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Paper Reference(s)

6666/01
Edexcel GCE
Core Mathematics C4
Silver Level S3
Time: 1 hour 30 minutes
Materials reuired !or examination "tems included #ith uestion
$a$ers
Mathematical Formulae (Green) Nil
Candidates may use any calculator allowed by the regulations of the Joint
Council for Qualifications. Calculators must not have the facility for symbolic
algebra manipulation, differentiation and integration, or have retrievable
mathematical formulas stored in them.
"nstructions to Candidates
Write the name of the examining body (Edexcel) your centre number candidate number
the unit title (!ore Mathematics !") the paper reference (####) your surname initials
and signature$
"n!ormation !or Candidates
% boo&let 'Mathematical Formulae and (tatistical )ables* is pro+ided$
Full mar&s may be obtained for ans,ers to %-- .uestions$
)here are / .uestions in this .uestion paper$ )he total mar& for this paper is 01$
%dvice to Candidates
2ou must ensure that your ans,ers to parts of .uestions are clearly labelled$
2ou must sho, sufficient ,or&ing to ma&e your methods clear to the Examiner$ %ns,ers
,ithout ,or&ing may gain no credit$
Su&&ested &rade 'oundaries !or this $a$er:
%( % ) C * E
6+ ,- ,1 4, 3. 3/
Silver 3 )his publication may only be reproduced in accordance ,ith Edexcel -imited copyright policy$
3455674589 Edexcel -imited$
10 Express in partial fractions
4
1 9
(4 8)( 8)
x
x x
+
+ +
142
3une /013 142
/0 (a) :se integration to find
(

x x
x
d ln
8
9
$
1,2
(b) ;ence calculate
x x
x
d ln
8
4
8
9
(

$
1/2
3anuar5 /013
30 f(x) <
) 8 ( ) 4 9 (
8# 94 40
4
4
x x
x x
+
+ +
x =
9
4
$
Gi+en that f(x) can be expressed in the form
f(x) <
) 4 9 ( + x
A
>
4
) 4 9 ( + x
B
>
) 8 ( x
C

(a) find the +alues of B and C and sho, that A < 5$


142
(b) ;ence or other,ise find the series expansion of f(x) in ascending po,ers of x up to and
including the term in x
4
$ (implify each term$
162
(c) Find the percentage error made in using the series expansion in part (b) to estimate the
+alue of f(5$4)$ Gi+e your ans,er to 4 significant figures$
142
3anuar5 /00-
(il+er 9? 0@84 4
40 % cur+e C has parametric e.uations
x < sin
4
t y < 4 tan t 5 A t =
4

$
(a) Find
x
y
d
d
in terms of t$
142
)he tangent to C at the point ,here t <
9

cuts the xBaxis at the point P$


(b) Find the xBcoordinate of P$
162
3une /010
,. Find the gradient of the cur+e ,ith e.uation
ln y < 4x ln x x C 5 y C 5
at the point on the cur+e ,here x < 4$ Gi+e your ans,er as an exact +alue$
1+2
3une /011
60 With respect to a fixed origin O the lines l
8
and l
4
are gi+en by the e.uations
l
8
? r <

,
_

4
9
#
>

,
_

9
4
8
l
4
? r <

,
_

9
81
1
>

,
_

8
9
4

,here and are scalar parameters$


(a) (ho, that l
8
and l
4
meet and find the position +ector of their point of intersection A$
162
(b) Find to the nearest 5$8D the acute angle bet,een l
8
and l
4
$
132
)he point B has position +ector

,
_

8
8
1
$
(c) (ho, that B lies on l
8
$
112
(d) Find the shortest distance from B to the line l
4
gi+ing your ans,er to 9 significant
figures$
142
June 2011
(il+er 9? 0@84 9
+0
6i&ure /
Figure 4 sho,s a s&etch of the cur+e C ,ith parametric e.uations
x < 1t
4
E " y < t(6 E t
4
)
)he cur+e C cuts the xBaxis at the points A and B$
(a) Find the xBcoordinate at the point A and the x-coordinate at the point B$
132
)he region R as sho,n shaded in Figure 4 is enclosed by the loop of the cur+e$
(b) :se integration to find the area of R$
162
January 2010
(il+er 9? 0@84 "
.0 (a) :sing the substitution x < 4 cos u or other,ise find the exact +alue of
(


4
8
4 4
d
) " (
8
x
x x
$
1+2
6i&ure 3
Figure 9 sho,s a s&etch of part of the cur+e ,ith e.uation y <
"
8
) " (
"
4
x x
5 = x = 4$
)he shaded region S sho,n in Figure 9 is bounded by the cur+e the xBaxis and the lines ,ith
e.uations x < 8 and x < F4$ )he shaded region S is rotated through 4 radians about the xBaxis
to form a solid of re+olution$
(b) :sing your ans,er to part (a) find the exact +olume of the solid of re+olution formed$
132
3anuar5 /010
T7T%L 674 8%8E4: +, M%49S
E:*
(il+er 9? 0@84 1
;uestion
:um'er
Scheme Mar<s
10
4 4
1 9
(4 8)( 8) (4 8) ( 8) ( 8)
x A B C
x x x x x
+
+ +
+ + + + +
4 4 A C
%t least one of GAH
or GCH are correct$
I8
Irea&s up their partial
fraction correctly into
three terms and
both
J J 4 A
and
J J 4 C
$
I8 cso
8$
4$
4
1 9 ( 8) (4 8)( 8) (4 8) x A x B x x C x + + + + + + + Writes do,n a
correct identity and
attempts to find the
+alue of either one
GA or G B or GCH$
M8
9$
8 4 4 x C C
8 1 8 8 8
9 4
4 4 " 4 "
x A A A +
Either
4
? 5 4 constant ? 9 x A B A B C + + +
? 1 4 9 4 x A B C + +
leading to
8 B
!orrect +alue for GBH
,hich is found using
a correct identity and
follo,s from their
partial fraction
decomposition$
%8 cso
(o
4 4
1 9 4 8 4
(4 8)( 8) (4 8) ( 8) ( 8)
x
x x x x x
+
+
+ + + + +
=4>
(il+er 9? 0@84 #
/0 (a)
9
8
ln d x x
x

4
9
4
d 8
ln
d
d 8
d 4 4
u
u x
x x
v x
x v
x x





' ;





4 4
8 8 8
ln $ d
4 4
x x
x x x

Kn the form
4 4
8 8
ln $ x
x x x

t
t

M8
4
8
ln
4
x
x

simplified or unBsimplified$ %8
4
8 8
$
4x x

simplified or unBsimplified$
%8
4 9
8 8 8
ln d
4 4
x x
x x

+
' ;

{ }
4 4
8 8 8
ln
4 4 4
x c
x x
_
+ +

,
4
4
8 8
$ $ x
x x


t t

dM8
!orrect ans,er ,ith@,ithout
c +
%8
=,>
(b)
4
4 4 4 4 4 4
8
8 8 8 8 8 8
ln ln 4 ln8
4 " 4(4) "(4) 4(8) "(8)
x
x x

_ _
1

' ;
1
]
, ,

%pplies limits of
4 and 8 to their
part (a) ans,er
and subtracts the
correct ,ay
round$
M8
( )
8
/
9 8 9 8
ln 4 or ln 4 or 9 4ln 4 etc or a,rt 5$8
8# / 8# 8#
or e.ui+alent$ %8
=/>
+
(il+er 9? 0@84 0
Questio
n
Number
Scheme Marks
3 (a)
4 4
40 94 8# (9 4)(8 ) (8 ) (9 4) x x A x x B x C x + + + + + + Forming this identity M1
4
9
x
( ) ( )
#" 1 45 1
9 9 9 9
84 8# " B B B +
8 x

40 94 8# 41 01 41 9 C C C + +
(ubstitutes either
4
9
x
or
8 x
into their identity or
e.uates 9 terms or
substitutes in +alues to
,rite do,n three
simultaneous e.uations$
M1
Ioth
" B
and
9 C
A1
(:ote the %1 is de$endent
on 'oth method mar<s in
this $art02
E.uate x
4
?
40 9 6 40 9 40 5 9
5
A C A A
A
+ +



5 8# 4 "
8# 4 " 84 5 4 5
x A B C
A A A
+ +
+ +
!ompares coefficients or
substitutes in a third xB
+alue or uses simultaneous
e.uations to sho, A < 5$
B1
(4)
(b)
4
" 9
f ( )
(9 4) (8 )
x
x x
+
+

4 8
"(9 4) 9(8 ) x x

+ +
Mo+ing po,ers to top on
any one of the t,o
expressions
M1
( )
4
8 9
4
8 8 9(8 ) x x


+ +
9 9 4
4 4
( 4)( 9)
8 8 ( 4)( )L ( ) $$$
4M
x x

+ + +
' ;

Either
9
4
8 ( 4)( )
x
t or
8 ( 8)( ) x t
from either
first or second expansions
respecti+ely
dM1;

4
( 8)( 4)
9 8 ( 8)( )L ( ) $$$
4M
x x

+ + + +
' ;

Kgnoring 8 and 9 any one
correct } {
..........
expansion$
A1
Ioth } {
..........
correct$ A1
} { } {
4 4 40
"
8 9 $$$ 9 8 $$$ x x x x + + + + + +

4 96
"
" 5 L x x + +
4 96
"
" (5 ) L x x +
A1; A1
(6)
(il+er 9? 0@84 /
Questio
n
Number
Scheme Marks
3 (c)

8$5/ #$" 8#
%ctual f (5$4)
(#$0#)(5$/)
49$"/ 4691
"$9"808160#$$$
1$"5/ #0#
+ +


Nr
4
" 9
%ctual f (5$4)
(9(5$4) 4) (8 5$4)
" 4691
9$01 "$9"808160#$$$
#$0# #0#
+
+
+
%ttempt to find the
actual +alue of f(5$4)
or seeing a,rt "$9 and
belie+ing it is candidate*s
actual f(5$4)$
!andidates can also attempt
to find the actual +alue by
using
4
(9 4) (9 4) (8 )
A B C
x x x
+ +
+ +

,ith their A B and C$
M1
4
96
"
Estimate f (5$4) " (5$4)
" 5$96 "$96
+
+
%ttempt to find an estimate
for f(5$4) using their ans,er
to (b)
M1

"$96 "$9"808160#$$$
Oage error 855
"$9"808160#$$$


their estimate B actual
855
actual

M1

8$884561"5/$$$ 8$8O(4sf )
8$8O A1 cao
(4)
[14]
Question
Number
Scheme Marks
40 (a)
4
d d
4sin cos 4sec
d d
x y
t t t
t t

I8 I8

4
9
d sec 8
d sin cos sin cos
y t
x t t t t
_


,
or e.ui+alent M8 %8 142
(b) %t
9
t


9
"
x
4 9 y
I8

4
sec
d 8#
9
d 9
sin cos
9 9
y
x




M8 %8

8# 9
4 9
9 "
y x

_


,
M8

9
5
/
y x M8 %8 162
=10>
(il+er 9? 0@84 6
Question
Number
Scheme Marks
,0
8 d
d
y
y x

P I8
P
8
4ln 4 x x
x
_
+

,
M8 %8
%t 4 x
ln 4(4) ln 4 y
M8
leading to
8# y
%ccept
"ln 4
e y %8
%t ( ) 4 8#

8 d
4ln 4 4
8# d
y
x
+
M8

( )
d
8# 4 4ln 4
d
y
x
+
%8 1+2
=+>
(il+er 9? 0@84 85
Question
Number
Scheme Marks
60 (a) i?
# 1 4 +
?:
9 4 81 9 +
%ny t,o e.uations M8
leading to 9
"
M8 %8

# 8 9
9 9 4 9
4 9 0

_ _ _

+

, , ,
r
or
1 4 9
81 " 9 9
9 8 0

_ _ _

+


, , ,
r
M8 %8
<: ( ) -;( 4 9 9 0 +
@ ( ) R;( 9 " 8 0 +
I8 162
(%s -;( < R;( lines intersect)
(b)
8 4
4 $ 9 4 # 9 8" 8"cos
9 8

_ _

+


, ,
( ) 885$64
M8 %8
%cute angle is #6$8 a,rt #6$8 %8 132
(c)
# 8 1
9 8 4 8
4 9 8

_ _ _

+

, , ,
r
( )
8
lies on B l
I8 112
(d) -et d be shortest distance from B to
4
l

1 9 4
8 9 "
8 0 #
AB
_ _ _



, , ,
uuur
M8
( ) ( )
( )
4 4
4
4 " # AB + +
uuur
< 1# a,rt 0$1 %8

sin
1#
d

M8
1#sin#6$8 #$66 d a,rt #$66 %8 142
=14>
(il+er 9? 0@84 88
Question
Number
Scheme Marks
Q7 (a) ( ) ( ) ( )
4
5 6 9 9 5 y t t t t t +

5 9 9 t
%ny one correct +alue B1
%t 5 t ( )
4
1 5 " " x Method for finding one +alue of x M1
%t 9 t ( )
4
1 9 " "8 x
( )
( )
4
%t 9 1 9 " "8 t x
%t A " x L at B "8 x Ioth A1 (3)
(b)
d
85
d
x
t
t

(een or implied B1
( )
4
d
d d 6 85 d
d
x
y x y t t t t t
t


( (


M1 A1
( )
4 "
65 85 d t t t


( )
9 1
65 85
9 1
t t
C + ( ) ( )
9 1
95 4 t t C + A1
( )
9
9 1
9 1
5
65 85
95 9 4 9 94"
9 1
t t 1

1
]
M1
( )
4
4 d #"/ units A y x

A1 (6)
[9]
(il+er 9? 0@84 84
Question
Number
Scheme Marks
Q8 (a)
d
4sin
d
x
u
u

B1

( ) ( )
4 4 4 4
8 8
d 4sin d
"
4cos " 4cos
x u u
x x
u u

( (


M1

4 4
4sin
d
"cos "sin
u
u
u u

:se of
4 4
8 cos sin u u
M1

4
8 8
d
" cos
u
u


(


4
8
d
cos
k u
u
t

(

M1
( )
8
tan
"
u C + tan k u t M1
4 4 4cos
"
x u u


8 8 4cos
9
x u u

M1

"
9
8 8
tan tan tan
" " " 9
u


1 _


1
] ,
( )
8 9 8
8 9
" "
_




,
A1 (7)
(b)
( )
8
"
4 4
4
8
"
d
"
V x
x x

(
(

M1

4
4 4
8
8
8# d
"
x
x x

8# integral in (a) M1

9 8
8#
"



,
8# their ans,er to part (a) A1t (3)
[10]
(il+er 9? 0@84 89
Question 1
)his .uestion ,as generally ,ell ans,ered ,ith about 0"O of candidates gaining all " mar&s$
)he maQority of candidates ,ere able to split up
4
) 8 )( 8 4 (
9 1
+ +
+
x x
x
in the correct form
of
) 8 4 ( + x
A
>
) 8 ( + x
B
4
) 8 ( + x
C
although some missed the (x > 8) factor to gi+e the incorrect
form of
) 8 4 ( + x
A
>
4
) 8 ( + x
B
$ Many candidates ,ere successful in either substituting +alues
and@or e.uating coefficients in order to find their constants$ % minority ,ho unnecessarily
formed three simultaneous e.uations by e.uating coefficients ,ere less successful in finding
all three constants correctly$
;uestion /
Nnly about "1O of the candidates ,ere able to gain all 0 mar&s in this .uestion as it in+ol+ed
a challenging integration by parts on account of the term
9
8
$
x
)his meant that candidates had
to be especially careful ,hen dealing ,ith negati+e po,ers of x$
Kn R4(a) the maQority of candidates applied the integration by parts formula correctly in the
right direction to gain 9 out of the 1 mar&s a+ailable$ Many of them then proceeded to
integrate an expression of the form
9
x

to gi+e an expression of the form


4
x

although a
minority ga+e an expression of the form
"
x

$ % significant number of candidates failed to


gain the final accuracy mar& due to sign errors or errors ,ith the constants

and

in
4 4
ln x c
x x

+ + $ % minority of candidates applied the by parts formula in the ',rong
direction* and incorrectly stated that
d
ln
d
v
x
x
implied
8
v
x
$
Kn R4(b) most candidates gained the method mar& for substitution of
4 x
and
8 x
into
their ans,er in R4(a) and subtracting the correct ,ay round$ )he final mar& ,as largely
dependent upon their ha+ing obtained the correct ans,er in R4(a)$
Question 3
Part (a) ,as tac&led ,ell by many candidates$ )he maQority of candidates ,ere able to ,rite
do,n the correct identity$ )he most popular strategy at this stage (and the bestM) ,as for
candidates to substitute
8 x
and
4
9
x
into their identity to find the +alues of the
constants B and C$ )he substitution of
4
9
x
caused problems for a fe, candidates ,hich
led them to find an incorrect +alue for B$ Many candidates demonstrated that constant A ,as
Sero by use of a further +alue of x or by comparing coefficients in their identity$ % significant
minority of candidates manipulated their original identity and then compared coefficients to
produce three e.uations in order to sol+e them simultaneously$
(il+er 9? 0@84 8"
Kn part (b) most candidates ,ere able to re,rite their partial fractions ,ith negati+e po,ers
and apply the t,o binomial expansions correctly usually leading to the correct ans,er$ %
significant minority of candidates found the process of manipulating
4
"(9 4) x

+ to
( )
4
9
4
8 x

+ challenging$
% significant number of candidates ,ere unsure of ,hat to do in part (c)$ (ome candidates
found the actual +alue only$ Nther candidates found the estimated +alue only$ Nf those ,ho
progressed further the most common error ,as to find the difference bet,een these +alues
and then di+ide by their estimate rather than the actual +alue$ (ome candidates did not follo,
the instruction to gi+e their final ans,er correct to 4 significant figures and thus lost the final
accuracy mar&$
Question 4
)he maQority of candidates &ne, ho, to tac&le this .uestion and solutions gaining all the
method mar&s ,ere common$ ;o,e+er there ,ere many errors of detail and only about 94O
of the candidates gained full mar&s$ Kn part (a) many candidates had difficult in
differentiating
4
sin t and 4tant $ 4tant ,as more often differentiated correctly possibly
because the differential of tant is gi+en in the formula boo& although 4lnsect or
4
lnsec t
,ere often seen$ Many could not differentiate
4
sin t correctly$
4
cos t 4cost and 4sint ,ere
all common$ Nearly all candidates &ne, they had to di+ide
t
y
d
d
by
t
x
d
d
although there ,as
some confusion in notation ,ith candidates mixing up their xs and ts$ )he maQority &ne,
ho, to approach part (b) finding the linear e.uation of the tangent to the cur+e at
9
4 9
"

_

,

putting
5 y
and sol+ing for x$ (ome candidates used
5 y
prematurely and found the
tangent to the cur+e at
9
5
"
_

,
rather than at
9
4 9
"

_

,
$
;uestion ,
)he maQority of those ,ho used implicit differentiation ,ere successful on this .uestion$ )he
commonest error ,as to differentiate 4 ln x x incorrectly and occasionally integration by
parts ,as seen$ )hose ,ho differentiated correctly ,ere usually able to find that
8# y
,hen
4 x and complete the .uestion$ )he commonest error at this stage ,as
ln "ln 4 y
leading
to
/$ y
)hose ,ho started by ma&ing y the subQect of the formula rarely made progress beyond the
first step of ,riting
4 ln
e
x x
y $ )his can be differentiated using the chain rule but the maQority
made some attempt to transform this expression before differentiating and this ,as often done
incorrectly
4 ln 4 ln
e e e
x x x x
being a common error$ )hose ,ho transformed correctly to
4x
x
often differentiated this to ( )
4 8
4
x
x x

$
;uestion 6
Kn part (a) the maQority of candidates ,ere able to set up e.uations in and

and ,ith a
fe, exceptions ,ere able to sol+e them correctly$ (ubstitution into one of the gi+en line
e.uations to obtain the coordinates of A usually follo,ed correctly although a substantial
(il+er 9? 0@84 81
number of candidates ,ere unable or forgot to sho, that the lines did indeed intersect$ Kn
part (b) the great maQority of candidates realised that a scalar product ,as in+ol+ed although
substantial numbers of candidates selected the position +ectors of the fixed points on the line
rather than the direction +ectors$ %mong those ,ho did select the correct +ectors the
commonest error ,as to gi+e an obtuse angle rather than the acute angle ,hich the .uestion
as&ed for$ Part (c) ,as ,ell done although some did not sho, the consistency of for all
three components$
Part (d) pro+ed +ery demanding$ )hose ,ho ,ere able to dra, a simple diagram to represent
the situation and ,ho remembered that each part of a .uestion fre.uently relies on pre+ious
parts ,ere able to find the length of AB using the results of parts (a) and (c) and the angle
found in part (b) to complete the .uestion using elementary trigonometry although some used
the tangent of the angle rather than the sine$ )hese ,ere ho,e+er a small minority of
candidates and the maQority either Qust left the .uestion blan& or thought that AB ,as the
length they ,ere loo&ing for$ (ome tried more complicated methods such as finding a general
expression for
BX
and ta&ing the scalar product of this +ector ,ith the direction of
4
l
and
e.uating to Sero$ )he ,or&ing for this method gets +ery complicated ( )
99
0

but a fe,
correct solutions of this type ,ere seen$
;uestion +
Part (a) ,as ,ell done$ )he maQority of candidates correctly found the xBcoordinates of A and
B by putting
5 y
sol+ing for t and then substituting in
4
1 " x t $ Full mar&s ,ere
common$ Part (b) pro+ed difficult$ % substantial minority of candidates failed to substitute for
the
dx
,hen substituting into
d y x

or used
d
d
t
x
rather than
d
d
x
t
$ % surprising feature of the
solutions seen ,as the number of candidates ,ho ha+ing obtained the correct ( )
4
6 85 d t t t t

,ere unable to remo+e the brac&ets correctly to obtain ( )


4 "
65 85 d t t t

$ Wea&nesses in
elementary algebra fla,ed many other,ise correct solutions$ %nother source of error ,as
using the xBcoordinates for the limits ,hen the +ariable in the integral ,as t$ %t the end of the
.uestion many failed to realise that ( )
9
4 "
5
65 85 d t t t

gi+es only half of the re.uired area$


(ome candidates made either the ,hole of the .uestion or Qust part (b) more difficult by
eliminating parameters and using the cartesian e.uation$ )his is a possible method but the
indices in+ol+ed are +ery complicated and there ,ere +ery fe, successful solutions using this
method$
;uestion .
%ns,ers to part (a) ,ere mixed although most candidates gained some method mar&s$ %
surprisingly large number of candidates failed to deal ,ith
4
" "cos u
correctly and many
did not recognise that ( )
4
4
8
d sec d tan
cos
x x x x C
x
+


in this context$ Nearly all
con+erted the limits correctly$ %ns,ers to part (b) ,ere also mixed$ (ome could not get
beyond stating the formula for the +olume of re+olution ,hile others gained the first mar& by
substituting the e.uation gi+en in part (b) into this formula but could not see the connection
,ith part (a)$ !andidates could reco+er here and gain full follo, through mar&s in part (b)
after an incorrect attempt at part (a)$
(il+er 9? 0@84 8#
Statistics !or C4 8ractice 8a$er Silver Level S3
Mean score for students achieving grade:
Qu
Max
score
Modal
score
Mean
%
ALL A* A B C D E U
1 4 82 3.29 3.87 3.51 3.24 2.89 2.23 1.97 0.81
7 7 71 4.98 6.86 5.97 4.94 3.90 2.81 2.09 0.94
! 14 72 10.04 12.02 9.57 8.16 6.42 5.42 2.69
" 10 65 6.50 9.62 8.38 6.73 4.96 3.47 2.03 0.93
# 7 64 4.47 6.79 5.76 4.56 3.36 2.24 1.42 0.70
$ 14 62 8.70 12.92 10.84 8.84 6.78 4.88 3.35 1.75
% 9 60 5.36 6.92 4.68 3.52 2.62 1.58 1.25
& 10 41 4.07 5.71 2.63 1.67 0.85 0.41 0.20
%# $! "%'"1 #('11 "#'1( !#'" #'# 1&'% ('%
(il+er 9? 0@84 80