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ninth edition

TORTORA

FUNKE CASE

M I C R O B I O L O G Y

a n

i n t r o d u c t i o n

  • 4 Part A

ninth edition TORTORA  FUNKE  CASE M I C R O B I O L

Functional

Anatomy of

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Prokaryotic Cells

  • Comparing prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

    • Prokaryote comes from the Greek words for prenucleus.

    • Eukaryote comes from the Greek words for

true nucleus.

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Prokaryote

Eukaryote

  • One circular chromosome, not in a membrane

  • No histones

  • No organelles

  • Peptidoglycan cell walls

  • Binary fission

  • Paired chromosomes, in nuclear membrane

  • Histones

  • Organelles

  • Polysaccharide cell walls

  • Mitotic spindle

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

  • Average size: 0.2 -1.0 µm 2 - 8 µm

  • Basic shapes:

 Average size: 0.2 -1.0 µm  2 - 8 µm  Basic shapes: Copyright ©
 Average size: 0.2 -1.0 µm  2 - 8 µm  Basic shapes: Copyright ©
 Average size: 0.2 -1.0 µm  2 - 8 µm  Basic shapes: Copyright ©

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

 Average size: 0.2 -1.0 µm  2 - 8 µm  Basic shapes: Copyright ©
 Average size: 0.2 -1.0 µm  2 - 8 µm  Basic shapes: Copyright ©

Figures 4.1a, 4.2a, 4.2d, 4.4b, 4.4c

  • Unusual shapes

    • Star-shaped Stella

    • Square Haloarcula

  • Most bacteria are monomorphic

  • A few are pleomorphic

  •  Unusual shapes  Star-shaped Stella  Square Haloarcula  Most bacteria are monomorphic  A

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figure 4.5

    Arrangements

    • Pairs: Diplococci, diplobacilli

    • Clusters: Staphylococci

    • Chains: Streptococci, streptobacilli

    Arrangements  Pairs: Diplococci, diplobacilli  Clusters: Staphylococci  Chains: Streptococci, streptobacilli Copyright © 2006 Pearson

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figures 4.1a, 4.1d, 4.2c

    Glycocalyx

    • Outside cell wall

    • Usually sticky

    • A capsule is neatly organized

    • A slime layer is unorganized and loose

    • Extracellular polysaccharide allows cell to attach

    • Capsules prevent phagocytosis

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Glycocalyx  Outside cell wall  Usually sticky  A capsule is neatly organized  A

    Figure 4.6ab

    Flagella

    • Outside cell wall

    • Made of chains of flagellin

    • Attached to a protein

    hook

    • Anchored to the wall and membrane by the basal body

    Flagella  Outside cell wall  Made of chains of flagellin  Attached to a protein

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    Figure 4.8a

    Flagella Arrangement

    Flagella Arrangement Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 4.7

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figure 4.7

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figure 4.8b

    Motile Cells

    • Rotate flagella to run or tumble

    • Move toward or away from stimuli (taxis)

    • Flagella proteins are H antigens (e.g., E. coli O157:H7)

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    Motile Cells

    Motile Cells Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 4.9

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figure 4.9

    Motile Cells

    PLAY Animation: Bacterial Motility
    PLAY
    Animation: Bacterial Motility

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figures 4.9a, 4.23d

    Axial Filaments

    • Endoflagella

    • In spirochetes

    • Anchored at one end of a cell

    • Rotation causes cell

    to move

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Axial Filaments  Endoflagella  In spirochetes  Anchored at one end of a cell 

    Figure 4.10a

    • Fimbriae allow attachment

    • Pili are used to transfer DNA from

    one cell to another

     Fimbriae allow attachment  Pili are used to transfer DNA from one cell to another

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figure 4.11

    Cell Wall

    • Prevents osmotic lysis

    • Made of peptidoglycan (in bacteria)

    Cell Wall  Prevents osmotic lysis  Made of peptidoglycan (in bacteria) Copyright © 2006 Pearson

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Cell Wall  Prevents osmotic lysis  Made of peptidoglycan (in bacteria) Copyright © 2006 Pearson

    Figure 4.6ab

    Peptidoglycan

    • Polymer of disaccharide N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM)

    • Linked by polypeptides

    Peptidoglycan  Polymer of disaccharide N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM)  Linked by polypeptides Copyright

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figure 4.13a

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figure 4.13bc

    Gram-Positive

    Cell Walls

    • Thick peptidoglycan

    • Teichoic acids

    • In acid-fast cells, contains mycolic acid

    Gram-Negative

    Cell Walls

    • Thin peptidoglycan

    • No teichoic acids

    • Outer membrane

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    Gram-Positive Cell Walls

    • Teichoic acids

      • Lipoteichoic acid links to plasma membrane

      • Wall teichoic acid links to peptidoglycan

  • May regulate movement of cations.

  • Polysaccharides provide antigenic variation.

  • Gram-Positive Cell Walls  Teichoic acids  Lipoteichoic acid links to plasma membrane  Wall teichoic

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figure 4.13b

    Gram-Negative Outer Membrane

    • Lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, phospholipids

    • Forms the periplasm between the outer membrane and the plasma membrane.

    • Protection from phagocytes, complement, and

    antibiotics

    • O polysaccharide antigen, e.g., E. coli O157:H7

    • Lipid A is an endotoxin

    • Porins (proteins) form channels through membrane.

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Gram-Negative Outer Membrane

    Gram-Negative Outer Membrane Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 4.13c

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figure 4.13c

    Gram Stain Mechanism

    • Crystal violet-iodine crystals form in cell.

    • Gram-positive

      • Alcohol dehydrates peptidoglycan

      • CV-I crystals do not leave

  • Gram-negative

    • Alcohol dissolves outer membrane and leaves holes

  • in peptidoglycan.

    • CV-I washes out

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Atypical Cell Walls

    • Mycoplasmas

      • Lack cell walls

      • Sterols in plasma membrane

  • Archaea

    • Wall-less or

    • Walls of pseudomurein (lack NAM and D amino acids)

  • Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Damage to Cell Walls

    • Lysozyme digests disaccharide in peptidoglycan.

    • Penicillin inhibits peptide bridges in peptidoglycan.

    • Protoplast is a wall-less cell.

    • Spheroplast is a wall-less Gram-positive cell.

    • L forms are wall-less cells that swell into irregular shapes.

    • Protoplasts and spheroplasts are susceptible to osmotic lysis.

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    Plasma Membrane

    Plasma Membrane Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 4.14a

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figure 4.14a

    Plasma Membrane

    • Phospholipid bilayer

    • Peripheral proteins

    • Integral proteins

    Plasma Membrane  Phospholipid bilayer  Peripheral proteins  Integral proteins  Transmembrane proteins Copyright ©
    • Transmembrane proteins

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figure 4.14b

    Fluid Mosaic Model

    • Membrane is as viscous as olive oil.

    • Proteins move to function.

    • Phospholipids rotate and move laterally.

    Fluid Mosaic Model  Membrane is as viscous as olive oil.  Proteins move to function.

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figure 4.14b

    Plasma Membrane

    • Selective permeability allows passage of some molecules

    • Enzymes for ATP production

    • Photosynthetic pigments on foldings called

    chromatophores or thylakoids

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    Plasma Membrane

    • Damage to the membrane by alcohols, quaternary ammonium (detergents), and polymyxin antibiotics causes leakage of cell contents.

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Movement Across Membranes

    • Simple diffusion: Movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

    • Facilitative diffusion: Solute combines with a transporter protein in the membrane.

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    Movement Across Membranes

    Movement Across Membranes Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 4.17

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figure 4.17

    Movement Across Membranes

    • Osmosis: The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of lower water.

    • Osmotic pressure: The pressure needed to stop the movement of water across the membrane.

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Movement Across Membranes  Osmosis: The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an

    Figure 4.18a

    Movement Across Membranes

    Movement Across Membranes  Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 4.18a

    Movement Across Membranes  Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 4.18a

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figure 4.18ab

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figure 4.18ce

    Movement Across Membranes

    • Active transport of substances requires a transporter protein and ATP.

    • Group translocation of substances requires a transporter protein and PEP.

    Animation: Membrane Transport

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Cytoplasm

    • Cytoplasm is the substance inside the plasma membrane.

    Cytoplasm  Cytoplasm is the substance inside the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.,

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Cytoplasm  Cytoplasm is the substance inside the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.,

    Figure 4.6ab

    Nuclear Area

    • Nuclear area (nucleoid)

    Nuclear Area  Nuclear area (nucleoid) Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Nuclear Area  Nuclear area (nucleoid) Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figure 4.6ab

    Ribosomes

    Ribosomes Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 4.6a – b
    Ribosomes Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 4.6a – b

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figure 4.6ab

    Ribosomes

    Ribosomes Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 4.19

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figure 4.19

    Inclusions

    Inclusions Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 4.20

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figure 4.20

    Inclusions

    • Metachromatic granules (volutin)

    • Polysaccharide granules

    • Lipid inclusions

    • Sulfur granules

    • Carboxysomes

    • Gas vacuoles

    • Magnetosomes

    • Phosphate reserves

    • Energy reserves

    • Energy reserves

    • Energy reserves

    • Ribulose 1,5-diphosphate carboxylase for CO 2 fixation

    • Protein covered cylinders

    • Iron oxide (destroys H 2 O 2 )

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    Endospores

    • Resting cells

    • Resistant to desiccation, heat, chemicals

    • Bacillus, Clostridium

    • Sporulation: Endospore formation

    • Germination: Return to vegetative state

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    Figure 4.21b