Chapter 11

Gene Expression: Translation

DNA directs the synthesis of proteins
• concept that genes control enzymes • structure of proteins • the mechanism of translation - prokaryotes, eukaryotes • post-translational modifications to polypeptides • the genetic code

Genes control enzymes : Garrod
1. Archibald Garrod (1909): - individuals with particular homozygous alleles expressed particular disease, including alkaptonuria and albinism

 a defect in a single gene can result in a metabolic deficiency that causes an identifiable phenotypic condition

hypothesis : each strain is deficient in 1 enzyme in niacin pathway Different intermediates were fed to mutant strains of Neurospora  this positioned the mutants in the niacin biosynthetic pathway  Concluded that one gene encoded one enzyme (1941) current hypothesis: each gene encodes 1 enzyme (or protein) that functions in a cell to determine a phenotype .Genes control enzymes : Beadle and Tatum Isolated mutant strains of Neurospora that could only grow if niacin was supplied in culture medium (auxotrophs) .

mental retardation .example :mutation that causes tyrosinosis prevents the degradation of phenylalanine and tyrosine  however. lesion on skin. may result in multiple symptoms (phenotypes): ulcers in corneas.One enzyme can impact more than one phenotype Pleiotropy • Defect in a single gene affects one step in a biochemical pathway but has multiple effects .

four classes: 1. Acidic 2. Nonpolar (hydrophobic) 4. Polar (uncharged) . Basic 3.Proteins Are Composed of Amino Acids • Amino (NH2) group • Carboxyl (COOH) group • Side chains (R groups).

The 20 common amino acids * all side chains are shown at physiological pH (6.8) .

Joining amino acids dipolar ion (zwitterion) Amino acids are joined together by peptide bonds “dehydration synthesis” .

turns.Protein Structure • Primary: Linear sequence of amino acids • Secondary: Common folding patterns that form due to maximization of hydrogen bonds (alpha helix. beta pleated sheet) in peptide backbone of nearby amino acids (others : extended strands. random coils) • Tertiary: Overall three-dimensional structure of protein • Quaternary: Interaction of more than one polypeptide to form active protein  ** each level of structure depends on the level below it .

Secondary Structure -helix -pleated sheet .

Tertiary Structure Three-dimensional structure of human -globin forms active site of an enzyme .

Quaternary Structure human hemoglobin -globin -globin .

Translation Occurs on the Ribosome • • • • • Codons (3 base sequences) in mRNA are read sequentially tRNAs read the codons using their anticodons tRNAs have amino acids attached to their 3’ ends Amino acids are joined by peptide bonds sequence of amino acids in protein is specified by sequence of codons in mRNA E. coli ribosome A : aminoacyl site P : peptidyl site E : exit site .

amino acid is detached from AMP and joined to 3’ end of the tRNA .Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases • Covalently attaches (charges) the correct amino acid to 3’ end of the correct tRNA : recognizes acceptor stem and anticodon of tRNA • Charging is a two-stage reaction in active site of tRNA synthetase: 1. amino acid reacts with ATP (binds AMP. releases PPi) 2.

and not the amino acid itself.Decoding Machinery • • • • 20 different aminoacyl tRNA synthetases More than 20 tRNAs 64 codons (61 code for a. is recognized and dictates which amino acid is incorporated anticodon anticodon .a. 3 for STOP codons) anticodon of tRNA. . not amino acid. determines which amino acid is incorporated result : Ala incorporated into protein  anticodon on tRNA.

a.recognize STOP codon . from charged tRNAs at A site • Termination .add a.positioning 1st charged tRNA at P site • Elongation .Translation • Initiation .recognition of 1st codon .release of polypeptide .stop elongation .formation of ribosome .

resulting in a nonfunctional protein .Translational Initiation Must Start at Correct Codon • Frameshift mutations: deletion or insertion of one or more bases in mRNA.If ribosome shifts out of frame it translates different codons. resulting in shift of reading frame .

Initiator methionine in E. coli (initiator methionine) (internal methionine) .

coli IF1 binds at A site. prevents 1st tRNA from binding there (N-formyl-methionine) IF2 only binds fMet  fMet is the only initiator aa binds at P site of 30S E : exit site P : peptidyl tRNA site A : aminoacyl tRNA site .Initiation of Translation in E.

coli : Shine-Dalgarno sequence in mRNA base pairs with16S rRNA mRNA (just upstream of initiator AUG) 16S rRNA .Initiation of Translation in E.

Initiation of Translation in Eukaryotes Preinitiation complex requires: • Small subunit (40S) of the ribosome • 5’ cap mRNA • Initiation factors eIF2. eIF3. eIF4 Met • Initiator Met-tRNA i • GTP .

Initiation of Translation in Eukaryotes Initiator complex forms at 5’ cap : • eIF3 binds 40S subunit • eIF2-GTP binds Met-tRNA and then binds 40S subunit Met i GTP • eIF4 binds 5’ Cap of mRNA • 5’ Cap of mRNA binds complex of 40S subunit. and Met-tRNAMet i GTP GTP . eIF3. eIF2-GTP.

nature.html  may also insure that only mature mRNAs are translated .com/horizon/rna/highlights/figures/s2_spec1_f1.PABP interactions with initiator complexes enhance translation by helping initiation and stabilizing mRNA polyA binding protein http://www.

Initiation of Translation in Eukaryotes: Finding the Start Codon (AUG) • binding of eIF1 and eIF1A stimulates complex to scan for AUG • eIF2-GTP hydrolyzes GTP. then eIF2-GDP and eIF3 leave complex • eIF5 allows large subunit (60S) to join complex GTP GTP GTP -GDP .

Role of eIF2 proteins • eIF2 required to bring met-tRNAMet to small i ribosomal subunit • eIF2B required to reconstitute the active form of eIF2 (eIF2-GTP) from eIF2-GDP .

Mechanisms to Identify Start Codon AUG •AUG is usually located in Kozak sequence (PuNNAUGG)  different from ribosome binding site (5’ Cap) Scanning Model ribosome moves along mRNA until first AUG is reached (ribosome can only bind to 5’ cap) .

Mechanisms to Identify Start Codon AUG Shunting Model .first AUG is not in Kozak sequence  ribosome continues to next AUG .first AUG is masked in secondary RNA structure or .

several hundred nucleotides  multiple open reading frames can be translated from 1 mRNA .Mechanisms to Identify Start Codon AUG Multiple translation start sites internal ribosome entry site (IRES) is used for ribosome assembly : consensus site.

Introduction to Genetic Principles 40S .Sites on Eukaryotic Ribosome • A (aminoacyl) site: where incoming charged tRNA binds ribosome (and reads codon in mRNA) • P (peptidyl) site: where tRNA with growing polypeptide chain is positioned 60S Met P : peptidyl tRNA site A : aminoacyl tRNA site 80S P A Modified from Hyde.

Translation : Elongation Binding the charged tRNA at the A site E. coli : • Elongation Factors EF-Tu and EF-Ts • GTP • Charged tRNAs • Codon of mRNA positioned in A site of ribosome .

2. coli) 1. EF-Tu-GTP positions charged tRNA by binding A site of ribosome if codon binding is correct . Charged tRNA binds EF-Tu-GTP Charged tRNA 3.Binding a Charged tRNA at the A Site (E.

a.catalyzes : 1) cleavage of high-energy bond between amino acid and tRNA in the P site 2) formation of a peptide bond between the a. attached to tRNA in the A site and the a.a attached to tRNA in the P site . peptidyl transferase is a ribozyme) .Translation: Elongation Peptide Bond Formation • Peptidyl transferase is in the ribosomal RNA of large subunit of the ribosome (here RNA is the enzyme .

Translation: Elongation .

Uncharged tRNA in P site moves to E site and exits ribosome .a. Ribosome moves down mRNA one codon 4. on charged tRNA in A site 2. EF-G enters at A site . hydrolyzes GTP 3. Polypeptide on tRNA in P site is transferred to a.Translation: Elongation Ribosome Translocation : 1.

Cycle of peptide bond formation and translocation on ribosome .

Cycle of peptide bond formation and translocation on ribosome (1) .

coli.Translation : Elongation (Eukaryotes) very similar to E. except : • • • • eEF1 instead of EF-Tu eEF1 instead of EF-Ts eEF2 instead of EF-G no E site on ribosome Met 60S 80S P A 40S .

Binding a Charged tRNA at the A Site (Eukaryotes) 1. Charged tRNA binds eEF1 -GTP eEF1 eEF1 eEF1 eEF1 eEF1 eEF1 eEF1 no E site in ribosome eEF1 -GTP positions charged tRNA by binding A site of ribosome .

incorporation : 15 a.a.a.a.5 min ! .Translation : Elongation Error rate : 1 in 10. per second (eukaryotes)  300 a. per second (E.a. protein made in 20 s ! 2-5 a.a.000 amino acids incorporated into protein Speed of a. protein in 1-2. coli)  300 a.

UAG)  carboxyl end of polypeptide is hydrolyzed from tRNA in P site • release factor (RF3) hydrolyzes GTP to release RF1 or RF2 • Ribosomal recycling factor (RRF) binds A site and is translocated to the P site with help of EF-G  initiation factors help to dissociate and recycle ribosomal subunits for next round . UGA.Translation: Termination (E.coli) • Release factor (RF1 or RF2) binds STOP codon in A site (STOP codon : UAA.

coli) Insert Fig. 11.29 molecular mimicry : a protein resembles the shape of an anticodon in a tRNA .Translation: Termination (E.

Translation: Termination (eukaryotes) very similar to E.coli except : • eRF1 instead of RF1 or RF2 • eRF3 similar to RF3  involved with peptide release. GTP hydrolysis needed .

prevent elongation • streptomycin  bind to A or P sites and induce errors in bacterial translation • tetracycline  block binding of charged tRNA to A site . erythromycin  block peptide exit tunnel . coli translation is inhibited by antibiotics • azithromycin.E.

coli translation is inhibited by antibiotics Poehlsgaard and Douthwaite.E. Nature Reviews : Microbiology 3:870-881 (2005) 30S subunit 50S subunit .

ATP  AMP) • 1 high energy phosphate bond to bind the A site (EF-Tu or eEF1 . GTP  GDP)  ~90% of bacterial energy production goes into protein synthesis ! .Energy use in translation 4 high energy phosphate bonds are used per peptide bond • 2 high energy phosphate bonds to charge tRNA (tRNA synthetase. GTP  GDP) • 1 high energy phosphate bond to translocate (EF-G or eEF2.

monocistronic .Comparisons : bacterial and eukaryotic translation • Prokaryotic mRNA can contain more than one gene per transcript : polycistronic • Eukaryotic mRNA contains one gene.ribosome binds initiation factors recognizing the 5’ cap .

transcription : nucleus .Transcription and Translation Are Coupled in E.translation : cytoplasm . coli • eukaryotes : transcription and translation are uncoupled .

Polysomes: Many Ribosomes Bound to mRNA 3’ 5’  occur in prokaryotes and eukaryotes .

Functional Sites on a Ribosome Peptidyl transferase site EF-G site EF-Tu site What happens to a polypeptide once it is translated on a ribosome ? .depends on location of ribosome : 1) free in cytoplasm 2) associated with ER mRNA Growing polypeptide .

Targeting mRNA to the Endoplasmic Reticulum
1. Signal peptide: a positively charged a.a. followed by 10-15 hydrophobic amino acids 2. Bound by Signal Recognition Particle (SRP), halts translation (SRP : 6 proteins and a 7S RNA) 3. SRP binds docking protein on endoplasmic reticulum 4. Protein translation resumes through translocation channel (translocon) in ER 5. Signal peptide is removed by signal peptidase in endoplasmic reticulum

Targeting proteins to ER

 protein is either secreted from cell or inserted into the membrane

Targeting membrane proteins to ER

htm membrane proteins to cell surface http://kc.

Phosphorylation of polypeptide : consensus sequence 4.Posttranslational Changes to Proteins 1. Cleavage of amino terminus : secreted or membrane proteins 3. Lipid addition .some proteins spontaneously fold into correct tertiary structure .allows membrane attachment without a signal sequence * posttranslational modifications : more common in eukaryotes . Addition of sugars or carbohydrates to some R groups 5.others require chaperones that facilitate proper folding 2. Protein folding .

Hsp90 .GroE GroEL (Hsp60) GroES (Hsp10) .unfold partially folded protein.Hsp70 .specific to different classes of proteins .Chaperones . allow it to fold in a different way .

sciencedirect.php/id/838 .com/ http://www.Posttranslational Changes to Proteins Phosphorylation Lipid Addition Carbohydrate Addition http://www.piercenet.

smallest number that can code for 20 a.. • Nonoverlapping • No punctutation (no separation between codons) • Redundant/degenerate .e.more than one codon for some amino acids • Elucidated using artificially synthesized RNAs (i.a.Genetic Code • Codons are 3 nucleotide units . poly U) or trinucleotides – Added to tube containing cell free system – Asked: What amino acids were joined together in this cell free system using these RNA templates? .

insertion or deletion of multiples of 3 nucleotides restored wild-type function of mutated protein  3 nucleotides code for 1 amino acid .Codons Are Read Three Bases at a Time Francis Crick : .mutated viral protein with proflavin : adds or deletes 1 nucleotide • Insertion of one base shifts reading frame • Insertion of two more bases restores correct reading frame .

a.Genetic Code Is Nonoverlapping • position of a. next to each other in protein indicated nonoverlapping structure • no punctuation (noncoding nucleotides between codons) .

Nirenberg.filter binding assay .The Genetic Code Crick. synthetic mRNAs in cell-free system .polynucleotide repeats . synthetic codons . mutant phage 2. Leder : 1. Matthaei.dinucleotide repeats 3.

tRNA Anticodon Base Pairing with mRNA Codon mRNA and tRNA strands are antiparallel tRNA mRNA .

“Wobble” in tRNA/mRNA Base Pairing • 64 possible codons (3 are stop codons) • only 50 tRNAs in E. coli * 3rd base of codon in mRNA and 1st base of anticodon in tRNA can “wobble” – base pairing does not have to be exact at this position  Allows different codons (which differ only in third position) to be read by same tRNA .

45 . 11.Base Pairing Possibilities at Wobble Position Insert Fig.

coli : GUG and UUG sometimes used as initiator methionine .Universality of Genetic Code • Shared by most living organisms • Some codons are read differently in – Yeast mitochondrial genes – Drosophila – Higher plants – Mycoplasmas – Ciliated protozoa – Site specific variation : interpretation of codon depends on its location E.

Leu. ACG all code for Thr – functionally related amino acids are encoded by similar codons .all codons with U as middle base encode hydrophobic amino acids (Phe.Design of Genetic Code * genetic code is designed to minimize impact of mutations – mutations in 3rd position of codon are not likely to change encoded amino acid . Ile. ACC. Val)  genetic code is not random .ACU. ACA.

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