c e b y p i e c e . S o f a r, n o n e o f t h e p i e c e s c o n t r i b u t e s t o a c o h e r e n t w h o l e , a n d t he o ne s t ha t r e ma i n t o be de a l t w i t h r e ma i n j u s t t ha t . T h e wo r s t t h i n g , h o we v e r , i s t h a t , j u s t a s t e n s o f t h o u s a n d s o f t r o o p s f l o o d i n t o p a c i f y K o s o v o , n o o n e c a n g ua r a n t e e c o n f l i c t w i l l n o t b r e a k o u t s ome w he r e e l s e . ( T h e O b s e r v e r , Su n d a y J u n e 1 3 1 9 9 9 )

I n t h i s s u b s e c t i o n , I s h o w e d t h a t L e n k s ( 1 9 9 8 ) s u g ge s t i o n f a c e s di ff i c ul t y i n t h e c a s e o f t he s e n t e n c e - i n t e r n a l h o w e v e r . I n t he f ol l o w i n g s u b s e c t i o n , w e

w i l l e x a m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e i s t h e k e y t o i n t e g r a t e t h r e e h o w e v e r i nt o o n e , t h a t i s , p r o p os i t i o na l us e , e n d o f d i g r e s s i o n u s e , a n d F l o o r- H o l d i n g Device use.

3 . 3 . 2 . 2 . T h e P o s s i b i l i t y o f I n t e g r a t i n g S e v e r a l U sa g e s i n t o O n e Lenk (1998) distinguishes three uses. the others are d i s c o u r se ma r k i n g One is the propositional usage and usages. D e n ia l of expectation, a

c o n t r a s t i v e u s e a n d a d i v e r s i o n u s e c o u l d b e c l a s s i f i e d a s p r op o s i t i o na l u s e . T h e e nd o f d i g r e s s i o n a n d Fl o o r- Ho l d i n g De v i c e u s e s w o u l d b e l a b e l e d a s di s c o u r s e ma r k e r u s e . A r e t h e t h r e e us e s t ot a l l y d i s t i nc t a n d d o t h e y h a v e

95

t o b e a n a l yz e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y ? H e r e , i t w i l l be e x a mi n e d w h e t he r or n o t b o t h d i s c o u r s e m a r ke r u s e a n d p r o p o s i t i o n a l u s e a r e f o u n d i n a n e x a mp l e a t t h e s a me t i me .

(33) a

does operational research questions of

is it

is it

pr i ma r i l y c o nc e r ne d wi t h

d i s t r i b u t i o n - ma r k e t i n g research started --- by studies - of

indeed no --- operational

mi l i t a r y p r o b l e ms - - - o n e o f t h e f i r st e xe r c i s e s e ve r c a r r i e d o ut - - t o o k p l a c e du r i n g t h e w a r - - - w h e n - - t h a t q u e s t i o n of w he t h e r s m a l l

b o a t s s h o u l d c a r r y a n t i - a i r c r a ft g u n s - w a s c o n s i d e r e d - - - t h e s e s m a l l b o a t s h a d b e e n e q u i p p e d - - w i t h a nt i - a i r c r a ft g u ns - - b ut t he y we r e n t s h o o t i n g d o wn a n y mo r e e n e my a i r cr a f t - - - a n d t h e r e f or e c e r t a i n p e o p l e c o n c l u d e d - t ha t t he s e g u ns w e r e n t f ul f i l l i ng t he i r f u nc t i o n

- - - h o we v e r w h e n t h e o p e r a t i o n r e s e a r c h ma n l o o k e d - - a t t h e d a t a mo r e c l o s e l y - h e d i s c o v e r e d t h a t f e w e r b o a ts w e r e b e i n g s u n k i n o t h e r wo r d . ( o p . c i t . : 1 0 9 , q u o t e d wi t ho u t i r r e l e v a n t s i g n s )

L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 : 1 0 8 - 1 0 9) me n t i o n s t h a t t h e s e g me nt w h i c h i s n ot s o c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t he ma i n t op i c i s c o nt r a s t e d w i t h t h e s e g m e n t f o l l o w i n g h o we v e r . I t s e e ms t o me t h a t t h e p a r t f o l l o w i n g h o we v e r , wh e n t h e o pe r a t i o n r e s e a r c h ma n l o o k e d - - a t t h e d a t a mo r e c l o s e l y - h e d i s c o v e r e d t h a t f e w e r b o a t s we r e b e i n g s u n k i n o t h e r w o r d , c o n t r a d i c t s t h e p r e vi o u s p a r t , a n d t h e r e f o r e c e r t a i n p e o p l e c o n c l u d e d - t h a t t he s e g u ns we r e n t f ul f i l l i n g t h e i r f u nc t i o n . A n a s s u m p t i on l i k e ( 3 4 ) w i l l b e d e r i v e d f r o m me s s a g e b e i n g a h e a d o f h o we v e r , t h e s e g u n s w e r e n o t u s e f u l a t a l l

96

( 3 4 ) I n r e a l i t y, i t w a s o f n o u s e .

T h e n , i t w i l l be e l i mi n a t e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g me s s a g e , fe w e r b o a t s w e r e b e i n g s u n k , w h i c h me a n s , i n r e a l i t y, i t w a s o f u s e . Fr o m t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n , i t c a n be s a i d t h a t t h e d i s c o u r s e m a r k e r h o w e v e r a l s o h a s t he s a me f u nc t i on o f p r o p o s i t i o n a l u s e . Lenk (1998) herself states

t h a t i t i s d i ff i c ul t t o t e l l f u nc t i on s o f di s c ou r s e ma r k e r f r o m p r o po s i t i o n a l u s e , b u t , i f s o , I w o nd e r i f t he r e i s a n y n e e d t o di ff e r e n t i a t e t he t w o us a ge s o f p r o p o s i t i o n a l u s e a nd d i s c o u r s e ma r k e r. N o w, w e w i l l s e e t he t h i r d e xa mp l e o f Fl o o r- H o l d i n g D e v i c e , o r t h e e x a mp l e o f s i g n a l i n g u p c om i n g i nt e r e s t i n g ma t e r i a l a b o ut t h e m a i n t o p i c . L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 : 1 2 0) o bs e r v e s t ha t Fl oo r- H o l d i n g D e v i c e c a s e s d o n o t a l w a y s h a v e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t he u t t e r a n c e s b e f o r e a n d a ft e r h o w e v e r .

( 3 5 ) B ( ( t o) ) t a k e i t A has he Mhm ( ( b ut ) ) I t h i n k t h a t i t s p os s i bl e f or u s t o ha ve n e w

B o v e r i n a n y w a y.

l i n k s wh i c h d o n t i n a n y w a y c ut o ut A Mhm B old ones. A m B Cyprusw h i c h i s o n c e a g a i n I t hi n k ( L e n k 1 9 9 8 : 11 9 ) h o we v e r t hi s we l l w e l l h a ve t o s e e i f n ot I m ol a

A c c o r d i n g t o L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 : 11 8 ) , t h e e x a mp l e ( 3 5 ) s h o w s t ha t s pe a k e r B u s e s h o we v e r a s i f h e w a n t s t o a d d ( a n o t h e r ) c o n t r a s t i v e a s pe c t t o t he d i s c u s s i o n

97

a b o u t wh e t h e r n e w b u s i n e ss l i n k s w o u l d b e p o s s i b l e wi t h o u t c u t t i n g o u t a l r e a d y e xi s t i n g l i n ks . A c t ua l l y, ho w e v e r, w ha t f ol l o w s a ft e r h o we v e r i s Th e

me r e l y a n a t t e n u a t i o n o f w h a t h a d b e e n s a i d b e f or e ( L e n k 1 9 9 8 : 11 9 ) .

u t t e r a n c e b e f o r e s p e a k e r B s a y s h o w e v e r , i s a c l e a r s t a t e me n t o f s p e a k e r B s personal opinion and it cannot be proven at that point in the conversation. L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 : 1 2 0 ) s ay s t h a t , i n ( 3 5 ) , t h e s e g me nt t h a t f o l l o w s h o w e v e r d o e s n ot a d d c o n t r a s t i v e a s p e c t , a f t e r a l l . T he r e i s n o e x pl i c i t c on t r as t i n t h i s e xa mp l e . I n a n y c a s e , t he h e a r e r

w i l l d e r i v e a n a s s ump t i on l i ke ( 3 6) f r o m t h e s e g me n t b e f or e h o w e v e r .

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We d o n o t n e e d t o s e e t h i s , s i n c e i t i s t r u e .

T hi s a s s u mp t i o n w i l l b e e l i mi n a t e d, f or i t c o nt r a di c t s w ha t i s s a i d i n t h e s e g me n t a ft e r h o w e v e r . B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) a n d S c h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) c o u l d

e x p l a i n t h i s e x a m p l e , b e c a u s e c o n t r a d i c t i on a n d e l i mi na t i o n o f a ma n i f e s t a s s u mp t i o n c a n b e r e c o g n i z e d . We have seen some e xa mp l e s where di s c o ur s e ma r ke r us e and

p r o p o s i t i o na l u s e c o - e x i s t i n a n e x a m pl e .

I t s e e ms t o me t h a t t he r e mu s t b e

s o me l i n k b e t w e e n d i s c o u r s e ma r k e r u s e a n d p r o p o s i t i o n a l u s e . N o w, l e t u s e x a mi n e i f L e n k s ( 1 9 9 8 ) s u g g e s t i o n h o l d t r u e f o r w r i t t e n language. I wi l l e x a mi n e t h e f u nc t i o n o f t h e r e t ur n t o t he ma i n t o pi c f i r s t

a n d t h e n t he f u n c t i o n o f Fl o or- H ol di n g D e v i c e , s i g n a l i n g u p c o mi n g i n t e r e s t i n g ma t e r i a l a b ou t t he ma i n t o p i c . e x a mp l e s o f c ha n ge o f t o pi c s . coherent than spoken language. R e g r e t t a b l y, I c o u l d f i n d n o

I t m a y b e b e c a us e w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e i s m o r e Wr i t i n g s a r e u s u al l y p o l i s h e d s o t h a t t h e y

98

have coherency before they are published.

As L e n k ( 1 9 8 5 ) s a y s , t h i s u s a g e

i s r a r e e v e n i n s p o k e n d i s c o u r s e , a n d i t mi g h t b e i mp o s s i b l e t o fi n d e x a mp l e s of change of topics in formal writings, since the author are supposed to a v o i d u n r e l a t e d t o p ic s i n o n e t e x t . S o , l e t u s s t a r t wi t h e xa mp l e s o f r e t ur ni n g t o t h e ma i n t o pi c . p a s s a g e q u o t e d f r o m a n a r t i c l e o f Wa s h i n g t o n P o s t . D o w n s o f ' Yo - Yo' D i e t i n g . position. The

Its title is The Ups and

I n ( 3 7) , h o we v e r a p pe a r s i n t he s e nt e n c e - i ni t i a l

Th i s i s a n a rt i c l e a b o u t r e p e t i t i o n o f l os i n g a n d g a i ni n g w e i g h t

w h i c h c a n c a us e d i s e a s e s .

(37)

F RI D AY, O c t . 24 ( H e a l t h D a y N e w s ) - - Fo r s o me f r e q u e n t di e t e r s , w e i g h t l o s s i s a v i c i o u s c y c l e . T h e y 'r e g u n g - h o i n t h e b e g i n n i n g , a n d t h e p o u n d s me l t a w a y, b u t n o t f o r l o n g . O n c e t h e y s t r a y f r o m t h e i r d i e t , a l l t h e w e i g ht t h a t w a s l o s t ma k e s a c o me b a c k . T hi s w e i g h t c y c l i n g, a l s o k no w n a s " y o - y o " d i e t i n g , h a s b e e n v i l i f i e d o v e r t h e y e a r s . St u d i e s h a v e l i n k e d i t t o e ve r y t h i n g f r o m h i g h b l o o d p r e s s u r e a n d h i g h c ho l e s t e r ol t o d i a b e t e s a n d d e p r e s s i o n . I n f a c t , a 2 0 0 6 r e v i e w i n t h e I nt e r na t i o na l J o ur na l o f O b e s i t y b y S wi s s r e s e a r c h e r s o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c e v i d e n c e n o t e d a n a s s o c i a t i o n b e t we e n w e i g h t fl u c t u a t i o n s a n d c ar d i o v a s c u l a r d i s e a s e a n d d e a t h . " I a gr e e t ha t d a t a o n w e i g h t c y c l i n g a r e m i x e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y o n w e i g ht r e g a i n , de c r e a s e d e n e rg y e x p e n d i t u r e , e t c e t e r a , " s a i d l e a d a u t h o r Dr. J e a n - P i e r r e M o n t a n i , p r o f e s s o r a n d c h a i r o f p h y s i o l o g y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f F r i b o u rg . " Ho w e ve r , t h e re i s i n c r e a s i n g e v i d e nc e t ha t we i g ht c yc l i n g ma y

99

l e a d t o c a r di o v a s c u l a r a nd m e t a b o l i c d i s or d e r s , " s u c h a s h y p e r t e n s i o n a n d d i a b e t e s , h e a d d e d . " A n d t h e r i s k o f c o mp l i c a t i o n s o f w e i g h t cycling seems greater in people with normal weight or slightly overweight than in obese people." B u t o t h e r e x p e r t s s a y t h e n e w s o n w e i g h t c y c l i n g ma y n o t b e a s b a d a s i t s e e ms , a n d i t s h o u l d n 't d i s c o u r ag e p e o p l e fr o m t r y i n g t o l o s e w e i g ht . Wa s hi n g t o n P o s t : Fr i d a y, O c t o b e r 2 4 , 2 0 0 8

I n t h e f i r s t p a r a gr a p h, i t i s me n t i o ne d t ha t s o me f r e qu e nt di e t e r s e x pe r i e n c e w e i g h t f l u c t u a t i o n s , l o s i n g a n d g a i n i n g t h e i r w e i g h t o ve r a ga i n . In the

second paragraph, the weight cycling can cause diseases, such as high blood p r e s s u r e , h i g h c h o l e s t e r ol , d i a b e t e s a n d d e p r e s s i o n . The underlined part On the other

me a n s t h a t s o me d a t a o n w e i g ht c y c l i n g mi g h t b e u n r e l i a b l e .

h a n d , t h e s e g me n t p r e c e d e d b y h o we v e r s a y s t h a t t h e r e i s mo re an d mo r e e v i d e n c e t h a t w e i g h t c y c l i n g ma y l e a d t o c a r di o va s c ul a r a n d me t a b o l i c disorders. weight can T h i s a r t i c l e s ma i n t o pi c i s t h a t r e p e t i t i on o f l os i n g a n d g a i n i n g cause di s e a s e s . T he r e f or e , w ha t pr e c e de s however is

u n fa v or a b l e t o t h e a rg u me n t , w hi l e w ha t f o l l o w s i t i s f a v o r a b l e t o t h e a rg u me n t . I n t hi s e x a mp l e , i t c a n b e s a i d t h a t e n d o f d i g r e s s i o n i s

c o m p l e t e d w h e n h o w e v e r a p p e a r s , a n d i t c a n b e s a i d t ha t h o we v e r s i g na l s t h e r e t ur n t o t h e ma i n t o p i c . I n t hi s c a s e , f r o m t h e c on t e xt , t he f o l l o w i n g a s s u mp t i o n be c o me s ma n i f e s t . T h e n , t h e me s s a g e c o n t a i n i n g h o we v e r e l i mi n a t e s i t .

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( 3 8 ) I f d a t a o n w e i g h t c y c l i n g a r e mi x e d , t he a rg u me n t w o ul d b e u n r e l i a b l e .

Pr o p o s i t i o n a l u s e a n d t h e r e t ur n t o t h e ma i n t o pi c a r e r e c o gn i z e d i n t h i s e x a mp l e . Th e n e xt e x a mp l e i s a pa i r o f t h e p r e vi o us on e . However in this

e x a m p l e a p p e a r s a f t e r t h e r e i s , w h i l e ho w e v e r i n t h e p r e v i o u s o n e i s positioned before there is. T h i s e xc e r pt c o me s f r o m t h e a r t i c l e o f T h e

Ti m e s , w h o s e t i t l e i s We l c o m e f o r G o v e r n m e n t ' s pl an s f or P E a n d s p or t .

(39)

S i r, T h e G o v e r n m e n t s d r i v e t o r a i s e t h e a mo u n t o f t i m e d e v o t e d t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i on a nd s p or t ( r e p or t s a nd l e a d i n g a r t i c l e , N o v e m b e r 2 5 ) i s w e l c o me . O ne c a n n o t a rg u e wi t h a n y i n i t i a t i v e a i me d a t r a i s i n g a c t i v i t y l e v e l s a mo n g s t c hi l d r e n a n d y o u n g p e o p l e . T h e re i s , h o we v e r , a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n P E a n d s p o r t . P E i s pr o v i d e d f o r a l l p u p i l s , wh e r e a s s p o r t t e n d s t o d e s cr i b e c h i l d r e n s a c t i v i t i e s b e f o r e , d u r i n g ( br e a ks ) a nd a f t e r s c h oo l . ( T h e Ti m e s ; N o v e mb e r 2 7 , 2 0 0 4 )

T h e a r t i c l e s t a r t s w i t h t h e f i r s t pa r a gr a p h i n ( 3 9 ) .

Th e u n d e r l i n e d p a r t

s u p p o r t s t h e fa c t t h a t t he G o v e r n me n t s d r i v e t o r a i s e t h e a mo u n t o f t i me devoted to physical e du c a t i o n and sport is w e l c o me . The s e g me n t

containing however indicates that the government should distinguish PE from sport. A f t e r t he s e c o nd p a r a g r a p h t o t h e l a s t o n e , t h e a u t h o r a p p e a r s t o For

c l a i m t h a t q u a l i t y P E i s t h e k e y t o s uc c e s s o f t h e g o ve r n me n t s dr i v e .

t h e r e a s o n , i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e ma i n t o p i c i s a b o u t t h e i mp o r t a n c e o f

101

quality PE.

I t m e a n s t h a t t h e s e g me n t c o n t a i n i n g h o w e v e r i s r e l a t e d t o t h e

m a i n t o p i c , w h i l e t he u n d e r l i ne d p a r t s e e ms t o b e a d i g r e s s i on , wh i c h i s l e s s c o n n e c t e d t o t he ma i n t o pi c . Th e n , l e t u s e x a mi n e i f w e c an r e c o g n i z e p r o p o s i t i o na l u s e h e r e . u nd e r l i ne d p a r t ma k e s a n a s s u mp t i o n l i ke ( 4 0 ) ma n i f e s t . The

I t c o n t r a d i c t s t he Then, the

s e g me n t T h e r e i s , h o we v e r , a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t we e n P E a n d s p o r t . a s s u mp t i o n i s e l i mi na t e d a f t e r a l l .

( 4 0 ) T h e r e i s n o d i s t i n c t i o n b e t we e n P E a n d s p o r t .

I n t h i s e x a mp l e , a l s o , p r o p o s i t i o n a l u s e a n d t h e r e t u r n t o t h e ma i n t o p i c a r e recognized. We w i l l s e e a n ot he r p a i r o f e x a mp l e s . In (41), however is positioned

at the beginning of the sentence, or before if.

( 4 1 ) I t r e l i e s o n h o l d i n g o n t o mo s t o f t h e s t a t e s B u s h w o n f o u r y e a r s a g o , e v e n a s t h e e c o n o mi c c r i s i s c a s t s a p a l l o v e r t h e r ac e a n d t h e p u b l i c c r a v e s a ne w d i r e c t i o n a f t e r e i g h t ye a r s o f R e p u b l i c a n r ul e i n t h e Wh i t e H o u s e . T he s e s t a t e s i n c l u d e h o t l y c o nt e s t e d Fl or i da , M i s s o ur i , N or t h C a r o l i n a , Vi rgi n i a , I n d i a n a a n d Oh i o _ a l l s t a t e s w h e r e m o s t p o l l s s h o w t h e r a c e e v e n o r O b a ma s l i g h t l y a he a d . S w e e p i n g t h o s e w o u l d g i v e M c C a i n 2 6 0 e l e ct o r a l v o t e s , t h o u g h doing so is far from certain. H o w e v e r , i f h e s uc c e e de d , t h e R e p u bl i c a n t h e n w o u l d n e e d t o p i c k u p 1 0 mo r e v o t e s b y t r i u mp h i n g i n a c o m b i na t i o n o f B u s h - w o n s t a t e s :

102

N e v a d a ( 5 e l e c t o r a l v o t e s ) a n d C o l or a d o ( 9) , w h i c h p u b l i c s ur ve y s s h o w a r e c l o s e , a s w e l l a s I o w a ( 7) a n d N e w M e x i c o ( 5 ) , w h e r e p o l l s s h o w O b a ma c o m f o r t a b l y a h e a d . ( Wa s h i n g t o n P o s t : S a t ur da y, O c t o b e r 2 5 , 2 0 0 8

T hi s a r t i c l e f r o m Was hi n gt o n P o s t i s e n t i t l e d M c Ca i n s o w s d o u b t s o n O b a m a in campaign end game. d e f e a t i n g O b a ma . T h e a r t i c l e r e p or t s t ha t M c C a i n i s h a vi ng di ff i c u l t y

I n t he f i r s t p a r a g r a p h , i t i s d e s c r i b e d t h a t O ba ma i s

likely to get more votes than McCain in Florida, Missouri, North Carolina, Vi rg i n i a , I n d i a n a a n d O h i o . The underlined part says that McCain would This is opposite

b e c o m e s u p e r i o r t o O b a ma i f h e c o u l d s w e e p t h o s e . i n f o r ma t i o n t o t he ma i n t o pi c .

T h e s e g me nt c o nt a i ni n g h o we v e r i mp a r t s

i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t M c C a i n w o u l d b e s t i l l i n a d i ff i c u l t p o s i t i o n i f h e s u c c e e d e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y, i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h e s e g me n t f o l l o we d b y h o we v e r i s w h a t i s c a l l e d d i g r e s s i o n , a nd t he s e g me nt pr e c e d e d b y h o w e v e r h a s a mo r e c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e m a i n t op i c . he r e i s t o r e c o n n e c t t o t h e ma i n t o pi c . He r e , c a n w e f i n d o u t p r o p o s i t i on a l u s e , t o o ? a n a s s u m p t i o n l i k e ( 4 2 ) fr o m t h e u n d e r l i n e d p a r t . The reader may derive I n s ho r t , t h e f u n c t i o n o f h o we v e r

( 4 2 ) i f h e s u c c e e d e d i n s w e e p i n g t h o s e , t h e v i c t o r y g o e s t o M c Ca i n i n t he p r e s i d e nt i a l e l e c t i o n .

T hi s a s s u mp t i o n c o n t r a d i c t s w ha t f ol l o ws h o w e v e r, a n d t he n i t b e e l i mi na t e d . B o t h p r o p os i t i o na l us e a n d t he r e t u r n t o t h e ma i n t o pi c a r e f o u nd o ut i n t h e

103

e x a mp l e a b o v e , t o o . T h e e x a m p l e ( 4 3 ) i s a p a i r o f t h e e x a mp l e ( 4 1 ) . in this example, while it precedes if in (41). a r t i c l e o f T h e G u a rd i a n . However follows if

The excerpt comes from an

I t i s e n t i t l e d S p a c e S o l v e s - - T h e n w e ' l l a ns w e r i t .

H e re , t h e S p a c e S o l v e s e x p e r t s h e l p re a d e rs m a k e d o a n d m e n d .

( 4 3 ) A s h o we r t r a y mu s t b e a bl e n ot o nl y t o c op e w i t h t h e w e i g ht o f t he b o d y, b u t a l s o t o w i t h s t a n d m o v e me n t . I t mu s t b e w e l l s u p p o r t e d a n d p e r f e c t l y l e v e l t o a v o i d t h e d a n g e r o f c r a c k i n g . I t i s po s s i bl e t h a t i n y ou r c a s e t h e s u p p o r t l e g s w e r e n 't a d j u s t e d c o r r e c t l y, t h e r e b y p u t t i n g t h e t r a y u n d e r s t r a i n . A c r yl i c t r a y s a r e p a r t i c ul a r l y v ul ne r a bl e , b e c a us e t h e y f l e x a l o t a n y w a y, a n d a h a i r l i n e c ra c k w i l l q u i c k l y d e v e l o p i n t o s o me t h i n g b i g ge r. I f , h o w e v e r , y o u r t r a y i s ma d e f r o m s t o ne r e s i n , i t c a n b e r e p a i r e d . ( T h e G u a rd i a n : Sa t u r d a y, Oc t o b e r 2 5 , 2 0 0 8 )

I t i s p a r t o f t he a n s w e r t o t h e i n q u i r y o n w h a t t h e y s h o ul d d o w he n t h e i r shower tray is cracking up. shower tray is in question. He r e , h o w t o d e a l w i t h t he h a i r l i n e c r a c k i n t h e The underlined part is considered to be the T h e s e g me n t

w or s t c a s e wh e r e i t i s i mp o s s i bl e t o r e p a i r t h e c r a c k .

c o n t a i n i n g h o we v e r c o n v e y s t he c o nd i t i o n o f t h e c a s e w h e r e i t i s p os s i bl e t o repair it. P e o p l e u s u a l l y w a n t e a s i e r s o l u t i o ns . Thinking of it, what the

r e a d e r w a n t s i s t he i n f o r ma t i o n o n t he c a s e s w h e r e i t c a n b e r e p a i r e d . A c c o r d i n g l y, w e c o u l d s a y t h a t t h e s e g me n t c o nt a i ni n g h o we v e r i s r e l a t e d t o the main topic. no solution. T h e u n d er l i n e d p a r t i s t h e w o r s t c a s e w hi c h t h e r e a de r h a s T hu s , t h e

I t i s o p p o s i t e i n f o r ma t i o n t o w h a t t h e r e a d e r w a nt s .

104

d i g r e s s i o n e n d s b e f o r e t h e s e g me nt c o n t a i n i n g h o we v e r . How about propositional use in this example? d e r i v e a n a s s u mp t i o n l i k e ( 4 4 ) f r o m t he u n d e r l i n e d p a r t . T he r e a d e r w o ul d

(44) It cannot be repaired.

T h e a s s u mp t i on c o nt r a di c t s t he me s s a g e I f y o u r t r a y i s ma d e f r o m s t o n e resin, it can be repaired. T h e n , t h e a s s u mp t i o n wi l l b e e l i mi na t e d. We

f i n d b o t h o f t h e u s a g e s , t ha t i s , p r o p o s i t i o n a l u s e a n d t h e r e t ur n t o t h e ma i n t o p i c , i n t h i s e x a mp l e , t o o . L e t s proceed to e x a mp l e s of however which signals u p c o mi n g

i n t e r e s t i n g ma t e r i a l a b o u t t h e ma i n t o p i c . an article entitled My worst job.

T h e f i r st e x a m p l e i s q u o t e d fr o m

( 4 5 ) I c h o s e t o d o a s h i f t f r o m 2 a m t o 6 a m o n c e a we e k . I t 's t ou g h b e c a u s e y o u 'r e t i r e d y o ur s e l f a t t h a t t i me o f n i g h t a n d e v e n t h o u g h y o u 'r e a l wa y s working with one other person, it can feel lonely. H o w e v e r t h e wo r s t t h i n g a b o u t t h i s s h i f t i s t h a t t he p h o n e s a t t h a t t i me a r e c l o g g e d u p b y w h a t i s k n o w n i n t h e S a ma r i t a n s a s T M s t e l e p h o n e ma s t u r b a t o r s . S a m a r i t a n s a r e n 't a l l o w e d t o p u t t h e p h o n e d o w n o n c a l l e r s ; t o d o s o y o u w o u l d h a v e t o g e t a s up e r v i s o r - d i ff i c u l t a t t h a t t i me o f n i g h t . S o y o u h a d t o d e a l wi t h i t a s b e s t y o u c o u l d . ( T h e G u a rd i a n : S a t u r d a y, J an u a r y 2 6 , 2 0 0 8 )

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c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t he ma i n t o pi c .

T h e p a r a g r a p h o p e ni n g w i t h h o we v e r i s

a b o ut t he w o r s t a s p e c t c o n c e r n i n g t h e n i g h t s hi f t , o r a b o u t w h a t m a d e h e r mo s t u n c o mf o r t a b l e d u r i n g t he n i g h t s h i f t . B o t h o f t h e s e n t e n c e s p r e c e di n g H o w e v e r, t he l a t t e r

a n d f o l l o w i n g h o w e v e r a r e l i n k e d t o t he ma i n t o pi c .

a d d s mo r e e x c i t i n g an d i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t s t o t h e ma t e r i a l j us t t a l k e d a b o u t . Ar e t he r e a n y ma ni f e s t a s s u mp t io ns t o b e e l i mi n a t e d h e r e ? Si n c e t he

t i t l e i s M y w o r s t j o b , t h e r e a de r ma y t hi nk t he s i t u a t i o n de s c r i be d i n t h e u n d e r l i n e d p a r t s h o u l d b e t h e w or s t t h i n g s a n d d e r i v e a n a s s u m p t i o n l i k e (46).

( 4 6 ) i f i t i s t o u g h t o w o r k a t n i g h t w h e n y o u a re t i r e d a n d f e e l l o n e l y, n o t hi ng i s w or s e t h a n t h a t .

Wh a t f o l l o ws h o we v e r c on t r a di c t s t h e a s s u mp t i o n a n d t h e n e l i mi n a t e s i t . L e t u s g o o n t o t h e n e x t e x a mp l e w h e r e h o we v e r i s l o c a t e d i n s e n t e n c e - i n t e r n a l p os i t i o n . T h i s e x a mp l e i s a p ai r o f t h e e x a mp l e ( 4 5 ) .

The title of the article is Kosovo peace fails to heal ancient ethnic feuds-T h e e n d of t he B al k a n c o nf l i c t m a y w el l s h i f t t e n s i o n s t o n e i g h b o ur i n g countries.

( 4 7 ) T he f o r me r Yu g o s l a v i a i s l i ke a j i g s a w p u z z l e , a n d We s t e r n l e a de r s h a ve o v e r t h e p a s t f e w y e a r s f o u n d t he ms e l ve s t r y i n g t o m a k e p e a c e b y p i e c e . S o fa r, n o n e o f t h e p i e c e s c o nt r i bu t e s t o a c o h e r e n t w h o l e , a n d t h e o n e s t h a t r e ma i n t o b e d e a l t w i t h r e ma i n j u s t t h a t . T h e wo r s t t h i n g , h o we v e r , i s t h a t , j u s t a s t e n s o f t h o u s a n d s o f

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t r o o p s f l o o d i n t o p a c i f y K o s o v o , n o o n e c a n g u a r a n t e e c o n fl i c t w i l l n o t break out somewhere else. ( T h e O b s e r v e r , Su n d a y J u n e 1 3 1 9 9 9 )

T h i s a r t i c l e s t a r t s w i t h t h e f i r s t p a r a gr a p h i n ( 4 7) .

A s i s i n di c a t e d i n t h e

t i t l e , t h e m a i n t o p i c i s a b o u t a n c i e n t e t h n i c f e u ds w hi c h m i g h t n o t e n d . E v e n t e n s o f t h o u s a n d s o f t r o o p s t o k e e p K o s o v o p e a c e f u l mi g h t w o r k n e g a t i v e l y. T h e f i r s t p a r a g r a ph i n ( 4 7) s a y s t h a t i t i s di ff i c ul t t o u ni f y t h e Th e s e nt e n c e

f o r me r Yu g o s l a v i a , w h i c h i s a s s oc i a t e d wi t h t he ma i n t o pi c .

w he r e h o w e v e r o c c u r s i n t h e mi d d l e r e fe r s t o a n i r o n i c a l r e s u l t o f p a c i f y i n g K o s o v o , w h i c h p r o v e s h o w d i ff i c u l t i t i s t o h e a l a n c i e n t e t h n i c f e u d s . a l s o r e l a t e d t o t he ma i n t op i c . containing however is p r o vi di n g It is

I n t hi s e xa mp l e , a l s o , t he s e g me n t wi t h mo r e i nt e r e s t i n g i n f or ma t i o n

c o n c e r n i n g t h e ma i n t op i c t h a n t h e u n d e r l i n e d p a r t . A n a s s u mp t i o n d e r iv e d f r o m t h e u n d e r l i ne d p a r t w i l l b e a s f o l l o w s .

(48)

T h e w o r s t t h i n g i s t o f ai l t o e n d t h e B a l k a n c o n fl i c t .

T h e a s s u m p t i o n w i l l b e el i m i n a t e d s i n c e i t c o n t r a d i c t s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e p o r t e d b y t h e s e g me n t c o n t a i ni n g h o w e v e r . I n t h i s s e c t i o n , I s h o we d t h e f u n c t i o n o f h o w e v e r w h i c h Le n k ( 1 9 9 8 ) suggests can be applied to however at the beginning of the sentence in w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e , a l t h o u g h L en k ( 1 9 9 8 ) h a s a p r o b l e m w i t h h o w e v e r i n t h e mi d d l e o f t h e s e n t e n c e . R eg a r d l e s s o f t he p o s i t i o n o f h o w e v e r , we c o u l d

r e c o g n i z e d i t s f u n c t i o ns o f r e t ur n i n g t o t h e ma i n t o p i c a n d s i g n a l i n g u pc o mi n g i n t e r e s t i n g ma t e r i a l a b o ut t he ma i n t op i c

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I n a l l t h e e xa mp l e s f r o m ( 3 3 ) t o ( 4 7 ) , w h e t h e r ho w e v e r i n t h e sentence-initial position or in the sentence-internal position, we ascertained p r e s e n c e o f p r o p o s i t i o n a l u s e a n d d i s c o u r s e ma k e r u s e i n o n e e x a mp l e . T h i n g s i n c o m mo n w i t h a l l t he e x a mp l e s a r e t h a t t h e r e a r e e x pl i c i t pr e v i o u s c o n t e xt s a n d t h e s e g me n t s c o nt a i ni ng h o w e v e r i s w h a t t h e s p e a k e r o r w r i t e r w a n t s t o s a y. T he me s s a ge s c l o s e ly c o n n e c t e d t o t h e ma i n t o p i c a n d

s u g g e s t i o n s t o c h a n g e t o p i c s a r e b o t h c o n s i de r e d t o be t h e s p e a ke r s o r w r i t e r s a rg u m e n t s . I w i l l p r op o s e a l t e r na t i ve de f i ni t i o n o f h o we v e r t o

support this observation in chapter 3.

3 . 4 . So m e Re m a i ni n g P ro bl e m s I n t h i s s e c t i o n , I w i l l i n di c a t e s o me p r o b l e m s c o n c e r n i n g f o r mu l a t i o n s b y B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) a n d Sc h o u r u p ( 20 0 5 ) . in 3.4.1 is the position of however. The first problem to be discussed Si n c e b o t h Bl a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) a n d

S c h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) o n l y a n a l y z e s e n t e n c e - i n i t i a l h o we v e r , w e ne e d t o c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r t he po s i t i o n i n g o f h o w e v e r c a n ma k e a d i ff e r e nc e . T he s e c o n d

p r o b l e m w e wi l l c o n s i d e r i n 3 . 4 . 2 i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f b u t a n d h o we v e r . Al t h o u g h h o w e v e r a nd b u t f u n c t i o n i n a s i m i l a r w a y, w h y c a n i t

b e p o s s i b l e f o r t h e m t o b e u s e d a t t h e s a me t i me i n a s e n t e n c e w i t h ou t redundancy? Schourup I n 3 . 4 .3 , I w i l l s h o w t h a t n e i t h er Bl a k e mo r e ( 1 9 8 7 , 2 0 0 2 ) n o r can explain how h o we v e r w or k s in the case of

(2005)

Fl o o r- H o l d i n g De v i c e o b s e r v e d b y L en k ( 1 9 9 8 : 1 2 0 ) , w h i c h i s n o t t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a ti o n b y t h e m.

3 . 4 . 1 . O n Po s i t i o ni n g o f H o w e v e r

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Q u i r k e t a l . ( 1 9 8 5 : 6 4 6 ) s t a t e s t ha t h o w e v e r c a n n ot be p l a c e d j us t a f t e r t he c o o r d i n a t e c o n j u n c t i o n , a s i l l u s t r a t e d b e l o w. i mp r o v e d i f h o w e v e r i s n o t r i g h t a f t e r b u t . H o w e v e r, t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y i s

( 4 9 ) a * Yo u c a n p h o n e t h e d o c t o r i f y o u l i k e , b u t h o w e v e r , I v e r y m uc h d o u b t w h e t h e r y o u w i l l g e t h i m t o c ome o u t o n a Sa t u r d a y n i g h t . b . ? Yo u c a n p h o n e t h e d oc t o r i f y o u l i k e , b ut I v e r y mu c h d o u b t , h o w e v e r , w h e t h e r y o u w i l l g e t h i m t o c ome o u t o n a Sa t u r d a y n i g h t . ( Qu i r k e t a l . 1 9 8 5 : 6 4 6 )

G a r n e r ( 1 9 9 8 ) s u g g e s t s t ha t h o we v e r i n t he mi d dl e o f t h e s e nt e n c e h a s a d i ff e r e n t f u n c t i o n fr o m t h a t o f i n i t i a l h o w e v e r . i s a s b e l o w. Ga r n e r s ( 1 9 9 8 ) a rg u me n t

( 5 0 ) h o we v e r i n t he mi d dl e o f t h e s e n t e n c e h a s a f u n c t i o n o f i n di c a t i n g t h a t a p a r t o f t h e p r e v i o u s c o n s t i t u t e s i s e mp h a s i z e d a n d w ha t a r e t h e c o n t r a s t e d e l e me n t s . (Garner 1998:342)

Both

B l a k e mo r e

(2002)

and

S ch o u r u p

(2005)

only

analyze

s e n t e n c e - i n i t i a l h o w e v e r , s o w e wi l l c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r t h e p o s i t i o n i n g o f h o we v e r can ma k e a d i ff e r e n c e . The d i ff e r e n c e of acceptability by

positioning of however will be taken up in chapter 5.

3 . 4 . 2 . T h e C o - o c c u r re n c e o f H o w e v e r a n d B u t I n 3 . 4 . 1 , I i n t r o d u c e d Q u i r k e t a l . s ( 1 9 8 5 : 6 4 6 ) o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t ho w e v e r

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cannot be adjacent to the coordinate conjunction but.

W h e n h o we v e r i s n ot

r i g h t a f t e r b u t , t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y i s i m p r o v e d b ut n o t p e r f e c t l y a c c e p t a b l e . H o w e v e r, H a l l i d a y a n d H a s s a n ( 1 9 7 6 : 2 5 0 ) me n t i o n t ha t h o we v e r c a n be u s e d with but in a sentence, but not with yet. In fact, we can see the

co-occurrence of them in articles, magazines, newspaper and literature. T h e f o l l o w i n g e x a mp l e i s q u o t e d f r o m a p a s s a g e o f a n o v e l b y J a n e A u s t e n ( 1 8 1 3 / 1 9 0 6 ) a nd f r o m a t r a n s c r i p t o f P r e s i d e n t J o h n s o n s a d d r e s s t o t h e n a t i o n n i g h t b e f o r e a s r e c o r de d b y T h e N e w Yo r k Ti m e s .

( 5 1 ) Wh e n s h e w a s o n l y f i f t e e n , t h e r e w a s a g e n t l e m a n a t m y b r o t h e r G a r d i ne r s i n t o wn , s o mu c h i n l o ve w i t h h e r, t h a t my s i s t e r- i n - l a w w a s s u r e h e w o u l d m a k e h e r a n o ff e r b e f o r e w e c a m e a w a y. did not. ( J a n e Au s t e n ( 1 8 1 3 / 1 9 0 6 ) . P r i d e a n d Pre j u d i c e , p 6 4 E d i n b u rg : J . G r a n t ) ( 5 2 ) T h e c h i e f d i p l o m a t i c a n d m i l i t a r y o ff i c e r s o f t h i s G o ve r n me n t a l l w e r e instructed to follow the same course. And since that night on March 31, e a c h o f t he c a n d i d a t e s h a s h a d d i ffe r i n g i d e a s a b o u t t h e G o v e r n me n t s p o l i c y, b u t g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , h o we v e r , t h r o u g h o u t t h e c a mp a i g n w e h a v e b e e n a b l e t o p r e s e n t a u n i t e d v o i c e, s u p p o r t i n g o u r G o v e r n me n t a n d s u p p o r t i n g o u r me n i n Vi e t n a m. ( T h e N e w Yo r k Ti m e s : N o v e m b e r 1 , 1 9 6 8 ) B u t h o we v e r h e

A c c o r d i n g t o Bl a ke mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) a n d Sc h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) , h o we v e r a n d b u t f u n c t i o n i n a s i mi l a r wa y. Then, the co-occurrence should be redundant, as

110

Q u i r k e t a l . s ( 1 9 8 5 ) a rg u e s .

We n e e d t o c o n s i d e r w h a t ma ke s i t p os s i b l e .

The speculation on this issue is picked up in chapter 4. B a s e d o n Bl a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) a n d Sc h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) , t h e r e i s o n l y o n e d i ff e r e n c e b e t w e e n b u t a n d h o w e v e r. c o nt e xt , w h i l e b u t d o e s n o t . H o we v e r h a s a c o ns t r a i nt o n t h e

T h e e x a m p l e s ( 5 4) a n d ( 55 ) s h o w t h e i r

s u g g e s t i o n s a r e n o t g oo d e n o u g h t o c a p t u r e t h e c o - o c c u r r e n c e o f b u t a n d h o we v e r . We n e e d t o c o n s i de r w h y b u t a nd h o we v e r c a n c o- oc c u r, e v e n We w i l l p u r s u e a n

t h o u g h t h e y a r e r e g a r d e d a s q ui t e s i mi l a r w or ds .

a l t e r n a t i v e pr o p os a l t o c a pt u r e t he r e a s o n o f i t i n c ha pt e r 3 .

3 . 5 . S um m a r y I n t h i s c h a p t e r, I c r i t i c a l l y r e vi e we d B l a k e mo r e ( 20 0 2 ) a n d Sc h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t u d i e s i n R e l ev a n c e T h e o r y o n t h e f u n c t i o n s o f h o we v e r , a n d i n d i c a t e d s o me p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e m . F i r s t l y, I c l a i m e d t h a t t w o c o m m u n i c a t i v e u s e s o f h o we v e r o b s e r v e d b y L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 ) mi g h t p r e s e n t k n o t t y p r o b l e ms f o r B l a ke mo r e ( 1 9 8 7 , 2 0 0 2 ) a n d Schourup (2005). Wh e t h e r h o we v e r i s u s e d t o h o l d f l o o r o r t o s i g n a l t h e

e n d o f d i g r e s s i o n , n e i t h e r Bl a k e m o r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) n o r S c h o ur u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) c a n a c c o u n t f or t he us a ge s i n q u e s t i on . T he ir a p p r o a c h i s l i mi t e d t o l o c a l l e v e l In order

a n d d o n o t t a k e i n t o c o n s i de r a t i o n g l o b a l c o m m u n i c a t i v e p u r p o s e s .

t o f i n d a n y c ue s t o i nt eg r a t e s e v e r a l u s a g e s o f h o w e v e r o b s e r ve d b y L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 ) i n t o o n e , w e i nv e s t i ga t e d w h e t h e r h o w e v e r i n wr i t t e n di s c ou r s e c a n b e captured by Lenk (1998). A l t h o u g h L e n k s ( 1 9 98 ) s u g g e s t i o n s e e ms t o h a v e

a p r o b l e m w i t h h o w e v e r i n t h e mi dd l e o f t he s e n t e nc e i n w r i t t e n d i s c o u r s e , i t w a s c o n f i r me d t h a t t h e r e a pp e a r s t o b e s o me c o m mo n a l i t i e s i n m o s t c a s e s .

111

S e c o n d l y, a s p o i n t e d o u t b y H al l i da y a n d H a s s a n ( 1 9 7 6 ) , h o we v e r c a n b e u s e d w i t h b u t i n a s e nt e n c e . I f h o w e v e r d i ff e r s f r o m b ut o n l y i n h a v i n g a c o n t e x t u a l r e s t r i c t i o n, wh a t ma k e s i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e m t o a p p e a r a t t h e s a m e t i me i n a s e n t e n c e w i t h o u t r e d u n da n c y ? L a s t l y, B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) a n d S c h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) f o c u s o n h o w e v e r a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a s e n t e n c e a lt h o u g h t h e p o s i t i o n i n g o f h o w e v e r c a n v a r y. It

s h o u l d b e s t u d i e d w h e t h e r t h e p o s i t i o n i n g o f h o we v e r c a n ma k e a di ff e r e n c e .

112

Chapter 4

Alternative Proposal for However

4.1. Introduction In chapter 3, it was reported that Quirk et al. (1985:646) claims that however cannot be placed just after the coordinate conjunction but and that the acceptability is low even when however and but do not lie next to each other.

(1) a*You can phone the doctor if you like, but however , I very much doubt whether you will get him to come out on a Saturday night. b.?You can phone the doctor if you like, but I very much doubt, however , whether you will get him to come out on a Saturday night. (Quirk et al. 1985:646)

As we have seen in chapter 3, Blakemore (2002) and Schourup (2005) postulate that however and but encode almost the same information. According to Blakemore (2002) and Schourup (2005), there is a single difference between but and however. They observe that however has a If so, the co-occurrence

constraint on the context, while but does not. should be redundant, as Quirk et al. (1985) argues.

However, Halliday and Hassan (1976:250) mention that however can be used with but in a sentence, but it can not be used with yet . In reality, we
113

can see the co-occurrence of but and however in articles, magazines, newspapers and literary works. co-occurrence from them. Section 4.2 will provide several tokens of

Those tokens will be a piece of evidence to show

Quirk et al.s (1985) suggestion is not good enough to capture the co-occurrence of but and however . Thus, we need to consider why but and

however can co-occur, even though they are considered to be quite similar words. An alternative proposal to capture the reason for it will be provided The speculation on this issue will be picked up in section

in section 4.3. 4.4.

Section 4.5 will provide my explanation on co-occurrence of although Section 4.6 is the summary of this chapter.

and however .

4.2. Co-occurrence of But and However It is not only Quirk et al. (1985) who argue that it is undesirable for but to be used with however at the same time in a sentence. Araki et al. (1985:543)

also say that the co-occurrence of but and however as shown in (2) is verbose in literary style and should be avoided.

(2) But these plans, however , cannot be carried out without money. (Araki et al. 1985:543)

Morris ed. (1969:261) says too much contrast can ruin a sentence, and that the contrastive conjunction but is redundant when used with however . According to Morris ed. (1969:261), it is hard to justify the sentence illustrated below.
114

(3) But the army, however , went on with its plans.

(Morris ed. 1969:261)

In colloquial style, however sometimes follows just after but .

As

pointed out by Quirk et al. (1985:643), emphatic endorsement by conjunct co-occurrence of the same class is more characteristic of loose informal talk rather than formal writings. exception. The co-occurrence of but and however is no

Araki et al. (1985:543) points out that this kind of co-occurrence In addition to that, Araki et al.

can be often recognized in conversation.

(1985:543) deliver an opinion that the adjacency gives the reader/hearer the impression that it is not a careless mistake. This comment does not Whatever the

correspond to the degree of the acceptability of (1a) and (1b).

case, I found that both patterns are recognized in materials with colloquial style. The difference between literary style and colloquial style should not be ignored when we think of the co-occurrence of but and however . As Araki

et al. (1985:543) mention, it is not always unacceptable that however immediately follows but . publication. In very truth, many tokens were found in Let us start with the cases

Now, we will look at examples.

where however is adjacent to but . found in classic literature.

The sequence of but however can be

In literature, exaggeration for effect is allowed, (The

so it would be all right to use but and however at the same time. emphasis and italics in the examples below is the author s. this chapter, they are the author s unless there is a notice.)

In the rest of

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(4) a. When she was only fifteen, there was a gentleman at my brother Gardiner s in town, so much in love with her, that my sister-in-law was sure he would make her an offer before we came away. he did not. (Jane Austen (1813/1906). Pride and Prejudice , p64. Edinburg: J. Grant) b. Yes. Betwixt you and me, maam, returned Mr. Bumble, thats the great principle; and thats the reason why, if you look at any cases that get into them owdacious newspapers, youll always observe that sick families have been relieved with slices of cheese. Thats the rule now, Mrs. Corney, all over the country. But, however , said the beadle, stopping to unpack his bundle, these are official secrets, maam; not to be spoken of; except, as I may say, among the porochial officers, such as ourselves. (Charles Dickens (1838), Oliver Twist Or The Parish Boys Progress , Chapter XXIII, p214. London: Chapman & Hall: Humphrey Milford) c. Ill tell you that, too, at some future period. I happened to be in a very good humour just then; but, though I was complaisant and gracious enough, I took care not to compromise myself in any possible way. But, however , the conceited wretch chose to interpret my amiability of temper his own way, and at length presumed upon my indulgence so far--what do you think?--he actually made me an offer! (Anne Bront (1911), Agnes Grey , Chapter 14: The Rector, p189. Edinburg: J. Grant) But however

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(5) a. Well, after Mrs. Mayoress was gone, her two daughters came in, and they called for the gentlewoman too, and they talked a long while to me, and I answered them in my innocent way; but always, if they asked me whether I resolved to be a gentlewoman, I answered Yes. At last one of them asked me what a gentlewoman was? That puzzled me much; but, however , I explained myself negatively, that it was one that did not go to service, to do housework. (Daniel Defoe (1721). the Fortunes & Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders , Chapter 1, p13. London: Oxford University Press) b. But, however, I shall so far do justice to this part of the Academy, as to acknowledge that all of them were not so visionary. (Jonathan Swift (1906), Gulliver s Travels , Chapter VI, p174 London: J.M. Dent) c. To be certain, said the boy, it is honestly worth two, when your ladyship considers what a risk I run; but, however, if your ladyship will promise me the two guineas, Ill een venture: to be certain it is a sinful thing to ride about my measter s horses; but one comfort is, I can only be turned away, and two guineas will partly make me amends. (Henry Fielding (1882). The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling , Book X - Chapter IX, p83 London: Smith, Elder)

In modern English also, such tokens can be found.

The following passage

comes from a program where a famous columnist answers questions over the
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phone.

(6) Dear Mr. McClintock, How long does one wait for a contractor? I understand the best are busy but Ive waited for three months for this guy to start a project. His answering service is lousy, he leaves messages late, or on Friday afternoons or times when Im not available. I dont want to be blunt; but however , I tempted to tell him to either start the project (In the midst of Christmas season!) or forget it. ( Washington Post ; Thursday, December 1, 2005)

The following examples (7) and (8) are quoted from transcripts of live online discussions.

(7) After an award winning portrayal, its the challenge of the actor (and I guess their agent) to find future roles that fit the actor. Thats why some people win for such obvious reasons and never win again. But however, sometimes continued fame (or luck) sway the judgment of existing actors performing somewhat less than stellar parts. ( Washington Post ; Monday, December 22, 2003) (8) I am very heartened by the voices of democracy that we are growing to hear in the Middle East but however if supposing that elections are held, wouldnt there be a chance that terrorist and fundamentalist organization might rise to power? ( Washington Post ; Monday, March 14, 2005)

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The next one is the transcript from the House Judiciary Committee s impeachment hearings when President Clinton was impeached because of Clinton-Lewinsky affair.

(9) REP. COBLE: Thank you, sir. Mr. Davis, in a Washington Post interview comparing the impeachment process with Watergate, you indicated that were in an uglier political time now. Now much has been said about the late President Kennedys sexual indiscretions that were not publicized but however were commonly known. (Transcripts from the House Judiciary Committees impeachment hearings, Day Four: December 9, 1998.)

The example below is cited from The AubreyMaturin series , which is a sequence of historical novels in modern literature.

(10) I am afraid it is going to turn out a truly dirty night, said Jack. He stood up and in his sure-footed seamans way walked over to his barometer. Yes, he said. Dirtier than I had thought. He came back and gazed out at the darkness, full of rain and flying water from the ships bow-wave, more and more as she increased her way. But , however , he went on, `I am most heartily glad to be at sea. ( Blue at the Mizzen , by Patrick OBrian, W. W. Norton & Co., 1999, p.4)
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The example (4) is a narrative part of a story. obviously spoken language.

The examples (5) and (6) are

Therefore, it can be safely said that But

however can be used in colloquial expressions as Araki et al. (1985) claim. However, I doubt that the cases where however does not appear immediately after but are found only in spoken language, because I found some examples in written language. We will see some examples of the The examples (11) and The passage in

cases where however does not appear right after but.

(12) are transcripts, which are evidently spoken language.

(11) comes from a transcript of President Johnsons address to the nation last night as recorded by The New York Times.

(11) The chief diplomatic and military officers of this Government all were instructed to follow the same course. And since that night on March 31, each of the candidates has had differing ideas about the Governments policy, but generally speaking, however , throughout the campaign we have been able to present a united voice, supporting our Government and supporting our men in Vietnam. ( The New York Times; November 1, 1968, Text of President Johnsons Broadcast to the Nation Announcing a Bombing Halt.)

The passage in (12) is quoted from the transcript of Day Two of the Roberts Confirmation Hearings.

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(12)U.S. SENATE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE HOLDS A HEARING ON THE NOMINATION OF JOHN ROBERTS TO BE CHIEF JUSTICE OF THE SUPREME COURT (snip) HATCH: OK. Now, the chairman and ranking member have raised some important issues, and I may turn to some of them shortly. But I believe, however , that we should start with first principles before exploring how those principles should be applied. ( Washington Post ; Tuesday, September 13, 2005)

In articles also, buthowever can be found. from The New York Times .

The example (13) is cited

(13) THIS truth-telling has not always endeared him to Indians. Indias newspapers may be filled with outraged revelations about civic inefficiency and corruption. Indias self-accusations may often be as harsh as any Mr. Naipaul has made. But there is, however, a tacit agreement that this is not for outside dissemination, that Western stereotypes of India as a backward country should not be pandered to. Thus Mr. Naipaul is regarded as the outsider with inside information, the man who betrays. ( The New York Times ; December 30, 1990)

The examples (14) to (19) come from Washington Post .


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(14)Of course a single, hastily constructed statistical model is inadequate to prove the existence or estimate the true impact of Little Mo on early primary voting. Other models using different or more highly refined variables might produce different results. But its interesting, however , to note that other researchers have detected somewhat similar effects. Political scientist Larry Bartels, who literally wrote the book on political momentum, argued in the late 1980s that many voters use a simple winner/loser calculation to decide which candidate to support in primaries. ( Washington Post ; Polling Director; Monday, January 31, 2000) (15) The Soviets created a second satellite system in the late 1980s this one in geostationary orbit, meaning that these satellites remain fixed in one place above the Earths surface. Two of these are still functioning, Podvig said, with one sited to cover some of the gaps in the original array of satellite. But gaps remain, however . ( Washington Post ; Wednesday, February 10, 1999) (16) The District has its killers, as critics love to note, ignoring the steady decline in homicide victims and the improved arrest statistics. And, yes, one murder is too many. But our city, however , hasnt had anything like Wichitas BTK murderer (bind, torture, kill) who terrorized that city for 30 years. ( Washington Post ; Saturday, March 12, 2005)

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(17)Other studies, most notably by AAA, have found dogs to be the overwhelming choice of animal travel companions, comprising nearly 80 percent of pets on trips (15 percent are cats, and the remainder include birds, fish, ferrets and rabbits). Starwood was sold on the growing industry trend but did, howeve r, set a per-dog weight limit of 40 pounds at Westin hotels and 80 pounds at Sheraton and W hotels. ( Washington Post ; Sunday, October 12, 2003) (18)At the Islamic Scholars Union, the mullahs told me that their countrymen had accepted the Saudi mosques for a simple reason -- they couldnt afford to build their own. But Mullah Talat Mantiq bitterly pointed out that in the years before the establishment of the U.N. Oil for Food Program in 1996, when people in the region were starving, the Saudis were building mosques -- but were not, however , donating food, clothing or medicine. ( Washington Post ; Sunday, August 11, 2002) (19)Another story tells of basic training where, for some reason, [t]he soldiers here dont spend their time shining boots, singing cadences or doing countless push-ups. Wonderful! But they do, however , shout Long live Iraq! in what is described as unison. No doubt. ( Washington Post ; Thursday, December 1, 2005)

The following passages in (20) and (21) are excerpts from The Times .

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(20) Prevention is therefore all-important. This is what justifies the drastic contingency plans now being drawn up by the World Health

Organisation and the cost of measures already taken by worried governments. Britain has not yet ordered poultry to be brought indoors a step that would be very costly for organic farmers, whose birds would lose their free-range status. These now account for 27 per cent of total egg production. But it has, however , already taken other steps that are sensible. ( The Times : August 23, 2005)

(21) There generally isnt a problem with drinking freshly squeezed fruit juice unless you have a tendency towards an over-acidic gut, in which case you may find citrus too much to stomach. But you do, however , need to watch the combination of sugar and acids in the juice, as these can cause tooth decay. ( The Times ; January 25, 2005)

The examples (22) to (24) are quoted from The Guardian .

(22) It's hard to love Western Road but it does, however , boast Kambi's, a Lebanese BYOB restaurant with a takeaway counter to satisfy the quickest and pickiest of quick biters. ( The Guardian ; Friday May 4, 2001) (23)Whether Arirang can provide new momentum for engagement, or attract more tourist bucks, remains to be seen. But for now, however , it is party time - at least in the surreal city that is Pyongyang. ( The Guardian ; Friday May 17, 2002)
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(24) I also watch the news, just as desperate and heart-sick, but I do, however , know exactly who is on the other side of those guns, and who is sitting at home in Jerusalem or Tel Aviv watching the events on Israeli television - and why they fail to rise up in rage against their government for perpetrating all this in their name. ( The Guardian ; Tuesday October 24, 2000)

Those examples support Quirk et al.s (1985:643) observation that emphatic endorsement by conjunct co-occurrence of the same class is more In this

characteristic of loose informal talk rather than formal writing.

section, I showed that the combination of but and however might not be accepted in formal writings, but it can be permissible in spoken language, literature and newspapers. co-occur? In the meanwhile, other concessive conjunctive adverbs can co-occur with but and sometimes they can be adjacent to but . It is shown in (25) and Though and What makes it possible that but and however

(26) that but yet and but still can be used without problems. nevertheless can be used with but in a sentence, too. immobile in front of its clause.

In (26), yet is

(25)

a. Its certainly cold, but still it might be colder. (Otsuka et al. 1969:506) b. Clare didnt do much work, but she still passed the exam. (LDOCE 3 )
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(26)

Its very fine weather for a walk, but yet I dont think Ill go out. (Otsuka et al. 1969:506)

(27)

a. John doesnt look very happy but Mary seems all right, though . b. John doesnt look very happy but Mary, though , seems all right. (Quirk et al. 1985:646)

(28)

a. Numbers have declined since the 1950s but nevertheless these migrant birds continued to breed in Britain until 1998 and many from Scandinavia had also appeared to colonise parts of Scotland. ( The Times ; August 20, 2004) b. All the money involved in these transactions was held by the UN but the arrangement nevertheless gave Saddam room to reward people outside Iraq. ( The Sunday Times ; October 10, 2004)

Quirk et al. (1985:643) alleges that it is possible to have a conjunct co-occur with one or more from the same class and achieve the effect of emphatic endorsement rather than of tautology. It will be discussed and

demonstrated in detail how the co-occurrence can achieve the effect of emphatic endorsement in the following section.

4.3. An Alternative Proposal In the previous section, we have already confirmed that however can be used with but in a sentence. How can Blakemore (2002) and Schourup (2005) Remember that Blakemore

explain the co-occurrence of but and however ?

(2002) and Schourup (2005) make the point that however and but convey
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quite similar information.

The difference between but and however is that See (29)

however has a constraint on the context, although but does not. and (30).

(29)The procedural information in common with but and however Cognitive Effect: Contradiction and elimination of an assumption. (30) The restriction on the context for however However affirms the explicit content of the preceding segment and simultaneously connects it to an assumption inferentially.

Would the single difference enable but and however to co-occur? seems to lack in persuasiveness.

The idea

Instead, I will argue that however does not

have procedural information but conceptual information, based on the observation by Higashimori and Yoshimura (2003). With regard to

co-occurrence of function words which play seemingly similar roles, Higashimori and Yoshimura (2003:113-116) make an interesting proposal. In response to Andersens (1998:164) analyses, they weigh the differences between sort of and like.

(31) a. Gradually it sort of like brings people out of themselves and do you know what I mean, they learn to do things. (Higashimori and Yoshimura 2003:115) b. Sort of, like when your combing your hair, innit erm, (sic) in the bath keeps on, do my hair, do my hair. (op.cit:116)
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c. Well you put another word in between each letter of the other word sort of like . (op.cit:116)

They make an assertion that the former has the conceptual information of not entirely, while the latter has only procedural information which tells the hearer to extend the scope of the modified word. It is because the type of

information is different that sort of and like can co-occur as follows. Given that one has only procedural information and the other has conceptual information although they are synonyms like that, we could say as follows, on the information that but, however, still, and yet have.

(32) 1 But has procedural information. 2 However, still , and yet have conceptual information.

The combinations of but still and but yet are no problem since the types of information which still and yet have differ from but. The combination of

the words that has conceptual information will be barred out only if it is too redundant. In 4.3.1, it will be taken up what conceptual information and Hereinafter, we will look at the conceptual The conceptual information of still and yet I will also consider the possibility of

procedural information are.

information of however in 4.3.2. will be dealt with in chapter 6.

however being combined with still and yet.

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4.3.1. Conceptual Information and Procedural Information In Chapter 1, we have already learned that there are two kinds of information in Relevance Theory; conceptual information and procedural information. Here, it will be briefly explained again. In Relevance Theory, the intention

of the speaker is considered to modify the hearer s cognitive environment (Higashimori and Yoshimura 2003:13). The cognitive environment It is called

consists of a set of logical forms which express assumptions.

cognitive effect to correct the cognitive environment by deleting a logical form, adding one or modifying the degree of conviction. (Higashimori and Yoshimura 2003:139). Blakemore (1987, 1992, 2000, 2002) claims that but

and however encodes a procedure which can be denied in terms of the cognitive effect of contradiction and elimination. This information is called

procedural meaning and distinguished from conceptual meaning. Furthermore, the assumption conveyed by the utterance is divided into two, that is, explicature which is an explicit meaning directly based on the utterance and implicature inferred from it. In the following example,

Marys utterance in (33) will be explicature as it is, but it cannot be the answer to Peter s question. However, Peter can get the implicature (34b)

through the inference based on the knowledge of encyclopedia like (34a).

(33)

Peter: Would you drive a Mercedes? Mary: I wouldnt drive ANY expensive car. (Sperber and Wilson 1995:194)

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(34) a. A Mercedes is an expensive car. b. Mary wouldnt drive a Mercedes. (implicature)

Explicature consists of conceptual meanings, which are the meanings of nouns and verbs, what is called, content words. There are some words

and phrases which indicate how to infer when the hearer gets implicature through an inference starting from explicature. This function that

conjunctions and, but as well as other discourse markers have is called procedural meanings. For instance, the example (35) has the same truth In the context of P so

value, but the interpretations are totally different.

Q, so indicates that the conclusion Q is based on the premise P and Q should be added to the cognitive environment as a new assumption. the other hand, in the context P after all Q, after all is opposite. conclusion and Q is the premise to conduct to P. On

P is a

It guides the hearer to

consider Q as an assumption that strengthens an existing assumption.

(35) a. Ben is a New Zealander. So he loves rugby. b. Ben is a New Zealander. After all he loves rugby. (Blakemore 2002:33)

Concerning the characteristics of the words with the procedural information, Blakemore (2002:83) says, It is hard to paraphrase them. If you ask a

Native English speaker what but means, you will be told how to use it, not the paraphrase. Moreover, Discourse makers with procedural meanings do
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not have the adverbs that mean the same things (Blakemore 2002:83-84).

4.3.2. Conceptual Information of However Blakemore (2002:83) states that the word with procedural information is difficult to be paraphrased. According to Blakemore (2002:83), if you ask a

native speaker of English what but means, you will be told how to use it. However seems to be different from but. Quirk et al . (1985:641) suggests
TRUE THAT MAY BE .

that however can be paraphrase as HOW EVER

(36) He didnt like the food. didnt complain about it.

However, [However true that may be], he (Quirk et al. 1985:641)

It means that however could have conceptual information but not procedural information. Halliday (1976:254-255) hypothesizes that DISMISSIVE expression is a generalized form of the adversative relation. In any case, either way, When the The

whetheror not will be taken up as DISMISSIVE expression.

meaning is more generalized, unlimited possibility can be included. expression no matter what is classified into it. something precedes it.

It requires the premise that

Thus, however that may be conveys the message Then, it comes right down

that, whatever precedes it, it will be dismissed. to change of topics.

Current adversative meaning of however was derived

from the generalized meaning that, in fact, it has carried in the past. Hallidays (1976:254-255) argument appears to support Quirk et al .s
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1985:641) suggestion. I guess that dismissal however , HOW EVER used as an adversative connective HOW EVER in the history.
THAT MAY BE ,

started to be by loosening

TRUE THAT MAY BE

Wilson and Carston (2007:236-239) claims that there is a Category extension refers to

type of broadening called category extension .

the case where the use of salient brand names (Hoover, Xerox, Sellotape) donates a broader category (vacuum cleaner, photocopier, sticky tape). Wilson and Carston (2007:236) argue that personal name

(Chomsky, Shakespeare) and common noun both led themselves to category extension.

(37) a. Iraq is this generations Vietnam . b. I dont believe ittheyve appointed another Chomsky . c. Handguns are the new flick-knives . d. Ironing is the new yoga . (Wilson and Carston 2007:236)

According to Wilson and Carston (2007:236), the example (37a) shows that Vietnam may be understood as conveying ad hoc concept. The ad hoc In

concept represents the category of disastrous military interventions.

(37b), Chomsky might be considered to convey as hoc concept which represents a broader category of forceful exponents of a particular approach to linguistics. In (37c), ad hoc concept of flick-knives might represent the The example (37d) shows

broader category of teenage weapons of choice.

ad hoc concept of yoga might represent the category of fashionable pastimes


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for relieving stress. Wilson and Carston (2007:236-239) examine only ad hoc concepts of nouns. However, their analyses could be applied to the lexical change of The ad hoc concept will represent the broader category I suppose that ad hoc concepts of however We have already seen that

however in the past.

of reservation of inferences.

were determined, depending on the manifestness.

the degree of manifestness is related to the interpretation in chapter 2 and 3. The manifestness seems to be the key to capture several readings. In the

original use, every possibility is reserved, so however would have been used only in the context where the manifestness of an assumption is weak. Later,

however would have begun to be used in the context where there is a manifest assumption or a weakly manifest one. Wilson and Carston (2007:238-239) make an assertion that lexical adjustment may be used once and then forgotten, creating an ad hoc concept tied to a particular context that may never occur again. However, some of

these pragmatically constructed senses may be regularly and frequently used in the communicative interactions of a few people or a group. The

pragmatic process of concept construction becomes gradually more and more common, and eventually stabilizes as an extra lexical sense. Moreover, Hall

(2004:226) makes an interesting assertion: if theres any link between certain cognitive effects and connectives, it has to be more accidental and indirect than is suggested by an attempt at this kind of categorization. comment could support my hypothesis. By the way, Blakemore (1987, 2002) and Schourup (2005) argue that
133

This

however is directly related to elimination of the contradicting assumption. doubt that it is true.

Greenbaum (1969:65) alleges that however express

some reservation with respect to what has been mentioned previously. Greenbaum (1969) does not explain what the word reservation exactly means, but it might mean that the elimination of derived inference would not be encoded in the information of however . I suppose that Halls (2004:226)

observation on but amounts to the same as my hypothesis on however . According to Hall (2004:226), the main relevance, even in denial uses, lies not in contradiction and elimination of this assumption, but in getting the hearer to entertain the implicated premise and the fact that the state of affairs introduced by the but -clause is an exception, from which the cognitive effects of the utterance follow. I would like to argue that the conceptual The

information of however contributes to inference just indirectly. cognitive effects of the utterance are brought about as an incidental.

On the basis of those observations, I would like to claim that the conceptual information of however , HOW EVER
TRUE THAT MAY BE ,

directs

the hearer to accept the preceding content as the truth.

I assume that

however does not contain procedural information of elimination of an assumption. The conceptual information of however just guarantees a

relevance to what precedes it through its meaning and a contradicting assumption will be manifest from it. If however has nothing to do with the

elimination, how can the interpretation of denial of expectation be recognized? As for the elimination of an existing assumption, Higashimori

and Yoshimura (2003:17) states that the weaker information will be


134

eliminated when new and old information contradict each other.

For

example, person B watch person A going out of the library with Russian books and then he has an assumption shown in (38).

(38) A knows Russian.

(Higahimori and Yoshimura 2003:17)

Several days later, person B hears person A saying I wish I knew Russian. As a result, person B understands that A does not know Russian. The

existing assumption that contradicts this new information will be eliminated and modified the cognitive environment. The segment in which however

appears conveys the speaker s or the writer s argument and suggestion. Then, the information must be stronger than the existing assumption. Consequently, the assumption will be eliminated. Contrastingly, as we have

seen in chapter 2, but itself has procedural information of contradiction and elimination of an assumption. Here, I would like to explain how conceptual information of however contributes to the interpretations.
THAT MAY BE

The pronoun that in HOW EVER

TRUE

refers to the information conveyed by the previous explicit

segment.

So, the affirmation of the content of the previous explicit segment As we have seen in chapter 3,

is ensured by the conceptual information.

what the speaker or writer wants to say occurs in the segment containing however . Thinking of the communicative purpose, the information must As Higashimori and

be stronger than the contradicting assumption.

Yoshimura (2003:17) point out, the weaker information will be eliminated.


135

I will sum up contribution of the conceptual information of however below.

(39) Contribution of Conceptual Information of However a. Denial of Expectation However guarantees a relevance to the explicit content of the preceding segment and directs the readers/listeners to take it as truth. A contradicting assumption derived from what precedes it. The

segment which contains however conveys the speaker s or writer s argument. Accordingly, the information is stronger than the

contradicting assumption, and then the latter will be eliminated. b. Change of Topics/ Floor-Holding Device However guarantees a relevance to the explicit content of the preceding segment and affirms the content. Unlimited possibilities

emerge from the context, and they will be reserved because they are not manifest enough to be eliminated.

I suppose that whether to eliminate or reserve something that emerges from the context is not determined by however per se. The advantage of this alternative suggestion is that the conceptual information of however contains the speaker s affirmation of the previous information and, therefore, the restriction on the context suggested by Blakemore (1987, 2002) and Schourup (2005) is not necessary. specified context for however is quoted in (40) again. The

136

(40) However affirms the explicit content of the preceding segment and simultaneously helps the reader or listener to make an inference from what precedes it to a contradicting conclusion.

Let us move on to how my alternative proposal works in accounting for two discourse functions explored by Lenk (1985): the signal of the end of digression (the return to the main topic, and the change of topics), and the introduction of interesting material about the main topic (Floor-Holding Device). Firstly, I will consider the return to the main topic.

(41)a

does operational research questions of

is it

is it

primarily concerned with

distribution-marketing research started --- by studies - of

indeed no --- operational

military problems --- one of the first exercises ever carried out -- took place during the war --- when -- that question of whether small

boats should carry anti-aircraft guns - was considered --- these small boats had been equipped -- with anti-aircraft guns -- but they werent shooting down any more enemy aircraft --- and therefore certain people concluded - that these guns werent fulfilling their function

--- however when the operation research man looked -- at the data more closely - he discovered that fewer boats were being sunk in other word. (Lenk 1998:109, quoted without irrelevant signs)

137

The function of return to the main topic is assumed to derive from the conceptual information of however, or HOW EVER
TRUE THAT MAY BE .

hypothesize that however guarantees a relevance to the explicit content of the preceding segment and affirms the content and simultaneously a

contradiction conclusion comes up out of what precedes it.

Thinking of the The

conceptual information, new information should follow after however .

natural extension should be that the speakers and authors ideas, opinions, points in dispute will be expressed after however . Based on the conceptual information of however, the hearer learns that the speaker admits the content that the guns werent fulfilling their function as truth. In this context, an assumption like (42) becomes

manifest from the segment prior to however .

(42) If the guns werent fulfilling their function, many boats would be sunk.

The wrong conclusion will be eliminated as it contradicts the information following however and the former is weaker than the latter. The example is

not problematic to Blakemore (2002) and Schourup (2005), since there is a manifest assumption. The second subject is about change of topics. As we have already

seen in chapter 3, Quirk et al. (1972) also observe this usage.

138

(43) When however is positioned initially, it is sometimes used in the spoken language to indicate that the speaker wishes to dismiss the topic he is dealing with as one that he does not want to pursue any further. (Quirk et al. 1972:674)

How can this usage be captured by my alternative proposal?

(44) C b C b C b C

they all thought his name was funny you know I suppose theyd never heard of him no no but I made them take notes ** as much as anything however you know they couldnt do that either it was an exercise in taking notes

b C b

** hows Dan shes splendid. Blossoming shes getting a bit short of breath

now because theres only I suppose six weeks or so to go by physically

(Lenk 1998:120, quoted without unnecessary signs)

Hallidays (1976) argument could be a cue to answer the question. however, one thing that I disagree with Halliday (1976).

There is,

It is not clear what


139

Halliday (1976) means by dismiss.

If it means elimination, I doubt if it is

true that however dismisses whatever precedes it as Halliday (1976) postulates. I think that neither reservation nor dismissing would be They would be yielded incidentally. Remember that

encoded by however .

it is a precondition for elimination that a contradicting assumption should be manifest, as we have seen in chapter 2. clear from the context, the in If an assumption to be eliminated is will be be adversative. A

interpretation the context

contradicting

assumption

will

eliminated

because

speaker s/writer s opinion or suggestion is presented in the segment which has however and it is stronger than the wrong assumption. If unlimited

possibilities are reserved in the context, however will be taken as change of topics. The unlimited possibilities cannot be deleted, for they are not

considered to be manifest enough to be eliminated. The example below is classified into return to the main topic by Lenk (1998).

(45) B but Im which c dear me B didnt sort of help you know and I did not sort of got on with anything very quickly because I felt lousyand then now I have broken my best glasses so (laughs) c ((youve)) what B broken my best glasses. so it hasnt been a very sort of successful (time) so yesterday I had to go up
140

c dear me B to the opticians hoping to get tem back for Tuesday c [m] B Im wearing some some old ones theyre not old but theyre c yeah. B however c have you been stuck with any preparation for your college work B well Ive been trying but [m] ((Im awfully)) I havent really got on very fast {I must day} (Lenk 1998:114, quoted without irrelevant symbols for transcription) you know at the moment well

theyre not

very elegant.

Lenk (1998) is right from the global-level perspective.

However, it seems

to me that it is a kind of change of topics, since the topics are different between the segments before and after however . captured in the same way. This example will be

There is no manifest assumption in this context, In my

so Blakemore (2002) and Schourup (2005) will face difficulty.

proposal, unlimited possibilities are reserved in this example, and then it is not problematic. Thirdly, let us have a look at other problematic examples with Blakemore (2002) and Schourup (2005). As you can see, in the following

case, the material that follows however does not add contrastive aspect (Lenk 1998:120). The problem is that, in such cases, it is impossible to identify Here is an example of signaling an
141

what is the assumption to be eliminated.

upcoming interesting material about the main topic without contrast, which is classified into Floor-Holding Device by Lenk (1998).

(46)B ((I mean)) he doesnt realize he thinks this is high((er)) powered negotiation. in fact A m. m. m. m. m. m. B hes making people sick however there was this but there was also [Peter] Harrington. youve (Lenk 1998:119)

the fact that he specifically mentioned. met Harrington.

In this example, as Lenk (1985:119-120) says, it is clear that Mallett, the person who is the current topic of the conversation and the description of the unpleasant characteristics of Mallett is described before however . After

however , B starts to make another report about what Mallett had done, which immediately shifts into talk focusing on the person mentioned by Mallett. Following my alternative proposal, I would like to explain this example as follows. However leads the listener to affirm the previous In this context, no inference that ends It is

message, hes making people sick. in elimination is manifest.

Unlimited possibilities are reserved here.

not the introduction of a perfectly new topic, but it might not be a problematic to my proposal. Before and after however , B is talking about However,

Mallett, the person who is the current topic of the conversation.

if the main topic is, strictly speaking, about how disgusting Mallet is, it could be interpreted as a change of topic although a totally new topic does
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not follow after however .

I suppose that however has nothing to do with

introduction of the new topic, which occurs after the statement about what Mallett had done. met Harrington. Let me explain another example of signaling upcoming interesting material about the main topic without contrast. The scope of however cannot cover the segment youve

(47) B ((to)) take it A has he Mhm ((but)) I think that its possible for us to have new

B over in anyway.

links which dont in any way cut out A Mhm B old ones Am B Cypruswhich is once again I think. (Lenk 1998:119) however this well have to see if not Imola

This example will be provided an explanation similarly.

The conceptual

information of however makes the listener affirm the previous message, its possible for us to have new links which dont in any way cut out old ones. Furthermore, we can no manifest assumption that contradicts what is said in the segment containing however . As Lenk (1998:119) says, what follows

after however looks like merely an attenuation of what had been said up to that time. It is because the message well have to see if not Imola In
143

challenges Bs personal opinion mentioned before however is uttered.

this case, before and after however , the topic is the same. considered that unlimited possibilities are reserved by however .

It can be

We have already seen that functions of however are the same in both spoken language and written language in chapter 3. look at an example of written language. Now, we will have a

The articles title is Epidemics:

Scientists to hunt down new viruses before they strike.

(48)This outbreak was attributed to a decision by pig farmers to plant fruit trees on their land to boost income. Fruit bats, which were subsequently found to carry Nipah, came to the trees for food, dropped excrement on pigs below and the disease was then transmitted to humans. However , the worst known outbreak caused by such viruses - known as zoonotic organisms - is the HIV/Aids epidemic. Tens of millions of people could die of the illness, which scientists believe was caused by a disease in chimps that was passed to humans in Cameroon in the Thirties. (The Observer, Sunday June 15 2008)

Until however appears, several cases of conveying viruses from animals to humans are described. The statement after however is about the worst case Therefore, there is no Moreover,

of all known outbreaks caused by such viruses.

contrast between the segments preceding and following however .

both the segments preceding and following however are connected to the main topic. The conceptual information of however shows that the author
144

admits the truth of the previous statement.

The reader will find unlimited Plus, the topic is

possibilities derived from the segment preceding however . the same before and after however .

Some might say that a possible

contradicting assumption might be as follows.

(49) if fruit bats, which were subsequently found to carry Nipah, came to the trees for food, dropped excrement on pigs below and the disease was then transmitted to humans, it is the worst thing.

I am not sure about whether or not the assumption is manifest, but it is no problem. That is because however can work to reserve unlimited

possibilities if there is no manifest contradicting assumption. To sum up, if however is used in the context where an inference that ends in elimination is manifest, it will be considered to be adversative. On

the other hand, if however appears in the context where no specific inference that ends in elimination is manifest, it will be taken as change of topics when a new topic is introduced after however or signaling upcoming interesting material about the main topic when both the segments preceding and following however are related to the main topic. In short, the interpretation

of however can vary depending on the context, but the conceptual information does not change.

4.4. Speculation on the Co-occurrence of But and However Now, I will demonstrate how my proposal can capture the co-occurrence of
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but and however .

Before getting into the theme of this section, we have to In chapter 2, I conclude that Itens (2005) Consequently, I will adopt Itens (2005)

reconfirm the function of but . proposal is the most persuasive.

hypothesis on but for the speculation.

(50) The functions of but What follows (Q) contradicts and eliminates an assumption that is manifest in the context. (Iten 2005:147)

Let us get back to the main subject now.

I will pick up some

examples from classic literature, transcripts, and modern literature, which are shown in section 4.2. passage in classic literature. The example (4a) is repeated as (51). It is a

(51) When she was only fifteen, there was a gentleman at my brother Gardiner s in town, so much in love with her, that my sister-in-law was sure he would make her an offer before we came away. he did not. But however

(Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice , 1813)

Remember that but does not require the reader/hearer to derive an assumption from the previous statement. Assumptions should be manifest in the context.

In this case, the previous sentence brings about an assumption like (53).

(52) he should make her an offer.


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The assumption (52) will be eliminated by the segment starting with but . On another front, however affirms the information conveyed before it appears. In this context, a contradicting assumption becomes manifest from what precedes however .

(53)

If he is so much in love with a girl, he should make her an offer.

The wrong conclusion in (53), will be eliminated since the information preceded by however is stronger than the assumption. The next one is a transcript. The example (6) is recited as (54).

(54) Dear Mr. McClintock, How long does one wait for a contractor? I understand the best are busy but Ive waited for three months for this guy to start a project. His answering service is lousy, he leaves messages late, or on Friday afternoons or times when Im not available. I dont want to be blunt; but however , I tempted to tell him to either start the project (In the midst of Christmas season!) or forget it. ( Washington Post ; Thursday, December 1, 2005)

The reader/hearer is not expected to derive an assumption from the previous statement by the procedural information of but . reader to have an assumption like (55). The context causes the

(55) I should not tell him to either start the project or forget it.
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The inference will be eliminated because it contradicts what is said in the but -clause. Then, let me explain how however contributes to the

interpretation here.

The reader will learn from the conceptual information

of however that the truth of the information prior to the appearance of however is guaranteed. The contradicting conclusion derived from the

previous segment will be eliminated because it is weaker than the message communicated by the segment where however appears.

(56) If I dont want to be blunt, I should not tell him to either start the project or forget it.

The example from modern literature (10) is repeated as (57).

(57) I am afraid it is going to turn out a truly dirty night, said Jack. He stood up and in his sure-footed seamans way walked over to his barometer. Yes, he said. Dirtier than I had thought. He came back and gazed out at the darkness, full of rain and flying water from the ships bow-wave, more and more as she increased her way. But , however , he went on, `I am most heartily glad to be at sea. ( Blue at the Mizzen , by Patrick OBrian, W. W. Norton & Co., 1999, p.4)

An assumption to be eliminated must be manifest in the context where but is used. In this context, an assumption like (58) will be inferred.
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(58) I am not heartily glad to be at sea.

The

contradicting

assumption

will

be

eliminated.

Collaterally,

the

conceptual information of however requires the reader to understand that the previous information is true. The conclusion of the derived assumption is

wrong; therefore, it will be eliminated.

(59) If it is dirtier than I had thought, I am not heartily glad to be at sea.

In this section, I demonstrated why the co-occurrence of but and however can make the effect of emphatic endorsement rather than of tautology.

4.5. On Co-occurrence of Although and However Araki (1992:333) and Quirk et.al. (1985) mention that however can be used along with although in order to strengthen the logical relationship.

(60)

Although she had tried her best, however , she failed.

The co-occurrence of although and however also can be explained in the same way as the combination of but and however . In other words, given

that although encodes procedural information while however encodes conceptual information, it will be well explained.

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In the example (60), however guarantees relevance between the proposition in the subordinate clause and the main one. pattern from the examples which we have seen so far. It is a different There is another In

example where however connects the clause including it to the other.

(61), the relative adverb, when , grammatically connects the previous clause ( I met him in the park ) and the relative clause ( we have no time to speak ). By contrast, however is considered to suggest the connection through its meaning.

(61) I met him in the park, when, however , we have no time to speak. (Quirk and Greenbaum 1973:250)

Now, let me introduce Itens (2005) hypothsis on although .

Iten

(2005:180) does research on the function of although based on the Relevance Theory and alleges that although in utterances of the form Q although P/ although P, Q, encodes the following procedural information.

(62) Suspend an inference from what follows (that is, P) to a conclusion that would have to be eliminated. (Iten 2005:186)

The hypothesis is very similar to Halls (2004, 2005/2007) suggestion on but . The difference is that, according to Iten (2005), although needs a contextual assumption that licenses an inference with undesirable result from P as well as an assumption to be eliminated.
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Iten (2005) demonstrates how the analysis applies to the example (63).

(63)

Peter went out although it was raining.

(Iten 2005:180)

Itens (2005:180) explanation is as follows: the hearer first processes Q (Peter went out), then although indicates that there is an inference from P (it was raining) that has to be suspended because it would yield a conclusion that would have to be discarded. people dont go if it rains. The contextual assumption here is that

It licenses an inference from IT WAS RAINING

to PETERx DIDNT GO OUT, which would obviously contradict the basic explicature of Q (Peter went out). encode elimination. Iten (2005) thinks that although does not

In Iten (2005:180), it is hypothecated that the inferred

conclusion would have to be eliminated because the contradicted assumption is explicitly communicated by the speaker s utterance of Q. theory, effort of interpretation must be considered. In Relevance

Iten (2005:180) alleges

that the use of although saves the hearer the effort of inferring a conclusion that would have to be discarded again immediately since it contradicts a more manifest assumption. Quirk et.al. (1985:644) finds a difference between though and yet.

(64) a. Though (he is) poor, he is satisfied with his situation. b. He is poor, yet he is satisfied with his situation. (Quirk et.al. 1985:644)

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The major difference is that [(64b)] states his poverty as a fact, whereas in [(64a)] his poverty is presupposed as a given assumption (Quirk et.al. 1985:644). We will think of the function of yet in chapter 6.

Iten (2005:184) and Halliday and Hassan (1976) recognize that there is a difference between Q although P and although P, Q. Iten (2005:184)

remarks that two pairs of examples are given to show a difference in acceptability. There was a tendency to prefer (65b) to (65a) and (66b) to

(66a) if the intended interpretation corresponds roughly to indirect denial.

(65) a. I need some fresh air although its raining. b. Although its raining, I need some fresh air. (66) a. Bill is short although John is tall. b. Although John is tall, Bill is short. (ibid.) (Iten 2005:184)

According

to

Halliday

and

Hassan

(1976:252),

the

subordinate

conjunction including although expresses different meaning, depending on the position, either before or after the main clause. When the subordinate

conjunction including although occurs before the main clause, it has the only one meaning, in spite of. On the other hand, when the subordinate

conjunction including although appears after the main clause, it means either as against or in spite of. The example (67b) shows that it cannot mean

as against, so the sentence in (68) does not make sense (Halliday and Hassan 1976:252).

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(67) a. b.

She failed, although shes (sic) tried her best. Although shes (sic) tried her best, she failed. (Halliday and Hassan 1976:252)

(68) ? Although hes got brains, hes not exactly good-looking. (Halliday and Hassan 1976:252)

Halliday and Hassan (1976) do not explain how the difference is caused.

In

Itens (2005:184) opinion, this difference can be explained from the viewpoint of processing. To meet the requirement of the procedural

information of although , a hearer needs to access two assumptions so as to process the utterance smoothly along the lines indicated by although :

(69) a. the assumption that would license the suspended inference; and b. the assumption that would force the elimination of the inferred conclusion. (Iten 2005:184)

Iten (2005:184) mentions that P provides the starting point for the suspended inference, while Q communicates the assumption that would eliminate the conclusion of the suspended inference. In Itens (2005:184)

analysis, depending on which clause is presented first, the hearer will first access a candidate eliminator assumption (in examples of the form Q although P) or a candidate for the suspended inference (in examples of the form although P, Q). Iten (2005:184) takes up standard concessive examples where there is
153

no noticeable difference in the processing effort that is required because of the different order of the clause.

(70)

a. Peter went out although it was raining. b. Although it was raining, Peter went out. (op.cit:185)

Itens (2005:184) account is as follows. a proposition ( PETER X


W ENT OUT )

The first clause in (69a) expresses

that is an easily accessible candidate for


WAS

the eliminator assumption.


RAINING )

In (70b), the explicit proposition ( IT

in the first clause makes easily accessible a contextual assumption


PEOPLE DON T GO OUT W HEN

that licenses the suspended inference (namely,


IT S RAINING.)

Thus, there is no difference in acceptability between them.

By contrast, in adversative examples like (65), the difference in processing paths leads to a difference in processing effort, according to Iten (2005:185). The example (65) is recited below.

(65) a. I need some fresh air although its raining. b. Although its raining, I need some fresh air. (Iten 2005:184)

Iten (2005:184) states that in (65), the suspended inference is from P to the negation of an implicature of Q. The utterances of (65a) and (65b) is most

likely to be given in a scenario in which speaker and hearer are talking about whether or not to go for a walk. The most likely interpretation of these

utterances involves suspending the inference from P ( its raining ) to the


154

negation of the implicature of Q given in (71).

(71)

SPEAKER X WANTS TO GO FOR A WALK

implicature of Q

(op.cit:185)

The assumption that combines with P to license this inference might be something like (72).

(72)

IF IT S RAINING, X DOES NOT WANT TO DO FOR A WALK

(op.cit:185)

Iten (2005:185) finds (64b) more acceptable than (64a). processes Q first. follows.

In (64a), the hearer

Itens (2005:185) analysis on the reason for it is as

Because he will just have processed the encoded meaning of Q ( I

need some fresh air ), the proposition expressed by this clause will be highly accessible and it cannot be ruled out the he will consider first the hypothesis that this is the potential eliminator assumption. There might be wrong

inference from P ( its raining ) to the negation of the proposition of Q which is given in (73).

(73)

IF IT S RAINING, X DOES NOT NEED FRESH AIR .

(Iten 2005:186)

In short, the form Q although P can cause the listener a little trouble. Let us go back to the example (60).

(60)

Although she had tried her best, however , she failed.


155

The suspended inference is from P ( she had tried her best ) to the negation of the proposition of Q.

(74)

IF SHE HAD TRIED HER BEST, SHE DID NOT FAIL .

This inference is licensed by a contextual assumption such as (74).

(75)

IF PEOPLE TRY THEIR BEST, THEY DO NOT FAIL .

The wrong conclusion should be eliminated because of the explicit proposition Q. The conceptual information of however tells that the listener In (74), an The

should affirm the previous message, she had tried her best.

inference that ends in elimination is manifest, which is shown in (73).

explicit massage conveyed by the segment containing however is stronger than the wrong conclusion. For that reason, the elimination of the

contradicting assumption accompanies.

4.6. Concluding Remarks I demonstrated how my proposal accounts for the co-occurrence of but and however . I reviewed the indication that, although other concessive

conjunctive adverbs except however can come right after but , however cannot be placed just after the coordinate conjunction. In reality, it is not always I showed the

impossible that however at the beginning co-occurs with but .

result of a research on the number of tokens of both But however and


156

Buthowever to ascertain the lower acceptability of But however.

As a

result, it will be shown that just positioning of however cannot cause the difference of the acceptability. Instead, I suggest that but has procedural

information as the previous studies and however has conceptual information. The co-occurrence of although and however was also taken up as the same combination of conceptual information and procedural information.

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Chapter 5 On a Difference Caused by Positioning of However

5 . 1 . I n t ro d uc t i o n I t i s we l l k n o w n t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n i n g o f h o we v e r i s r e l a t i v e l y f r e e . e x a mp l e s s h o w n i n ( 1 ) a r e a l l g r a m m a t i c a l s e n t e n c e s . 1 The

( 1 ) a . Ho w e v e r , i t r u n s i n t o p r o b l e m s w i t h e x t r a c t i o n s w h i c h s t o p i n t h e n e a r e s t C O M P. b . I t , h o w e v e r , r u ns i nt o p r o bl e ms w i t h e xt r a c t i on s w hi c h s t o p i n t h e n e a r e s t C O M P. c . I t r u n s , h o w e v e r , i nt o p r o b l e ms w i t h e x t ra c t i o n s w h i c h s t o p i n t h e n e a r e s t C O M P. d . I t r u n s i n t o p r o b l e ms w i t h e x t r a c t i o ns w hi c h s t op , h o we v e r , i n t h e n e a r e s t C O M P. e . I t r un s i nt o p r o bl e ms w i t h e x t r a c t i on s w hi c h s t o p i n t h e ne a r e s t C O M P, h o we v e r .

T h e e x a m pl e ( 1 ) s h o ws t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n w h e r e h o we v e r o c c u r s i s r a t he r unrestricted. S wa n ( 2 0 0 9 : 1 5 7 ) s a y s t h a t h o w e v e r e mp h a s i z e s t h e f a c t t h a t

t h e s e c o n d p oi nt c o nt r a s t s w i t h t h e f i r st , b u t c a n t h e p a r t t o b e e mp h a s i z e d

1 The example (1a) is the original sentence and I changed the position of however in the sentence. The result of native check is showed in (1).

158

b e e x a c t l y t he s a me ? B l a k e mo r e (2002) and

A s I h a v e a lr e a d y i n d i c t e d i n c h a p t e r 3 , b o t h Schourup (2005) only analyze s e n t e nc e - i n i t i a l

h o we v e r , s o w e w i l l c o n s i d e r w he t h e r t h e p o s i t i o n i n g o f h o we v e r c a n ma k e a di ff e r e n c e . Th e f o l l o w i n g e x a mp l e s s h o w t ha t t h e a ns w e r i s Y E S . e x a mp l e s a r e p r o v i d e d b y Q u i r k e t a l . ( 1 9 8 5 : 6 4 6 ) . Those

We c an s e e t h a t t h e

a c c e p t a b i l i t y i s i m p r o v e d w h e n h o we v e r i s n o t a dj a c e n t t o b u t , a l t h o u g h h o we v e r c a n n o t b e pl a c e d j u s t a ft er t h e c o or di n a t e c o n j u n c t i o n .

( 2 ) a * Yo u c a n p h o n e t h e d o c t o r i f y o u l i k e , b u t h o w e v e r , I v e r y mu c h d o u b t w h e t h e r y o u w i l l g e t h i m t o c ome o u t o n a Sa t u r d a y n i g h t . b . ? Yo u c a n p h o n e t h e d o c t o r i f y o u l i k e , b u t I v e r y mu c h d o u b t , h o w e v e r , w h e t h e r y o u w i l l g e t h i m t o c ome o u t o n a Sa t u r d a y n i g h t . ( Qu i r k e t a l . 1 9 8 5 : 6 4 6 )

A l s o , a n i n f o r ma n t , w h o s h a r e s t h e j u d g me n t a b o v e , s a y s ( 3 a ) i s f a r mo r e a w k w a r d t h a n ( 1 3 b ) 2 .

( 3 ) a . ? I m n o c a l l i g r a p h e r. d e mo n . b. I m n o c a l l i g r a p h e r. h o we v e r .

Are you?

B u t , h o we v e r , I c a n t y p e l i k e a

Are you?

B u t I c a n t y p e l i k e a d e mo n ,

(3) is based on the example by Schourup (2005:92). ( i ) I m n o c a l l i g r a p h e r. Are you? However, I can type like a demon.
159

T h e e x a m p l e ( 3 b ) , w h e r e h o we v e r d o e s n o t f o l l o w r i g h t a f t e r b u t i s a l s o a wk w a r d , b u t i t i s b e t t e r t h a n e xa mp l e ( 3a ) . T he i n f o r m a n t t ol d me t ha t t h e

e x a mp l e s i n ( 3) w e r e a l i t t l e bi t f o r ma l a n d t h us b u t , h o w e v e r i s n o t g o o d . T h e r e a s o n ( 3 a ) i s n o t u n a c c e p t a bl e c a n b e e x p l a i n e d b y t h a t , b ut t he r e a s o n (3b) is a little better cannot. O n e mi g h t t hi n k t h a t , s i n c e b u t a nd h o we v e r a r e o f t he s a me t y pe , t h e y c a n n o t a p p e a r i n t h e s a me p o s i t i o n b e c a u s e i t w i l l b e t o o r e d u n d a n t . In the

p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r, w e h a v e a l r e a d y c o n fi r me d t h a t i t i s n o t a l w a y s i mp o s s i b l e t h a t h o we v e r a t t h e b e g i n n i n g c o - o c c u r s wi t h b u t . Wh a t I w o u l d l i k e t o

f o c u s o n i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s w h y c a n ( 2b ) b e l e s s v e r b o s e a n d mo r e a c c e p t a b l e than (2a). We w i l l t h i n k o f w h a t c a us e s t h e di ff e r e nc e o f a c c e pt a bi l i t y

b e t we e n t h e s e nt e nc e - i n t e r n a l h o w e v e r a n d t he s e n t e n c e - i ni t i a l h o we v e r . M y p r e s u mp t i o n i s t h a t pr o c e s s i n g e ff or t mi g ht ha v e s o me t hi n g t o d o w i t h t h e d i ff e r e n c e o f a c c e p t a b i l i t y i n ( 2) a n d ( 3 ) , b u t we n e e d t o f i n d o u t h o w. I n s e c t i o n 5 . 2 , I wi l l e x a mi n e s o me p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s o n p r e fe r r e d p o s i t i o n o f h o we v e r. T h e n , i t w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d w h y h o we v e r i n s e n t e n c e - i n t e r n a l

p o s i t i o n o ft e n s o u n ds b e t t e r t h a n h o w e v e r i n s e n t e n c e - i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n , a s s o me r e s e a r c he r s p oi nt o ut . referred to in section 5.3. ( 1 9 9 8 ) i s n o t p er f e c t . A n a d di t i on a l f u nc t i on o f h o w e v e r wi ll b e Garner (1998) observes it. H o w e v e r, G a r n e r s We

I n s e c t i o n 5 .4 , I wi l l ma k e a l t e r n a t i v e p r o p o s a l .

w i l l s e e a r e ma i n i n g p r o b l e m i n s e c t i o n 5 . 5 . t h i s c h a p t e r.

Se c t i o n 6 i s t h e s u m ma r y o f

5 . 2 . P re f e r re d Po s i t i o n o f H o we v e r I n o u e e d . ( 1 9 6 0 : 5 4 4 ) me n t i o n s t h a t h o we v e r i s c o m m o n l y p o s i t i o n e d i n t h e

160

mi d d l e o f t h e s e n t e n c e r a t h e r t h a n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e n t e n c e .

St r u n k

a n d Wh i t e ( 1 9 7 9 : 48 ) c l a i m t h a t h o w e v e r u s u a l l y s e r v e s b e t t e r w he n n o t i n the first position. St r u n k a n d W h i t e ( 19 7 9 : 4 9 ) g i v e a n e x a mp l e t h a t

s o u n d s b e t t e r w h e n h o we v e r i s d e l a y e d :

( 4 ) a . T h e r oa d s we r e a l mo s t i mp a s s a bl e . H o w e v e r , we a t l a s t s uc c e e de d i n r e a c hi n g t he c a mp . b . T h e r oa d s w e r e a l m os t i mp a s s a bl e . At l a s t , h o w e v e r , w e s u c c e e d e d in r e a c hi n g t he c a mp . ( St r u n k a n d Wh i t e 1 9 7 9 : 4 9 )

G a r n e r ( 1 9 9 8 : 3 4 2 ) a l s o me n t i o n s t h a t h o we v e r i n t he s e nt e n c e i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n i s n o t p r e fe r a bl e . A c c or di n g t o G a r n e r ( 1 9 9 8 : 3 4 2 ) , b u t i s b e t t e r t h a n

h o we v e r a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a s e nt e nc e t ha t i s n ot b e c a u s e h o we v e r i s w r o n g a t t h e b e g i n n i n g b u t b e c a u s e t h e t h r e e - s y l l a b l e w o r d f o l l o we d b y a c o m ma i s a p o n d e r o u s w a y o f i n t r o d u c i n g a c o n t r a s t . B e s i d e s , Wi l s o n

( 1 9 9 3 ) a l s o me n t i o n s t h a t i t i s s o me t i me s mo r e gr a c e f ul l a t e r i n t he s e n t e n c e . H o w e v e r, B e r u b e e t a l . ( 1 9 9 6 : 1 9 ) s t a t e s o n h o we v e r b e g i n n i n g a s e n t e n c e a s f o l l o w s : S o me p e o pl e s a y y o u s h o u l d n e v e r b e g in a s e n t e nc e wi t h h o we v e r w h e n i t me a n s n e v e r t h e l e s s o r o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . p r o b a b l y i n t h e mi n or i t y. Th e y a r e

( 5 ) S a i l i n g i n r o u g h w e a t h e r c a n b e ve r y u n pl e a s a nt . H o w e v e r , w e f o u n d i t exciting. (Berube et al. 1996:19)

B e r u b e e t a l . ( 1 9 9 6 :1 9) a s k e d t h e us a ge p a ne l i s t s i f t he y ob s e r ve d t hi s r u l e .

161

T h e r e s u l t s we r e t h a t t hi r t y- s i x p e r c e n t s a i d u s ua l l y o r a l wa y s , 1 9 p e r c e n t s a i d s o m e t i me s , a n d 4 2 p e r c e nt s a i d r a r e l y o r n e v e r. C o nc e r ni n g p r e f e r a bl e p o s i t i o n i n g o f h o we v e r , B e r u be e t a l . ( 19 9 6 ) h a s a d i ff e r e n t o p i n i o n f r o m St r u n k a nd Wh i t e ( 1 9 7 9 ) a n d G a r n e r ( 1 9 9 8 ) . A n y wa y, i t i s o b s e r v e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s t h a t h o w e v e r i n t h e mi d d l e o f a s e nt e nc e i s mo r e p r e f e r a b l e t h a n h o w e v e r a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a s e n t e n c e . T h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n b y Be r u b e e t a l . ( 1 9 9 6 ) s h o w s o n l y t h a t h o we v e r i n s e n t e n c e - i ni t i a l p o s i t i o n c a n be s e e n i n r e a l i t y, t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f w h i c h i s s o me 6 0 pe r c e nt , a l t h o ug h s o me d i c t i o na r i e s s a y t h a t i t i s s o m e t hi n g t o avoid. I n o r d e r t o c o n f i r m i f i t i s t r ue , I c o n d u c t e d a s i mp l e s u r v e y. G a t h e r i n g e xa mp l e s o f h o w e v e r , I f o u n d t h e f a c t t h a t , i n s p o k e n l a n g u a g e , h o we v e r t e n d s t o b e u s e d i n s e n t e nc e - i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n . the result. L e t u s t a k e a l oo k a t

C o n c e r n i n g l i t e r a r y s t y l e , I c o u n t e d t h e n u mb e r o f u s a g e o f

h o we v e r i n a s c i e n c e a r t i c l e o f T I M E , A p r i l 2 8 , 2 0 0 3 . p 5 - 2 0 , a n d Sc h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) p p 8 3 - 111 . T h e r es u l t i s a s f o l l o ws .

Fi g u r e 1
Sentence-Initial Position An article In TIME Schourup (2005) To t a l In the Middle Sentence-Final Position

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A s t o c o l l o q u i a l s t y l e , I n u mb e r e d u s a g e o f h o w e v e r i n t h r e e s c r i p t s o f English Journal October 2003, February 2004, and April 2004. s h o w e d b e l o w. The result is

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B a s e d o n t h e r e s u l t s a b o v e , i t c a n b e s a i d t ha t h o we v e r h a s a t e n d e n c y t o b e placed at the beginning of the sentence in spoken language. I t i s o ft e n s a i d t h a t h o we v e r t e nd s t o be u s e d i n f o r ma l w r i t i n g s . B i b e r e t . a l . ( 1 9 9 9 :5 6 0 - 5 6 2 ) d o e s r e s e a r c h o n t h e g r o u p s o f t h e mo s t c o m mo n a d v e r b s b y s e ma n t i c d o ma i n i n B r i t i s h E n g l i s h a n d A me r i c a n E n gl i s h c o n v e r s a t i o n a nd i n a c a d e m i c p r o s e ; o c c u r r e n c e s p e r mi l l i on w or ds . In

B i b e r e t . a l . ( 19 9 9: 5 62 ) , i t i s s h o w n t h a t h o w e v e r c a n b e f o u n d ma i n l y i n a c a d e mi c pr os e . Also, T he f r e q ue nc y i s c l e a r l y di ff e r e nt . et.al. (1999:784) shows percentage in the s e ma n t i c

Bi b e r

categories, cause/reason, concessive, purpose, result and condition, in c o n v e r s a t i o n , f i c t i o n , n e w s , a n d a c a d e mi c p r o s e , r e s p e c t i v e l y. It is shown

t h a t p e r c e n t a g e o f c o n c e s s i ve i n c o n ve r s a t i on i s mu c h l o w e r t h a n i n t h e o t h e r cases. N o w, I w i l l s h o w t h e r e s u l t s o f i n ve s t i g a t i o n on t h e f r e q ue n c y o f h o we v e r i n t h e i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n o f a s e n t e n c e i n w r i t i n g s . use of it is less than 60 % in fact.


3

The frequency in

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probability of however in sentence-initial position can be said to be f i ft y - fi f t y, r o u g h l y s p e a k i n g . We w i l l t h i n k a b o u t w h a t k i n d o f f a c t or i s r e l a t e d t o t h e p o s i t i o n i n g o f h o we v e r

5 . 3 . A Se nt e nc e - I n t e r n a l H o w e v e r A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a d i s a g re e me n t o n t h e s e c o n d r e s t r i c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m, B l a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 ) a n d Sc h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) h a v e p r o v e n t h a t h o we v e r ha s t h e c o n s t r a i n t o n c o n t e x t s e l e c t i o n t ha t b u t d o e s n o t h a v e . H o we v e r, t h e o b j e c t

o f t h e i r r e s e a r c h i s j u s t l i m i t e d t o h o we v e r i n s e n t e n c e - i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n . They d o n t capture the whole functions of however. As Sc h o u r u p

( 2 0 0 5 : 1 0 7 ) me n t i o n s , t h e p o s i t i o n i n g o f h o we v e r ma y i t s e l f a ff e c t p r a g ma t i c

164

i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t he h os t u t t er a n c e .

Th u s , t h e f u n c t i o n o f h o we v e r i n I n 5 . 3 . 1 , I wi l l c r i t i c a l l y

s e n t e n c e - i n t e r n a l p os i t i o n i s o p e n t o a rg u me n t .

r e v i e w G a r n e r s ( 1 9 9 8 ) a n a l y s i s on h o we v e r i n s e n t e n c e - i n t e r n a l p o s i t i o n . Pr o b l e ma t i c e x a mp l e s t o Ga r n e r ( 1 9 9 8 ) w i l l b e s h o wn i n 5 . 3 . 2 .

5 . 3 . 1 . G a r ne r ( 1 9 9 8 ) G a r n e r ( 1 9 9 8 ) c l a i ms t h a t h o we v e r i n t h e mi d d l e o f a s e n t e nc e ha s a d i ff e r e n t f u n c t i o n f r o m t h a t o f i ni t i a l h o we v e r . a rg u m e n t a s b e l o w. I w i l l s u m u p Ga r n e r s ( 1 9 9 8 )

( 6 ) h o we v e r i n t h e mi d dl e o f t he s e n t e n c e ha s a f u n c t i o n o f i n di c a t i n g t h a t a p a r t o f t h e p r e v i o u s c on s t i t u t e s i s e m p h a s i z e d a n d w h a t a r e t h e c o n t r a s t e d e l e me n t s .

G a r n e r ( 1 9 9 8 ) t a k e s u p t he e x a mp l e s b e l o w a n d e x pl a i n s a s f o l l o w s .

( 7 ) a . J a n e , h o w e v e r , wa s n t a bl e t o ma k e t h e t r i p . b . J a n e w a s n t a b l e , h o we v e r , t o ma k e t h e t r i p . Ga r n e r 1 9 9 8 : 3 4 3

G a r n e r ( 1 99 8) s t a t e s t ha t , i n ( 7a ) , h o we v e r e mp h a s i z e s J a n e , a n d t h e interpretation of the sentence is Jane, unlike others, had to miss the trip. I n ( 7 b ) , h o we v e r e mp h a s i z e s w a s n t a b l e , a n d t h e i n t e r pr e t a t i o n o f t h e s e n t e n c e i s J a n e , w h o h a d b e e n h op i n g t o g o , h a d t o mi s s t h e t r i p . Ga r n e r ( 1 9 9 8 ) w o u l d a n a l y z e ( 8) i n a s i mi l a r v e i n . a n d i t a l i c s i n t he e x a mp l e s be l o w a r e t h e a u t h o r s . ( Th e e mp h a s e s

I n t he r e s t o f t h i s

165

c h a p t e r, t h e y a r e t h e a ut h o r s u n l e s s t h e r e i s a n o t i c e . )

( 8 ) A n i me h a s p a r t i c u l a rl y c a pt u r e d t he m i n ds o f A me r i c a n y o u t h . A d e c a de a g o , n o J a p a n e s e a n i me r a n k e d i n t he Top 1 0 c h i l d r e n s p r o g r a m mi n g i n t h e U ni t e d St a t e s . To da y , h o we v e r , Yu - Gi - O h ! r a n k s N o . 3 w h i l e Po k e mo n c l o c k s i n a t N o . 6 , a c c o r d i n g t o N i e l s e n r a t i n g s . ( T h e Wa s hi n g t o n P o s t ; M o n d a y, De c e mb e r 6 , 2 0 0 4 )

I n ( 8 ) , h o we v e r e mp h a s i z e s t o da y, a n d t hi s p a r t c a n b e i n t e r pr e t e d a s u n l i k e t h e s i t u a t i o n a d e c a de a g o . I n o t h e r w o r ds , h o w e v e r s t r e n gt he n s t h e

d i ff e r e n c e be t w e e n a d e c a d e a g o a n d t o d a y. Be l l ( 2 0 0 4 ) g i v e s a s i mi l a r o bs e r v a t i o n t o G a r ne r ( 1 99 8) i n t h e analysis on the function of on the other hand. A c c o r d i n g t o Be l l

( 2 0 0 4 : 2 1 8 0 ) , c o n t r a s t i v e n o n -c o r r e l a t i v e o n t he o t h e r h a n d i s m o r e l i k e l y t o a p p e a r i n t h e p o s t - s u b j e c t N P me d i a l p o s i t i o n .

( 9 ) B o u r i e u g i v e s mo r e c r e d e n c e t o c l a s s s t r u c t u r e , a n d h e n c e , c a t e g o r i e s o f p e r c e pt i o n a n d a p pr e c i a t i o n a r e l a rge l y de t e r mi n e d b y o n e s c l a s s position. Gi d d e n s , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , v i e ws i n d i v i d u a l s a s b e i n g mo r e

a u t o n o mo u s , o r l e s s r e s t r i c t e d b y t h e i r c l a d p o s i t i o n s . ( S o c i o l o g y o f Health and Illness) ( B e l l 20 0 4: 2 18 0 )

B e l l s ( 2 0 0 4 : 2 1 8 0 ) e x p la n a t i o n o n t h e e x a mp l e a b o v e i s a s f o l l o ws : t wo p a r t i c u l a r e l e m e n t s a re b e i ng c o m pa r e d a n d n o n - c o r r e l a t i v e o n t h e o t h e r h a n d o p e r a t e s a s a f oc u s ma r k e r i n t h e p os t - s u bj e c t N P p o s i t i o n t o h i g h l i g h t

166

t h e p r e c e di n g NP a s t he i t e m t h a t i s b e i ng c o m pa r e d t o a n e q ui va l e n t i t e m i n the prior discourse. Be l l ( 2 0 0 4 : 2 1 8 0 ) a rg u e s t h a t n o n - c or r e l a t i v e o n t h e

o t h e r h a n d w h i c h a p p e a r s a f t e r s u b j e c t N P h a s s c o p e o v e r t h e p r e c e di n g N P, while sentence initial non-correlative on the other hand has scope over the p r e c e d i n g d i s c ou r s e . Th e di ff e r e n c e b e t w e e n t he m i s t ha t i n r e a l t i m e

processing, sentence initial non-correlative on the other hand does allow f o r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t ha t t he c o n t r a s t ma y b e ma d e wi t h i n t h e t o p i c s o f B o u r i e u a s we l l a s b y a c h a n g e o f t o p i c s . Post-subject non-correlative on the other

hand restricts those possibilities by changing the topic to Giddens (Bell 2004:2180). B e l l ( 2 0 0 4 : 2 1 8 0 ) r e m a r ks t h a t t h e l a t t e r c a s e s i g n a l s t h a t

G i d d e n s a r e t o b e c o n t r a s t e d wi t h e q ui va l e nt i t e ms ( B o ur i e u) i n t h e p r i o r discourse. Post-subject non-correlative on the other hand is not

a c c e pt a bl e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a mp l e , s i n c e t h e f o c u s ma k i n g f u n c t i o n i s n o t a c h i e v e d ( Be l l 2 0 0 4 : 2 1 8 0 ) .

( 1 0 ) M a r y s

aunt

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h o r s e r a ci n g .

? Ad e l a i d e ,

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other hand, loves greyhound racing.

(Bell 2004:2180)

I n a d d i t i o n t o t h a t , Bel l ( 2 0 0 4 : 2 1 8 1 ) a ll e g e s t h a t o n t h e o t h e r h a n d c a n f u n c t i o n a s a c a n c e l l a t i v e m a r k e r s i m i l a r t o b u t , h o w e v e r, t h o u g h , s t i l l a n d y e t , a l l o f w h i c h p r o v i d e a n i n s t r u c t i o n a s t o w h a t a s pe c t o f i n f or ma t i o n i s d r i v a b l e f r o m t he pr i or di s c o ur s e , ei t he r g l o ba l l y o r l o c a l l y, i s t o b e c a n c e l e d b y t h e c ur r e nt me s s a g e .

167

( 11 ) T h e ma i n d i s a p p o i n t me n t i s i n t h e a r e a o f i ma gi n a t i ve i n vo l v e me n t .

M r.

D o mi n g o p a s s e s u p s o me g r e a t o p p o r t u ni t i e s i n h i s me t r o n o mi i c r e a d i n g o f t h e Ve s t a l e e x c e r p t a n d hi s r e l a t i ve f a i l u r e t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e a t mo s p h e r i c b e g i n n i n g t h e c o n d u c t or E u g e n e K o h n a n d t he A m b r o s i a n s i ng e r s g i v e h i m i n t h e A t t i l a r e c i t a t i v e . On the other hand, his

b e a u t i f u l e n u n c i a t i o n o f c e r t a i n l i n e s o f t e x t p r o v i d e s g l i mp s e s o f c h a r a c t e r. ( N e w Yo r k Ti m e s ) ( B e l l 20 0 4: 2 18 1)

A c c or di n g t o B e l l ( 2 0 0 4 : 2 1 8 0 ) , t h e h a n d s a r e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e a s n e g a t i v e a n d p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s o f Pl a c i d o D o mi nos pe r f or ma nc e . On

t h e o t h e r ha n d s i g na l s t h a t t h e ov e r w he l mi n g l y n e g a t i v e p ri o r e v a l u a t i o n i s t o b e p a r t l y c a nc e l e d o r m i t i g a t e d ( B e l l 2 0 0 4 : 2 1 8 1 ) . Be l l (2004:2182) me n t i o n s that the key to distinction b e t we e n

c o n t r a s t i v e a n d c a n c e l l a t i v e o n t h e o t h e r h a n d i s t he s p e a k e r s s t a nc e t o w a r d t h e e l e me n t s c o mp a r e d . I n e x a mp l e ( 9 ) , t h a t s t a n c e i s n e u t r a l , w h i l e

i n e x a mp l e ( 11) t h e s p e a ke r s s t a n c e i s e v a l u a t i v e . Be l l ( 2 0 0 4 : 2 1 8 2 ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t h o we v e r i n p o s t - s u b j e c t N P p o s i t i o n ( b u t n o t i n s e n t e n c e i ni t i a l p os i t i o n) c o u l d s u b s t i t u t e f o r o n t h e o t h e r h a n d i n e x a mp l e ( 11 ) w i t ho ut c h a n g i n g t h e s p e a k e r s n e u t r a l s t a n c e . Th i s

s u g g e s t s t h a t h o w e v e r, l i k e o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , c a n f u n c t i o n a s a f o c u s ma r k e r, a n d i n s u c h c o n t e x t s e s c a p e i t s c o r e c a n c e l l a t i v e me a n i n g .

5 . 3 . 2 . P ro bl e m s wi t h G a r n e r ( 1 9 9 8 ) A P r o b l e m w i t h G a r n e r ( 1 9 9 8 ) a n d B e l l ( 2 0 0 4) i s t h a t t h e r e a r e n o t a l w a y s e x p l i c i t c o nt r a s t s . I n ( 8 ) , t h e c o n tr a s t e d e l e m e n t s a r e e x pl i c i t . H o w e v e r,

168

I would like to point out that it is not always the case.

(12) Liberal feminism has demanded greater individual rights for women. S o c i a l f e mi n i s m h a s de ma n d e d g r e a t er s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s, e s p e c i a l l y f o r me n . Fo r r e a s o n s t h a t h a v e t o d o w i t h o u r e c o n o mi c s y s te m, a s w e l l a s o u r p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y, l i b e r a l f e mi n i s m h a s e n j o y e d r e l a t i v e l y mo r e s u c c e s s i n t he U n i t e d St a t e s t h a n i n t h e m o r e t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s o f E u r o p e . I t s v e r y s uc c e s s h a s c o n t r i b ut e d t o a d i l e m ma . Wo me n k n o w t h e y c a n b e n e f i t e c o n o m i c a l l y b y b e c o mi n g a c h i e v e r s r a t h e r t h a n c a r e g i v e r s . T h e y a l s o , k n o w, h o we v e r , t ha t i f a l l w o me n a d o pt t hi s s t r a t e gy, s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e w i l l b e c o me o r i e n t e d mor e t o wa r d a c h i e v e me n t t h a n c a r e . ( T h e I n v i s i b l e He a r t : E c o n o m i c s a n d F a mi l y Val u e s . B y Na n c y Fo l b r e , T he N e w P r e s s , 2 0 0 1 . p . 4 ) ( 1 3 ) M r B l a i r d e l i b e r a t e l y a v o i d e d m a k i n g t h e v o t e o n t e r ro r i s m a c o n f i d e n c e i s s u e be c a u s e t he pl a n t o d e t a i n s u s pe c t s f or u p t o 9 0 d a y s w a s n o t i n c l u d e d i n t he e l e c t i o n ma n i f e s t o. B ut h e be l i e v e s t h a t w i t h e du c a t i o n a s u bs t a nt i a l p a r t o f t h e g o v e r n me n t p r o g r a m me , t h e r e w o u l d b e n o w a y t o a v o i d a c o n fi d e n c e vote if he lost. M r B l ai r , h o w e v e r , h a s t o l d c l o s e c o l l e a g u e s , i n c l u d i n g G o r d o n B r o w n , t h a t h e i s n o t e n g a g e d o n a k a mi k a z e m i ss i o n , r e a d y t o g o d o w n t o d e f e a t o n e d u c a t i o n o r o t h e r p u b l i c s e r v i c e r e f o r m r a t h e r t ha n g i v e w a y. ( T h e Ti m e s : N o v e m b e r 1 7 , 2 0 0 5 )

I n ( 1 2 ) , t h e r e a r e n o e l e me nt s t o b e c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e y a l s o , k n o w i n t h e

169

p r e c e d i n g c o nt e xt .

I n ( 1 3) , M r B l a i r, wh i c h i s f o l l o we d b y h o w e v e r , i s n o t

c o n t r a s t e d e x p l i c i t l y wi t h a n y b o d y e l s e . I t i s a p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e i n ( 1 4 ) , a v e r b i n i m p e r a t i v e mo o d i n ( 1 5 ) , a n d a s u b o r d i n a te c o n j u n c t i o n i f i n ( 1 6 ) t h a t a r e f o l l o w e d b y h o w e v e r r e s p e c t i v e l y. N o i t e ms t o b e c o nt r a s t e d w i t h t he m w e r e i nt r od u c e d i n t h e

p r e c e d i n g c o nt e x t .

( 1 4 ) M r. M a r t i n , i n a C a n a d i a n t e l e v is i o n i n t e r v i e w o n M o n da y, s a i d h e w o u l d p u s h M s . R i c e t o r e s o l v e t he i s s u e . W h e n we h a v e a d i s a g r e e me n t wi t h the Americans, he said, it is not friendship that should get in the way o f p o i n t i n g o u t t o t h e m t ha t f r i e n ds l i v e u p t o t h e i r a g r e e me n t s . M s . Ri c e s a i d , We w o u l d l i k e t o ge t t h i s r e s ol v e d . B e hi n d a l l o f t h i s , h o we v e r , o ff i c i a l s a c k n o wl e d g e t h a t t h e A me r i c a n d e c i s i o n t o i gn o r e C a n a d a s l e g a l v i c t o r i e s p l a y s d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e Ca n a d i a n c o nv i c t i o n t ha t t h e U n i t e d St a t e s s i m p l y d o e s n o t c a r e w h a t C a n a da t h i n ks . ( T h e N e w Yor k Ti m e s ; O c t o b e r 2 5 , 2 0 0 5 )

( 1 5 ) T h e U n i t e d St a t e s , E u r o p e a n d J a p a n c o n s t i t u t e a b o u t ha l f t h e gl o b a l e c o n o my. T h e i r r e c e s s i o n s w o u l d h ur t t he A s i a n, L a t i n A me r i c a n a n d A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s t h a t e x po r t t o t he m . M a r ke t s i nt e r co n ne c t ; w e a k ne s s s p r e a ds . I t s gr i m. N o t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e d o l l a r s v u l n e r a b i l i t y i s a s y mp t o m o f s o m e t h i n g e l s e : t h e a d d i c ti o n o f E u r o p e a n d A s i a t o e x p o r t i n g t o t he U ni t e d St a t e s . ( T h e Wa s h i n g t o n P o s t ; N o v e mb e r 1 7 , 2 0 0 4 )

170

( 1 6 ) T h e I r a q i s a r e a p r o u d p e o p l e b u t , u n l ik e i n A f g h a n i s t a n , t h e y a r e a l s o w e l l - e d uc a t e d a nd ha v e ma s s i v e o i l r e s e r v e s t h a t g i v e t h e m t h e p r o s p e c t o f e c o n o mi c s e l f- s u ff i c i e n c y. H o w e v er d e l i g h t e d t h e y mi g h t b e t o b e r e l i e v e d o f S a d d a ms t y r a n n y, t h e y f e e l h u mi l i a t e d b y f o r e i g n o c c u p a t i o n , a n d t h e y s h o u l d n o t b e e x p e c t e d t o b e a n y l e s s a n t i - A m e r i c a n t ha n t h e rest of the Arab world. I f t h e A me r i c a n s i g n o r e t h e s e s e n s i t i v i t i e s t h e n t h e i n s u rg e nt s , w i t h S a d d a m o u t o f t h e wa y, wi l l s e e m e v e n m or e l i k e f r e e d o m f i g h t e r s t o o r d i n a r y I r a q i s . I f , h o we v e r , t he A me r i c a n s r e s po n d g e n e r o u s l y a n d use these events to justify an even earlier departure of occupying forces, t h e d i s s i d e n t s wi l l q u i c k ly l o s e a n y p o p u l a r s u p p o r t . ( T h e G u a rd i a n ; M o n d a y De c e mb e r 1 5 , 2 0 0 3 )

O n e mi g h t t r y t o s a v e G ar ne r s ( 1 99 8) a c c ou nt b y s a y i n g t h a t c o n t r a s t ma y o r m a y n o t b e e x p l i c i t . 4 T h u s , i n ( 1 2 ) , t h e y ( = w o me n ) a l s o k n o w i s

i mp l i c i t l y c o nt r a s t e d wi t h me n d o n ot k n o w ; i n ( 1 3 ) , M r B l a i r i s t a c i t l y c o mp a r e d wi t h o t h e r po l i t i c i a n s ; i n ( 1 4 ) , t h e w r i t e r t a k e s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i on t h e s i t u a t i o n b e hi n d o t h e r c o n d i t i on s . T h e a ff i r ma t i v e i mp e r a t i v e n o t e In

i n ( 15 ) w o u l d b e c o n t r a s t e d w i t h a n e g a t i v e i m p e r a t i v e d o n o t n o t e . (16), emphasis is put on hypothetical if.

The situation expressed by

i f - c l a u s e i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e i f - c l a us e i n t h e p r e c e di n g s e nt e nc e . T h i s t h e o r y, h o we v e r, d o es n o t h o l d . I n ( 1 2 ) , i t do s e n ot m a t t e r

w h e t h e r o r n o t me n k n o w t h a t i f a l l w o me n a d o p t t h i s s t r a t e g y, s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e w i l l b e c o m e o r i e n t e d m o r e t o w a r d a c hi e v e me n t t ha n c a r e ; w h a t i s

See Ota (2004) for this line of thought.


171

i mp o r t a n t i s t h a t w o me n kn o w t h a t .

M r B l a i r i n ( 13 ) i s c o mp a r e d w i t h n o

o n e i n t h e c o nt e x t ; t he i s s ue i s w ha t h e w i l l d o a n d n o t w h a t a n o t h e r p o l i t i c i a n wo ul d d o . T he e xa mp l e ( 1 3) c o ul d be t he e vi de n c e t ha t h o w e v e r In (14),

d o e s n o t h a v e t h e s a me f o c u s f u n c t i o n a s o n t h e o t h e r h a n d.

other situations than all of this are out of question, since all of this is a presupposed condition. E mp ha s i s i n ( 1 5) i s n ot l a i d o n t he ma i n v e r b b u t o n S im i l a r l y, w h a t i s c o n t r a s t e d i n ( 1 6 )

t h e c o n t e nt o f t he s u b or di n a t e c l a u s e .

i s n o t i f w i t h a n o t h e r c o n j u n c t i ve , b u t t he h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s e x p r e s s e d b y t w o i f - c l a u s e s i n t he pa r a g r a ph . More i nt e r e s t i n g are constructions wi t h e x pl e t i ve s f ol l o w e d by

h o we v e r i n t h a t e x p l e t i v e s h a v e n o l e x i c a l c o n t e n t b y d e f i n i t i o n s o t h a t t he y cannot be contrasted in any sense. O ne mi g ht t hi n k t h e r e i s / a r e , t ha t i s ,

t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f e x i st e n c e i s e mp h a s i z e d i n t h e s e n t e n c e i n c l u d i n g h o we v e r . H o w e v e r, e mp h a s i s i n ( 1 7 ) a n d ( 1 8 ) i s n o t l a i d o n t h e e x i s t e n c e i t s e l f, b u t o n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f i mp o r t a n t c a s e s o r a d i s t i n c t i o n .

( 1 7 ) J u s t i c e K e n n e d y s e e ms p oi s e d t o be t he c o ur t s c r u c i a l v o t e i n c a s e s i n v o l v i n g g a y r i g ht s , t h e g o v e r n me n t t a k i n g o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y a n d a s p e c t s o f t he d e a t h p e n a l t y. T h e re a re , h o w e v e r , s e v e r a l i mp o r t a n t c a se s i n w h i c h J u s t i c e A l i t o s r e p l a c e me n t o f J u s t i c e O C o n n o r w i l l p u t h i m i n t he s p o t l i g h t . ( T h e N e w Yo r k Ti m e s ; Fe b r u a r y 1 , 2 0 0 6 )

172

( 1 8 ) Si r, T h e G o ve r n me nt s d r i ve t o r a i s e t he a mo u nt o f t i me d e v o t e d t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n a n d s p o r t ( r e p o r t s a n d l ea d i n g a r t i c l e , N o v e m b e r 2 5 ) i s we l c o me . O n e c a n n ot a rg ue wi t h a ny i n i t i a t i v e a i me d a t r a i s i n g a c t i v i t y l e v e l s a mo n g s t c hi l d r e n a n d y o u n g p e o p l e . T h e re i s , h o we v e r , a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n P E a n d s p o r t . P E i s p r o v i de d f o r a l l p u p i l s , w h e r e a s s p o r t t e n d s t o d e s c r i b e c h i l d r e n s a c t i v i t i e s b e f o r e , d u r i n g ( br e a ks ) a nd a f t e r s c h oo l . ( T h e Ti m e s ; N o v e mb e r 2 7 , 2 0 0 4 )

F u r t h e r m o r e , s i n c e h o w e v e r c a n b e b e t we e n t h e re w o ul d a n d a v e r b a s s h o w n i n ( 1 9 ) , a n d s i n c e h o we v e r c a n b e i n s e r t e d b e t w e e n t h e re a n d a v e r b a s y o u c a n s e e i n ( 2 0 ) , w h a t p re c e de s t he a d ve r b c a n no t b e a n e x p r e s s i o n o f e x i s t e n c e o r a p pe a r a nc e . L a s t l y, t h e e xp r e s s i o n t h e r e i s / a r e d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y g u a r a nt e e t he p r e s e n c e o f s o m e t hi n g o r s o m e o n e , a s s e e n i n (21).

( 1 9 ) We a r e m e rg i n g t h e p a s t a n d t he pr e s e nt . D a w e s a d d e d t ha t t he ma i n o b j e c t i v e w a s c ul t u r a l e v o l u t i o n , n o t c u l t u r e s h o c k . H e s a i d t h a t s o me o f t h e o p e r a s mo s t f a mo u s p a r t s w o u l d b e l e f t i n t a c t . T h e re wo u l d , h o we v e r , b e a r a p v e r s i o n o f t h e a r i a S o a v e s i a i l v e n t o ( M a y t h e w i n d b e g e n t l e ) , o n e o f M oz a r t s mo s t r e n o w n e d c o mp o s i t i o ns . ( Th e S u n d a y Ti m e s ; A u g u s t 1 4 , 2 0 0 5 )

173

( 2 0 ) H e g r u d g e d t h e t i me l o s t b e t w e e n Pi c c a d i l l y a n d h i s o l d h a u n t a t t h e Sl a u g h t e r s , w h i t h e r h e d r o v e f a i t h f u l l y. L o n g y e a r s h a d p a s s e d s i n c e h e s a w i t l a s t , s i n c e h e a n d G e o rg e , a s y o u n g me n , h a d e n j o y e d ma n y a f e a s t , a n d h e l d ma n y a r e v e l t h e r e . H e h a d n o w pa s s e d i nt o t h e s t a ge o f o l d - f e l l o w - h o o d . H i s h a i r w a s g r i z z le d , a n d ma n y a p a s s i o n a n d fe e l i n g o f h i s y o u t h h a d g r o w n g r e y i n t ha t i nt e r va l . T h e re , h o w e v e r , s t o o d t h e o l d w a i t e r a t t h e d o o r, i n t h e s a me g r e a s y b l a c k s u i t, wi t h t he s a m e d o u b l e c h i n a n d f l a c c i d f a c e , wi t h t h e s a me h u g e b u n c h o f s e a l s a t h i s f o b , r a t t l i n g hi s mo ne y i n h i s p o c k e t s a s b e f o r e , a n d r e c e i vi n g t h e M a j o r as if he had gone away only a week ago. ( Va ni t y F ai r , C h a p t e r LV I I I : O u r Fr i e n d t h e M a j o r, b y Wi l l i a m M a k e p e a c e T h a c k e r a y ) ( 2 1 ) T h e r e i s ge n e r a l a gr ee me n t t h a t s p l i n t e r i n g t h e n a t i o n a l l a b o r f e d e r a t i o n h a s l a rge i mp l i c a t i o ns f or e m p l o y e r- e m pl o ye e r e l a t i o ns a n d t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e De mo c r a t i c P a r t y, w h i c h d e p e n d s h ea v i l y o n u n i o n s f o r mo n e y a n d o rg a n i z i n g p o w e r. T h e re i s , h o w e v e r , no c o ns e n s us o n t he s p e c i fi c i mp a c t o f l a b o r s d i s s o l u t i o n . ( T h e Wa s hi n g t o n P o s t ; Tue s da y, J ul y 2 6 , 2 0 0 5 )

Expletive it also can be followed by however, as shown in (22) and (23).

( 2 2 ) Wh a t e ve r t h e a i l me nt , i t do e s n ot s e e m t o a ff e c t H ol d s c l a w s mo bi l i t y. I t wo u l d , h o we v e r , s e e m t o p r e v e n t h e r fr o m r o o t i n g h e r t e a m ma t e s o n f r o m t he be n c h . ( T h e Wa s h i n g t o n P o s t ; Se p t e mb e r 3 , 2 0 0 4 )

174

(23) An

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i n f o r ma t i o n o n b i r d m i g r a t i o n o r m i x i n g w i t h i n A f r i c a . I t i s h o w e v e r reasonable to expect that birds will follow established routes: that is, b i r d s t h a t h a v e mi g r a t e d t o e a s t A f r i c a w i l l r e t ur n ov e r e a s t e r n E ur o p e t o t h e i r b r e e d i n g g r o u n d s i n s o u t h e r n S i b e r i a , w h i l e t he b i r d s f r o m w e s t A f r i c a w i l l r e t ur n o v e r t h e M e d i t e r a n e a n b a s i n t o t h e i r b r e e d i n g g r o u n d s i n n o r t h R us s i a . ( T h e G u a rd i a n : Fe b r u a r y 9 , 2 0 0 6 )

We s h o w e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n t h a t Ga r ne r s ( 1 9 9 8 ) p r o p o s a l t ha t a pa r t o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t s f o l l o w e d b y h o we v e r i s e mp h a s i z e d a n d c o nt r a s t e d d oe s n o t hold good. B u t t h e n h o w c a n h i s e x a mp l e ( 7 ) b e a c c o u n t e d f o r ?

5.4. A Hypothesis I n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , w e fo u n d a p a r t o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t s f o l l o w e d b y h o we v e r i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y e mp h a s i z e d a n d c o nt r a s t e d . U nl i ke G a r ne r

( 1 9 9 8 ) , G r e e n b a u m ( 1 9 6 9 : 6 5 ) j u s t s a y s t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n i n g o f h o w e v e r ma y f o c u s t h e u ni t be i n g c on t r as t e d . A l t h o u g h G r e e n bu a m ( 1 9 6 9 ) t a k e s u p t h e

f o l l o wi n g e x a mp l e , w h i c h u n i t i s c o nt r a s t e d a n d f o c us e d i s n ot c l e a r l y explained.

( 2 4 ) T h o s e wh o o w n e d c a r s w i t h o u t s a fe t y h a r n e s s we r e a l w ay s a b o u t t o h a v e it fitted. Th o s e w i t h s a f e t y h a r n e s s , h o w e v e r , a d mi t t e d t h a t t h e y di d ( Gr e e n b a u m 1 9 6 9 : 6 5 )

n o t a l wa y s u s e i t .

175

S o , I w o u l d l i k e t o ma k e i t c l e a r i n t hi s s e c t i o n .

M y p r o p os a l i s t h a t

t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t he s i s s h o ul d be a d de d t o t he c o nc e pt ua l i n f o r ma t i on o f h o we v e r .

( 2 5 ) H o w e v e r i n s e n t e n c e - i n t e r n a l p o s i t i o n e mp h a s i z e s t h e p a r t w h i c h i s closely connected to contradiction.

I n o t h e r w or d s , h o w e v e r p l a y s a r ol e o f s h o w i n g e xp l i c i t l y c o n s t i t u e n t s t h a t a r e s u b j e c t s f o r a c o n t r a s t o r c o n tr a d i c t i o n . In short, by positioning

h o we v e r di ff e r e n t l y, t he a u t h o r g i v e s a h i n t t o f i n d o u t a c o n t r a d i c t i n g a s s u mp t i o n . I s u p p os e t h a t wh e n a s en t e n c e o p e n s wi t h h o w e v e r, t h e s t r e s s

i s a g a i n s t [ c o n t r a s t w i t h ] a l l t h a t f ol l o w s i t l i k e b u t , a s C o p p e r u d (1980:185) indicates. Also, when however appears at the end of the

s e n t e n c e , e mp h a s i s i s o n t h e w h ol e s e n t e nc e . I n s p e e c h , i t s e e ms t h a t t h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y f o r h o we v e r t o b e p o s i t i o n e d i n s e nt e nc e - i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n a s w e h a v e s e e n i n s e c t i o n 5 . 2 . ma y b e b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e ot he r e ff e c t i ve w a y s : i n t o n a t i o n a n d s t r e s s . That Biber

e t . a l . ( 1 9 9 9 : 8 9 7 ) s a y s t h a t i n a n y c l a u s e t h e r e i s n o r ma ll y a t l e a s t o n e p o i n t of focus, w hi c h is related in s pe e c h to the pl a c e w he r e nuclear

i n t o n a t i o n / s t r e s s w o u l d f al l , a n d w hi c h e ve r c l a u s e e l e me n t i n c l u de s t h i s p o i n t t h e r e b y g ai n s s o me p r o mi n e n c e o r e mp ha s i s . I suppose that, in

w r i t i n g s , t h e p o s i t i o n i n g o f h o we v e r h e l ps r e a d e r s t o f i nd o ut t he i n f or ma t i o n structure or in what part there is a contradiction.

176

5 . 4 . 1 . A n a l y s i s o n b ut h o w e v e r I n c h a p t e r 4 , I e x p l a i n e d t h e c a s e w h e r e h o w e v e r f o l l o ws r i g h t a f t e r b u t . In

t h i s s e c t i o n, we w i l l c o n s i d e r t h e r e m a i ni n g pr o bl e m , t h a t i s , w h y t h e c o - o c c u r r e n c e o f b u t a nd h o w e v e r i s b e t t e r w h e n h o w e v e r i s p o s i t i o n e d i n t h e mi d d l e o f t he s e nt e nc e t ha n w h e n i t c o me s r i g h t a f t e r b u t . We h a v e a l r e a d y

e x a mi n e d t h e f u n c t i o n o f b u t i n c h a pt e r 2 , a n d t he n I t e n s ( 2 0 0 5 ) h y p o t h e s i s will be adopted here.

(26)The functions of but Wh a t f o l l o w s ( Q ) c o n t r a d i c t s a n d e l i mi n a t e s a n a s s u mp t i o n t h a t i s ma n i f e s t i n t he c o nt e x t . ( 2 7 ) C o n t r i b u t i o n o f C o n c e pt u a l I n f o r ma t i o n o f H o w e v e r a. Denial of Expectation However guarantees a r e l e va n c e to t he e x pl i c i t c o nt e n t of the ( I t e n 20 0 5: 1 4 7 )

p r e c e d i n g s e g me n t a n d di r e c t s t h e r e a d e rs / l i s t e n e r s t o t a k e i t a s t r u t h . A c o n t r a d i c t i n g a s s u mp t i o n d e r i v e d fr o m w ha t pr e c e de s i t . T he

s e g m e n t w h i c h c o n t a i n s h o w e v e r c o n ve ys t he s pe a ke r s or wr i t e r s a rg u me n t . A c c o r d i n gl y, t he i n f or ma t i o n is s t r o ng e r than the

c o n t r a d i c t i n g a s s u m p t i o n , a n d t he n t h e l a t t e r wi l l be e l i mi n a t e d . b . C h a n g e o f To p i c s / Fl o o r- H o l d i n g De v i c e However guarantees a relevance to the e x pl i c i t c o nt e n t of the

p r e c e di ng s e g me nt a n d a ff i r ms t he c o n t e n t .

Unlimited possibilities

e me rg e f r o m t h e c o n t e x t , a n d t h e y w i l l b e r e s e r v e d b e c a u s e t he y a r e n o t ma n i f e s t e n o u g h t o b e e l i mi n a t e d .

177

N o w, l e t u s b e g i n w i t h t h e e xa mp l e ( 2 8 ) . a n d e mp h a s e s a r e t h e a u t h o r s .

( Th e w av y l i n e s , u n d e r l i n e s

I n t he r e s t o f t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e y a r e t h e

a u t h o r s a s l o n g a s t h e r e i s n o n o t i c e . )

( 2 8 ) T h e c h i e f d i p l o m a t i c a n d m i l i t a r y o ff i c e r s o f t h i s G o ve r n me n t a l l w e r e i n s t r u c t e d t o f o l l o w t h e s a me c o u r s e . A n d s i n c e t h a t n i g h t o n M a r c h 3 1 , e a c h o f t he c a n d i d a t e s h a s h a d d i ffe r i n g i d e a s a b o u t t h e G o v e r n me n t s p o l i c y, b u t g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g, ho we ve r , t h r o u g h o u t t h e c a mp a i g n w e h a v e b e e n a b l e t o p r e s e n t a u n i t e d v o i c e , s u p p o r t i n g o u r G o v e r n me n t a n d s u p p o r t i n g o ur me n i n Vi et na m. ( No v e mb e r 1 , 1 9 6 8 , Te x t o f P r e s i d e n t J o h n s o n s B ro a d c a s t t o t h e N a t i o n A n n o u n c i n g a B o mb i n g H a l t . F o l l o w i n g i s a t r a n s c r i pt o f Pr e s i d e n t J o h n s o n s a d d r e s s t o t h e n a t i o n l a s t n i g ht a s r e c or de d b y T h e N e w Yo r k Ti m e s )

Fr o m t h e p r e vi o us s e g me nt , s i n c e t h a t n i g h t o n M arc h 3 1 , e a c h o f t h e c a n d i d a t e s h a s h a d d i ffe r i n g i d e a s a b o ut t h e G o v e r n me n t s p o l i c y, a n a s s u mp t i o n l i k e ( 2 9 ) b e c o me s ma n i f e s t . a n d e l i mi na t e s t he a s s u mp t i o n . T h e n , w h a t f o l l o ws b u t c o n t r a d i c t s

( 2 9 ) T h r o u g h o u t t h e c a mp a i gn , w e h a v e n o t b e e n a b l e t o p r e s e n t a u n i t e d v o i c e , s u p p o r t i n g o u r G o v e r n me n t a n d s u p p o r t i n g o u r me n i n Vi e t n a m.

O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , h o w e v e r h e l ps t he r e a d e r t o f i n d w he r e t he r e i s a contradiction. A s y o u c a n s e e , t h e p h r a s e , ge n e r al l y s p e a k i n g , i s n o t

178

r e l a t e d t o t he c o nt r a d i c t i o n .

U n l i k e b u t , h o w e v e r a ff i r ms t he c o nt e nt o f t h e T h e me s s a ge c o n ve y e d As

p r e v i o u s s e g me n t , a n d a n a s s u mp t i o n a r i s e s f r o m i t .

b y t h e s e g me n t c o n t a i n i n g h o we v e r i s w ha t t he s p e a k e r t o c o m mu n i c a t e .

a result, the contradicted assumption will be denied because it is weaker i n f o r ma t i o n . Le t u s g o o n t o t h e n e x t e x a mp l e . I t i s q u o t e d f r o m Wa s h i n g t o n P o s t .

( 3 0 ) U . S . S E N AT E J U DI C I A RY C O M M I T T E E H O L D S A H E A R I N G O N T H E N O M I N ATI O N O F J O H N R O B E RT S TO B E C H I E F J U S T I C E O F T H E S U P R E M E C O U RT (snip) H AT C H : O K . N o w, t h e c h a i r ma n a n d r a n ki ng me mbe r h a v e r a i s e d s o m e i mp or t a nt i s s u e s , a n d I ma y t u r n t o s o me o f t h e m s h o r t l y. B u t I b e l i e v e , h o we v e r , that we should start with first principles before exploring how those p r i n c i p l e s s h o u l d b e a p p l i e d . ( Tr a ns c r i pt : D a y Tw o o f t he R o b e r t s C o n fi r ma t i o n He a r i n g s ) ( Was h i n g t o n Po s t ; Tue s d a y, S e p t e mb e r 1 3 , 2 0 0 5 )

I n t h i s c o nt e x t , a n a s s u mp t i o n l i k e ( 3 1 ) w o u l d b e m a n i f e s t t o t h e h e a r e r.

(31) we should start with exploring how those principles should be applied.

I t w i l l b e e l i mi na t e d s i n c e i t c o n t r a d i c t s w h a t f o l l o w s b u t . t h a t t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e p r e v i o us s e g m e n t i s t r u e .

Ho w e ve r a ff i r m s

T h e n , t h e a s s u mp t i on ( 3 1)

179

be c o me s ma n i fes t i n t h e co nt e x t .

Since what follows however expresses the I n c i d e n t a l l y, t h e

s p e a k e r s a s s e r t i o n a n d t he r e f o r e i s s t r o n g i n f o r ma t i o n .

c o n t r a d i c t i n g a s s u m p t i o n w i l l b e e l i mi na t e d s i n c e i t i s w ea k e r i n f o r ma t i o n . Wh e t h e r I b e l i e ve or n ot i s n ot r e l a t e d t o t he c o nt r a di c t i o n . that however narrows down the scope of the contradiction. In some articles, buthowever can be found, too. i s c i t e d f r o m T h e N e w Yo r k Ti me s . T h e e x a mp l e ( 1 3 ) So it seems

( 3 2 ) T H I S t r u t h - t e l l i n g h a s n o t a l w a y s e n d e a r e d h i m t o I n d i a n s . I n d i a s newspapers may be filled with o ut r a ge d r e ve l a t i on s a bo ut civic

i n e ff i c i e n c y a n d c o r r u p t i o n . I n d i a s s e l f - a c c u s a t i o n s ma y o f t e n b e a s h a r s h a s a n y M r. N a i pa u l h a s ma d e . B u t t he r e i s , h o we v e r, a t a c i t a g r e e me n t t h a t t h i s i s n o t f o r o u t s i de d i s s e mi n a t i o n , t h a t We s t e r n s t e r e ot y p e s o f I nd i a a s a b a c k w a r d c o u n t r y s h o u l d n ot b e p a n d e r e d t o . T h u s M r. N a i pa ul i s r e g a r de d a s t he o ut s i de r w i t h i n s i de i n f or ma t i o n , t h e ma n w h o b e t r a y s . L o n e l y t h e n , b u t u na s s a i l a bl e , M r. N a i p a u l g a z e s i n t o e v e r y s h a d o wy c o r n e r o f t h e s oc i e t y, gi vi n g u s a pi c t u r e t ha t i s b o t h h a r s h a n d b e a u t i f u l , fa mi l i a r a n d s t r a n g e . ( T h e N e w Yo r k Ti m e s ; De c e m b e r 3 0 , 1 9 9 0 )

Fr o m t h e pr e v i ou s c o nt e xt , a n a s s ump t i o n ( 3 3 ) w i l l b e m a n i f e s t .

( 3 3 ) t h e r e i s a t a c i t a g r e e me n t t h a t t hi s i s f or o u t s i d e di s s e mi na t i o n, t h a t We s t e r n s t e r e o t y p e s o f I n d i a a s a b a c k w a r d c o u n t r y s h o u l d n o t b e pandered to.

180

Wh a t f o l l o ws b u t e l i mi n a t e s t h e c o nt r a di c t i n g a s s u mp t i o n. c o n t e n t o f t h e pr e vi o us s e g me n t i s a ff i r me d b y h o w e v e r. (33) will be derived from it. c o n t a i n i n g h o w e v e r.

I n c o nt r a s t , t h e Th e a s s u mp t i o n

T h e a u t h or s vi e w i s e x pr e s s e d b y t he s e g me n t

A c c o r di n gl y, t he i n f o r ma t i o n i s s t r on g e r t ha n t h e A s a r es u l t , t h e e l i mi n a ti o n o f t h e wr o n g H o w e v e r e mp h a s i z e s w h a t k i n d o f t a c i t a g r e e me n t

c o n t r a d i c t i n g a s s u mp t i o n . a s s u mp t i o n a c c o mp a n i e s . there is by the positioning.

Let us think of the next example.

( 3 4 ) O f c o u r s e a s i n g l e , h a s t i l y c on s t r u c t e d s t a t i s t i c a l m o d e l i s i n a d e q u a t e t o p r o v e t h e e x i s t e n c e o r e s t i ma t e t he t r u e i mp a c t o f L i t t l e M o o n e a r l y p r i ma r y v o t i n g . O t h e r mod e l s u s i n g d i ff e r e n t o r m o r e h i g h l y r e f i n e d v a r i a b l e s mi g h t p r o d u c e d i ff e r e n t r e s u l t s . B u t i t s i n t e r e s t i n g , h o w e v e r , t o n o t e t h a t o t h er r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e d e t e c t e d s o m e w h a t s i m i l a r e ff e c t s . P o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t L ar r y B a r t e l s , w h o l i t er a l l y w r o t e t h e b o o k o n p o l i t i c a l mo me n t u m, a rg u e d i n t h e l at e 1 9 8 0 s t h a t ma n y v o t e r s u s e a s i mp l e w i n ne r / l os e r c a l c u l a t i o n t o d e c i d e w hi c h c a n di d a t e t o s u pp or t i n p r i ma r i e s . H e c a l l e d t h e m s t r a t e gi c v ot e r s . Si g ni f i c a n t l y, t he s e v o t e r s w i l l s u p p o r t a wi n n e r e v e n i f i t s o me t i me s me a n s h o l d i n g t h e i r n o s e s a n d v o t i n g f o r a c a n di da t e t he y d o n t p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e . ( Wa s h i n g t o n P o s t ; P o l l i n g D i r e c t o r ; M o n d a y, J a n u a r y 3 1 , 2 0 0 0 )

I n t h e c o n t e xt , a n a s s u mp t i o n l i k e ( 3 5 ) w i l l b e m a n i f e s t .

( 3 5 ) o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e d e t e c t e d d i ff e r e nt e ff e c t s .

181

T h e a s s u mp t i on w i l l b e e l i m i n a t e d b y w h a t f o l l o w s b u t . r e a d e r t o f i nd t h e c o nt r a d i c t i o n b y n a r r o wi n g d o w n . i n t e r e s t i n g o r n ot i s n ot r e l a t e d t o t h e c o nt r a di c t i o n .

However helps the Wh e t h e r i t i s

T he a s s u m pt i o n ( 3 5 ) The

w i l l e me rge fr o m t he a ff i r me d c o n te nt o f t he pr e v i o us s e g me nt .

s e g me n t w h e r e h o w e v e r a p p e a r s , c o n ve ys t h e a u t h o r s a l l e g a t i o n , a n d t h u s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s m o r e i mp o r t a nt t h a n t he f a l s e a s s u mp t i o n. r e a s o n , t h e r e a d e r s h o u l d e l i mi n a t e t h e a s s u mp t i o n . In the following example, however is positioned at the end of the s e nt e nc e . F or t h a t

(36) The Soviets created a second satellite system in the late 1980s this o n e i n g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t , m e a ni n g t h a t t h e s e s a t e l l i t e s r e m a i n f i x e d i n o n e p l a c e a b o v e t h e E a r t h s s u r f a c e . Tw o o f t h e s e a r e s t i l l f u n c t i o n i n g , P o d v i g s a i d , wi t h o n e s i t ed t o c o v e r s o me o f t h e g a p s i n t h e o r i g i n a l array of satellite. B u t g a p s r e m a i n , h o we v e r . ( Wa s h i n g t o n P o s t ; We d n e s d a y, F e b r u a r y 1 0 , 1 9 9 9 )

Wh a t f o l l o ws b u t e l i mi n a t e s a n a s s u mp t i on l i k e ( 3 7 ) , w h i c h wi l l b e c o me ma n i f e s t t o t h e r e a d e r i n t h e c o nt e x t .

( 3 7 ) g a p s d o n o t r e ma i n .

O n t h e o t h e r h a nd , t he c o n c e pt u a l i n f or ma t i o n o f h o w e v e r g u a r a n t e e s a r e l e v a n c e t o t he pr e v i ou s s e g me n t . Th e a s s u mp t i o n d e r i v e d fr o m t h e

182

pr e v i ou s s e g me n t c o n t r a d i c t s t he i n f or ma t i o n i n t h e s e g me n t w hi c h h a s h o we v e r . contention. T he s e g me nt w i t h h o w e v e r e xp r e s s e s t h e s pe a ke r s / a u t h o r s C o n s e q u e n t l y, t h e i n f o r ma t i on s h ou l d b e s t r o ng e r t h a n t h e Ho w e ve r Si n c e

c o n t r a d i c t i n g a s s u mp t i o n , s o t h e a ss u mp t i o n w i l l b e e l i mi n a t e d . emphasizes t he whole sentence l i ke s e nt e nc e - i n i t i a l however.

h o we v e r i s a d e q u a t e l y f a r f r o m b u t , t h e r e i s l e s s fr i c t i o n b e t w e e n b u t a n d h o we v e r . Le t us t a ke a l oo k a t t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a mp l e , w h e r e h o w e v e r a p p e a r s a ft e r t h e s u bj e c t .

( 3 8 ) T h e D i s t r i c t h a s i t s k i l l e r s , a s c r i t i c s l o v e t o n o t e , i g n o r i n g t he s t e a d y d e c l i n e i n h o mi c i d e v i c ti ms a n d t h e i m p r o v e d a r r e s t s t a t i s t i c s . A n d , y e s , o n e mu r d e r i s t o o ma n y. B u t o u r c i t y, h o we v e r , h a s n t h a d a n y t h i n g l i k e Wi c hi t a s B T K m ur de r e r ( b i n d , t o r t u r e , k i l l ) w ho t e r r or i z e d t h a t c i t y f o r 3 0 y e a r s . ( Wa s h i n g t o n P o s t ; S a t u r d a y, M ar c h 1 2 , 2 0 0 5 )

B u t g u i d e s t h e r e a d e r t o e l i m i n a t e a n a s s u mp t i o n l i k e ( 3 9 ) b e co me s ma n i fes t i n t h e c on t e x t .

( 3 9 ) O u r c i t y h a s h a d s o me t h i n g l i k e Wi c h i t a s B T K mu r d e r e r ( b i n d , t o r t u r e , k i l l ) w h o t e r r o r i z e d t ha t c i t y f o r 3 0 y e a r s .

M e a n w h i l e , h o we v e r a ff i r m s t h e c o nt e n t o f t h e p r e vi o us s e g m e n t . reader will derive an assumption from it.

The

B e c a u s e t h e s p e a k e r s / a u t h o r s

183

c o n t e s t a t i o n i s d e c l a r e d i n t h e c l a us e w he r e h o w e v e r o c c u r s , t h e i n f or ma t i o n is stronger t ha n the i nc o r r e c t a ss u mp t i on . Th e n , the contradicting

assumption will be deleted.

Be s i d e s , h o we v e r e m p h a s i z e s t he p r e d i c a t e ,

h a s n t h a d a n y t h i n g l i k e Wi c h i t a s B T K m u rd e re r ( b i n d , t o r t u re , k i l l ) w h o t e r ro r i z e d t h at c i t y f o r 3 0 y e a r s . I n t he ne xt e xa mp l e , h o we v e r a p p e a r s a f t e r e mp h a t i c d o .

( 4 0 ) O t h e r s t u d i e s , mo s t n o t a b l y b y A A A , h a v e f o u n d d o g s t o b e t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g c h o i c e o f a n i ma l t r a v e l c o mp a n i o ns , c o mp r i s i n g ne a r l y 8 0 p e r c e nt o f p e t s on t r i ps ( 1 5 pe r c e nt a r e c a t s , a n d t h e r e m a i nd e r i nc l u d e birds, fish, ferrets and rabbits). St a r w oo d w a s s o l d o n t he g r o wi n g i n d u s t r y t r e n d b ut d i d , h o we v e r , s e t a p e r- d o g w e i g h t l i mi t o f 4 0 p o u n d s a t We s t i n h o t e l s a n d 8 0 p o u n d s a t Sheraton and W hotels. ( Wa s h i n g t o n Po s t ; S u n d a y, O c t o b e r 1 2 , 2 0 0 3 )

A n a s s u m pt i o n s u c h a s ( 4 0) wi l l be c o me ma n i f e s t i n t h e c o n t e x t a n d w ha t f o l l o ws b u t e l i mi n a t e s i t .

( 4 0 ) St a r w o o d d i d n o t s e t a p e r- d o g w e i g h t l i mi t a t a n y h o t e l s .

A t t h e s a me ti me , th e c o n c e pt ua l i n f o r ma t i on a n d t h e po s i t i o ni n g o f h o w e v e r h e l p s t h e r e a d e r t o f i n d t h e a s s u mp t i o n t h a t s h o u l d b e d e r i v e d f r o m a ff i r me d c o n t e n t o f t h e p r e v i o us c l a u s e. T h e i n f o r ma t i o n e mp h a s i z e d b y h o w e v e r i s So, it will be deleted.

s t r o n g e r t ha n t he c o n t r a d i c t i n g a s s u m p t i o n .

184

( 4 1 ) A t t h e I s l a mi c S c h ol a r s U ni o n , t h e mu l l a h s t o l d me t ha t t h e i r c o u n t r y m e n ha d a c c e p t e d t h e S a u d i mo s q u e s f or a s i mp l e r e a s on - - t h e y c o ul d n t a ff o r d t o b u i l d t h e i r o w n. B u t M u l l a h Ta l a t M a n t i q b i t t e r l y p o i n t e d o ut t h a t i n t h e y e a r s be f o r e t he e s t a bl i s h me n t o f t h e U . N . Oi l f or F o o d Pr o g r a m i n 1 9 9 6 , w h e n p e o pl e i n t h e r e g i o n w e r e s t a r v i n g , t h e S a u d i s w e r e b u i l d i n g m o s q u e s - - b u t w e r e n o t , h o we v e r , d o n a t i n g f o o d , c l o t h i n g or medicine. ( Wa s h i n g t o n P o s t ; S u n d a y, A u g u s t 11 , 2 0 0 2 )

B u t g u i d e s t h e r e a d e r t o e l i mi n a t e a c o n t r a d i c t i n g a s s u mp t i o n w h i c h i s ma n i f e s t i n t h e c on t e x t . I n t h i s c a s e , a n a s s u m p t i o n i n ( 4 2 ) w i l l b e ma n i f e s t

f r o m t h e pr e v i ou s c o nt e xt .

( 4 2 ) T h e S a u d i s we r e d o n a t i n g f o o d , c l o t h i n g o r me d i c i n e .

I n t h e m e a n t i m e , h o we v e r e m p h a s i z e s w h a t t h e y d i d n o t d o n a t i ng , t h a t i s , food, clothing or medicine. Th e c o n t e n t o f p r e v i o u s c l a u s e i s a ff i r me d b y The assumption will

h o we v e r , a n d t he r e a d e r d e r i v e s a n a s s u m p t i on fr o m i t .

b e d e n i e d b y t h e i n f o r ma t i o n i n t h e s e g m e n t c o n t a i n i n g h o we v e r . H o w e v e r i n t he f o l l o w i n g e x a mp l e a pp e a r s b e t we e n h a s a n d p a s t participle.

185

( 4 3 ) P r e v e n t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e a l l - i mp o r t a n t . T h i s i s w h a t j us t i f i e s t he dr a s t i c c o n t i n g e n c y p l a n s n o w b e i n g d r a w n u p b y t h e Wo r l d H e a l t h O rg a n i s a t i o n a n d t h e c o s t o f me a s u r e s a l r e a d y t a k e n b y w o r r i e d g o ve r n me n t s . B r i t a i n has not yet ordered poultry to be brought indoors a step that would be v e r y c o s t l y f o r o rg a n i c f a r m e r s , wh o s e bi r d s w o ul d l o s e t h e i r f r e e - r a n g e status. These now account for 27 percent of total egg production. But it h a s , h o we v e r , a l r e a d y t a k e n o t h e r s t e p s t h a t a r e s e n s i bl e . ( T h e Ti m e s : A u g u s t 2 3, 2 0 0 5 )

I n t h e c o n t e xt , a n a s s u mp t i o n ( 4 4) w i l l b e m a n i f e s t t o t he r e a de r.

( 4 4 ) i t h a s n ot ye t t a k e n ot h e r s t e p s t h a t a r e s e n s i b l e .

Wh a t f ol l o w s b u t c o n t r a d i c t s a n d e l i mi na t e s t h e a s s u mp t i o n .

However

a ff i r ms t h e c o n t e nt o f t he p r e v i o u s s e nt e n c e , a n d t h e r e a d e r d e r i v e s a n a s s u mp t i o n fr o m i t . a u t h o r s a s s e r t i n g . T h e s e nt e n c e i n w hi c h h o we v e r a p pe a r s c o n ve ys t h e Si n c e t h e i n f or ma t i o n i s s t r o n ge r t h a n t h e wr o n g However emphasizes the

a s s u m p t i o n , t h e a s s u m p t i o n wi l l b e e l i mi n a t e d .

u n d e r l i n e d p a r t , a l re a d y t a k e n o t h e r s t e p s t h a t a re s e n s i b l e .

( 4 5 ) W h e t h e r A r i r a n g c a n p r o v i de n e w mo me n t u m f o r e n g a g e me n t , o r a t t r a c t mo r e t o u r i s t b u c k s , r e ma i ns t o b e s e e n . B u t f o r n o w, h o we v e r , i t i s p a r t y t i me - a t l e a s t i n t h e s ur r e a l c i t y t ha t i s P y o ng y a n g. ( T h e G u a rd i a n ; Fr i d a y M a y 1 7 , 2 0 0 2 )

186

T h e p r e v i o u s c o n t e xt m a k e s a n a s s u m p t i o n m a n i f e s t t o t h e r e a de r.

(46)

It is not always vigorous in Pyongyang.

Wh a t f o l l o ws b u t w i l l e l i mi na t e t h e c o nt r a di c t i n g a s s u m pt i o n .

O n t he o t h e r

h a n d , t h e c o n c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n o f h o w e v e r t e l l s t h e r e a d e r t ha t t h e c on t e n t o f t h e p r e v i o u s s e g me n t i s t r u e . ( 4 6 ) w i l l e me rg e . Fr o m t h e a ff i r me d s e g me n t , t he a s s u mp t i o n What follows

H o we v e r e mp h a s i z e s w h a t f o l l o w s i t .

h o we v e r c o n v e y s s t r o n g e r i n f o r ma t i o n t h a n t he c o n t r a d i c t i n g a s s u m p t i o n . H e n c e , t h e r e a d e r w i l l e l i mi n a t e t h e a s s u mp t i o n . fo r n o w i s l e s s i m p o r t a n t i n t he c o n t r a d i c t i on . As w e h a ve s e e n s o f a r, t he i n f or ma t i o n e n c o d e d b y b u t a n d h o we v e r i s d i ff e r e n t a n d t h e r e f or e e a c h f u nc t i o ns i n a di ff e r e nt w a y. w o r k s a s a n e mp ha s i z e r. position, part of the Be s i de s , h o w e v e r I t s e e ms t h a t t h e p h r a s e ,

I f h o w e v e r a p pe a r s i n t h e s e n t e n c e - i nt e r n a l or sentence will be e mp h a s i z e d . The

clause

s e n t e n c e - i ni t i a l a n d s e n t e n c e e n d h o w e v e r e mp h a s i z e s t h e w h o l e c l a u s e o r sentence.

5 . 5 . A Re m a i n i ng P ro bl e m I t w a s s h o w n i n t h e s e c t i o n 5 .3 t ha t G a r ne r s ( 1 9 9 8 ) p r o p o s a l t h a t a p a r t o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t s f o l l o w e d b y h o we v e r i s e mp h a s i z e d a n d c o nt r a s t e d i s no t n e c e s s a r i l y e ff e c t i v e . G a r n e r ( 1 9 9 8 ) , Be l l ( 2 0 0 4 ) , a n d G r e e n b a u m ( 1 9 6 9 )

c l a i m t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n i n g o f h o we v e r i s r e l a t e d t o f o c us , b ut a r e t he r e a ny l i n k a g e s b e t we e n t he i n f o r m a t i o n s t r u c t u r e a n d t h e p o s i t i o n i n g ? that however f u n c t i o ns as an e mp h a s i z e r, but additional I postulate research is

187

n e c e s s a r y. At a r o u g h e s t i ma t e , t h e r e a r e l ik e l y t o b e s i x c a s e s i n t h e p os i t i o n i n g of however. T h e y a r e c a s e s w h e r e h o we v e r o c c u r s r i g h t b e f o r e o r a f t e r a

c o n t r a s t i v e t o pi c / t h e me , c a s e s w he r e h o we v e r o c c u r s r i g h t b e f o r e o r a f t e r a n o n - c o n t r a s t i v e t o p i c / t h e me , a n d c a s e s w he r e i t c o me s b e f o r e o r a f t e r a f oc u s . T h e s e e x a mp l e s w i l l be pr e s e nt e d be l o w. Fi r s t l y, w e w i l l s e e t hr e e c a s e s w he re a ( c o n t r a s t i v e ) t o p i c / t h e m e i s a n a d j u n c t a n d t w o c a s e s w h e r e i t i s a s u bje c t . A ( c o nt r a s t i v e ) t op i c / t h e me i s

u n d e r s c o r e d w i t h a w a v y l i n e a n d a f o c us e d p a r t i s s u r r o u n d e d wi t h a s q u a r e . T he e xa m p l e s ( 4 7 ) t o ( 5 1) a r e c a s e s o f h o we v e r a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e n t e n c e , wh i l e t he e x a mp l e s ( 5 2) t o ( 56 ) a r e c a s e s o f h o w e v e r i n t h e sentence-internal position. ( T h e wa v y l i n e s a n d s q ua r e s a r e t h e a u t h o r s . The

I n t h e r e s t o f t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e y a r e t h e a u t ho r s i f t h e r e i s n o n o t i c e . w a v y l i n e s i n d i c a t e a t h e me / t o pi c a n d s q ua r e s s h o w a f o c u s . )

( 4 7 ) A C o n t r a s t i v e To p i c / T h e m e A d j u n c t ( 1 ) A n d t h e n t h e r e s a f a n f r o m M i d l o t h i a n , Va . , w h o g o e s b y t h e n a m e R e d s k i n D a n 0 5 5 7 o n t h e E x t r e me s k i n s . c o m f o r u m l i s t . R e s p o n d i n g t o a r e p o r t e r s q u e s t i o n a b o u t s u p e r s t i t i o n s, h e w r o t e : M y w i f e ha s t o f o l d l a u n d r y ( h e r c h o i c e , b y t he wa y, s h e i s d i e h a r d) i n ou r b e d r oo m wh i l e w a t c h i n g t h e g a me . E v e r y g a me t ha t s he h a s d o n e t h i s , t h e R e d s k i n s h a v e won. However, yesterday against the Seattle Seahawks, none of it worked . T h e R e d s k i n s l o s t , 2 0- 1 0 . ( Wa s h i n g t o n P o s t ; J a n u a r y 1 5 , 2 0 0 6 )

188

L e t s t a k e a l o o k a t t he n e x t e xa m pl e , w h e r e a t op i c / t h e me i s a n adjunct.

( 4 8 ) A C o n t r a s t i v e To p i c / T h e m e A d j u n c t ( 2) T h e l e s s o n o f y e a r s o f c o m b a t t i n g t e r r o r i s m i s t h a t i t c a n n o t b e s o l ve d b y t h e me a n s u s e d t o fi g h t c o n ve n t i o n a l w a r s . P e r s u a s i o n o f s t a t e s w h i c h s u p p o r t t e r r o r i s t s c a n b e h e l p e d b y t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f e c o n o mi c , d i p l o ma t i c a n d s o m e t i me s mi lit a r y f or c e . H o w e v e r , i n a f a i l e d s t a t e , t h e n o t i o n a l g o v e r n me n t ma y n ot b e a bl e t o do a n yt h i n g u s e f u l e v e n u n d e r the most extreme pressure. ( T h e G u a rd i a n ; Se p t e mb e r 1 8 , 2 0 0 1 )

N o w, w e w i l l t a k e a l o ok a t a n o t h e r e x a mp l e o f t h e c a s e w h e r e h o we v e r a p p e a r s r i g h t b e f or e a c o n t r a s t i v e t o p i c / t he me .

( 4 9 ) A C o nt r as t i ve Top i c / T h e m e A dj u n c t ( 3) F o r t h os e i n c l i n e d t o be l i e v e t h e wo r s t a b o u t t h e g r e e d a n d v e n a l i t y o f mu l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s , ma n y r e a l e x a mp l e s o f l a b o r a b u s e s c a n b e f o u n d t h a t c o r re s p o n d t o t h e p r e d o mi n a n t n e g a t i v e i ma g e s . H o w e v e r , f o r anyone who actually has traveled to China, visited the operations of We s t e r n c o mp a n i e s , a n d s p o k e n wi t h We s t e r n ma n a g e r s a n d C h i n e s e w o r k e r s , i t i s a b u n d a n t l y o b v i ou s t h a t t h e s e i ma g e s d o n o t j u s t l y r e p r e s e n t t h e c o m p l e t e s t o r y o f We s t e r n b u s i n e s s i n C h i n a . ( Pro f i t s a n d P r i n c i p l e s : G l o b a l C a p i t a l i s m a n d H u m an R i g ht s i n C h i n a B y M i c ha e l A . S a nt or o , C o r n e l l U ni v e r s i t y Pr e s s , p . 3 )

189

I n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a mp l e ( 5 0 ) , a c o n t r as t i v e t o p i c / t h e m e i s a s u b j e c t . e x a mp l e ( 5 1) , a c o n t r a s t i v e t o pi c / t h e me i s a s u bj e c t a s t he e xa mp l e ( 5 0) .

In

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A C o n t r a s t i v e To p i c / T h e m e s u bj e c t ( 1) H a s t h e c o n s t i t ut i o n b e e n f i n a l i z e d? I n t h e o r y, y e s . Fi v e mi l l i o n c o p i e s o f a n e a r l y ve r si o n o f t h e d r a ft c o n s t i t u t i o n, a ft e r s e v e r a l d e l a y s , w e r e d is t r i b u t e d t o I r a q i s i n e a r l y O c t o b e r a l o n g wi t h t he i r r a t i o n c a r d s . H o w e v e r , t h e f i n a l t e x t o f t h e d o c u me n t i s s t i l l a wo r k i n pr og r e s s , s a y s N a t ha n B r o w n , s e n i o r a s s o c i a t e w i t h t h e C a r ne g i e E n d o wme nt f or I n t e r na t i on a l Pe a c e . ( T h e N e w Yo r k Ti m e s ; Oc t o b e r 6 , 2 0 0 5 )

( 5 1 ) A C o n t r a s t i ve To p i c / T h e m e s u b j e c t ( 2) A mo n g To r y v ot e r s , M r C a m e r on s s u p p o r t a s t he p ot e n t i a l b e s t l e a d e r i s u p f r o m 3 t o 3 3 p e r c e n t , wh e r e h e i s l e v e l p e g g i n g w i t h M r Cl a r k e , w h o s e r a t i n g h a s d r o p p e d b y 2 2 p oi nt s s i nc e e a r l y S e pt e m be r. H o w e v e r , M r D a v i s h a s ma d e n o r e a l h e a d w a y, b o o s t i n g h i s r a t i n g by just four points to 12 per cent. ( T h e Ti m e s ; Oc t o b e r 11 , 2 0 0 5 )

He r e a r e c a s e s o f h o w e v e r i n t he mi d dl e o f a s e n t e n c e . ( 5 2 ) , h o w e v e r c o m e s a ft e r a c o n t r a s t i ve t op i c .

I n t h e e x a mp l e

A ( c on t r a s t i ve ) t o pi c / t h e me

i s u n d e r s c o r e d w i t h a w a v y l i n e a n d a f o c u s e d p ar t i s s u r r o u n d e d wi t h a square.

190

( 5 2 ) A C o nt r as t i ve Top i c / T h e m e A dj u n c t ( 1) T h i s c ha p t e r e x pl o r e s t h e c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n ma s c u l i n i t y, f e mi n i n i t y, s e l f - i n t e r e s t , a n d c a r e f or o t h e r s . I n t he U n i t e d St a t e s t o d a y, m e n a n d w o me n h a v e e q u a l r i g ht s b e f o r e t h e l a w . Wi t h r e s pe c t t o t h e c a r e o f c h i l d r e n a n d o t h e r d e p e n d e n t s, h o we v e r , o u r c u l t u r a l n or ms s t i l l r e fl e c t g r e a t e r e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r w o me n t ha n f or me n . ( T h e I n v i s i b l e He a r t : E c o n o m i c s a n d F a mi l y Val u e s . B y Na n c y Fo l b r e , T he N e w P r e s s , 2 0 0 1 . p . 4 )

T h e n e xt e x a mp l e i s pa r t o f t he a r t i c l e e nt i t l e d Barg a i n s c h o o l s b r i n g fees down---Pupils are being wooed from established private schools by new f i r ms o ff e r i n g d i s c o u n t s .

( 5 3 ) A C o nt r as t i ve Top i c / T h e m e A dj u n c t ( 2) Av e r a g e p r i v a t e s c h o o l f e e s a r e 7 , 6 6 8 a y e a r, s l i g h t l y h i g h e r f o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s a n d l o w e r f o r p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l s . Top s c h o o l s , h o we v e r , c a n c h a rg e i n f i n i t e l y mo r e St P a u l s b o y s s c h o o l i n Lo n d o n c h a rg e s 1 3 , 5 0 0 f o r d a y p u p i l s , We s t mi n s t e r mo r e t h a n 1 5, 0 0 0 a n d Wi n c h e s t e r a n e y e - w a t e r i n g 2 1 , 0 0 0 - p l u s . T h i s y e a r p a r e n t s c o u l d t a k e s o me c o m f o r t f r o m t he l o w e s t a v e r a g e f e e i nc r e a s e i n s i x ye a r s , 5 . 8 % . T h e y e a r b e f o r e, h o w e v e r , t h e r i s e w a s 9 .6 % . ( T h e S u n d a y Ti me s ; M a y 2 9 , 2 0 0 5 )

L e t s l o o k a t t h e n e x t e x a m p l e ( 5 4 ) , a c o n t r a s t i v e t o p i c / t h e m e i s a subject.

191

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A C o n t r a s t i v e To p i c / T h e m e s u b j e c t ( 1 ) J a n e , h o w e v e r , wa s n t a b l e t o ma k e t h e t r i p . Garner 1998:343

I n t he ne x t e x a mp l e ( 55 ) , a c o nt r a s t i ve t op i c / t he me i s a s u bj e c t a s ( 5 4) , b u t i t i s a p r o no u n . is not a pronoun. I n ( 5 6 ) , h o w e v e r a p p e a r s r i g ht a f t e r t h e s u bj e c t , w h i c h

( 5 5 ) A C o nt r as t i ve Top i c / T h e m e s u bj e c t ( 2 ) M A N Y h a v e a rg u e d t h a t H a m a s s w i n n i n g o f a d e c i s i v e m a j or i t y i n t h e P a l e s t i n i a n P a r l i a m e n t p r o v i d e s y e t a n o t h e r s e t ba c k f or pe a c e a n d d e mo c r a c y i n t he M i d dl e E a s t . S o me h a v e e v e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t vindicates Israeli unilateralism. I, however, think the opposite is true : A n e g o t i a t e d a nd l a s t i n g p e a c e ma y n o w b e c l o s e r t h a n m a n y o f u s c o u l d h a v e i ma g i n e d j u s t w e e k s a g o . ( T h e Ne w Yo r k Ti m e s ; M a r c h 1 , 2 0 0 6 )

( 5 6 ) A C o nt r as t i ve Top i c / T h e m e s u bj e c t ( 3 ) A f t e r s i g n i n g h i s a ut o g r a p h i n t h e b o o k , L a s t P o s t , t h e Fi n a l Wo rd f ro m O u r F i r s t Wo r l d Wa r S o l d i e r s , b y M a x Ar t h u r, M r St o n e , a w i n n e r o f 1 2 me d a l s , was asked what the secret was behind his extraordinary

l o n g e v i t y. He s a i d : A c o nt e n t e d mi n d , c l e a n l i v i n g a n d t r u s t i n t h e Lord. M r Al l i n g h a m, h o w e v e r , h a d a d i ff e r e n t e x p la n a t i o n f o r h i s l o n g l i f e . H e d e c l a r e d w i t h a g r i n : I t s d o w n t o c i g a r e t t e s , w h i s k y a n d w i l d , wild women. ( T h e Ti m e s ; N o v e m b e r 1 0 , 2 0 0 5 )

S e c o n d l y, t h e f o l l o wi n g e x a mp l e s ( 57) t o ( 6 4) a r e t h e c a s e s o f a

192

n o n - c o n t r a s t i v e To p i c / T h e me . e x a mp l e .

Le t u s s t a r t o ff b y l o ok i n g a t t he f ol l o wi n g

H o w e v e r i n ( 57 ) a n d ( 5 8 ) a p p e a r s b e f o r e t he s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e .

( 5 7 ) A N o n- C o n t r a s t i v e To p i c / T h e m e A d j u n c t ( 1 ) : A d j u n c t s p l a y a r ol e o f a s i m p l e s c e n e - s e t t e r. W H E N G e o rg e O s b o r n e w a s f l y i n g a c r os s t h e A t l a n t i c o n Tu e s d a y, t h e p i l o t ma d e a l i t t l e a n n o u n c e me n t : Ha p p y Va l e n t i n e s D a y t o e v e r y o n e , h e s a i d , e s p e c i a l l y t o R e g , o u r c hi e f s t e w a r d , w h o h a s b e e n w i t h h i s p a r t n e r, B o b , f o r 2 0 y e a r s n o w. T h e p a s s e n g e r s , i n c l u d i n g M r Os b or n e , a p p l a u d e d . H o w e v e r , w h e n t h e S ha d o w C h a n c e l l or l a t e r d e s c r i be d t hi s s we e t mo me n t t o a R e p u b l i c a n C o n g r e s s ma n , h e s a i d t h a t t he r e w a s a r a t h e r h o r r i fi e d r e a c t i o n t o t h i s c a s ua l a c c e p t a n c e o f a g a y r e l a t i o n s h i p . ( T h e Ti m e s ; Fe b r u a r y 1 7 , 2 0 0 6 ) ( 5 8 ) A N o n- C o n t r a s t i v e To p i c / T h e m e A d j u n c t ( 2 ) G e r ma n y, with its Na z i pa s t , is e s pe c i a l l y sensitive to p os s i b l e

v i o l a t i o n s o f c i v i l r i g h t s o r a b u s e s o f p o l i c e p o w e r. H o w e v e r , s i nc e t he r e v e l a t i o n t h a t H a mb u rg w a s t h e s i t e o f t h e A l Q a e d a c e l l ma i nl y r e s p o n s i bl e f or c a r r y i n g o u t t h e S e p t e mb e r 11t h attacks in the United St a t e s , G e r ma n y has carried out regular

s u r v e i l l a n c e a n d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f I s l a mi c g r o u p s . ( T h e N e w Yo r k Ti m e s ; J u l y 2 7 , 2 0 0 5 )

A p r o n o u n f o l l o w s a ft e r h o w e v e r i n t h i s c a s e .

193

( 5 9 ) A N o n- C o n t r a s t i v e To p i c / T h e m e s u b j e c t ( 1 ) A s h i s o w n p u b l i s h e r, Va s s a k e p t t he b o ok 's e n t i r e a n d c o ns i d e r a b l e p r o f i t . B y Fe b r u a r y 1 7 9 2 , h e w a s a bl e t o l e n d t o d a y ' s e q u i v a l e n t o f $ 3 5 , 0 0 0 a n d c o u l d a ff o r d t o l o s e i t w h e n t h e d e b t o r d e f a u l t e d . H e a l s o r o u t i n e l y s u b s c r i be d t o a n t i s l a ve r y w r i t i n g s o f o t h e r a u t h o r s . H o w e v e r , h e d i e d i n L o n d o n o n M a r c h 3 1, 1 7 9 7 , 1 0 y e a r s b e f o r e E n g l a n d a b ol i s h e d t h e s l a v e t r a d e . ( T h e Was h i n g t o n Po s t ; F e b r u a r y 1 , 2 0 0 6 )

I n t h i s e x a mp l e , h o w e v e r i s f o l l o w e d b y a p r op e r na me w h i c h i s t he s u bj e c t .

( 6 0 ) A N o n- C o n t r a s t i v e To p i c / T h e m e s u b j e c t ( 2 ) F a r mo r e t h a n w a n t i n g s mo k e r s t o s t u b t h e i r f a g s o u t , I w a n t t h e i l l i b e r a l l i b e r a l s n o w r u n n i n g h e a l t h p o l i c y t o b u t t o u t o f p e o p l e s p e r s o n a l h a b i t s . T h i s we e k , a n u na p ol og e t i c To ny B l a i r ma d e c l e a r t ha t he w i l l us e t h e d o d g y i n t e l l i g e n c e o n E T S t o l a u n c h a w a r a g a i n s t s mo k i n g i n p u b l i c . H o w e v e r , M r Bl a i r i s s t i l l t o o s o f t o n s mo k e r s f o r s o me t a s t e s ; o n e l e a d i n g m e d i c a l j o u r n a l wa n t s h i m t o b a n t o ba c c o a l t og e t h e r. ( T h e Ti m e s ; O c t o b e r 1 6 , 2 0 0 4 )

N o w, w e w i l l s e e s o me e xa mp l e s w he r e h o w e v e r a p pe a r s r i g ht a ft e r a n o n - c o n t r a s t i ve To pi c a n d T he me . is positioned after adjuncts. I n t h e e xa mp l e s ( 6 1 ) a n d ( 6 2 ) , h o we v e r

194

( 6 1 ) A N o n- C o n t r a s t i v e To p i c / T h e m e A d j u n c t ( 1) O n T hu r s da y t h e f r o nt - r un n e r t a c k e d ba c k t o t h e c e nt e r, pr o mi s i n g t o n e g o t i a t e w i t h M r. S h a r o n a f t e r t he e l e c t i o ns a n d r e i t e r a t i n g hi s w i l l i n g n e s s t o " i m p l e m e n t " t h e r o a d ma p " c o mp l e t e l y." To d o t h a t , h o we v e r , M r. A b b a s wi l l h a v e t o p e r s u a d e P a l e s t i n i a n s t o a b a n d o n t h e h o a r y s l o g a n s a n d ma x i ma l i s t d e ma n d s t h a t h e h a s j u s t b e e n s h o u t i n g - a n d d i s a r m t h e mi l i t a n t s w h o h a v e b e e n f i r i n g s a l u t e s i n h i s h o n o r. ( T h e Wa s hi n g t o n P o s t ; J a n u a r y 8 , 2 0 0 5 ) ( 6 2 ) A N o n- C o n t r a s t i v e To p i c / T h e m e A d j u n c t ( 2) I n t h e 2 0 0 0 R e p u b l i c a n p r i ma r i e s , h e w a s w i d e l y b e l i e v e d t o h a v e b e e n b e h i n d t h e s me a r c a mp a i g n a g a i n s t J o h n M c C a i n i n t h e c r u c i a l S o u t h C a r o l i n a c o nt e s t . F o r a l l t h e a l l e g a t i o n s , h o w e v e r , M r R o v e 's f i n g e r pr i n t s h a v e r a r e l y been found on any of the backroom manoeuvres that have brought him a n d M r B u s h t o t h e Wh i t e H o u s e . ( T h e G u a rd i a n ; Oc t o b e r 2 , 2 0 0 3 )

T he e x a m p l e s ( 6 3 ) a n d ( 6 4 ) s ho w s t h e c a s e s w he r e h o w e v e r o c c u r s a ft e r a n o n - c o n t r a s t i ve s u b j e c t .

( 6 3 ) A N o n- C o n t r a s t i v e To p i c / T h e m e s u b j e c t ( 1 ) O t h e r s mi g h t s h r u g . T h e y 'r e o n l y a c a r t o o n s . W h a t 's t h e f u s s ? C a r t o o n s , h o we v e r , c a n b e a p o we r f ul m e a ns o f c a t a ly s i ng a n d d i s s e m i n a t i n g i d e a s , b e t h e y p e r t i n e nt l y s a t i r i c a l o r h i d e o u s l y w a r p e d . ( T h e G u a rd i a n ; F e b r u a r y 3 , 2 0 0 6 )

195

( 6 4 ) A ( N o n- C o nt r as t i ve ) To pi c / T h e m e s u bj e c t ( 2) J o h n Fo r b e s N a s h , J r. , w a s b o r n a l mo s t e x a c t l y f o u r y e a r s a f t e r h i s p a r e n t s ' ma r r i a g e , o n J u n e 1 3 , 1 9 2 8 . [ ] T h e b i g , b l o n d b a b y b o y w a s , a s f a r a s a n y o n e s t i l l l iv i n g r e me mb e r s , a p p a r e n t l y h e a l t h y, a n d w a s s o o n baptized in the Episcopal Church directly opposite the Martin house on Ta z e we l l St r e e t a n d g i v e n hi s f a t h e r 's f u l l n a me . E v e r y o n e , h o w e v e r , c a l l e d h i m J o h n n y. (A Beautiful Mind: The Life of Mathematical Genius and Nobel L a u re a t e J o h n Na s h , b y S y l v i a N a s a r, Si mo n & S c h u s t e r, 2 0 0 1 , p . 3 0 )

L e t u s h a ve a l o o k a t t h e c a s e s w h e r e h o w e v e r r i g h t b e f o r e t he f o c u s . (65) to (67).

See

( 6 5 ) J u d g e D r e d d , t he r u t h l e s s A me r i c a n c o mi c bo o k s u p e r h e r o w h o a c t s a s p o l i c e ma n , j u d g e , j ur y a nd e xe c ut i o ne r i n a p os t - n u c l e a r N e w Yor k , w a s made in Britain. I t i s , h o w e v e r , A m e r i c a n c o l l e c t o r s w h o d r i v e t h e w o r l d ma r k e t f o r s u p e r h e r o c o mi c b o ok s , t h e l e n g t h y s t o r i e s a i me d a t a d u l t s , a s o p p o s e d t o t h e s h o r t e r o n e s f or c hi l d r e n . ( T h e O b s e r v e r ; S u n d a y Ap r i l 8 , 2 0 0 1 ) ( 6 6 ) A l r e a dy, O 'R e i l l y & As s oc i a t e s , a t e c h n i c a l b o o k p u b l i s h e r b a s e d i n S e b a s t a p o l , C a l i f . , h a s u s e d M o s a i c a n d t h e We b t o c r e a t e a n o n - l i n e m a g a z i n e t h a t i nc l u d e s a d v e r t i s i n g . T h e r e r e m a i n, h o we v e r , s i g n i f i c a n t b a r r i e r s t o u s i n g M o s a i c . ( T h e N e w Yo r k Ti m e s ; De c e m b e r 11, 2 0 0 0 )

196

( 6 7 ) T h e Wh i t e H o us e i s w o r k i n g ha r d o n a r e l a u n c h o f t h e p r e s i d e n c y n e x t y e a r, b e g i n n i n g wi t h t h e c o n fi r ma t i o n o f S a m u e l A l i t o , t h e S u p r e me C o u r t n o mi n e e . T h e n , i n t he St a t e o f t h e U n i o n a d d r e s s , M r B u s h p l a n s t o p u s h f o r n e w i n i t i a t i v e s , i n c l u d i ng a mo r e o p e n i mm i g r a t i o n p o l i c y a n d , p e r h a p s , s e r i o u s t a x r e f o r m. T h e A d mi n i s t r a t i o n i s a l s o k e e n t o t a l k a b o u t t h e e c o n o my, w h i c h c o n t i n u e s t o r e c o r d r o b us t g r o w t h . R e p u b l i c a n s t r a t e g i s t s n o t e t h a t p e t r ol p r i c e s , w hi c h s e e me d t o be a ke y e l e me n t i n t h e P r e s i d e n t s s l u mp i n g p o l i t i c a l f o r t u n e s t h i s p a s t s u m m e r, h a v e e a s e d ; p r i c e s a t t h e p u mp a r e d o w n 2 0 p e r c e nt s i n c e e a r l y Se pt e m be r. T h e l o n g - t e r m o u t l o o k s t i l l r e s t s , h o w e v e r , o n I r a q . Fo r R e p u b l i c a n s i n s i d e a n d ou t s i d e t h e Wh i t e H o us e , t he h o pe i s t ha t s u c c e s s f u l e l e c t i o n s i n I r a q n e x t mo n t h w i l l e n a b l e t h e U S t o b e g i n wi t h d r a wi n g t r o o p s , g e t t i n g t h e i s s u e o ff t h e fr o n t p a g e s . M r B u s h s t i l l b e l i e v e s t h a t d e m o c r a c y i n t h e M i d d l e E a s t c a n b e h i s s h i n i n g l e g a c y. B ut w i t h a v i e w t o t h e i r e l e c t o r a l f o r t u n e s , mo s t R e p u b l i c a n s w i l l b e q u i t e h a p p y i f t h e p u b l i c d o e s n o t h e a r an o t h e r w o r d a b o u t I r a q . ( T h e Ti m e s ; N o v e mb e r 1 7 , 2 0 0 5 )

I n t h e e x a mp l e ( 6 8 ) t o ( 7 2 ) , h o w e v e r i s p o s i t i o n e d a f t e r a f o c u s .

( 6 8 ) I t h a s o c c a s i o n a l l y be e n t h o u g h t t h a t t h e t e r m p a r a me t e r i t s e l f s h o u l d o n l y b e u s e d w he n t h e r e i s s uc h a n ot a b l e or d r a ma t i c r a n g e o f e ff e c t s . I w i l l n o t , h o w e v e r , p u r s u e t h a t wa y o f t h i n k i n g h e r e . ( M o v e me n t a nd Si l e nc e , b y R i c h a r d S . K a y n e , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Pr e s s , 2 0 0 5 , p . 2 7 8 )

197

(69)

J a n e w a s n t a b l e , h o we v e r , t o ma k e t h e t r i p .

Ga r n e r 1 9 9 8 : 3 4 3

( 7 0 ) Wh e n C h r i s t o p h e r C ol u m b u s d i s c o v e r e d t h e C a r i b b e a n i n 1 4 9 2 , i t s l u s h v i s t a s mu s t h a v e d az z l e d h i s s e n s e s . I t w a s Di e g o Ve l z q u e z , h o w e v e r , w h o w o u l d , i n 1 5 11 , c o n q ue r t h e i s l a n d f o r S p a i n a n d l a u n c h t h e S p a n i s h Conquest. ( I n B l a c k a n d W h i t e : T h e L if e o f S a m m y D a v i s , J r. B y Wi l H a y g o o d , B i l l b o a r d B o o k s , 2 0 0 5 , p . 3 6 ) (71)Some had secured their spot by spending the night in sleeping bags w h i l e ot h e r s s a t o n t h e s i d e w a l k i n n e o n- c ol or e d l a w n c ha i r s r e a d i n g M r. C l i n t o n 's me mo i r a s i f t h e y w e r e s e a s i d e . B o o k s we n t o n s a l e a t s o me l o c a t i o n s b e g i n n i n g a t 1 2 : 0 1 a . m. t o d a y. J o y c e M o r a l e s , 5 2 , g o t up a t 4: 3 0 t hi s mo r ni n g a n d t r a ve l e d i n t o M a n h a t t a n f r o m St a t e n I s l a n d t o g e t o n l i n e . " I l o v e B i l l Cl i n t o n , " s h e s a i d . " I t h i n k h e w a s a g r e a t p r e s i de nt . I g o t H i l l a r y 's b o o k l a s t y e a r. " [] N o t e v e r y o n e h o w e v e r , w a s f o n d o f M r. Cl i n t o n . ( T h e N e w Yo r k Ti m e s ; J u n e 2 2 , 2 0 0 4 ) ( 7 2 ) B u t b e f o r e w e d o t h a t , l e t u s b r i e f ly a d d r e s s w h o t h i s b o o k i s f o r. I t a i ms t o i n t r o d u c e t h e r e a de r t o t h e mi n i ma l i s t a p p r o a c h t o t h e t h e o r y g r a m ma r. I t d o e s n t s t a r t a t z e r o , h o we v e r . ( Un d e r s t a n d i n g M i n i ma l i s m , b y N o r b e r t H o r n s t e i n , J a i r o N u n e s , a n d K l e a n t h e s K . G r o h n ma n n C a mb r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 2 0 0 5 , p . 1 )

T h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t we e n h o w e v e r a n d t h e i n f o r ma t i o n s t r u c t u r e s h o u l d b e

198

e x a mi n e d i n t h e f u t ur e r e s e a r c h .

5 . 6 . C o nc l u d i ng R e m a r k s I n t h i s c h a pt e r, I s h o w e d a d di t io n a l c a s e s t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n i n g o f h o we v e r mi g h t a ff e c t p r a g m a t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h a t i s , o t h e r a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e r e v i s e d hypothesis. F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c r y s t a l l i z e h o w t h e d i ff e r e n c e i n t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f e a c h c a s e c a n o cc u r, I i n t r o d u c e d A ra k i e t a l . ( 1 9 8 5 ) d e s c r i p t i o n o n t h e d i ff e r e n c e be t w e e n l i t e r a r y s t y l e a n d c o l l o q u i a l s t y l e , b e c a us e I t h ou g h t i t w a s v e r y i mp o r t a n t t o d i s ti n g u i s h l i t e r a r y s t y l e f r o m c o l l o q u i a l s t y l e . Wh a t

I p a i d m u c h a t t e n t i o n t o w a s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e e xa g ge r a t i o n c a n b e o v e r l o o k e d i n s p o ke n l a n g ua g e a nd t he me d i u m b e t w e e n c o l l o q u i a l a n d literary style. I s ho w e d t h e e xa mp l e s w h e r e t h e d i ff e r e n c e i n a c c e p t a b i l i t y c a n n o t a l w a y s b e e x p l a i n e d o nl y b y t he d i ff e r e nc e be t we e n l i t e r a r y s t yl e a n d c o l l o q u i a l s t y l e , a n d I d e mo ns t r a t e d h o w t he d e gr e e o f t he a c c e pt a b i l i t y i n co-occurrence of but and however can be explained, based on the revised h y p o t h e s i s , w hi c h i s s h o w n a g a i n b e l o w.

( 7 3 ) H o w e v e r i n s e n t e n c e - i n t e r n a l p o s i t i o n e mp h a s i z e s t h e p a r t w h i c h i s closely connected to contradiction.

I n a d d i t i o n t o t h a t , I d e mo n s t r a t e d t w o a d v a nt a ge s o f t h e r e v i s e d hypothesis. F i r s t l y, some researchers statement that h o we v e r in

s e n t e n c e - i n t e r n a l p o s i t i o n w o r k s b e t t e r t h a n h o we v e r i n s e n t e n c e - i n i t i a l

199

p o s i t i o n c a n b e e xp l a i n e d b y t h e a d d i t io n a l f u n c t i o n o f h o we v e r , t ha t i s , t h e function of an e mp h a s i z e r. S e c o n d l y, I touched on the me r i t of

s e n t e n c e - i n t e r n a l h o we v e r .

T h e s c o p e o f e m p h a s i s c o u l d b e f o u n d mo r e I c l a i m e d t ha t pa r t o f s e n t e n c e i s

e a s i l y b y p o s i t i o n i n g o f h o we v e r . e mp h a s i z e d b y h o w e v e r .

T h e e mp h a s i z e d p a r t s h o u ld b e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o

t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n , b ut i t s h o ul d be e x a mi n e d w h e t he r h o we v e r ma ke s a n e ff e c t o n t h e i n f o r ma t i o n s t r u c t u r e .

200

Chapter 6 On Adversative Connectives Still and Yet

6 . 1 . I n t ro d uc t i o n D i s c o u r s e c o n n e c t i v e s b u t , h o we v e r, s t i l l a n d y e t h a v e a p o i n t i n c o m mo n b e t we e n t he m i n t h a t t h e y a r e a l l a d v er s a t i v e . A b o v e a l l , t he c o o r d i n a t e

c o n j u n c t i o n b u t a n d t h e a d ve r bi a l c o n ne c t i v e h o we v e r h a v e a l o t o f s i mi l a r i t i e s i n t h e f u n ct i o n s . As you can see, but can be replaced with

h o we v e r i n t h e f o l l o wi n g e x a mp l e s , ( 1 ) w hi c h s h o ws c o n t r a s t u s a ge a nd ( 2 ) w h i c h s h o w s e l i m i n a t i o n o f a n a s s u m p t i o n a p ol i t i c i a n i s d i s h o n e s t .

(1)

a. John is tall. b. John is tall.

B u t Sa m i s s h or t . H o we v e r , S a m i s s h or t . But he is honest. However, he is honest. (ibid.) (Fraser 1998:302-306)

(2)

a. John is a politician. b. John is a politician.

I n a d d i t i o n , i n t h e c o n t e x t s h o wn i n ( 3 ) , t h e u s a g e o f h o w e v e r, s t i l l , a nd y e t is acceptable.

(3) A: B:

S h e s q u i t e i n t e l l i g e n t . H o w e v e r , s h e s n ot r e a l l y w h a t t he de p a r t m e n t n e e ds a t t h e m o m e n t .

B 1 : St i l l s h e s n o t r e a l l y w h a t t h e d e p a r t m e n t n e e d s a t t h e mo me n t .

201

B 2 : Ye t s h e s n ot r e a l l y w ha t t h e d e p a r t m e n t n e e d s a t t h e m o m e n t .

H o w e v e r, t h e r e i s a d i ff e r e n c e l i k e t h i s .

As y o u s e e i n t h e e x a mp l e ( 4)

a n d ( 5 ) , b u t c a n c o - oc c u r w i t h e i t h e r s t i l l or y e t , b o t h o f w h i c h a re a d v e r s a t i v e . B e s i d e s t ha t , a s t h e e x a mp l e ( 6 ) s h o w s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t s t i l l a n d y e t c a n b e combined with and. ( E m p h a s e s a r e t h e a u t h o r s . I n t h e r e s t o f t h i s c h a p t e r,

t h e y a r e t he a u t h o r s a s f ar a s t he r e i s n o n o t i c e . )

( 4 ) S h e s a f u n n y g i r l , b u t y e t y o u c a n t h e l p l i k i n g h e r. ( Hi g a s h i mo r i 1 9 9 2 : 3 5 0 ) (5) We r e y o u n g . At l e a st y o u a r e . E v e r y u n d e rg r a d u a t e w e v e p a s s e d

today has given you the eye. and Davet.

But still were not as young as Jessica

( M a n , Wo m a n a n d C h i l d b y Er i c h Se g a l ; Hi g a s h i mo r i 1 9 9 2 : 3 4 7 ) ( 6 ) a . A n d y e t t h e c e n t r i f u g e s s p i n d e f i a nt l y o n . ( T h e E c o n o mi s t : J u l y 1 9 , 2 0 0 7 ) b. And still he stays silent. ( T h e G u a rd i a n : Tue s d a y S e p t e mb e r 6 , 2 0 0 5 )

I n ma n y c a s e s , b u t a n d h o w e v e r c a n b e r e p l a c e d w i t h e a c h o t h e r .

In

s p i t e o f t hi s , i t s e e m s d i ff i c u l t f o r h o w e v e r t o b e c o mb i ne d wi t h e i t h e r s t i l l o r yet. I f h o we v e r h a s a l mo s t t h e s a me f u nc t i on s a s b u t , t h e c o mb i na t i on s o f H o w e v e r, a s t h e

h o w e v e r, s t i l l a n d h o we v e r, y e t w o u l d b e n o p r o b l e m .

e x a mp l e ( 7 ) s h o w s , h o w e v e r, s t i l l ha s l o w a c c e p t a bi l i t y a n d h o w e v e r, y e t is unacceptable. T he c o n t e x t i n ( 7) i s t h e s a m e a s t h a t i n ( 6 ) .

202

(7) A:

S h e s q u i t e i n t e l l i g e n t .

B 3 : ? ? H o w e v e r, s t i l l s he s n ot r e a l l y w ha t t h e d e pa r t me nt n e e d s a t t h e mo me n t . B4 * H o we v e r, y e t s h e s n ot r e a l l y w ha t t h e d e p a r t m e n t n e e d s a t t h e mo me n t .

I n t h i s c h a p t e r, I w i l l c o n s i d e r w h a t c a u s e s t h e d i ff e r e n c e o f t h e a c c e pt a b i l i t y s h o w n a b o v e a n d s e a r c h f o r t h e d i ff e r e n t p o i n t s a mo n g b u t , h o we v e r, s t i l l , a n d yet.

6 . 2 . T h e P re v i o u s St u di e s B as e d o n R e l e v a nc e T h e o r y T he o u t l i n e o f R e l e v a n c e T h e o r y w a s p r o vi d e d i n c h a p t e r 1 . t o t o u c h i t s h o r t l y. So, I would like

I n R e l e v a nc e T he or y, t h e i nt e nt i o n o f t he s p e a k e r i s

c o n s i d e r e d t o mo d i fy t h e h e a r e r s c og n i t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t ( Hi g a s h i m o r i a n d Yo s h i mu r a 2003:13). There are t h r ee kinds of c o g n it i v e e ff e c t s . show

Bl a k e mo r e ( 1 9 8 7 , 1 9 9 2 , 2 0 0 0, 2 0 0 2 ) c l a i ms t h a t b u t a n d

h o we v e r

r e a d e r s / l i s t e n e r s a pr oc e du r e o f c o n t r a d ic t i o n a n d e l i mi n a t i o n , w h i c h i s o n e o f c o g n i t i v e e ff e c t s . I t i s a s s u me d t ha t t hi s i n f o r ma t i o n i s pr oc e d u r a l

me a ni n g , w h i c h i n d i c a t e h o w t o i n f er w h e n t h e h e a r e r g e t s i m p l i c a t u r e through an inference starting from explicature. It is distinguished from

c o n c e p t u a l me a n i n g , w h i c h a r e t he me a n i n g s o f n o u n s a n d v e r b s , w h a t i s called, content words. A d d i t i o n a l l y, t h e r e a r e t w o k i n d s o f a s s u m p t i o n s ; e x p l i c a t u r e w h i c h i s a n e x pl i c i t me a n i n g d i r e c t l y b a s e d o n t he u t t e r a n c e a nd i mp l i c a t ur e i n f e r r e d from it. E x p l i c a t u r e c o n s i s t s o f c o nc e pt ua l me a n i n g s . I will recite the

203

e x a mp l e s w hi c h w e ha v e s e e n i n c h a p t e r 4 . explicature as it is.

I n ( 8) , M a r ys ut t e r a nc e w i l l b e

S i n c e i t c a n n o t b e r e g a r de d a s t h e a ns w e r t o P e t e r s P e t e r w i l l ge t

q u e s t i o n , t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s n t e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h i s s t a g e .

t h e i mp l i c a t u r e ( 9 b ) t h r o u g h t h e i n f e r e n c e a n d t h e k n o wl e d ge o f e n c y c l o p e d i a like (9a). T h e n , c o m mu n i c a t i o n i s c o mp l e t e d .

(8)

Pe t e r : Wo u l d y o u d r i v e a M e r c e d e s ? M a r y : I w o u l d n t d r i v e A N Y e x p e n s i v e c a r. ( Sp e r b e r a n d Wi l s o n 1 9 9 5 : 1 9 4 )

( 9 ) a . A M e r c e d e s i s a n e x p e n s i v e c a r. b . M a r y w o u l d n t d r i v e a M e r c e de s . ( i mp l i c a t u r e )

C o nc e r ni n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e w or d s wi t h t h e pr o c e d u r a l i n f o r ma t i o n , Bl a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 8 3 ) s a y s , I t i s h a r d t o p a r a p h r a s e t h e m. If

y o u a s k a N a t i v e En g l i s h s p e a k e r w h a t b u t me a n s , y o u w i l l b e t o l d h o w t o u s e i t , n o t t he p a r a p hr a s e . M o r e o v e r, D i s c o u r s e ma k e r s w i t h p r o c e d u r a l

me a n i n g s d o n o t h a v e t h e a d v e r b s t h a t me a n t h e s am e t h i n g s ( Bl a k e mo r e 2002:83-84). Bl a ke mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 8 3 - 3 4 ) o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e p h r a s e i n o t h e r

w o r d s h a s c on c e p t ua l i n f o r ma t i o n s i nc e it ha s t he sa me me a n i n g b o t h i n t h e e x a mp l e ( 1 0 ) o f a s e n t e n c e mo d i f i e r a n d i n t h e e x a mp l e ( 11) o f a v e r b mo d i f i e r. On t h e o t h e r h an d , t h e d i s c o u r s e c o n n e c t i v e w e l l i n ( 1 2) a n d t h e

v e r b m o d i f i e r w e l l i n ( 1 3 ) a r e n o t s y n o n y ms a n d t h e r e f o r e w e l l h a s p r o c e d u r a l i n f o r ma t i o n .

204

(10) ( 11 )

I n o t h e r w o r ds , y o u r e b a n n e d . S h e a s k e d me t o t r y a n d p ut i t i n ot he r w o r d s .

( B l a k e mo r e 2 00 2: 8 4 ) (ibid.) (ibid.)

(12) A: What time should we leave? B: We l l , t h e t r a i n l e a v e s a t 11 : 2 3 . ( 1 3 ) Yo u h a v e n t i r o n e d t h i s ve r y w e l l .

(ibid.)

St i l l a n d y e t h a v e t e mp o r a l u s a g e s .

D i ff e r e n t i a t e d f r o m t e m p o r a l

a d v e r b s t i l l , y e t , a d v e r s a t i v e c o n n e c t i v e s s t i l l , y e t a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e t he p r o c e d u r a l i n f or ma t i o n o f c o n t r a d i c ti o n a n d e l i mi n a t i o n o f a n a s s u mp t i o n ( Hi g a s h i mo r i 1 9 9 2 : 3 4 7 - 3 5 0 ) . I n R e l e v a nc e Th e o r y, a d ve r s a t i ve c o n ne c t i ve s s t i l l , y e t ( H i g a s h i mo r i 1992:347-350) and discourse connectives c o n c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n . but, however does not have

S o t h e y d o n o t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e t r u t h v a l ue They indicate what inference the hearer is It is

( Bl a k e mo r e 2 0 0 2 : 1 2 - 1 4 , 2 6 - 27 ) .

e x p e c t e d t o ma k e a n d r e s t r i c t t he i n fer e n c e ( B l a k e mo r e 2 0 0 2: 9 5- 9 8) .

t h o ug ht t h a t t h e y c a n ma ke a c o nt r i b ut i o n by r e d uc i n g t h e e ff o r t s ne e de d f o r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n b y e n c od i n g t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o n t h e i n f e r e n t i a l p r o c e s s t h e s p e a k e r i n t e n d s , o r b y p r o c e d u r a l i n f o r ma t i on . T h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s o n b u t wa s i n t r o d u c e d i n c ha p t e r 1 a n d a n a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s o n h o w e v e r a nd t h e e x pl a na t i on o f i t wa s pr o vi de d i n chapter 3 and 4. S o , s t i l l a n d y e t w i l l b e m a i n l y a n a l y z e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r.

Le t u s h a v e a l o o k a t c o n c r e t e a n a l y s e s .

6 . 3 . St i l l a n d Ye t Fr o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f R e l e v a n ce T h e o r y, H i g a s h i mo r i ( 1 9 9 2 : 3 4 7 - 3 5 0 )

205

e x a m i n e s s t i l l a n d y e t c o mp a r i n g w i t h t he f u nc t i o n o f b u t . at his analyses in sequence. In H i g a s h i mo r i ( 1 9 9 2 : 3 4 7 - 34 8 ) , it is thought

Let us take a look

that

still

has

the

p r o c e d u r a l i n f o r ma t i o n , t h a t i s , t h e d e n i a l o f e x p e c t a t i o n a n d a r e mi n de r t o t h e s p e a k e r o r t h e h e a r e r. in (14). I t i s s a i d t ha t t he r e a r e t w o R e mi n de r U s e s a s s h o we d

( 1 4 ) a . St i l l a s a r e mi n d e r t o t h e h e a r e r o f w h a t h e a l r e a d y k n o w s o r b e l i e v e s b . St i l l a s a r e mi n d e r t o t h e s pe a ke r o f w ha t h e a l r e a d y k n o w s o r b e l i e v e s ( Hi g a s h i mo r i 1 9 9 2 : 3 4 7 )

T h e e x a m p l e r e l a t e d t o ( 14 a ) i s ( 15 ) .

A c c or di n g t o H i g a s hi mo r i ( 1 9 9 2 ) , s t i l l

d e n i e s t h e i mp l i c a t i o n i nf e r r e d f r o m t h e fi r s t p r o p os i t i o n b y t h e s e c o n d o n e i n p r oc e s s i n g t h e i n f e r e n c e . T h i s i s t he s i mi l a r i t y b e t w e e n b u t a nd s t i l l . The

d i ff e r e n c e be t we e n b u t a n d s t i l l i s t h a t s t i l l r e q ui r e s t he he a r e r s c o gn i t i v e prerequisite as showed in (16ii).

( 1 5 ) I t s r a i n i n g ; s t i l l , w e mu s t g o o u t . ( 1 6 ) i . C o nt e xt f or i nt e r pr e t i n g t h e f i r s t c o nj u nc t :

( Hi g a s h i mo r i 1 9 9 2 : 3 4 6 )

I f i t i s r a i n i n g , w e n o r m a l l y d o n t h a v e t o g o o u t . i i . You a l r e a d y k n o w t h a t we h a v e t o g o o u t . iii. The second conjunct: we have to go out. (ibid.)

N e x t , t h e e x a mp l e r e ga r d i n g ( 1 4 b ) i s ( 1 7 ) .

H i g a s hi mo r i ( 1 9 9 2 : 3 4 8 ) c l a i m s

that still functions as the denial of expectation and the second proposition

206

c o nt r a di c t s t h e c o n t e x t u a l i mp l i c a t i o n o f t h e pr e v i o u s c l a u s e , a n d t h a t t he d i ff e r e n c e be t we e n b u t a n d s t i l l i s t h a t s t i l l r e q u i r e s t h e s p e a k e r s u p - f r o n t a wa r e n e s s s h o w n i n ( 1 8 i i ) .

( 1 7 ) J o h n s a s t r a n g e g u y. (18)

St i l l , I l i k e h i m . ( S c h o u r u p & Wa i d a 1 9 8 8 : 2 0 2 )

i . C o nt e x t f or i nt e r pr e t i n g t h e f i r s t c o n j u n c t : I f h e i s s t r a n g e g u y, I d o n t l i k e J o h n . i i . I a l r e a d y k n o w o r b e l i e v e t h a t I l i k e J oh n . iii. the second conjunct: I like John. ( H i g a s h i mo r i 1 9 9 2 : 3 4 8 )

I n Hi g a s h i mo r i ( 19 9 2 : 3 4 8 - 3 5 0 ) , i t i s s t a t e d t h a t y e t h a s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o d e n i a l o f e x p e c t a t i o n a n d t h e s pe c i f i c a t i o n o f t he c on t e x t w h e r e t h e h e a r e r s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e s t h e d e p e n d e n c e b e t we en t h e p r e mi s e f r o m t he p r e v i o u s s t a t e me n t a n d t h e c o n c l u s i o n . in the following context. F or i ns t a nc e , y e t c a n b e a c c e p t a b l e

( 1 9 ) H e a r e r s b e l i e f i n s t r o n g d e p e n d e n c y b e t w e e n t he a n t e c e d e n t a n d t h e c o n s e q u e n t o f t h e p r e mi s e . ( o p .c i t .: 3 4 9)

H i g a s h i m o r i ( 1 9 9 2 : 3 4 8 ) t ak e s u p a n e x a mp l e w h e r e s t i l l i s u na c c e pt a b l e a n d y e t i s a c c e pt a b l e i n t h e s a me c o n t e x t .

(20) He knew Conrad had told him the truth. so.

I t w a s s o.

Ye t / * St i l l i t w a s n t

I t w a s n t s o b e c a u s e i t c o u l d n t b e s o . ( Ko ni g & Tr a ug o t t 1 9 8 2 : 1 7 5 )

207

H i g a s hi m o r i ( 1 9 9 2 : 3 5 0 ) s a y s t h a t s t i l l e x p e c t s t h e h e a r e r s p r e s u p p o s i t i o n Co n r a d w o u l d n o t t e l l h i m t h e t r u t h , b u t t h e p r e c e d i n g m e s s a g e i t w a s s o , w h i c h me a n s C o n r a d t o l d hi m t he t r ut h , e nt i r e l y c on t r a d i c t s t h e pr o po s i t i on f o l l o wi n g i t . C o n s e q u e n t l y, t h e i n t e r pr e t a t i o n o f t h e w h o l e u t t e r a n c e d o e s On the other hand, yet is

n o t w o r k o ut a n d t h e n s t i l l i s u n a c c e p t a b l e .

a c c e p t a b l e a s t he h e a r e r b e l i e v e s t ha t a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n t he a n t e c e d e n t o f t h e p r e mi s e a n d t he c o ns e qu e nt i s s t r o n g .

(21)

i.

Co n t e xt f or i nt e r pr e t i n g t he f i r s t ( c o nj un c t ) : I f h e k n e w C o n r a d t o l d h i m t he t r u t h , t he n i t m u s t a l w a y s b e t r u e .

ii.

Yo u b e l i e v e t h i s p r e mi s e i s s tr o n g . < i . e . t h e d e p en d e n c y b e t w e e n ( h e k ne w Co nr a d t ol d hi m t h e t r u t h) a n d ( i t m u s t a l w a y s b e t r u e ) i s strong.>

iii.

C o n t e x t f o r i n t e r p r et i n g t h e s e c o n d c o n j u n c t : I f i t wa s n t s o , t h e n i t cannot always be true. ( Hi g a s h i mo r i 1 9 9 2 : 3 4 9 )

6 . 4 . P ro b l e m s A s y o u s e e i n ( 1 ) a n d ( 2 ) , t h e f u n c t i o n o f h o we v e r a n d b u t i s s i mi l a r t o e a c h o t h e r. A s yo u s e e i n ( 3 ) t o ( 5 ) , s t i l l a n d y e t c a n c o - o c c u r w i t h t h e Hi g a s h i mo r i ( 1 9 9 2 ) c a n n o t g i v e a n

c o o r d i n a t i v e c on j u n c t i o n s b u t o r a n d .

a c c o u nt f o r t he d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t t he c o - o c c u r r e n c e o f h o w e v e r a n d s t i l l i s l e s s a c c e p t a b l e a l t h o u g h b ut s t i l l a n d b ut y e t a r e g r a m ma t i c a l . B e s i d e s t h a t , H i g a s h i mo r i ( 1 9 9 2 ) d e l i v e r s h i ms e l f o f a n o p i n i o n t h a t y e t h a s t h e p r o c e d u r a l i n f o r ma t i o n o n h o w t o i n f e r, w h i ch d i r e c t s t h e h e a r e r t o e l i mi n a t e a c o n t r a d i c t e d a s s u m p t i o n d e r i v e d f r o m t h e p r i o r s e g m e n t , b u t

208

Bl a k e mo r e s ( 2 0 0 2 : 1 0 6 - 1 0 8 ) o bs e r v a t i o n s h o w s t h a t t h e r e i s a p os s i b i l i t y t h a t y e t h a s n o t hi n g wi t h t he e l i m i n a t i o n o f a n a s s u m p t i o n .

(22)

a . H e r h u s ba n d i s i n h o s pi t a l a n d s h e i s s e e i n g o t h e r me n . b . H e r h u s b a n d i s i n h o s p i t a l b u t s h e i s s e e i n g o t h e r me n .

(23)

H e r h u s ba n d i s i n h o s p i t a l a n d ( ye t ) s h e i s s e e i n g o t h e r me n .

( 2 4) I t i s n o r ma l l y t h e c a s e t h a t a w o ma n w h os e h us b a n d i s i n h os pi t a l wi l l devote herself to his care. ( 2 5 ) a . If the womans husband is in hospital, she will not be having a very good time. b . Th e w o ma n s h u s b a n d i s i n h o s p i t a l . ( f i r s t s e g me nt o f ( 2 2b ) )

c . T h e w o m a n i s n t h a v i n g a v e r y g o o d t i me .

Bl a k e mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 1 0 6 - 1 0 8 ) s a y s t h a t a n d i s n ot r e l a t e d wi t h t h e e l i mi n a t i o n o f a n a s s u mp t io n . In (22b), the hearer is instructed to delete O n t he o t h e r h a n d , t h e

( 2 5 a ) a s w e l l a s t he i n f e r e n c e s ho w n i n ( 2 5 c ) .

s e n t e n c e ( 2 2a ) h a s t he s a me s e ma nt i c c ont e nt a s ( 2 3) a nd e x pr e s s e s s u r p r i s e based on the assumption (24), but it does not require the hearer to delete the assumption (24). T h e e x a m p l e ( 2 3 ) i s n ot i n v ol ve d w i t h e l i mi na t i on a n d

t h e r e f o r e y e t d o e s n o t i n c l u d e t h e f u n c t i o n o f e l i mi n a t i o n . Concerning the contradiction and e l i mi n a t i o n of an a s s u mp t i o n ,

H i g a s h i m o r i a n d Yo s h i mu r a ( 2 0 0 3 : 1 7 ) s t a t e t h a t , w he n n e w i n f o r ma t i o n a n d o l d i n f o r ma t i o n c o n t r a d i c t e a c h o t h e r, t h e w e a k e r i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l b e d e l e t e d of the two. H i g a s h i mo r i a n d Yo s h i m u r a ( 2 0 0 3 : 1 7 ) t a k e u p a n e xa mp l e : the

p e r s o n B s a w t h e p e r s o n A c o mi n g o u t o f t h e l i b r a r y w i t h a R u s s i a n b o o k .

209

B e c a u s e o f t h i s , t h e p e r s o n B f o r ms a n a s s u mp t i o n t h a t t h e p e r s o n A k n o ws Russian. S e v e r a l da y s l a t e r, t h e pe r s o n B h e a r d t h e p e r s o n A s a y i n g , I w i s h Ev e nt ua l l y, t h e p e r s o n B u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t t he p e r s o n A T h e a s s u mp t i o n f o r me d b e f o r e i s e l i mi na t e d a n d t h e

I k n e w R us s i a n.

does not know Russian.

cognitive environment is modified. Ye t a s w e l l a s a n d c a r r i e s t h e i n f o r ma t i o n t h a t t h e p r e v i o u s s e g me n t a n d t h e s u b s e q u e n t o n e a r e e q u a l t o o n e a n o t h e r i n i n f or ma t i o n va l u e . b e w h y t h e y a r e n ot i n vo l v e d w i t h e l i m i n a t i o n o f a n a s s u m pt i o n . T h e r e i s o n e mo r e p r o b l e m. I t i s c on s i de r e d t h a t t h e a d v e r s a t i ve u s a g e I T ha t mi g h t

o f h o we v e r, s t i l l a n d y e t h a s n o c o n n e c t i o n w i t h o t h e r u s a g e o f t h e m. s u p p o s e t h a t t h e r e r e ma i n s a ma t t e r o f d e b a t e .

We n e e d c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r t h e

o t h e r u s a g e s s h o w n b e l o w b e a r n o r e l e v a nc e t o t he a d v e r s a t i ve us a ge or t he y h a v e t h e me a n i n g i n c o m mo n wi t h t h e m.

( 2 6 ) We h a v e t o f i n i s h, h o we v e r l o n g i t t a k e s . ( 2 7 ) D o y o u s t i l l h a v e J u l i e 's p h o n e n u mb e r ? (28) I haven't asked him yet.

( L D O C E , 4 t h Ed i t i o n ) (ibid.) (ibid.)

6 . 5 . P ro p o s a l A s me n t i o n e d i n 6 . 1 , b u t a n d h o we v e r i s t h e w o r d s w h i c h p l a y a s i mi l a r r ol e . T h e r e f o r e , s o me gr a m ma r i a n s a d vi s e t o a v o i d u s i n g b o t h o f t h e m i n a s e n t e nc e b e c a u s e i t i s r e d u n da n t . I n c h a pt e r 3 , h o we v e r, i t w as s h o wn t h a t t h e I t me a n s t h a t R a t he r, i t

c o - o c c u r r e n c e o f b u t a n d h o w e v e r i s o f t e n s e e n i n p u b l i c at i o n s .

t h e c o - o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e m d o e s n ot n e c e s s a r i l y r ui n a s e nt e n c e . c o u l d b e e x p e c t e d t o g i v e a s pe c i a l e ff e c t .

T h i n k i n g i n t ha t w a y, I

210

c o n s i de r e d wh a t ma k e s t h e c o - o c c ur r e n c e po s s i bl e t h e r e .

( 2 9 ) I d o n t w a n t t o b e b l u n t ; b u t h o we v e r , I t e m pt e d t o t e l l h i m t o e i t h e r s t a r t t h e pr o j e c t ( I n t h e mi d s t o f C h r i s t ma s s e a s o n ! ) o r f o rg e t i t . ( Wa s hi n gt o n P o s t ; T hu r s d a y, De c e mb e r 1 , 2 0 05 )

B a s e d o n Hi g a s h i mo r i a n d Yo s h i mu ra s ( 2 0 0 3 : 11 3 - 11 6 ) a n a l y s i s , I s u g g e s t e d t h a t b u t h a s a c o nc e pt ua l i n f o r ma t i on a n d h o w e v e r b e a r s c o n c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n . Le t me b r i e fl y r e p e a t t he i r a n a l ys i s . They weigh the

d i ff e r e n c e s b e t w e e n s o r t o f a n d l i k e .

Th e y a l l e g e t ha t t he f o r me r ha s t h e

c o n c e p t u a l i nf o r ma t i o n o f n o t e n t i re l y, w h i l e t h e l a t t e r h a s o n l y p r o c e du r a l i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h t e l l s t h e h e a r e r t o e x t e n d t h e s c o p e o f t h e mo d i fi e d w o r d . I t i s be c a u s e t h e t y p e o f i n f or ma t i on i s di ff e r e n t t h a t s or t of a n d l i k e c a n co-occur as follows.

( 3 0 ) a . G r a d u a l l y i t s o r t of l i k e b r i n g s p e o p l e o ut o f t he ms e l v e s a n d d o y o u k n o w w h a t I me a n , t h e y l e a r n t o d o t hi n gs . ( Hi g a s h i mo r i a n d Yo s h i mu r a 2 0 0 3 : 11 5 ) b . S o r t o f , l i k e w h e n y o u r c o m b i n g y o u r h a i r, i n ni t e r m, i n t he b a t h k e e p s o n , d o my h a i r, d o my h a i r. ( o p . c i t . : 11 6 )

c . We l l y o u p u t a n o t h e r w o r d i n b e t we e n e a c h l e t t e r o f t h e o t h e r w o r d s o r t of like. (ibid.)

G e t t i n g f r o m H i g a s h i mo r i a n d Yo s h i m u r a s ( 2 0 0 3 : 11 3 - 11 6 ) a n a l y s i s o n t h e c o - o c c u r r e n c e o f l i k e a n d k i n d o f , w h i c h h a v e s i m i l a r me a n i n g , I ma d e t h e

211

f o l l o wi n g p r o p o s a l i n c h a p t e r 3 .

( 3 1 ) 1 B u t h a s p r o c e d u r a l i n f o r ma t i o n . 2 H o w e v e r ha s c o nc e pt ua l i n f or ma t i o n .

I n c h a p t e r 2, w e h a v e a l r e a d y r e vi e w e d l i t e r a t ur e o n t h e f u n c t i o n o f b u t . E x a mi n i n g s o me p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s o n i t , I c o n c l u d e d t ha t I t e n s ( 2 0 0 5 ) suggestion is the most persuasive. I w i l l r e c i t e i t a g a i n b e l o w.

(32)The functions of but Wh a t f ol l o w s ( Q) c o nt r a d i c t s a n d e l i mi n a t e s a n a s s u mp t i o n t h a t i s ma n i f e s t i n t he c o nt e x t . ( I t e n 20 0 5: 1 4 7 )

I n c h a p t e r 4 , f o l l o w i n g Qu i r k e t al . ( 1 9 8 5 : 6 4 1 ) , I s u g g e s t e d t h a t h o w e v e r h a s t h e c o n c e pt ua l i n f o r ma t i on ,
H O W E V E R T R U E T H AT M AY B E .

( 3 3 ) H e d i d n t l i k e t h e f o o d . di d nt c o mp l a i n a b o u t i t .

H o we v e r, [ H o we v e r t r ue t h a t m a y b e ] , h e ( Qu i r k e t a l . 1 9 8 5 : 6 4 1 )

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directs

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i n f o r ma t i o n c o n v e ye d b y t h e s e g me n t c o n t a i n i n g h o we v e r . i n c o r r e c t a s s u m p t i o n w i l l b e e l i mi na t e d .

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The conceptual information of

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212

i n f o r ma t i o n a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o n t h e c o n t e xt i n ( 3 4) s u g g e s t e d b y Bl a k e mo r e a n d S c h o u r u p i s n o t n e e d e d .

( 3 4 ) T h e r e s t r i c t i o n o n t h e c o nt e x t f o r h o we v e r H o w e v e r a ff i r ms t he e x p l i c i t c o n t e n t o f t he pr e c e di n g s e g me n t a n d s i mu l t a ne o us l y c o n ne c t s i t t o a n a s s u m pt i o n i n f e r e nt i a l l y.

S o , h o w d oe s t h e c o nc e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n o f h o w e v e r w o r k d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f i n t e r pr e t a t i o n? I wi l l r e p e a t t he s u m- u p o f c o n t r i b ut i o n o f c o n c e p t u a l

i n f o r m a t i o n o f h o w e v e r b e l o w.

( 3 5 ) C o n t r i b u t i o n o f C o nc e pt ua l I n f o r ma t i o n o f H o w e v e r a. Denial of Expectation H o w e v e r g ua r a nt e e s a r e l e v a n c e t o t h e e x p l i c i t c o n t e nt o f t h e p r e c e d i n g segment and directs the readers/listeners to take it as truth. contradicting assumption derived from what precedes it. A

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w h i c h c o n t a i n s h o w e v e r c o n v e y s t h e s p e a k e r s o r w r i t e r s a rg u me n t . A c c o r d i n g l y, the information is stronger than the c on t r a d i c t i n g

a s s u mp t i o n , a nd t h e n t he l a t t e r w i l l be e l i mi n a t e d . b . C h a n g e o f To p i c s / Fl o o r- H o l d i n g De v i c e H o w e v e r g ua r a nt e e s a r e l e v a n c e t o t h e e x p l i c i t c o n t e nt o f t h e p r e c e d i n g s e g me n t a n d a ff i r m s t h e c o n t e n t . U n l i m i t e d p o s s i b i l i t i e s e m e rg e f r o m

t h e c o nt e xt , a n d t h e y w il l b e r e s e r ve d be c a u s e t h e y a r e n ot ma n i f e s t e n o u g h t o b e e l i mi n a t e d .

213

A l o n g w i t h t h e s a m e l i n e o f t h e a n a l y s i s o n t h e c o- oc c ur r e nc e o f b u t a n d h o we v e r , w h y i t i s a l l o w e d t o u s e t h e e x pr e s s i o ns b u t y e t , a n d b ut s t i l l c o u l d b e e x p l a i n e d , b y a s s u mi n g t h a t o ne h a s c o nc e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n a n d t h e ot h e r h a s o n l y p r o c e du ra l i n f o r ma t i o n .

( 3 6 ) 1 . B u t h a s p r o c e d u r a l i n f o r ma t i o n 2 . s t i l l , a n d y e t h a v e c o n c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n

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l o o k a t t h e c o n c e p t ua l i n f o r ma t i o n o f s t i l l i n 6 . 5 . 1 , y e t i n 6 . 5 . 2 .

w i l l c o n s i d e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f h o we v e r s b e i n g c o mb i n e d w i t h s t i l l a n d y e t .

6 . 5 . 1 . T h e C o n c e p t u a l I nf o r m a t i o n o f St i l l I n t h i s s e c t i o n, w e w i l l l o o k a t s t i l l . Le t u s l o o k a t t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a mp l e s .

( 3 7 ) a . A : We r e r a v e n o u s . C a n w e h a v e t h a t p i z za i n t he f r i d g e ? B: S ur e . B u t t h e r e s n o t v e r y mu c h l e f t . b . A: We r e r a v e n o u s . Ca n we h a v e t h a t p i z z a i n t h e f r i d g e ? ? B: Su r e . St i l l t h e r e s n o t v e r y mu c h l e f t . (38) a.Ive been sent a copy of the grant proposal. b Ive been sent a copy of the grant proposal. B u t i t s i n D ut c h . ? St i l l i t s i n D ut c h . ( Bl a k e mo r e 2 0 0 0 : 4 8 0 )

A s y o u c a n s e e , ( a ) a n d ( b ) a p p e a r i n e x a c t l y t h e s a me c o n t e x t , w h e r e b u t

214

c a n n o t b e r e p l a c e d w i t h s t i l l . T h o s e e x a mp l e s s h o w s d i ff e r e n c e s o f f u n c t i o n b e t we e n b u t a n d s t i l l . T h e n , w h a t i s t h e c o n ce p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n o f s t i l l ? Crupi (2004:138)

d e f i n e s t h e c o r e me a n i n g o f s t i l l i n c l u d i n g t h e u s a g e s o f a c o n n e c t i v e a n d a n a d v e r b a s b e l o w.

( 3 9 ) St i l l i n b ot h i t s a d ve r b i a l a n d c o nj u nc t i v e r o l e s d e m o n s t r a t e s a c o n t r a s t s e ma n t i c v a l u e o f
C O N T I N U AT I O N , N O C H A N G E .

(Crupi 2004:136)

( 4 0 ) St i l l i n t r o d u c e s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s c o nt r a r y t o t he mo s t r e c e n t c o nt e x t u a l a s s u mp t i o n s , b u t c o n n e c t e d t o i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t h a s b e e n p r e s e n t e d a t s o me e a r l i e r p oi nt i n t he t e xt or t o c o m mo n k n o wl e d g e a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e r e a de r. ( o p. c i t . : 1 2 0 )

T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s h o ws t h a t t he t e m p or a l u s e i s n ot s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e a d v e r s a t i v e u s a ge o f i t . I n M i c h a e l i s ( 1 9 9 3 : 2 1 7 ) a n d G r e e n ba u m ( 1 9 8 3 : 9 4 ) ,

t h e r e a r e d e s c r i p t i o n s s a y i n g t h a t s t i l l h a s s i m i l a r m e a ni n g t o n e v e r t h e l e s s a n d , a t t h e s a m e t i me , t h e t e mp o r a l me a n i n g . I s u p p o s e t h a t t he t w o u s a g e s s h o u l d F u r t h e r mo r e , i f w e

b e c o n s i d e r e d t o s h a r e t h e r e l e v a n t i n f o r ma t i o n .

a p p r e h e n d t h e me a ni n g o f s t i l l l i k e t h a t , i t f o l l o w s t h a t s t i l l e n c o d e s t h e c o n c e p t u a l me a n i n g . ( Se e t h e s e c t i o n 6 . 2 o n c o n c e pt u a l me a n i n g . )

A s we s a w a b o v e , i t h a s b e e n n ot e d t ha t p os i t i o n i n g o f s t i l l c a n c ha n g e the nuance of it. f u n c t i o n b e l o w. Wi t h t h a t , I w i l l a rg u e t h a t t he p o s i t i o n i n g o f s t i l l ha s t h e

215

( 4 1 ) T h e c o n s t i t u e nt o r a p a r t o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t p r e c e d e d b y s t i l l i s i n i t s s c o pe and is interpreted as focus w hi c h s p e c i fi e s or the part of

C O N T I N U AT I O N , N O C H A N G E ,

d e s pi t e t h e

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IMPLICIT

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segment.

C o nc r e t e l y s p e a k i n g , t h e o p e r a t o r d o ma i n o f s e n t e n c e - i n i t i a l s t i l l j u s t a p r o p o s i t i o n ( S) an d t h e s c o p e o f s t i l l i n t h e m i d d l e c a n b e e i t h e r o n l y Ve r b P h r a s e o r b o t h Ve r b Ph r a s e a n d a p r o p o s i t i o n . N o w, l e t u s l o o k a t e x a mp l e s i n ( 42 ) a n d ( 4 3 ) .

( 4 2 ) a . M o m h a s s t a r v e d h e r s e l f f o r a mo n t h , a n d s h e 's s t i l l t h i r t y p o u n d s overweight. (Michaelis 1993:217)

b . M o m h a s s t a r v e d h er s e l f f o r a m o n t h , a n d s t i l l s h e 's t h i r t y p o u n d s overweight. (43) a . S h e h a t e d t h e n o i s e , b u t s he s t i l l l i v e d t he r e f o r s e v e r a l m o n t h s . ( o p. c i t .: 2 1 8 ) b. She hated the noise, but still she lived there for several months.

A s y o u c a n s e e i n ( 4 2 ) , t h e r e i s a c a s e w h e r e a n d i n P a n d Q ma y b e c o n s t r u e d a s a n a d v e r s a t i v e c o n j u n ct i o n . Bl a k e mo r e & C a r s t o n ( 2 0 0 5 :

5 8 0 - 5 8 1 ) o b s e r ve t h a t b o t h P a n d Q f u nc t i on a s pr e mi s e s i n t h e c o n t e xt P a n d Q , w h i l e o n l y P w o r k s a s a pr e mi s e i n t h e c o nt e xt P b u t Q . i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f w or ds , Bl a ke mo r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 1 0 7 ) me n t i o n s a s f o l l o w s . As t o

216

( 4 4 ) T h e r e c o v e r y o f t hi s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n wi l l de pe n d o n t h e h e a r e r s a bi l i t y t o a c c e s s t h e c o n t e x t u a l a s s u mp t i o n . ( Bl a k e mo r e 2 0 0 2 : 1 0 7 )

T he n , l e t u s l o o k a t e xa mp l e s .

I n t h e e x a mp l e s ( 4 2 a ) a n d ( 4 2 b ) , a n d c o n v e y s

t h a t t h e p r e mi s e P M o m h a s s t a r v e d h e r s e l f f o r a m o n t h a n d t he pr e mi s e Q s h e i s t h i r t y p o un ds ov e r w e i g h t a r e b o t h t r u e . Bl a k e m o r e ( 2 0 0 2 : 1 0 7 ) s a y s

t h a t t h e i nt e r pr e t a t i o n o f a n d d e p e n d s o n w h e t h e r t h e h e a r e r c a n a c c e s s t h e f o l l o wi n g c o n t e x t a s s u mp t i o n .

( 4 5 ) I t i s n o r ma l l y t h e c a s e t h a t a w o m a n w h o h a s s t a r v e d h e r s e l f f o r a m o n t h will lose her weight.

T h e c o n c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n o f St i l l ,

C O N T I N U AT I O N , N O C H A N G E ,

tells the

h e a r e r t h a t t he pr e c e d i n g s e g me n t M o m h a s s t a r v e d h e r s e l f f o r a m o n t h i s a f a c t o r t h a t c a n c h a nge t h e s i t ua t i on s h e i s al w a y s o v e r w e i g ht , b ut i t d oe s n o t change. T h e n , t h e i n f e r e n c e s h o w n i n ( 4 6 ) wi l l b e d e r i v e d fr o m t h e

a s s u mp t i o n ( 4 5 ) .

(46)

Al t h o u g h s h e w a s e x p e c t e d t o l o s e h e r w e i g h t , s h e i s t o o f a t a s b e f o r e .

Le t u s l o o k a t t h e e xa m pl e s (4 3 a ) a n d ( 4 3 b ) .

T h e p r o c e d u r al

i n f o r m a t i o n o f b u t w i l l t e l l t h e h e a r e r t ha t w h a t i s me n t i o n e d b y b u t - c l a us e e l i mi n a t e t h e c o n t r a d i c t i n g a s s u m p t i o n w h i c h b e c o me s ma n i fe s t i n t h e c on t e x t . M o r e o v e r, t he c o nc e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n o f s t i l l ,
C O N T I N U AT I O N , N O C H A N G E

t e l l s t h e h e a r e r t ha t t h e p r e v i o u s s e g m e n t s h e h a t e d t he n oi s e i s a n e l e me nt

217

w h i c h c a n s h e l i v e d t he re , b ut t he r e i s n o c h a n ge i n t he s i t u a t i o n. T h e p r o c e d u r a l i n f o r ma t i o n o f b u t g u i d e s t h e h e a r e r t o g e t a n a s s u mp t i o n l i k e ( 4 7 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e h e a r e r wi l l ma k e a n i n f e r e n c e l i k e

( 4 8 ) b a s e d o n t h e a s s u mp t i o n ( 4 7) a n d t he c on c e pt ua l i n f or ma t i on t h a t s t i l l conveys. but. T h e a s s u mp t i o n ( 4 7 ) w i l l b e e l i mi n a t e d b y t he s e g me n t f o l l o w i n g

(47) (48)

I f p e o p l e h a t e t h e n o i s e , t he y w i l l l e a v e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e wa s a g o o d r e a s o n s h e l e f t , s h e l i v e d t h e r e a s b e f o r e .

Wh e n s t i l l a pp e a r s i n t h e mi d d l e o f t h e s e n t e n c e , t h e s c o p e o f i t wi l l b e a v e r b p h r a s e a n d s t i l l h a s t e mp o r a l me a n i n g s i mu l t a n e o u s l y a s w e l l . H i g a s h i m o r i ( 1 9 9 2 : 3 4 8 ) s t a t e s t h a t s t i l l r e q ui r e s t h e s pe a ke r or t he h e a r e r t o have the knowledge of the unchanging situation in advance. d o e s n o t e x pl a i n w h y i t d o e s .


C O N T I N U AT I O N , N O C H A N G E ,

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As s u mi n g t h a t s t i l l ha s t h e c o n c e pt ua l me a ni n g

w e c a n s a y t h a t t he c o n c e pt ua l i n f o r ma t i o n o f s t i l l

d e ma n d s s u c h r e c o g n i t i o n .

6 . 5 . 2 . T h e C o n c e p t u a l I nf o r m a t i o n o f Ye t I n Hi g a s h i mo r i ( 1 9 9 2 ) , t h e a d v e r s a t i ve u s a g e o f y e t i s i s o l a t e d f r o m o t h e r usages of it. A s I me n t i o n e d a b o v e , C r u p i ( 2 0 0 4 ) p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e r e i s a

p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e t e m p o r a l u s e a n d t h e a d v e r s a t i ve u s e a r e l i n k e d t o e a c h o t h e r. C r u p i ( 2 0 0 4 : 1 2 0 ) s a y s t h a t t h e b a s i c f u n c t i o n o f y e t i nc l u di ng t h e

c o n j u n c t i v e u s e a n d t h e a d v e r b i a l us e i s t o s t r e s s a c o n t r a s t w h i c h i s i mp o r t a n t f o r t h e wr i t e r s p u r p o s e o f c o m mu n i c a t i o n .

218

(49)

Ye t ,

SIGNIFICANT CONTRAST

b e t w e e n i n f o r ma t i on A a n d i n f o r ma t i o n B . ( Cr u p i 2 0 0 4 : 1 3 8 )

( 5 0 ) 1 . B o t h c o mp o n e n t s o f t h e c o n t r a s t m u s t b e e x p l i c i t l y p r e s e n t i n a t e x t containing yet in order for that context to be characterized as c o nj u nc t i ve . 2 . Wh e r e o n l y o n e c o mp o n e n t o f a n i mp l i e d c o n t r a s t i s p r e s e n t i n t h e t e x t , yet is ranked as an adverb. ( o p .c i t .: 1 6 3 )

I n t h e me a n t i me , h o w i s t h e t e mp o r a l me a ni n g o f y e t r e l a t e d w i t h t h e c o n c e p t u a l me a ni n g ,
SIGNIFICANT CONTRAST?

C r u p i ( 2 0 0 4 : 1 2 8 ) a rg u e s t h a t

n e g a t i v e s e n t e nc e s a r e a s s oc i a t e d wi t h t h e c on t r a s t wi t h a ff i r ma t i v e s e nt e n c e s c o r r e s p o n di n g t o t h e m. with the c or r e s p o nd i n g I n s h o r t , i t i s n t r a i n i n g i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y c o n t r a s t e d a ff i r ma t i v e s e n t e nc e , it is raining. Crupi

( 2 0 0 4 : 1 2 8 ) c l a i ms t h a t y e t p l a y s a r o l e i n e mp h a s i s o n t h e i mp o r t a n c e o f t h e e x i s t i n g c o n t r a s t i n t h e n e g a t i v e c o n t e x t w i t h t h e c o un t e r pa rt , f or e xa mp l e , i n t h e s e n t e n c e i t i s nt r a i ni ng y e t . Le t u s c o me b a c k t o a na l y s e s o n t he a d ve r s a t i ve c o n ne c t i ve s . As I

g l a n c e d i n t h e s e c t i o n 6 . 4 , y e t pe r s e i s n o t di r e c t l y i n vo l ve d wi t h t h e e l i mi n a t i o n o f a n a s s u mp t i o n . C r u p i ( 2 0 0 4 : 1 2 7 ) ma k e s a f u r t h e r c o m me n t

t h a t y e t c a n c o n t r i b u t e t o v a r i o u s me s s a g e s s u c h a s p r e d i c a t i o n , s u r p r i s e a n d d i s a p p o i n t me n t b y t h e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p l a c i n g g r e a t e mp h a s i s o n t h e contrast. Ba s e d o n t h e a n a l y s e s o f C r u p i ( 2 0 0 4 ) , t h e s c o p e o f y e t a t t h e

b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e n t e n c e , w h i c h h a s a d v e r s a t i v e me a n in g , i s a w h o l e s e n t e n c e . S o , i n t hi s c a s e , y e t e m p h a s i z e s t h e c o nt r a s t b e t w e e n t h e p r e c e d i ng i n f o r m a t i o n A a n d t h e i n f o r ma t i o n B f o l l o wi n g A . A d d i t i o n a l l y, i t c o n v e y s

219

t h e i n f o r ma t i o n A a n d B a r e b o t h t r u e a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e i n c o mp a t i b l e .

( 5 1 ) A n a C a s t i l l o ' s f a m i l y h a s b ee n o n t h i s s o i l f o r g e n e r a t i o n s , a n d y e t s h e i s d r a w n t o t h e h a r d q u e s t i o n s o f i m mi g r a t i o n . ( Wa s h i n g t o n P o s t : S u n d a y, A u g . 1 9 , 2 0 0 7 )

To b e g i n w i t h, a n d t e l l s u s t h a t t h e p r e mi s e P A n a C as t i l l o' s f a m i l y h a s b e e n o n t h i s s oi l f o r ge n e r at i o ns a n d t he pr e mi s e Q s h e i s d r a w n t o t h e h a rd q u e s t i o n s o f i m mi g r a t i o n a r e b o t h t r u e . Ye t e mp ha s i z e s t h e c o nt r a s t be t we e n

t h e p r e mi s e P a n d t he pr e mi s e Q a n d t e l l s t h e h e a r e r t h a t P a n d Q b o t h t r u e , a l t h o u g h t h e y d o n o t g o to g e t h e r. derived from the two propositions. T h e n , t h e a s s u mp t i o n l i k e ( 5 3 ) wi l l b e F r o m t h e a s s u mp t i o n , t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Ho w e v e r, y e t

t h a t t h e f ol l o w i n g c o nt e nt c a n b e s ur pr i s i n g w i l l b e t hr o w n u p .

a s w e l l a s a n d d o e s n o t c a r r y a c o n n o t a t i o n o f e l i mi n a t i o n o f a n a s s u mp t i o n .

( 5 2 ) I t i s n or m a l l y t he c a s e t ha t a f a mi l y w h o h a s be e n o n t h e s a me s oi l f o r g e n e r a t i o n s w i l l n o t mo v e .

M e a n w h i l e , i n t he e x a m p l e ( 5 3 ) , b u t b e a r s t he p r o c e du r a l i n f o r ma t i o n t h a t i n d i c a t e s t h e h e a r e r t o ma k e a n i n f e r e n c e r e s u l t i n g i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n d e l i mi n a t i o n o f a n a s s u mpt i o n a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e a s s u mp t i o n l i k e ( 5 4 ) w i l l b e inferred. a s s u mp t i o n . S u b s e q u e n t l y, the segment following but will negate the

Ye t u n d e r s c o r e s t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t he p r e vi ou s c o nt e nt a n d

t h e f o l l o w - o n o n e a n d d i r e c t s t h e h e a r e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t ha t t he f or m e r a nd t h e latter are true together although they convey contradictory information. It

220

s e e ms t h a t y e t d o e s n o t i mp l y t h e d e l et i o n o f a n a s s u mp t i o n .

(53)

I t s v e r y f i n e we a t h e r f o r a w a l k , b u t y e t I do n t t hi n k I l l g o o u t . ( Ot s u k a . e d . 1 9 6 9 : 5 0 6 )

(54)

I f i t s v e r y f i n e w e a t h e r f o r a wa l k , t h e s p e a k e r w a n t s t o g o o u t .

N o w, l e t us t h i n k a b ou t t he e x a mp l e ( 2 0 ) t a k e n u p i n 6 . 3 , w h e r e y e t i s a c c e p t a b l e a n d s t i l l i s n o t a c c e p t a bl e i n t he s a me c o nt e xt . e x a mp l e ( 2 0 ) a ga i n h e r e a s ( 5 5 ) . I w i l l q uo t e t h e

(55) He knew Conrad had told him the truth. so.

It was so.

Ye t / * St i l l i t w a s n t

I t w a s n t s o b e c a u s e i t c o u l d n t b e s o . ( Ko ni g & Tr a ug ot t 1 9 8 2 : 1 7 5 )

T h e c o n c e pt ua l i n f o r ma t i on o f y e t f u n c t i o n s t o s t r e s s t h e c o n t r a s t b e t we e n t h e p r o p o s i t i o n P a n d t he p r o p o s i t i o n Q a n d p a s s e s o n t he i n f or ma t i o n t h a t P a n d Q a r e t r u t h f u l a t t h e s a me t i m e w hi l e t h e y a r e d i ff i c ul t t o b e c o mp a t i bl e . The

p r e c e d e n t d i v i s i o n i t w a s s o i s i n c o mp a t i bl e w i t h t h e s uc c e s s i ve o n e i t w a s n t s o . T h e r e f o r e , y e t m a t c h e s t h i s k i n d o f c o n t e xt . On the other hand, amounts to tell

t h e c on c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n o f s t i l l ,

C O N T I N U AT I O N , N O C H A N G E ,

t h e h e a r e r t ha t t he e v e nt men t i o n e d r i g h t b e f o r e c a n b e t a k e n a s a f a c t o r t h a t mi g h t c h a n g e i t . I t mi g h t b e p o s s i b l e t o t h i n k t h e p r i o r p a r t i t w a s s o a s a n

e l e me n t w hi c h c a n p ut t he s i t ua t i o n f ol l o w i n g i t i t w a s n t s o i n t o a n o t h e r s i t u a t i o n , bu t t hi s c o nt e xt ha s no c o nn e c t i on wi t h t he c o n s e q u e n c e t h a t n o t h i n g c ha n ge s . I f he t r i e d t o t e l l t h e t r u t h , t h e b e h a v i o r w i l l be a n e l e me nt

221

that can change the situation where he did not tell the truth. told the truth, there would be no situation where he did not. s t i l l i s n o t a p p r o p r i a t e i n t hi s e x a mp l e .

H o w e v e r, i f h e For that reason,

6 . 5 . 3 . O n C o - o c c u r re nc e H o we v e r , St i l l a n d Ye t It could be because of the combination of the procedural information and c o n c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n t h a t b u t s t i l l a n d b u t y e t a r e o k a y. On a n o t h e r f r o n t ,

i n t h e c o mb i n a t i o n o f h o w e v e r s t i l l / y e t , t h e y a l l h a v e c o n c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n a n d t h e c o mb i na t i o n i s r e du n da nt . acceptable. Le t u s l o o k a t t h e n e x t e x a mp l e s . Wi t h r e g a r d t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e T ha t i s w h y t he c o mb i n a t i o n s a r e l e s s

c o mb i n a t i o n o f s t i l l a nd h o w e v e r , i t d i ff e r s d e p e n d i n g o n w h e t h e r s t i l l a n d h o we v e r a r e ne xt t o e a c h ot h e r or s t i l l a p pe a r s i n a d ve r b p o s i t i o n s e p a r a t e d from however. T h i s k i n d o f c a s e s c a n b e c a p t ur e d b y t h e h y p ot h e s i s t h a t

s t i l l h a s t h e c o n c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n . T h e s c o pe o f s t i l l a t t h e be gi n ni ng o f a s e n t e n c e i s t h e w h o l e s e n t e n c e and still does not take on temporal meaning, and there will be only i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a d v e r s a t i v e s t i l l d e r i v e d f r o m i t s c o n ce pt ua l i n f or ma t i o n
C O N T I N U AT I O N , N O C H A N G E ,

t h a t i s , t h e s i t u a t i o n d o e s n o t c ha n ge e v e n i f t h e

e v e n t me n t i o n e d a h e a d c a n b e a fac t o r t h a t w i l l c h a n g e i t .

(56)

T h e h o t e l w a s t e r r i b l e . St i l l , w e w e r e l u c k y wi t h t h e w e a t h e r.

b . ? ? Th e h o t e l w a s t e r r i b l e . St i l l , h o we v e r, w e w e r e l u c k y w i t h t h e w e a t h e r.

222

c.

* Th e h o t e l w a s t e r r i b l e . H o we v e r, s t i l l , w e w e r e l u c k y w i t h t h e w e a t h e r.

d.

? T h e h o t e l w a s t e r r i b l e . H o we v e r , w e we r e s t i l l l u c k y w i t h t h e w e a t h e r.

(57)

I f t he h o t e l w a s t e r r i b l e , t h e t r i p wo u l d b e t e r r i b l e .

I n t h e e x a mp l e ( 56 ) , s t i l l r e q ui r e s t h e a wa r e ne s s i n a d va nc e , w e w e re l u c k y wi t h t he w e a t h e r.
CHANGE

Th e c o n c e p t u a l me a n i n g o f s t i l l

C O N T I N U AT I O N , N O

l e a ds t h e he a r e r t o t h e i mp l i c a t u re s h o wn i n ( 5 8 ) a l o n g w i t h t h e

a s s u mp t i o n ( 5 7 ) .

( 5 8 ) T h e s p e a k e r t r i es t o ma k e t h e h e a r e r r e me m b e r t h e g o o d p o i n t s o f t h e t r i p and to say it was not so terrible.

M e a n w h i l e , t he c o n c e pt ua l m e a n i n g o f h o we v e r t e l l s t h a t s o me t hi n g t h a t d o e s n o t g o t o ge t he r w i l l be s a i d by t he s e g me n t f ol l o wi n g h o we v e r , w h i l e t h e p r e c e d i n g p r o p o s i t i o n s h o u l d b e a ff i r m ed . T h e h e a r e r a c c e s s t he a s s u m p t i o n

( 5 7 ) b a s e d o n t he p r e v i o u s s e g me n t , w h i c h i s n o t i n d i c a t e d b y h o we v e r . Fr o m t h e c o n c e p t ua l me a n i n g o f h o w e v e r a n d t h e a s s u mp t i o n i n ( 5 7 ) , t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( 5 9 ) c o me s a b o u t .

(59)

I t i s t r ue t h a t t he h ot e l i s t er r i b l e , b ut t h e t r i p w a s n ot s o t e r r i bl e .

Pl u s , i n t h i s e x a mp l e , i t c a n b e s a i d t h a t t h e fa c t o f b e i n g b l e s s e d w i t h a f i n e w e a t h e r d u r i n g t h e t r i p i s o l d i n f o r m a ti o n t h e s p e a k e r a n d t he h e a r e r s h a r e

223

f r o m t h e w o r d s , w e w e re l u c k y w i t h t he w e a t h e r .

T h u s , h o we v e r g i v e s t h e

i mp r e s s i o n o f t h e s pe a k e r s r e mi n d i n g t h e h e a r e r o f a g o o d p o i n t o f t h e t r i p just like still. I n t h i s w a y, t h e a s s u mp t i o ns w hi c h t h e h e a r e r a c c e s s e s b a s e d o n t h e p r i o r c o n t e x t a r e t h e s a me , a n d t h e c o mbi n a t i o n o f t h e m i s r e d u n d a n t i n t h a t t h e s p e a k e r m a k e s t h e h e a r e r r e m e m b e r t he me r i t o f t he t r i p. r e a s o n t h e y a r e di ff i c ul t t o c o - o c c u r. I n t he c a s e o f h o we v e r s p r e c e d i n g s t i l l i n t he m i d dl e o f t he s e nt e n c e , t h e s c o p e o f s t i l l i s a v e r b p h r a s e a n d s t i l l h a s b o t h a d v e r s a t i v e a n d t e mp o r a l readings. T h e r e f o r e , t h e c o mb i n a t i o n o f t he m i s l es s a c c e p t a b l e b e c a u s e o f T ha t i s t h e

t h e r e d u n d a n c y, b u t i t i s n o t u n g r a m ma t i c a l . N o w, t h e c o n c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n o f y e t f u nc t i o ns t o s t r e s s t h e c o nt r a s t b e t we e n t he p r o p os i t i on s P a n d Q a n d t e l l s t h e h e a r e r t h a t t h e y a r e b o t h v e r a c i o u s t h o u g h P a n d Q i s d i ff i c u l t t o g o t o g e t h e r. Wh a t we s h o u l d b e

c a r e f u l h e r e i s t h a t y e t do e s n ot h a v e a d i r e c t c o n ne c t i o n t o t he e l i mi na t i o n o f the inferred assumption. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e c on c e pt ua l me a n i n g o f

h o we v e r a ff i r ms t h e pr e v i o u s me s s a g e a n d t e l l s t h e h e a r e r t h a t t h e m e s s a g e f o l l o wi n g h o w e v e r w i l l b e u n e x p e c t e d , j u d g i n g f r o m t h e d e r i v e d a s s u m p t i o n . T h e e x a m p l e ( 7 ) wi l l b e q u ot e d i n ( 6 0 ) a g a i n h e r e .

(60) A:

S h e s q u i t e i n t e l l i g e n t .

a . * H o we ver, ye t s h e s n o t r e a l l y w h a t t h e d e p a r t me n t n e e d s a t t h e mo me n t . b . ? ? Ye t , h o we v e r, s h e s n o t r e a l l y w h a t t h e d e p a r t me n t n e e d s a t t h e mo me n t .

224

(61)

I f s he i s q ui t e i nt el l i g e n t , w e s h o u l d a p p o i nt h e r t o t he p os i t i on .

O n t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o n c e p t ua l i n f o r ma t i o n o f h o w e v e r a n d t h e a s s u m p t i o n ( 6 1 ) y i e l d e d b y t h e p r e c e d e n t s e g me n t , t he i n t e r pr e t at i o n ( 6 2 ) w i l l a c c r u e .

( 6 2) I t i s t r u e t h a t s h e i s q u i t e i nt e l l i g e nt , b ut w e s ho ul d n ot a pp oi nt he r t o t h e position.

T h e c o n c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n o f y e t w i l l yi e l d t h e i nt e r pr et a t i o n ( 6 3 ) t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e a s s u mp t i o n ( 6 2 ) .

(63)

It is a good reason we should appoint her to the position that she is q u i t e i n t e l l i g e n t , b u t i t i s a l s o a g o o d r e a s o n w e s h o ul d n ot t h a t s he s not really what the department needs at the moment.

I n b ot h c a s e s , t h e a s s u mp t i o n s t ha t t h e h e a r e r w i l l a c c e s s a r e t h e s a me .

In

a d d i t i o n t o t h a t , i t i s r e d u n d a n t t h a t B s u t t e r a n c e a ff i r m s As s t a t e me nt a n d t h a t Bs me s s a g e c o nt r a di c t s As a c c o r di n g t o t h e a s s u mp t i o n i n f e r r e d fr o m As w o r d s . T h os e ma k e t he c o mb i n a t i o n o f t h e m l e s s a c c e pt a b l e .

6 . 6 . S um m a r y R e l e v a nc e Theory showed that the a d ve r s a t i ve c o n ne c t i ve s ha v e the

p r o c e d u r a l i n f o r ma t i o n o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n d e l i mi n a ti o n o f a n a s s u mp t i o n . A s p r o b l e ms wi t h t h o s e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , I p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t he y c a n n o t c a p t u r e t h e l o w e r a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f h o we v e r s t i l l a nd h o we v e r y e t e v e n

225

t h o u g h b u t h a s ma n y f u n c t i o n s i n c o m mo n w i t h h o w e v e r , a n d b u t s t i l l a n d b u t y e t a r e gr a m ma t i c a l a n d n o pr o bl e m. T hi s pr o bl e m c o ul d b e s o l ve d b y

t h e e x p l a na t i on t h a t b u t h a s p r o c e d u r a l i n f or ma t i o n a n d s t i l l , y e t , h o w e v e r h a v e c o n c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n . St i l l c a r r i e s t h e c o n c e p t ua l i n f o r ma t i o n y e t h o l d s t h e c o n c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n
C O N T I N U AT I O N , N O C H A N G E ,

and

S I G N I F I C A N T C O N T R A S T.

A c c o r d i n g l y,

t h e c o m b i na t i on s o f b u t s t i l l a n d b u t y e t a r e a l l r i g ht . t h e c o n c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n
H O W E V E R T R U E T H AT M AY B E .

H o w e v e r c o nt a i n s I t i mp l i e s t h a t t h e

p r i o r p r o p o s i t i o n s h o u l d b e a ff i r me d a n d t e l l s t h e h e a r e r t h a t a c o nt r a s t i n g t h i n g wi l l be s a i d a f t e r t h a t . A s f o r t he c o mb i na t i on s o f h o w e v e r, s t i l l a n d

h o w e v e r y e t , e a c h o f t he m h a s di ff e r e nt c o n c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n , b u t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , w h i c h e a c h o f t h e m h e l ps t h e h e a r e r t o g e t , a r e a l m o s t t h e s a me . B e c a u s e o f t h a t , t he y a r e c o n s i de r e d t o b e r e du n da nt . T he r e f o r e ,

they are less acceptable.

226

Chapter 7 Conclusion

T h e p u r p os e o f t hi s r e s e a r c h i s t o r e c o ns i d e r a n d c r y s t a l l i z e f u nc t i o ns o f t h e adversative coordinate conjunction but and the other discourse connectives, h o we v e r, s t i l l a n d y e t , b a s e d o n R e l e v a n c e T h e o r y. I n R e l e v a n c e t h e or y, It is

t h e r e a r e t w o t y p e s o f me a ni n g ; t h e c o n c e p t u a l a n d t h e p r o c e d u r a l . a s s u me d t h a t t h e c o n n e c t i v e s b e a r p r o c e d u r a l i n f o r ma t i o n .

Ho w e v e r, I ma d e

an assertion that adversative connectives still, yet, and however should have c o n c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n . To a c c o m p l i s h t h e g o a l o f m y r e s e a r c h: t o r e c o ns i d e r a n d c r ys t a l l i z e f u n c t i o n s o f a d v e r s a t i ve c o o r d i n a t e c o nj u nc t i o ns a n d c o nj u nc t i ve a d ve r b s , r o u g h l y s p e a k i n g , t hr e e ma i n p r ob l e ms we r e pr e s e nt e d . w h y h o w e v e r i s mo r e r e s t r i c t e d t h a n b u t . T he f i r s t q ue s t i o n i s

T h e s e c o n d q u e s t i o n i s w h a t ma k e s

i t p o s s i b l e t ha t a d v e r s a t i v e c o n n e c t i ve s h o w e v e r, s t i l l a n d y e t c a n b e u s e d w i t h t h e c o - o r di na t e c o nj u nc t i on b u t . T h e t h i r d q u e s t i o n i s w he t he r h o we v e r i n

t h e mi d d l e o f t h e s e n t e nc e h a s a n o t h e r f u n c t i o n . I n c h a pt e r 2 , I r e v i e w e d t h e p r e vi o u s s t u d i e s o n t h e c oo r d i n a t e conjunction but. Making investigation of literature on but, I found that Iten I u s e d I te ns ( 2 0 0 5 ) p r o p o s a l i n o r d e r

( 2 0 0 5 ) p r o v i d e s a p er s u a s i v e p r o p o s a l .

t o a n a l y z e e xa mp l e s o f t he c o - o c c u r r e n c e o f o t h e r a dv e r s a t i v e c o n n e c t i v e s h o we v e r, s t i l l a n d y e t . I t e n s ( 2 0 0 5 ) h y p o t h es i s i s s h o w n b e l o w.

227

(1)The functions of but Wh a t f ol l o w s ( Q) c o nt r a d i c t s a n d e l i mi n a t e s a n a s s u mp t i o n t h a t i s ma n i f e s t i n t he c o nt e x t . ( I t e n 20 0 5: 1 4 7 )

A s t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s i n Re l e va n c e T h e o r y, Bl a k e mo r e s ( 2 0 0 2 ) a n d S c h o u r u p s ( 2 0 0 5 ) a n a l y s e s t o o k u p o n f u n c t i o n s o f b u t a n d h o we v e r i n Chapter 3. They assumed that but and however both encode procedural

i n f o r ma t i o n t h a t g ui de s t he r e a de r / l i st e n e r t o t he i n f e r e n c e w hi c h e n d s i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n d e l i mi n a t io n o f a n a s s u mp t i o n . f o l l o wi n g c o nt e x t s pe c i f i c a t i o n . On l y h o we v e r ha s t h e

( 2 ) T h e a s s u mp t i o n A i s i n f e r e n t i a l l y c on t i n g e n t o n t h e e x pl i c i t c o nt e n t o f a previous utterance segment. a v a i l a bi l i t y f or de r i vi n g A . H o w e v e r a ff i r ms t hi s c on t e nt t o e ns u r e i t s ( S c h o u r u p 2 0 0 5 : 1 02 )

Wh e r e d o e s t hi s c o nt e x t s p e c i f i c a t i o n c o me f r o m? a n a n s w e r t o t he q u e s t i on . h o we v e r i s

My proposal could give

I h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e c o n c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n o f The pronoun that connects the My alternative

H O W E V E R T R U E T H AT M AY B E .

s e g m e n t w h i c h h a s h o we v e r t o t h e o n e f o l l o w e d b y i t . s u g g e s t i o n i s b e l o w.

(3)

H e d i d n t l i k e t h e f o o d . di d nt c o mp l a i n a b o u t i t .

H o we v e r, [ H o we v e r t r ue t h a t m a y b e ] , h e ( Qu i r k e t a l . 1 9 8 5 : 6 4 1 )

T h e o b j e c t s o f t h e p r e v i ou s s t u d i e s i n R e l e v a n c e T h e o r y a r e f un c t i o n s o f
228

d i s c o u r s e c o n n e c t i v e s i n r a t h e r s h o r t d i s c o u r s e s e g me n t s , o f t e n e v e n o n l y l o o k i n g a t u t t e r a n c e p ai r s . I a rg ue d t h a t i t i s m or e s i g ni f i c a nt t o c a p t u r e t h e

f u n c t i o n s o f d i s c o u r s e co n n e c t i v e s n ot f r o m a l oc al v i e wp o i n t b u t fr o m a g l o b a l o n e , b a s e d o n C r u p i ( 2 0 0 4 ) a n d Le n k ( 1 9 9 8 ) . I indicated that there So me e x a mp l e s o f

a r e s o me c a s e s t ha t t h o s e pr e vi o u s s t u d ie s c a n n o t e x p l a i n .

C h a n g e o f To p i c s a n d Fl o o r- Ho l d i n g D ev i c e p r o v i d e d b y L e n k ( 1 9 9 8 ) a r e p r o b l e ma t i c t o Bl a ke mo r e ( 2 00 2) a n d Sc h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) . a l t e r n a t i v e pr o p os a l c o ul d c o ve r s u c h e x a mp l e s . I showed that my

(4) Contribution of Conceptual Information of However a. Denial of Expectation H o w e v e r g ua r a nt e e s a r e l e v a n c e t o t h e e x p l i c i t c o n t e nt o f t h e p r e c e d i n g segment and directs the readers/listeners to take it as truth. contradicting assumption derived from what precedes it. A

The segment

w h i c h c o n t a i n s h o w e v e r c o n v e y s t h e s p e a k e r s o r w r i t e r s a rg u me n t . A c c o r d i n g l y, the information is stronger than the contradicting

a s s u mp t i o n , a nd t h e n t he l a t t e r w i l l be e l i mi n a t e d . b . C h a n g e o f To p i c s / Fl o o r- H o l d i n g De v i c e H o w e v e r g ua r a nt e e s a r e l e v a n c e t o t h e e x p l i c i t c o n t e nt o f t h e p r e c e d i n g s e g me n t a n d a ff i r m s t h e c o n t e n t . U n l i m i t e d p o s s i b i l i t i e s e m e rg e f r o m

t h e c o nt e xt , a n d t h e y w il l b e r e s e r ve d be c a u s e t h e y a r e n ot ma n i f e s t e n o u g h t o b e e l i mi n a t e d .

A n o t h e r p r o b l e m w i t h B l a k e mo r e (2 0 0 2 ) a n d S c h o u r u p ( 2 0 0 5 ) i s t h a t t h e y c a n n o t e x p l a i n t h e c o - o c c ur r e nc e o f a d v e r s a t i v e c o n n e c t i v e s c l e a r l y.
229

T h a t i s s u e w a s d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r 4 a n d 6 a n d I m a d e a n a l t e r na t i ve proposal.

( 5 ) 1 B u t h a s p r o c e d u r a l i n f o r ma t i o n . 2 H o w e v e r, s t i l l , a n d y e t h a v e c o n c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n .

I n c h a p t e r 6 , I c l a i m e d t h a t b u t h a s p r o c e d u r a l i n f o r ma t i o n , a n d s t i l l , y e t a n d h o w e v e r h a v e c o n c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n . R e l e v a nc e T h e o r y s h o w e d t h a t

t h e a d v e r s a t i ve c o n ne c t i v e s h a v e t h e p r o c e d u r a l i n f or ma t i o n o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n d e l i mi n a t i o n o f a n a s s u m pt i o n . A s p r o b l e m s w i t h t h o se p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s ,

I i n d i c a t e d t ha t t h e y c a n n ot c a pt u r e t h e l o w e r a c c ep t a b i l i t y o f h o w e v e r s t i l l a n d h o w e v e r y e t e v e n t h o u g h b u t h a s ma n y f u n c t i o n s i n c o m mo n w i t h h o we v e r , a n d b u t s t i l l a n d b u t y e t a r e g r a m m a t i c a l a n d n o p r o b l e m. This

problem could be solved by the explanation that but has procedural i n f o r ma t i o n , a n d s t i l l , y e t a n d h o w e v e r h a v e c o n c e p t u a l i n f or ma t i on . St i l l c a r r i e s t h e c o n c e p t ua l i n f o r ma t i o n y e t h o l d s t h e c o n c e pt ua l i n f or ma t i o n


C O N T I N U AT I O N , N O C H A N G E ,

and

S I G N I F I C A N T C O N T R A S T.

The core

me a n i n g s o f t h e m w e r e p r o p o s e d b y Cr u p i ( 2 0 0 4 ) .

(6)

St i l l i n b ot h i t s a d ve r b i a l a n d c o nj u nc t i v e r o l e s d e m o n s t r a t e s a c o n t r a s t s e ma n t i c v a l u e o f
C O N T I N U AT I O N , N O C H A N G E .

(Crupi 2004:136)

( 7 ) St i l l i n t r o d u c e s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s c o nt r a r y t o t he mo s t r e c e n t c o nt e x t u a l a s s u mp t i o n s , b u t c o n n e c t e d t o i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t h a s b e e n p r e s e n t e d a t s o me e a r l i e r p oi nt i n t he t e xt or t o c o m mo n k n o wl e d g e a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e r e a de r. ( o p. c i t . : 1 2 0 )
230

(8)

Ye t ,

SIGNIFICANT CONTRAST

b e t w e e n i n f o r m a t i o n A a n d i n f o r ma t i o n B . ( Cr u p i 2 0 0 4 : 1 3 8 )

( 9 ) 1 . B o t h c o mp o n e n t s o f t he c o n t r a s t m u s t b e e x p l i ci t l y p r e s e n t i n a t e x t containing yet in order for that context to be characterized as c o nj u nc t i ve . 2 . Wh e r e o n l y o n e c o mp o n e n t o f a n i mp l i e d c o n t r a s t i s p r e s e n t i n t h e t e x t , yet is ranked as an adverb. ( o p .c i t .: 1 6 3 )

I suggested that the positioning of still can change the scope of it.

The

a d v e r s a t i ve me a nin g a n d t e m p o r a l me a n i n g wi l l b e c a u s e d f r o m t h e di ff e r e n c e of the scope.

(10) The constituent or a part of the constituent preceded by still is in its scope and is i nt e r pr et e d as focus which s p e c i fi e s or the part of

C O N T I N U AT I O N , N O C H A N G E ,

despite the

EXPLICIT

IMPLICIT

pr e c e d e d

segment.

A c c o r d i n gl y, t h e c o mb i n a t i o ns o f b u t s t i l l a n d b u t y e t a r e a l l r i g ht . H o w e v e r c o nt a i n s t he c on c e p t u a l i n f o r ma t i o n
H O W E V E R T R U E T H AT M AY B E .

It

i mp l i e s t h a t t he pr i o r pr o po s i t i o n s h o u l d b e a ff i r me d a nd t e l l s t he h e a r e r t h a t a c o n t r a s t i n g t hi ng w i l l b e s a i d a ft e r t h a t . As f o r t h e c o mb i n a t i o n s o f h o we v e r,

s t i l l a n d h o w e v e r y e t , e a c h o f t h e m ha s di ff e r e n t c o nc e pt ua l i n f o r ma t i o n , b u t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o ns , w h i c h e a c h o f t h e m h e l p s t h e h e a r e r t o g e t , a r e a l m o s t the same. Because of that, they are considered to be redundant. Therefore,

they are less acceptable.


231

T h e r e i s o ne mo r e p r o bl e m: i t i s i mp o s s i bl e f or a n y p r e vi o us s t u di e s t o e x p l a i n w h a t t he d i ff e r e n c e b e t w e e n b u t h o w e v e r a n d b u t h o w e v e r i s . To e x p l i c a t e s u c h a s u bt l e di ff e r e n c e , I t r i e d t o a p p l y s c o p e t he o r y o f a d v e r b s t o t h a t o f c o n j u n c t i ve a d v e r b s i n c h a p t e r 4 .

( 11 ) H o w e v e r i n s e n t e n c e - i n t e r n a l p o s i t i o n e m p h a s i z e s t h e p a r t w h i c h i s closely connected to contradiction.

232

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O t a , Yu k o . ( 2 0 0 4 ) . O n t h e F u n c t i o n o f H o w e v e r i n t h e M i d d l e o f a S e n t e n c e , S u m m a r i e s o f t h e P a p e r s P re s e n t e d t o t h e 7 t h G e n e r a l M e e t i n g ( K o n a n Wo m e n s U n i v e r s i t y, H y o g o , D e c e m b e r 11 , 2 0 0 4 ) Ota, Yu k o . ( 2 0 0 5 ) . On the Function of The Pragmatics Society of Japan Adverbial Conjunction However-On

D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e C o n j u n c t i o n B u t - , S u m m a r i e s o f t h e P a p e r s P re s e n t e d t o t h e 1 2 t h G e n e r a l M e e t i n g ( To h o k u U n i v e r s i t y, M i y a g i , J u n e 11 , 2 0 0 5 ) To h o k u U n i v e r s i t y S o c i e t y f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l C u l t u r a l St u d i e s O t a , Yu k o . ( 2 0 0 6 ) . On the Function of Adverbial Conjunction However,

J o u r n a l o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l C u l t u r a l St u d i e s Vo l . 1 2 . To h o k u U n i v e r s i t y S o c i e t y f o r International Cultural Studies O t a , Yu k o . ( 2 0 0 7 ) . p193-207

O n A d v e r s a t i v e D i s c o u r s e C o n n e c t i v e s B u t , H o w e v e r, St i l l a n d

Ye t , S u m m a r i e s o f t h e P a p e r s P re s e n t e d t o t h e 1 4 t h G e n e r a l M e e t i n g ( To h o k u U n i v e r s i t y, M i y a g i , J u n e 3 0 , 2 0 0 7 ) O t a , Yu k o . ( 2 0 0 7 ) . O n A d v e r s a t i v e D i s c o u r s e C o n n e c t i v e s B u t , H o w e v e r, St i l l a n d Ye t P r o c e d u r a l M e a n i n g a n d C o n c e p t u a l M e a n i n g , J o u r n a l o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l C u l t u r a l St u d i e s Vo l . 1 4 . To h o k u U n i v e r s i t y S o c i e t y f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l C u l t u r a l St u d i e s . p 1 5 5 - 1 6 7 Prince, Ellen. (1998). On the limits of syntax, with reference to Left-Dislocation a n d To p i c a l i z a t i o n . I n C u l i c o v e r, P. a n d M c N a l l y, L . , e d s . S y n t a x a n d s e m a n t i c s . Vo l . 2 9 . T h e l i m i t s o f s y n t a x . N Y: A c a d e m i c P r e s s , p 2 8 1 - 3 0 2 . Quirk Randolph. (1975). A re f e re n c e g r a m m a r f o r s t u d e n t s o f E n g l i s h . L o n d o n :

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and STILL, Connectives as Discourse Landmarks. Huart. University of Paris-Diderot. P u b l i s h i n g C o m p a n y. p 1 7 7 - 1 9 4 R i e b e r, S . ( 1 9 9 7 ) .

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Schourup, Lawrence. (2005). A Relevance-Theoretic Analysis of However. Journal of the Linguistic Society of Japan No.127 the Linguistic Society of Japan p83 11 4 Shiriffin, Deborah. (1987). Discourse Markers. Press. S p e r b e r, D . a n d Wi l s o n , D . ( 1 9 8 6 / 1 9 9 5 ) . R e l e v a n c e : C o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d C o g n i t i o n . Oxford: Balckwell. Cambridge: Cambridge University

St r u n k , Wi l l i a m , J r. , a n d E . B . W h i t e . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e E l e m e n t s o f St y l e . 3 r d . e d . N e w Yo r k : M a c m i l l a n . ( A r a t a k e , S a b u r o u . t r a n s . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . E i g o B u n s h o R u l e B o o k . To k y o : A r a t a k e S h u p p a n . ) U m b a c h , C a r l a ( 2 0 0 1 ) C o n t r a s t a n d C o n t r a s t i v e To p i c , a t t h e E S S L L I 2 0 0 1 Wo r k s h o p Semantics. Umbach, Carla. (2004). On the Notion of Contrast in Information Structure and on Information St r u c t u re , Discourse St r u c t u re and Discourse

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O t s u k a , Ta k a n o b u e d . ( 1 9 6 9 ) . Wr i t e r s G u i d e t o E n g l i s h U s a g e . To k y o : K e n k y u s h a . Quirk Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, Jan Svartvik. (1985). A C o m p re h e n s i v e G r a m m a r o f t h e E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e . L o n d o n a n d N e w Yo r k : Longman Quirk Randolph and Sidney Greenbaum. (1973.) A University Grammar of English.

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London: Longman. S w a n , M i c h a e l . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . P r a c t i c a l E n g l i s h U s a g e . 1 s t e d . O x f o r d ; N e w Yo r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . ( K a n e k o , M i n o r u , H i r o s e , K a z u k i y o a n d Ya m a d a , Ta i j i . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . O x f o rd J i t s u re i G e n d a i E i g o Yo h o J i t e n . 1 s t e d . To k y o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . ) S w a n , M i c h a e l . ( 2 0 0 9 ) . P r a c t i c a l E n g l i s h U s a g e . 3 r d e d . O x f o r d ; N e w Yo r k : O x f o r d University Press. Ta k e b a y a s h i , S h i g e r u ( 2 0 0 2 ) . K E N K Y U S H A N E W E N G L I S H - J A PA N E S E D I C T I O N A RY . T h e 3 d e d . To k y o : K e n k y u s h a T h o m s o n , A u d r e y J e a n . a n d M a r t i n e t , A g n e s V. ( 1 9 8 6 ) P r a c t i c a l E n g l i s h G r a m m a r. 4 t h e d . O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . ( E g a w a Ta i i c h i r o u . Tr a n s . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . J i t s u re i E i b u m p o . T h e 3 d e d . To k y o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . ) To n o , Yu k i o . ( 2 0 0 3 ) . L o n g m a n D i c t i o n a r y o f C o n t e m p o r a r y E n g l i s h , t h e 4 t h e d i t i o n To k y o : K i r i h a r a s h o t e n Wi l l i a m M o r r i s e d . ( 1 9 6 9 ) T h e A m e r i c a n H e r i t a g e d i c t i o n a r y o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . B o s t o n ; N e w Yo r k : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n .

S o u rc e s o f L i n g u i s t i c D a t a : E n g l i s h J o u r n a l 2 0 0 3 Vo l . 3 3 N o . 1 0 O c t o b e r. T h e Vo i c e o f E J . To k y o : a l c . E n g l i s h J o u r n a l 2 0 0 4 Vo l . 3 4 N o . 2 F e b r u a r y. T h e Vo i c e o f E J . To k y o : a l c . E n g l i s h J o u r n a l 2 0 0 4 Vo l . 3 4 N o . 4 A p r i l . T h e Vo i c e o f E J . To k y o : a l c . E n g l i s h J o u r n a l 2 0 0 4 Vo l . 3 4 N o . 8 A u g u s t . T h e Vo i c e o f E J . To k y o : a l c . TIME, April 28, 2003. p5-20. Schourup, Lawrence. (2005). A Relevance-Theoretic Analysis of However. Journal of the Linguistic Society of Japan No.127 the Linguistic Society of Japan p83 11 4

240

A Functional Approach toward Sentence Connectives in English: A Case Study on Adversatives ( )


(--- ---)

A3KD1007

NARROG HEIKO

buthoweverstillyet but however (1) a. John is tall. b. John is tall. (2) But Sam is short. However, Sam is short. But, he is honest. However, he is honest. ibid.) Fraser 1998:302-306)

a. John is a politician. b. John is a politician.

(3)

A: Chris is enjoying being a bachelor. B: But Chris is female. ibid.)

?B1: However, Chris is female.

but however 4 but however (4) a*You can phone the doctor if you like, but however, I very much doubt whether you will get him to come out on a Saturday night. b.?You can phone the doctor if you like, but I very much doubt, however, whether you will get him to come out on a Saturday night. (Quirk et al. 1985:646)

but however (5) When she was only fifteen, there was a gentleman at my brother Gardiners in town, so much in love with her, that my sister-in-law was sure he would make her an offer before we came away. But however he did not. (Jane Austen (1813/1906). Pride and Prejudice, p64. Edinburg: J. Grant) (6) The District has its killers, as critics love to note, ignoring the steady decline in homicide victims and the improved arrest statistics. And, yes, one murder is too many. But our city, however, hasnt had anything like Wichitas BTK murderer (bind, torture, kill) who terrorized that city for 30 years. (Washington Post; Saturday, March 12, 2005) but however But however 4 but however but however but still yet

(7)

Shes a funny girl, but yet you cant help liking her. At least you are.

(Higashimori 1992:350)

(8)Were young.

Every undergraduate weve passed today has given you

the eye. But still were not as young as Jessica and Davet. ---Segal, Man stillyet but (9) a. However, it runs into problems with extractions which stop in the nearest COMP. b. It, however, runs into problems with extractions which stop in the nearest COMP. c. It runs, however, into problems with extractions which stop in the nearest COMP. d. It runs into problems with extractions which stop, however, in the nearest COMP. e. It runs into problems with extractions which stop in the nearest COMP, however. (4) however however (op.cit:347)

p.329

ab(c)d but however

3. 3.1. but however

Blakemore(2002:122) however but (10) A (Blakemore 2002:122) Schourup(2005:102) Blakemore (2002)

(11)

(Schourup 2005:102)

but (correction)(protest) however (12) a. He isnt clever, but hardworking. (Blakemore 2002:110) (op.cit.:117)

b. ?He is not clever; however, hardworking. (13) [speaker, who is in shock, has been given a whisky] a. But I dont drink.

b. ? However, I dont drink. (14) A : B : We had a very nice lunch. But what about the money? I had an excellent lobster.

(op.cit.:118)

B: ? However, what about the money? (15) A: Shes had a very difficult time this semester.

(op.cit.:119)

B: However, I think she should hand in at least some of the work. (op.cit.:119) (12)(15)(12a) Blakemore(2002:11112) but 2 however segment accessible but (16)(16) segment but (16) He is clever. Schourup(2005:95)(12b) correction() he is clever he is hardworking he is clever accessible he is clever but but (13)Blakemore(2002:121)(17) however (17) The speaker of (13) can be expected to drink the whisky that is being offered. (Blakemore 2002:121) however but Schourup(2005:93) (14)(15)(protest) however

Blakemore(2002:119)(14) however Schourup(2005:93-94)(15) I had an excellent lobster I had an excellent lobster however Blakemore (2002) but however but however however (18) but however (19) However (Schourup 2005:102)

3.2. still yet Higashimori (1992:347-350) but stillyet 3.2.1. still 3.2.2 yet

3.2.1.

still

Still denial of expectation reminder Reminder Use 2 (Higashimori 1992:347-348) (20) a. Still as a reminder to the hearer of what he already knows or believes b. Still as a reminder to the speaker of what he already knows or believes (Higashimori 1992:347) (20a)(21) (21) Its raining; still, we must go out. (op.cit:346)

Higashimori(1992)still denial of expectation (the second proposition)(implication) but But still still ii (22) i. Context for interpreting the first conjunct: If it is raining, we normally dont have to go out. ii. You already know that we have to go out. (ibid.)

iii. The second conjunct: we have to go out.

(20b)(23) (23) Johns a strange guy. Still, I like him. (Schourup & Waida 1988:202)

Higashimori (1992:348) denial of expectation Higashimori (1992:348) but still ii (24) i. Context for interpreting the first conjunct: If he is strange guy, I dont like John. ii. iii. I already know or believe that I like John. the second conjunct: I like John (Higashimori 1992:348)

3.2.2.

yet

Higashimori(1992:348-350) yet denial of expectation Yet acceptable (25) Hearers belief in strong dependency between the antecedent and the consequent of the premise. (Higashimori 1992:349)

Higashimori (1992:348) still unacceptable yet acceptable (26) He knew Conrad had told him the truth. so because it couldnt be so. It was so. Yet / *Still it wasnt so. It wasnt

(Konig & Traugott 1982:175)

Higashimori (1992:350)still Conrad would not tell him the truth. it was so Conrad told him the truth still yet (the premise)(the antecedent)(the consequent) (27) i. Context for interpreting the first (conjunct): If he knew Conrad told him the truth, then it must always be true. ii. You believe this premise is strong. <i.e. the dependency between (he knew Conrad told him the truth) and (it must always be true) is strong.> iii. Context for interpreting the second conjunct: If it wasnt so, then it cannot always be true. (Higashimori 1992:349)

3.3. HoweverStillyet but and but however

however

3.4.

(35) but still, yet However but still, but yet but still yet 3.4.1. still 3,4.2 yet however 3.4.3

3.4.1. Still still Still Crupi (2004) Crupi (2004:138) still core meaning (38)

Still introduces information that is contrary to the most recent contextual assumptions,
but connected to information that has been presented at some earlier point in the text or to common knowledge already available to the reader. (Crupi 2004:120) (ibid.)

(39) (40)

Conjunctive use of still produces the message effect END DETOUR.

Still in both its adverbial and conjunctive roles demonstrates a contrast semantic value of CONTINUATION, NO CHANGE. (Crupi 2004:136)

still still Nevertheless (Michaelis (1993:217)Greenbaum (1983:94))

3.4.2. Yet Yet Crupi (2004) Crupi (2004:120) yet the basic meaning() (45) Yet, SIGNIFICANT CONTRAST between information A and information B. (Crupi 2004:138)

(46) 1. Both components of the contrast must be explicitly present in a text containing yet in order for that context to be characterized as conjunctive. 2. Where only one component of an implied contrast is present in the text, yet is ranked as an adverb. (op.cit.:163)

(47) Yet will occur more frequently than but or still in contexts where both information A and information B receive additional elaboration in the subsequent text. (op.cit.:156) Crupi(2004:127) yet yet A B A Yet

3.4.3. However Ouirk (1985:641)however However true that may be (51) He didnt like the food. it. However, [However true that may be], he didnt complain about (Ouirk 1985:641)

However However Blakemore Schourup (52) However (Schourup 2005:102)

but however but however but however however but however but (53) a *You can phone the doctor if you like, but, however, I very much doubt whether you will get him to come out on a Saturday night. b. ?You can phone the doctor if you like, but I very much doubt, however, whether you will get him to come out on a Saturday night. (Quirk et al. 1985:646)

(54b)however