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Paper Reference(s)

6666/01
Edexcel GCE
Core Mathematics C4
Silver Level S2
Time: 1 hour 30 miutes
Materials re!uired "or examiatio #tems icluded $ith !uestio
%a%ers
Mathematical Formulae (Green) Nil
Candidates may use any calculator allowed by the regulations of the Joint
Council for Qualifications. Calculators must not have the facility for symbolic
algebra manipulation, differentiation and integration, or have retrievable
mathematical formulas stored in them.
#structios to Cadidates
Write the name of the examining body (Edexcel) your centre number candidate number
the unit title (!ore Mathematics !") the paper reference (####) your surname initials
and signature$
#"ormatio "or Cadidates
% boo&let 'Mathematical Formulae and (tatistical )ables* is pro+ided$
Full mar&s may be obtained for ans,ers to %-- .uestions$
)here are / .uestions in this .uestion paper$ )he total mar& for this paper is 01$
&dvice to Cadidates
2ou must ensure that your ans,ers to parts of .uestions are clearly labelled$
2ou must sho, sufficient ,or&ing to ma&e your methods clear to the Examiner$ %ns,ers
,ithout ,or&ing may gain no credit$
Su''ested 'rade (oudaries "or this %a%er:
&) & * C + E
66 ,- ,1 4, 3. 33
Silver 2 )his publication may only be reproduced in accordance ,ith Edexcel -imited copyright policy$
3455/64578 Edexcel -imited$
1/
) 7 4 ( ) 7 (
9
4
4
+ x x
x
:
) 7 ( x
A
;
4
) 7 ( x
B
;
) 7 4 ( + x
C
$
Find the +alues of the constants A B and C$
041
2ue 200.
2/ (a) <se integration by parts to find
(

$ d 8 sin x x x
031
(b) <sing your ans,er to part (a) find
(

$ d 8 cos
4
x x x
031
2auar3 2012
3/ % cur+e C has e.uation
4
x
; y
4
: 4xy$
Find the exact +alue of
x
y
d
d
at the point on C ,ith coordinates (8 4)$
041
2ue 2010
(il+er 4= #>74 4
4/
5i'ure 2
Figure 4 sho,s a s&etch of the cur+e ,ith e.uation y : x
8
ln (x
4
; 4) x 5$
)he finite region R sho,n shaded in Figure 4 is bounded by the cur+e the x?axis and the
line x : 4$
)he table belo, sho,s corresponding +alues of x and y for y : x
8
ln (x
4
; 4)$
x 5
"
4
4
4
"
4 8
4
y 5 5$84"5 8$9475
(a) !omplete the table abo+e gi+ing the missing +alues of y to " decimal places$
021
(b) <se the trape@ium rule ,ith all the +alues of y in the completed table to obtain an
estimate for the area of R gi+ing your ans,er to 4 decimal places$
031
(c) <se the substitution u : x
4
; 4 to sho, that the area of R is
u u u d ln ) 4 (
4
7
"
4
(

$
041
(d) Aence or other,ise find the exact area of R$
061
2ue 2011
(il+er 4= #>74 8
,/
) )( ( 4 7
75 1 4
4
+
+
x x
x x
A ;
7 x
B
;
4 + x
C
$
(a) Find the +alues of the constants A B and C$
041
(b) Aence or other,ise expand
) )( ( 4 7
75 1 4
4
+
+
x x
x x
in ascending po,ers of x as far as the term
in x
4
$ Gi+e each coefficient as a simplified fraction$
041
2ue 2010-
6/ )he area A of a circle is increasing at a constant rate of 7$1 cm
4
s
67
$ Find to 8 significant
figures the rate at ,hich the radius r of the circle is increasing ,hen the area of the circle
is 4 cm
4
$
0,1
January 2010
4/ Relati+e to a fixed origin O the point A has position +ector (4i 6 6 ; 17)
the point B has position +ector (1i ; 46 ; 757)
and the point D has position +ector (6i ; 6 ; "7)$
)he line l passes through the points A and B$
(a) Find the +ector
AB
$
021
(b) Find a +ector e.uation for the line l$
021
(c) (ho, that the si@e of the angle BAD is 759B to the nearest degree$
041
)he points A B and D together ,ith a point C are the +ertices of the parallelogram ABCD
,here
AB
: DC $
(d) Find the position +ector of C$
021
(e) Find the area of the parallelogram ABCD gi+ing your ans,er to 8 significant figures$
031
(f) Find the shortest distance from the point D to the line l gi+ing your ans,er to 8
significant figures$
021
January 2012
(il+er 4= #>74 "
-/ Cn an experiment testing solid roc&et fuel some fuel is burned and the ,aste products are
collected$ )hroughout the experiment the sum of the masses of the unburned fuel and ,aste
products remains constant$
-et x be the mass of ,aste products in &g at time t minutes after the start of the experiment$
Ct is &no,n that at time t minutes the rate of increase of the mass of ,aste products in &g per
minute is k times the mass of unburned fuel remaining ,here k is a positi+e constant$
)he differential e.uation connecting x and t may be ,ritten in the form
d
( )
d
x
k M x
t
,here M is a constant$
(a) Explain in the context of the problem ,hat
d
d
x
t
and M represent$
021
Gi+en that initially the mass of ,aste products is @ero
(b) sol+e the differential e.uation expressing x in terms of k M and t$
061
Gi+en also that x :
7
4
M ,hen t : ln "
(c) find the +alue of x ,hen t : ln 9 expressing x in terms of M in its simplest form$
041
2ue 2013 081
T9T&L 598 :&:E8: 4, M&8;S
E<+
(il+er 4= #>74 1
Duestion
Number
(cheme Mar&s
1/ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
4
4
9 7 4 7 4 7 7 x A x x B x C x + + + + E7
7 x
9 8 8 B B
M7
7
4
x
4
9 8
7
" 4
C C
_


,
%ny t,o of A B C %7
4
x terms
9 4 " A C A +
%ll three correct %7 041
=4>
3/ ( )
d
4 ln 4$4
d
x x
x

E7

d d
ln 4$4 4 4 4
d d
x
y y
y y x
x x
+ +
M7 %7: %7
(ubstituting ( ) 8 4

d d
/ln 4 " " #
d d
y y
x x
+ +
M7

d
"ln 4 4
d
y
x

%ccept exact e.ui+alents M7 %7 041
=4>
(il+er 4= #>74 #
2/ (a) { }
7 7
sin8 d cos8 cos8 d
8 8


x x x x x x x M7 %7
{ }
7 7
cos8 sin8
8 9
+ + x x x c %7
=3>
(b) { }
4 4
7 4
cos8 d sin8 sin8 d
8 8


x x x x x x x x M7 %7
{ }
4
7 4 7 7
sin8 cos8 sin8
8 8 8 9
_
+ +

,
x x x x x c
%7 is$
{ }
4
7 4 4
sin8 cos8 sin8
8 9 40

+ +
' ;

x x x x x c
Ignore
subsequent
working
=3>
06 mar7s1
(il+er 4= #>74 0
Duestion
Number
(cheme Mar&s
4/ (a) 5$5888 7$819# a,rt 5$5888 7$819# E7 E7 021
(b) ( ) [ ]
7 4
%rea $$$
4 "
R

E7
( ) $$$ 5 4 5$5888 5$84"5 7$819# 8$9475 + + + + 1
]
M7
7$85 %ccept 7$8 %7 031
(c)
4
d
4 4
d
u
u x x
x
+
E7
( ) ( )
4
8 4
5
%rea ln 4 d R x x x

E7
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
8 4 4 4
7
4
ln 4 d ln 4 d 4 ln d x x x x x x x u u u + +

M7
Aence ( ) ( )
"
4
7
4
%rea 4 ln d R u u u


cso
%7 041
(d) ( )
4 4
7
4 ln d 4 ln 4 d
4 4
u u
u u u u u u u
u
_ _


, ,

M7 %7


4
4 ln 4 d
4 4
u u
u u u
_
_


,
,

( )
4 4
4 ln 4
4 "
u u
u u u C
_ _
+

, ,
M7 %7
( )
"
4 4
4
7
%rea 4 ln 4
4 4 "
u u
R u u u
1 _ _

1
, , ]
: ( ) ( ) ( )
7
4
/ / ln " " / 4 " ln 4 7 " 1 + +
]
M7
( )
7
4
4ln 4 7 +

7
4
ln 4 +
%7 061
=1,>
(il+er 4= #>74 /
,/ (a) 4 A E7
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
4
4 1 75 7 4 4 7 x x A x x B x C x + + + + +
7 x
8 8 7 B B
M7 %7
4 x
74 8 " C C
%7 041
(b)
( ) ( )
( )
7
4
7 4 1 75
4 7 4 7
7 4 4
x x x
x
x x

+
_
+ + +

+
,
M7
( )
7
4
7 7 $$$ x x x

+ + + E7

7
4
7 7 $$$
4 4 "
x x x

_
+ + +

,
E7

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
4
4
4 1 75 7
4 7 4 7 7 7 $$$
7 4 4
x x
x x
x x
+
_
+ + + + + +

+
,
M7
1 $$$ + ft their
7
4
A B C +
%7 ft

4
8
$$$ $$$
4
x + + 5x stated or implied %7 %7 041
=11>
Question
Number
Scheme Marks
Q6
d
7$1
d
A
t

B1

4
d
4
d
A
A r r
r

B1
When 4 A

( )
4
4
4 5$090 //" $$$ r r

M1

d d d
d d d
A A r
t r t


d
7$1 4
d
r
r
t

M1

4
d 7$1
5$499
d 4
r
t


a,rt 5$499 A1
[5]
(il+er 4= #>74 9
?uestio
<um(er
Scheme Mar7s
4/ { }
4 1 1 4 75 4 " 9 F " OA OB OC OD + + + + + + + i 6 7 i 6 7 i 6 7 i 6 7
uuur uuur uuur uuur
(a) ( ) (1 4 75 ) (4 1 ) G 8 8 1 AB t + + + + + i 6 7 i 6 7 i 6 7
uuur
M7G %7
=2>
(b)
4 8
= 7 8
1 1
l
_ _

+


, ,
r
or
1 8
4 8
75 1

_ _

+


, ,
r
M7 %7ft
=2>
-et d be the shortest
distance from C to l$
(c)
7 4 8 8
7 7 4 or 4
" 1 7 7
AD OD OA DA
_ _ _ _



, , , ,
uuur uuur uuur uuur
M7
4 4 4 4 4 4
8 8
8 4
1 7
cos
$ (8) (8) (1) $ ( 8) (4) ( 7)
AB AD
AB AD

_ _

, ,

+ + + +
uuur uuur
uuur uuur
%pplies dot product
formula bet,een
their ( )
or AB BA
uuur uuur

and their ( )
or $ AD DA
uuur uuur
M7
4 4 4 4 4 4
9 # 1
cos
(8) (8) (1) $ ( 8) (4) ( 7)

_
+
t

+ + + +
,
!orrect follo,ed
through expression or
e!uatio$
%7
/
cos 759$5491""$$$ 759 (nearest )
"8$ 7"


a,rt 759
%7 cso
&G
=4>
(d)
( ) ( ) " 8 8 1 OC OD DC OD AB + + + + + + + i 6 7 i 6 7
uuur uuur uuur uuur uuur
( ) ( ) 1 4 75 8 4 OC OB BC OB AD + + + + + + i 6 7 i 6 7
uuur uuur uuur uuur uuur
M7
(o 4 " 9 OC + + i 6 7
uuur
%7
=2>
(e) ( )
7
4
%rea ( "8)( 7")sin759 G 4 48$79/9"951 ABCD

a,rt 48$4
M7G dM7
%7
=3>
(f)
sin07
7"
d

or "8 48$79/9"951$$$ d M7
7" sin07 8$180/5#1#8$$$ d

a,rt 8$1" %7
=2>
01, mar7s1
(il+er 4= #>74 75
7"
B
07

d
l
C
759

D
B
A
-et
?uestio
<um(er
Scheme Mar7s
-/ ( )
d

d
x
k M x
t
,here M is a constant
0a1 d
d
x
t
is the rate of increase of the mass of ,aste
products$
M is the total mass of unburned fuel and ,aste
fuel
(or the initial mass of unburned fuel)
%ny one correct
explanation$
E7
Eoth explanations
are correct$
E7
021
0(1
7
d d x k t
M x


or
7
d d
( )
x t
k M x


E7
( ) { } ln M x kt c +
or
( ) { }
7
ln M x t c
k
+
M7 %7
{ } 5 5 t x ( ) ln 5 (5) M k c +
M7
( ) ln ln ln c M M x kt M
then either... or...
( ) ln ln kt M x M ( ) ln ln kt M M x
ln
M x
kt
M
_


,
ln
M
kt
M x
_

,
e
kt
M x
M

e
kt
M
M x

ddM7
e
kt
M M x


( ) e
kt
M x M
e
kt
M x M


%7 H cso
leading to e
kt
x M M

or
(7 e )
kt
x M

oe
061
0c1
7
ln "
4
x M t


' ;


ln "
7
(7 e )
4
k
M M

M7

ln " ln "
7 7
7 e ln " ln 4
4 4
k k
e k


(o
7
4
k %7
7
ln9
4
7 e x M
_


,
dM7
4
8
x M
4
8
x M %7 cso
041
=12>
(il+er 4= #>74 77
?uestio 1
)he maIority of candidates gained full mar&s on this .uestion$ Most obtained the identity
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
4
4
9 7 4 7 4 7 7 x A x x B x C x + + + + and found B and C by substituting 7 x and
7
4
x
$ % significant number of candidates found an incorrect +alue of C after ma&ing the
error ( )
4
8 9
4 "
$ )his can arise through the misuse of a calculator$ )he +alue of A ,as
usually found either by substituting 5 x or e.uating coefficients of
4
x $ Relati+ely fe,
candidates attempted the .uestion by e.uating all three coefficients to obtain three e.uations
and sol+ing these e.uations simultaneously$ )he ,or&ing for this method is rather
complicated and errors ,ere often made$
?uestio 2
)his .uestion ,as generally ,ell ans,ered ,ith around 15J of the candidature gaining all #
mar&s$ )he maIority of candidates ,ere able to apply the integration by parts formula in the
correct direction$ (ome candidates ho,e+er did not assign
u
and
d
d
v
x
and then ,rite do,n
their
d
d
u
x
and
v
before applying the by parts formula ,hich meant that if errors ,ere made
the method used ,as not al,ays clear$
Cn part (a)
sin8 d x x

caused some problems for a minority of candidates ,ho produced


responses such as cos8x t or
8cos8x t
or
7
cos8
8
x $ %fter correctly applying the by parts
formula a fe, candidates then incorrectly ,rote do,n
7
cos8 d
8
x x

as
7
cos8
#
x $
Most candidates ,ho could attempt part (a) ,ere able to ma&e a good start to part (b) by
assigning
u
as
4
x and
d
d
v
x
as
cos8 x
and then correctly apply the integration by parts formula$
%t this point ,hen faced ,ith
4
sin8 d
8
x x x

some candidates did not ma&e the connection


,ith their ans,er to part (a) and made little progress$ Kther candidates independently applied
the by parts formula again ,ith a number of them ma&ing a sign error$
Question 3
)his .uestion ,as also ,ell ans,ered and the general principles of implicit differentiation
,ere ,ell understood$ Ey far the commonest source of error ,as in differentiating
4
x
G
examples such as
4
x
4 ln
x
x and
7
4
x
x

,ere all regularly seen$ )hose ,ho &ne, ho, to
differentiate
4
x
nearly al,ays completed the .uestion correctly although a fe, had difficulty
in finding
( )
d
4
d
xy
x
correctly$ % minority of candidates attempted the .uestion by ta&ing the
logs of both sides of the printed e.uation or a rearrangement of the e.uation in the form
(il+er 4= #>74 74
4
4 4
x
xy y $ !orrectly done this leads to .uite a neat solution but more fre.uently errors
such as ( )
4 4
ln 4 ln 4 ln
x x
y y + +
,ere seen$
?uestio 4
Part (a) ,as ,ell done and the only error commonly seen in part (b) ,as using the incorrect
,idth of the trape@ium
4
1
instead of
4
"
$ % fe, candidates made errors often due to a lac&
of clear brac&eting but great maIority completed part (b) correctly and ga+e their ans,er to
the degree of accuracy specified in the .uestion$ Part (c) ,as ,ell done and the maIority ,ere
able to find
d
d
u
x
and ma&e a complete substitution for the +ariables$ )he only common error in
this part ,as simply to ignore the limits and to gi+e no Iustification for the limits becoming 4
and "$ Most recognised that the integral in part (d) re.uired integration by parts and those ,ho
used a method in+ol+ing integrating ( ) 4 u
to
4
4
4
u
u and differentiating lnu usually
reached the half ,ay stage correctly$ )he second integration pro+ed more difficult and there
,ere many errors in simplifying the expression
4
7
4
4
u
u
u
_


,
before the second integration$
)he errors often arose from a failure to use the necessary brac&ets$ )here ,ere also many
subse.uent errors in signs and a fe, candidates omitted the
7
4
from their integration$
)hose ,ho at the first stage of integration by parts integrated ( ) 4 u
to
( )
4
4
4
u
,hich is
of course correct had mar&edly less success ,ith the second integral than those ,ho
integrated to
4
4
4
u
u $
% fe, split the integral up into t,o separate integrals
ln d u u u

and
ln d u u

but the second


of these integrals ,as rarely completed correctly$ )hose ,ho ignored the hint in the .uestion
and attempted to integrate ,ith respect to x ,ere generally unable to deal ,ith
1
4
d
4
x
x
x +


,hich arises after integrating by parts once
Question 5
)he first part of .uestion 1 ,as generally ,ell done$ )hose ,ho had difficulty generally tried
to sol+e sets of relati+ely complicated simultaneous e.uations or did long di+ision obtaining
an incorrect remainder$ % fe, candidates found B and C correctly but either o+erloo&ed
finding A or did not &no, ho, to find it$ Part (b) pro+ed +ery testing$ Nearly all ,ere able to
ma&e the connection bet,een the parts but there ,ere many errors in expanding both ( )
7
7 x


and ( )
7
4 x

+ $ Fe, ,ere able to ,rite ( )
7
7 x

as ( )
7
7 x

and the resulting expansions
,ere incorrect in the maIority of cases both
4
7 x x + and
4
7 x x being common$
(il+er 4= #>74 78
( )
7
4 x

+ ,as handled better but the constant
7
4
in
7
7
7
4 4
x

_
+

,
,as fre.uently incorrect$ Most
recognised that they should collect together the terms of the t,o expansions but a fe, omitted
their +alue of A ,hen collecting the terms$
?uestio 6
!onnected rates of change is a topic ,hich many find difficult$ )he examiners reported that
the responses to this .uestion ,ere of a some,hat higher standard than had been seen in some
recent examinations and the maIority of candidates attempted to apply the chain rule to the
data of the .uestion$ %mong those ,ho obtained a correct relation
d
7$1 4
d
r
r
t

or an
e.ui+alent a common error ,as to use 4 r instead of using the gi+en 4 A to obtain
4
r

$ <nexpectedly the use of the incorrect formula for the area of the circle
4
4 A r
,as a relati+ely common error$
?uestio 4
)his .uestion discriminated ,ell across all abilities ,ith parts (e) and (f) being the most
demanding and those candidates ,ho dre, their o,n diagram being the more successful$
%bout 71J of the candidature ,as able to gain all 71 mar&s$
Part (a) ,as ,ell ans,ered ,ith only a fe, candidates adding OB to OA instead of
applying OB 6 OA$ !andidates ,ho failed to ans,er part (a) correctly usually struggled to
gain fe, if any mar&s for the remainder of this .uestion$
Cn part (b) most candidates ,ere able to ,rite do,n a correct expression for l but a number
of candidates did not form a correct e.uation by ,riting either r : $$$ and so lost the final
accuracy mar&$ (%fter some discussion the examiners also accepted l : $$$ ,hich is .uite
common though non standard$)
Cn part (c) most candidates ,ere able to ta&e the correct dot product bet,een either
AB
and
AD
or
BA
and
DA
to obtain the correct ans,er of 759B$ )he most common error ,as to
obtain an ans,er of 07B by incorrectly ta&ing the dot product bet,een either
AB
and
DA
or
BA
and
AD
and using this ans,er to obtain an ans,er of 759B ,ithout proper Iustification$
% small minority of candidates applied the cosine rule correctly to achie+e the correct ans,er$
% number of candidates struggled ,ith this part and usually too& the dot product bet,een
non?rele+ant +ectors such as OA andOB or
AB
and
BD
$
Cn part (d) a significant number of candidates ,ere able to obtain the correct position +ector
of OC : 4i ; "6 ; 97 by adding either OD to
AB
or OB to
AD
$ % fe, candidates also
achie+ed the correct result by arguing that the midpoints of the t,o diagonals of a
parallelogram are coincident$ Kccasionally the incorrect ans,er of OC : t("i ; 46 ; 7) ,as
gi+en ,hich is a result of ta&ing the difference bet,een OD and
AB
$
!andidates ,ho ,ere successful in part (e) found the area of the parallelogram either by
finding the area of triangle ABD using
4
7
bd sin A and doubling the result or by applying a
(il+er 4= #>74 7"
method of base perpendicular height$ )he most common error in part (e) ,as for candidates
to find the product of lengths AD and AB$
!andidates ,ho ,ere successful in part (f) usually found the shortest distance by multiplying
their AD by sin 07 (or e.ui+alent)$ )hose candidates ,ho multiplied AB by sin 07 did not
recei+e any credit$ % fe, candidates attempted to use +ectors to find
DE
,here E is the
point ,here the perpendicular from D meets the line l often spending considerable time for
usually little or no re,ard$
Question 8
Cn general this ,as the most poorly ans,ered .uestion on the paper ,ith about 71J of
candidates ,ho failed to score and about 77J of candidates gaining 7 mar& usually in
part (a)$ )his .uestion discriminated ,ell bet,een candidates of higher abilities ,ith about
40J of candidates gaining at least / of the 74 mar&s a+ailable and only about 0J of
candidates gaining all 74 mar&s$ Many ,ea&er candidates made little or no progress in part
(b) maybe because of the generalised nature of the differential e.uation$
Cn part (a) a significant number of candidates ,ere not clear or precise in their explanations$
% number of them used the ,ord LmassM and it ,as not clear ,hether they ,ere referring to
the mass of the unburned fuel or the mass of the ,aste products$
Cn part (b) those candidates ,ho ,ere able to separate the +ariables ,ere usually able to
integrate both sides correctly although a number of candidates integrated
x M
7
incorrectly
to gi+e ln (M 6 x)$ Many others substituted t : 5 x : 5 immediately after integration to find
their constant of integration as 6ln M and most used a +ariety of correct methods to eliminate
logarithms in order to find x : M(7 6 e
6kt
) (or e.ui+alent)$ % significant number of candidates
ho,e+er correctly rearranged their integrated expression into the form x : M 6 Ae
6kt
before
using t : 5 x : 5 to correctly find A$ !ommon errors in this part included omitting the
constant of integration or treating M as a +ariable$ %lso a number of candidates struggled to
remo+e logarithms correctly and ga+e an e.uation of the form M 6 x : e
6kt
; e
c
,hich ,as then
sometimes manipulated to M 6 x : Ae
6kt
$
Cn part (c) some candidates ,ere able to substitute t : ln " x :
4
7
M into one of their
e.uations in+ol+ing x and t but only a minority ,ere able to find a numeric +alue of k$ Knly
the most able candidates ,ere able to find k :
4
7
and substitute this into their e.uation
together ,ith t : ln 9 to find x :
8
4
M$
Statistics "or C4 :ractice :a%er Silver Level S2
Mean score for students achieving grade:
Qu
Max
score
Modal
score
Mean
%
ALL A* A B C D E U
4 84 3.34 3.91 3.70 3.45 3.17 2.79 2.36 1.66
! 6 71 4.28 5.83 5.13 4.10 3.12 2.24 1.46 0.51
" 7 74 5.20 6.72 6.02 5.43 4.70 3.95 2.91 1.45
# 15 67 9.99 14.23 12.43 10.19 7.93 5.88 4.41 2.94
$ 11 68 7.49 10.31 8.79 7.52 6.39 5.34 4.19 2.57
% 5 65 3.23 4.34 3.12 2.26 1.59 0.86 0.56
& 15 60 9.04 13.94 10.95 7.98 6.17 4.54 3.55 1.61
8 12 41 4.93 9.74 5.48 3.21 1.63 1.20 0.95 0.33
&$ %" #&'$( $%'8# #$'(( "$'"& !&'$" !('%) '%"
(il+er 4= #>74 71