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Applied Thermal Engineering 41 (2012) 30 e 35 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Applied Thermal

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Applied Thermal Engineering

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apthermeng Comparison of a R744 cascade refrigeration system with R404A

Comparison of a R744 cascade refrigeration system with R404A and R22 conventional systems for supermarkets

Alessandro da Silva a , Enio Pedone Bandarra Filho b , * , Arthur Heleno Pontes Antunes b

a Bitzer Compressores Ltda, Av. Joao Paulo Ablas 777, Sao Paulo 06711-250, Brazil b Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Uberlandia, Av. Joao Naves de Avila, 2121, Uberlandia-MG, Brazil

article info

Article history:

Received 29 April 2011 Accepted 8 December 2011 Available online 30 December 2011

Keywords:

Cascade system

CO 2

Carbon dioxide

R744

Supermarket

R404A

R22

abstract

The present article focuses on the energy ef ciency and climate performance of three different systems used in supermarket applications. The refrigeration systems consist of a cascade cycle (CO 2 /HFC-404A) e provide nominal refrigerating capacity e with carbon dioxide for subcritical operation and HFC-404A in the high stage temperature stage (pump circuit for normal refrigeration and direct expansion for deep- freezing), and also HFC-404A and HCFC-22 with direct expansion systems. The cascade system presented a lower refrigerant charge, 47 kg of both uids, which represents less than a half of the refrigerant charge of the other systems. An important factor is the total GWP in case of leakage, where the impact in the atmosphere of the cascade system operating with CO 2 was much less than the two direct expansion systems.

2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Carbon dioxide is a climate-friendly refrigerant because it has a low direct global warming potential with the reference value of 1. Due to its speci c thermodynamic properties, including high operating pressure, low critical temperature and low viscosity, CO 2 offers a great potential as a new energy-ef cient product. Accord- ing to Parise and Marques [9] , industry is now challenged to produce modern systems with zero leak and minimum refrigerant charge, leading to more compact and ef cient heat exchangers. However, Bansal [1] suggests that there is very little information available in the open literature on the fundamental boiling and condensation heat transfer characteristics of CO 2 at low tempera- tures below 30 C and 15 C, respectively. The appropriate optimal design of new heat exchangers may be impeded due to the lack of this information. Furthermore, it will encourage the devel- opment of modern systems that will put the refrigeration industry on a more sustainable footing. Two-stage cascade refrigeration systems are suitable for the supermarket refrigeration industry, where the evaporating temper- ature of frozen-food cabinets ranges from 30 C to 50 C [5].

* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ 55 34 32394022; fax: þ 55 34 32394206. E-mail addresses: alessandro.silva@bitzer.com.br (A. da Silva), bandarra@ mecanica.ufu.br (E.P. Bandarra Filho), arthur.h.p.antunes@gmail.com (A.H.P. Antunes).

1359-4311/$ e see front matter 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2011.12.019

Refrigerant emissions from the commercial sector are relatively high [10] performed a study in 220 supermarkets in Norway and observed an annual leakage rate of 14% (not including stand-alone equipment). In these conditions, a considerable emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere is observed and it reinforces

the need to reduce the leakage rate and also search for alternatives

uids.

Considering centralized systems, there are, basically, three possibilities to use the carbon dioxide. It can be used as a secondary

refrigerant or it can be employed as a primary refrigerant in the low temperature stage of a cascade system. In all-CO 2 centralized systems with the low temperature stage in cascade and, nally, this refrigerant can be used with separated circuits for LT and MT service, both rejecting heat directly to the environment. Casson [2] evaluated the COP for medium temperature (MT) and low temperature (LT) for CO 2 systems, with evaporation tempera- tures between 10 C and 35 C, respectively. This author observed that the COP decreases with the increase of the external air temperature, obtaining a COP of 5.2 for MT and 2.5 for LT, when the ambient temperature was 0 C, and 1.5 and 0.8, respectively, for

higher ambient temperature, 30 C.

Girotto et al. [6] evaluated the ef ciency of a centralized all-CO 2

system with 120 kW of capacity and compared it with a direct expansion R404A system. The authors concluded that, for medium temperature applications, the ef ciency was still somewhat lower if compared to the R404A system. For medium temperature

A. da Silva et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 41 (2012) 30e35

31

applications, indirect cooling and low temperature CO 2 cascade system showed to be the best option available to reduce HFC refrigerant charges. Sawalha [8] used a numerical simulation model to investigate the performance of two main CO 2 transcritical system solutions:

centralized with accumulation tank at the medium temperature

level and parallel, that consists in two separate direct expansion

(DX) circuits; one serves the medium temperature level cabinets

and the other serves the freezers for low temperature level. For the ambient temperature range from 10 C to 40 C (different climate conditions: cold, moderate and hot) the two-stage centralized system solution presented the highest COP. In addition, the author concluded that the CO 2 systems, except parallel, presented better performance for cold climates, whereas NH 3 e CO 2 cascade system is better for hot climates. In this climate case, the CO 2 modi ed centralized system presented only 1% higher annual energy consumption in comparison with the conventional R404A and the modi cations on the centralized system solution proved to be more

important for high ambient temperature operating conditions. Both systems proved to be better alternatives in relation to the R404A

(DX) system for supermarket refrigeration.

Ge and Tassou [4] used the supermarket model called SuperSim to compare the performance of a conventional R404A refrigeration system and a CO 2 booster system. Both systems were found to lead to very similar energy consumption. Floating head pressure control was implemented for both systems when they were in subcritical cycles; this strategy reduced signi cantly heat recovery opportu- nities from the R404A system. The booster CO 2 system, on the other hand, due to the higher cycle pressures and temperatures lends itself for heat recovery even during operation at subcritical condi- tions. It was found that heat recovery can satisfy 40% of the space heating demand of the supermarket. With the focus primarily on supermarket applications, this paper will analyze energy ef ciency comparisons carried out between the CO 2 cascade system and the direct expansion conventional system using R404A and R22, and discusses their advantages and disadvantages, along with a comparison of a cost analysis with carbon dioxide. Relevant issues for the application of CO 2 will also be highlighted. These energy ef ciency comparisons were conducted in the CO 2 Technology Center that has been

operating in the Laboratory of the Bitzer Brazil since 2008. In this center three refrigerating systems with similar cooling capacities were installed.

2. Experimental facilities

The experimental facilities consist of a cascade system with carbon dioxide for subcritical operation in the high temperature stage and HFC-404A (CO 2 is pumped in the liquid phase to the evaporator with liquid recirculation and direct expansion for deep- freezing). Two others direct expansion systems were used for

comparison, one with the refrigerant HFC-404A and other with the HCFC-22. Figs. 1 and 2 show the three refrigeration racks. They cool down storage rooms from 2 C and a deep-freeze room, to minus

25 C.

There are also two deep-freeze islands working at minus 25 C that are only connected to the carbon dioxide circuit. The cooling capacity for normal refrigeration is about 20 kW, and about 10 kW in the deep-freeze range. The evaporators of the three refrigerating systems are designed as air-coolers and tted under the ceiling of each cold room. The condensers operate with either air-cooling or water-cooling. All machines and cold rooms are equipped with infrared sensors and a carbon dioxide extraction system, since in case of leakage a dangerous situation can occur and also to maintain the CO 2 concentration at lower level. Only one system was in use at any one time to allow for energy comparisons. They have been running, week on week off, so an accurate comparison can be drawn among them. Table 1 presents the major technical data for each refrigeration rack of both the Medium Temperature (MT) and Low Temperature (LT) systems. The cooling capacity of the MT and LT multicompressor refrig- eration systems is higher than the required thermal load from cold rooms and islands, as shown in the Table 2 .

2.1. Compressors

The compressors of each rack also have the operating option of both a frequency inverter and a head pressure capacity control unit, except for compressor model 4TCS-8.2 which is used in connection

for compressor model 4TCS-8.2 which is used in connection Fig. 1. Refrigeration racks used in the

Fig. 1. Refrigeration racks used in the present research.

32

A. da Silva et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 41 (2012) 30e35

Silva et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 41 (2012) 30 e 35 Fig. 2. (a) Thermostatic

Fig. 2. (a) Thermostatic and electronic expansion valves used in air-coolers with R404A and R22; (b) CO 2 manual expansion valve used in evaporators with liquid recirculation.

with the R22 in low temperature with controlled injection cooling (CIC), and also for the CO 2 compressor model 2KC-3.2K which has only one head (two cylinder). As a result it is not possible for both compressors to operate with a head capacity control unit. The application range varied from 30 Hz to 70 Hz for the compressors with frequency inverters.

2.2. Condensers

Each rack has the operating option of both air-cooled and water- cooled condensers (mainly the high stage of the subcritical CO 2 rack). Air-cooled and water-cooled condensers can be used to compare the energy ef ciency of the system. The air-cooled condenser fans also have the option of operating with frequency inverters as well as On/Off control pressure switches to control the condensing temperature. The water-cooled condenser types are of the shell-and-tube type and they operate with a cooling tower.

2.3. Evaporators

The air-coolers that use R404A and R22, which are tted in the cold rooms, are direct expansion (DX) type and use either ther- mostatic expansion valves (TEV) or electronic expansion valves (EEV). The CO 2 air-coolers are used for both MT cold rooms and LT deep-freeze room. The air-cooler used in the LT deep-freeze room is DX and uses only an electronic expansion valve. The other two CO 2 air-coolers, for medium temperature, run with liquid recirculation and only use manual expansion valves to control the refrigerant

ow.

Table 1 Technical data of multicompressor refrigeration systems.

 

Subcritical CO 2 rack (CO 2 /R404A)

R404A rack

R22 rack

 

MT design

T Cond

¼ 5 C (CO 2 )

T Evap ¼ 10 C

T Evap

¼

10 C

condition

T Evap ¼ 10 C

(high stage)

LT design

condition

Compressor

models

MT cooling

capacity

LT cooling

capacity

T Cond ¼ 40 C

T Cond

¼

40 C

T Cond

¼

40 C

(high stage) T Evap ¼ 30 C (CO 2 e DX)

T Evap ¼ 30 C

T Evap ¼ 30 C

T Cond

¼ 5 C (CO 2 )

T Cond

¼ 40 C

T Cond

¼ 40 C

01

2KC-3.2K (CO 2 )

01 4CC-9.2Y

01

4CC-9.2

 

(MT)

(MT)

 

01

4CC-9.2.Y (R404A)

01 4TCS-8.2Y

01

4TCS-8.2

 

(LT)

(LT)

 

21.0 kW

21.0 kW

 

19.8 kW

9.8 kW

10.7 kW

9.9 kW

All relevant information comes together in a central monitoring unit that can also be controlled via LAN and the Internet. Medium temperature (MT) evaporator defrosting is achieved by off cycle (air) while low temperature (LT) evaporator defrosting is achieved with an electric heater, mainly for the LT CO 2 evaporators (Islands and LT deep-freeze room).

3. System architecture

3.1. R404A and R22 refrigeration racks

Both refrigeration racks work with two semi hermetic piston compressors (Octagon model 4CC-9.2 for MT and 4TCS-8.2 for LT) in parallel applications. Each rack has a common discharge line, but the suction header is split for MT and LT suction lines, while the

discharge is collected in a common header and directed into

a single oil separator. The oil return pipe enters into an oil receiver, which pushes the oil since it is equipped with a combination of an oil separator-reservoir. No oat valve was installed into oil sepa- rator-reservoir. Refrigerant ow from the discharge line to the condenser and then goes to a vertical liquid receiver, where

a header liquid line distributes the liquid to the evaporators. The operating conditions are 30 C for low temperature (LT), 10 C for medium temperature (MT) and 40 C for condensation temperature.

3.2. CO 2 /R404a subcritical rack

Fig. 3 shows a schematic diagram of the cascade CO 2 /R404A system. According to this gure, the MT CO 2 evaporators run with liquid recirculation at 5 C, while the LT CO 2 evaporators run with direct expansion at 30 C of evaporating temperature, through the vapor compressor cycle using a semi hermetic reciprocating compressor. As shown in this gure, in the R404A/CO 2 cascade system, the CO 2 and the R404A are in two separate circuits. These two circuits come into thermal contact in the interstage heat exchanger (also called cascade condenser) where they exchange heat with each other without mixing the two refrigerants. The interstage heat exchanger serves as a condenser for the CO 2 system and as an

evaporator for the R404A system. CO 2 is used as pumped liquid for

normal refrigeration and direct expansion for deep-freezing.

The design of the CO 2 rack has some unusual features, which are required to maintain the compressor temperatures at the recom- mended level. It was found that the performance of the CO 2 compressor decreases in very low operating temperatures, which if left unchecked, would result in a high concentration of refrigerant

A. da Silva et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 41 (2012) 30e35

Table 2 Overview of refrigeration points.

33

 

MT cold room

MT walk-in cooler

LT Deep-freeze room

a LT islands

Dimensions

3.5 m 4 m 3.5 m 7.5 kW 0 C

3.5 m 4 m 3.5 m 7.5 kW þ 2 C

3.5 m 4 m 3.5 m 7.5 kW 25 C

5 m total length 2.5 kW 25 C

Thermal load

Internal temperature

a The two LT Islands only run with the CO 2 refrigeration rack.

in the lubricating oil within the compressor sump, causing premature compressor failure. Superheating degrees between 20 K up to 30 K at the CO 2 compressor suction were required to maintain acceptable sump temperatures in the CO 2 rack. To prevent this, an additional heat exchanger was added between the CO 2 suction line and the R404A high temperature stage liquid line, which maintained the CO 2 suction gas tempera- ture at the compressor between 10 C and 0 C. It is interesting to observe that the low temperature of the vapor at the inlet of the compressor is sometimes a problem, since the high density of CO 2 in the vapor phase, the CO 2 has a much larger capacity to absorb heat of the compressor castings than other gases. This can result in the compressor being chilled to a point where the compressor discharge line, and the compressor crankcase are covered in frost and ice and this will almost certainly means that the oil is being diluted by the refrigerant. Any refrigerant dilution will have an adverse effect on the life expectance of the compressors running gear. It is best to keep the compressor sump temperature at least at body temperature and the discharge should always be with high temperatures. The control of the CO 2 superheating degree had an important hole to be provided by some means such as liquid-suction heat exchangers, using the R404A in the liquid phase thus providing the subcooling of the high stage liquid. Some types of control must be installed to limit the compressor return vapor temperature, either a bypass system or multiple heat exchangers staged to provide accurate control of the vapor inlet temperature. Either discharge vapor temperature or suction return temperature can be used to control the heat exchanger operation. Low return vapor super- heating will give rise to oil and lubrication problems, while high superheat levels will cause motor overheating and subsequent failures, as well as high discharge temperatures.

4. Results

The cascade system design can also take advantage of a high degree of liquid subcooling in the high stage circuit with R404A, which results in substantial reductions in pipe line diameters and, as consequence, a reduced refrigeration charge based on the tube diameter, compared to conventional refrigerants such as R404A and R22. Table 3 shows this comparison, including some data from Table 4 , using the softwares [7] and [3] . The Table 5 presents the comparison among the tubes in terms of mass divided by length (kg/m), only relating the suction and liquid lines used in each evaporator. As a general guide, pipeline sizes, mainly the suction pipe work lines, can be reduced to approx 1/5 of the line sizes currently used with R404A and R22 for the same system capacity. Table 6 shows the total refrigerant charge used each rack. Due to the purchase price of CO 2 being considerably less expensive than that of refrigerants currently in commercial use, such as R404A and R22, the total cost of the refrigerant charge can be signi cantly reduced.

4.1. Energy analysis

These three refrigeration systems were monitored and a super- visory system was used to acquire and integrate the variables such as temperature, pressure, refrigerant mass ow and also, it was able to capture the total power consumption of the entire system. Power was recorded at 15min intervals for the systems in operation, and included all aspects, such as the compressor motors and sump heaters, fan motors defrost heaters, evaporator fans, and so on. The energy ef ciency comparisons were an average over one year

ef fi ciency comparisons were an average over one year Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of the

Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of the cascade CO 2 /R404A system.

34

A. da Silva et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 41 (2012) 30e35

Table 3 Suction and liquid line size comparison used in the two cold rooms for MT using CO 2 , R404A and R22.

Refrigerant

CO 2

R404A R22

Suction line (wet return line for CO 2 , dry return line for R404A and R22)

Cooling capacity (kW) 10

10

10

DT (K)

0.67

0.47

0.55

Velocity (m/s)

6.64

10.36

9.02

 

Diameter (mm)

12.7

28.58

28.58

Liquid line ( 5 C for CO 2 )

Velocity (m/s)

1.36

0.84

0.57

Diameter (mm)

9.52

15.88

12.7

Cold room # 1 and # 2 for MT ( T Evap ¼ 10 C; T Cond ¼ 40 C); L eqv ¼ 20 (m).

where the condensing temperature was maintained of the order of

38 C.

It is most likely that with a CO 2 system, a good proportion of the energy savings can be attributed to the subcooling of the high stage liquid, by the low stage suction gas. According to the Table 7, CO 2 presented a higher ef cient, around 22.3% in comparison with the R404A system, and 13.7% with the R22 system (both systems operates with frequency inverter and electronic expansion valves). However, when both the R404A and R22 systems used thermostatic expansion valves, CO 2 became even more ef cient, in which it represented 24.7% in relation to the R404A system and 15.5% to the R22 system. Elec- tronic expansion valves save more energy costs since it is more reliable and precise in its way to control the refrigerant mass ow through the evaporator, as it receives all the information regarding the temperature and pressure in the evaporator outlet in order to control the opening and closing of the valve, according to the superheating.

4.2. Environmental analysis

The direct global warming potential (GWP) of the three systems, due to direct emissions in the event of a total loss of the entire refrigerant charge, was also evaluated and represented great importance. CO 2 is used as the base unit for measuring GWP, in this case is equal to 1. One kg of R404A has a GWP of 3260; one kg of R22 has a GWP of 1500. Therefore, the CO 2 /R404A cascade system has

a total value of GWP of 48932, the R404A system has 407500 and

the R22 system has 172500, according to each refrigerant charge in the system. As can be noted, the difference between the CO 2 /R404A cascade system and R404A system is of the order of 358468 and for

R22 is 123568.

4.3. Cost analysis

While the medium temperature system through the liquid recirculation system does not generally provide signi cant reduc- tions in energy costs, substantial savings can be achieved through

a reduced refrigerant charge and a real reduction in the actual cost of the refrigerant. The cost of the three racks, the six air-cooled evaporators and the condensers, were all tracked and a complete comparison could

Table 4 Suction and liquid line size comparison used in the two deep-freeze room for LT using CO 2 , R404A and R22.

Refrigerant

CO 2

R404A

R22

Suction line (dry return line for CO 2 , R404A and R22)

Cooling capacity (kW) DT (K) Velocity (m/s) Diameter (mm) Velocity (m/s) Diameter (mm)

10

10

10

0.35

0.53

0.39

8.35

11.42

10.28

 

15.88

34.93

28.58

Liquid line ( 5 C for CO 2 )

0.85

0.97

0.68

9.52

15.88

12.7

Deep-freeze room LT ( T Evap ¼ 30 C; T Cond ¼ 40 C); L eqv ¼ 20 (m).

Table 5 Total pipe work used in two cold rooms for MT as well as in the deep-freeze room for LT.

Pipe work real length (m) e only suction line (SL) and liquid line (LL) each evaporator

Diameter (mm) R22 Cold room 01 R22 Cold room 02 R22 Deep-freeze room R404A Cold room 01 R404A Cold room 02 R404A Deep-freeze room CO 2 Cold room 01 CO 2 Cold room 02 CO 2 Deep-freeze room

9.52

12.7

15.88 28.58 34.93 15 SL 11 SL 15 SL

 

15 LL

11 LL

15 LL

 

15 LL

15 SL

11 LL

11 SL

15 LL

15 SL

15 LL

15 SL

11 LL

11 SL

15 LL

15 SL

ASTM B-280 e kg/m

0.186 0.294

0.424 0.971 1.314 TOTAL (kg)

R22

41 LL

41 SL

51.86

R404A

41 LL

26 SL

15 SL

62.34

CO 2

41 LL

41 SL

25.01

be drawn, since it is important to highlight that the CO 2 rack and CO 2 evaporators were built and had to be air freighted from abroad. The rack system costs were calculated separately. This has been done because the contractor supplies the interconnecting pipe work, as well as the pipe insulation, between the various items. The two racks that make up the cascade system using CO 2 on low temperature and R404A on high temperature stage were found to be 18.5% (based on 2008 values) more expensive than single stage racks using R22 and R404A based on the same cooling capacity. This higher cost was largely due to the additional safety equipment that the CO 2 system required under the Brazilian occupational health and safety codes, and the fact that a reasonable amount of the components were specially built and had to be air freighted from Australia. As CO 2 gains in popularity and more CO 2 equipment becomes available this additional cost will be reduced. The main factors at stake here are the large reduction in the size of the pipe work and insulation respectively. In addition, the CO 2 evaporators were physically smaller and less expensive due to the increased speci c cooling capacity of the refrigerant. It was found that the both R404A and R22 evaporators need approximately 20% more surface area to achieve the same thermal performance as the CO 2 evaporators (based on the same temperature difference between evaporating and room temperature). Refrigerant charge in each of the three systems also has an in uence on the total cost. According to the Table 6 the cascade system has 32 kg of CO 2 as well as an additional 15 kg of R404A, (32 þ 15 ¼ 47 kg). The other two racks using R404A and R22, they have 125 kg and 115 kg, respectively. In Brazil, the refrigerant HFC-404A has an average cost in 2011 of $35 (thirty ve dollars) per kg, the HCFC-22 costs $13 (thirteen dollars) per kg, while CO 2 has a cost of $ $2.0 (two dollars) per kg. The CO 2 /R404A cascade system has an advantage over the R404A system of the $3786 and for the R22 system of $906. It is important to observe that the price of R22 in Brazil will increase since according to the Montreal Protocol the production and consump- tion will be frozen in 2013. Fig. 4 shows the comparison of each tested system. This analysis shows the total charge of refrigerant as well as the cost of pipes and

Table 6 Total of refrigerant charge used in each rack.

Refrigeration

CO 2 /R404A

R404A rack

R22 rack

rack

(subcritical rack)

Total refrigerant

CO 2 e 32 kg

R404A e 125 kg

R22 e 115 kg

charge

R404A e 15 kg

A. da Silva et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 41 (2012) 30e35

35

Table 7 Total power consumption of the usage data.

Power consumption per year CO 2 system [kWh]

103.234

(compressor with frequency inverter; LT evaporator with EEV) Power consumption per year R404A system [kWh]

126.295

(compressor with frequency inverter; evaporators with EEV s) Power consumption per year R22 system [kWh]

117.435

(compressor with frequency inverter; evaporators with EEV s) Difference in percentage [%] e CO 2 vs. R404A; CO 2 vs. R22

22.33 (R404A);

13.75 (R22)

Power consumption per year CO 2 system [kWh]

103.234

(compressor with frequency inverter; LT evaporator with EEV) Power consumption per year R404A system [kWh]

128.701

(compressor with frequency inverter; evaporators with TEV s) Power consumption per year R22 system [kWh]

119.212

(compressor with frequency inverter; evaporators with TEV s) Difference in percentage [%] e CO 2 vs. R404A; CO 2 vs. R22

24.67 (R404A);

15.47 (R22)

vs. R404A; CO 2 vs. R22 24.67 (R404A); 15.47 (R22) Fig. 4. Comparison between the three

Fig. 4. Comparison between the three racks designs.

refrigerant. It is important to observe that the direct impact of the GWP (Global Warming Potential) obtained for the R404A rack is almost 10 times higher in comparison with the R744/R404A rack.

5. Conclusion

This comparison showed high performance and environmen- tally friendly process can be applied to reduce the effects of direct and indirect of the global warming, achieving long term cost reduction of the equipment. Clearly, there are numerous advantages, which will ensure that carbon dioxide cascade systems have a place in refrigeration

systems. Many advantages of CO 2 system in relation to R404A and R22 can be listed, such as: (i) Reduction of the electric energy consumption (in this case it can varies between 13 and 24%); (ii) Low compression ratio and increase of the useful life of the CO 2 compressor; (iii) High CO 2 density and high pressure in the low pressure stage; (iv) Reduction of CO 2 piping diameter sizes; (v) Reduction of CO 2 refrigerant charge; (vi) Low price of CO 2 purchase; (vii) Higher enthalpy, degree of liquid subcooling and cooling capacity; (viii) Low GWP and less carbon taxes (CO 2 ); (ix) Small volumetric displacement and smaller sized CO 2 compressors; (x) Smaller refrigeration rack, compact installation and lower compressor numbers; (xi) Smaller and ef cient evaporator coils; (xii) Reduced installation and lower maintenance costs. Due to the rapidly changing cost of refrigerants and the expec- ted reduction in the cost of CO 2 compatible components and taking in account the high volatility of the energy cost around the world, it will be possible to verify the increase of the new installations using CO 2 as refrigerant.

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge all support, technical assistance and research materials, which attributed to this inves- tigation by BITZER Brazil, BITZER Australia, Carel Brazil, Carel Italy and FAPEMIG.

References

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