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Combustion of Alkanes

COMPLETE Vs. INCOMPLETE

Complete Combustion
This happens when a fuel burns in a plentiful supply of Oxygen (O2) to produce Heat, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Water (H2O) . Methane + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water Write the balanced symbol equation for this reaction

Incomplete Combustion
This happens when a fuel burns in a limited supply of Oxygen (O2) to produce Heat, Carbon Monoxide (CO),Water (H2O) and soot. Carbon Monoxide is a very poisonous gas and kills hundreds of people every year in their sleep due to faulty boilers and other gas appliances.

Incomplete Combustion
Methane + Oxygen Carbon Monoxide + Water

Produce a balanced symbol equation for this reaction.


Methane + Oxygen Carbon + Water

Complete vs. Incomplete Combustion


Complete
Air Supply Products Good Water Carbon Dioxide

Incomplete
Bad Water Carbon Monoxide Soot Less Yellow

Heat produced Flame

More Blue

Pollution from Burning Fuels NOx can react with water in the atmosphere to from Nitric Acid.

CO a poisonous gas formed by incomplete combustion.


SO2 dissolves in rain water to produce sulfuric acid. C solid particulates that can bring on asthma attacks and are carcinogenic. Also causes Global Dimming. CnH2n+2 these contribute to photochemical smog and are greenhouse gases CO2 a ever-increasing greenhouse gas

H2O another greenhouse gas

The greenhouse effect

Greenhouse gases

Sulfur contamination of fossil fuels


Sulfur is found as an impurity in crude oil and other fossil fuels. It burns in oxygen to form sulfur dioxide: S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g) Sulfur dioxide may be oxidized to sulfur trioxide: 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) Both of these oxides dissolve in water forming acidic solutions:

SO2(g) + H2O(l) H2SO3(aq) SO3(g) + H2O(l) H2SO4(aq)

Acid rain

Flue gas Desulfurisation is a process used in power stations to remove sulfur dioxide from waste gases. It reacts Sulfur Dioxide with Calcium Oxide (or Calcium Carbonate) to form CaSO4 (better known as Gypsum a compound used to make plaster).

FGD
CaCO3 CaO + CO2
Limestone Calcium Oxide

CaO + SO2 CaSO3


Calcium Sulfite

2CaSO3 + O2 CaSO4
Calcium Sulfate gypsum!!!

Catalytic Converters
Catalytic converters are present in all modern cars. They react pollutants like CO and NO into less harmful products, CO2 and N2. They also react hydrocarbons with NO to produce N2, CO2 and H2O. Write balanced symbol equations for these reactions (use hexane in the 2nd equation).

They are made of a massive ceramic honeycomb coated in Rhodium or Platinum (expensive unreactive metals).

Rhodium OR

Platinum

The catalytic converter

Global Warming?