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Int. Journal of Advances in Remote Sensing and GIS, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2012 Copyright Ramasundaram et al.

, Research article

www.jrsgis.com editorial@jrsgis.com ISSN 2277 9450

A study on crop combination regions in Tamil Nadu, India using MapInfo and GIS
M.Ramasundaram1, K.Banukumar3 P.Alaguraja2, D.Yuvaraj1, S.R.Nagarathinam1 Department of Geography, Govt Arts College, Coimbatore -18 Department of Geology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli- 24 3 Department of Geography, Periyar E.V.R. College, (autonomous), Tiruchirappalli
2 1

Abstract: The studies of crop combination regions constitute an important aspect of agricultural geography as it provides a good basis for agricultural regionaration. Through different regions may have different climate and soil conditions aim and objectives of the study are to find out the crop combination regions of Tamil Nadu. The important objectives are to study the principal crops and ranking of crops in Tamil Nadu to find out the crop combination regions in Tamil Nadu. The data collected were processed and analyzed by using simple statistics the results are cartographically represented Weavers (1954) crop combinational analysis and Rafiullahs (1956) maximum deviation method of crop combination analysis. Were applied and crop combination regions of Tamil Nadu is brought out through using MapInfo, GIS software modules. The analysis shows that there is no diversification of cropping pattern in most if the districts of Tamil Nadu expect the centre and eastern part of the state. The crop like paddy and pulses constituted as two crop region in Tamil Nadu.

Keywords: Ranking crops, paddy, cholam ,cumbu, pulses, groundnut ,sugarcane, cotton, turmeric.

1. Introduction
The crops are generally grown in combination and it is ratily that a particular crop occupies a position of total isolation from other crops. The given aerial unit at gives point of time. The studies of crop combination regions constitute an important aspect of agricultural geography as it provides a good basis for agricultural regionaration. Through different regions may have different climate and soil conditions. But each region of Induzvial to crops area useful for planners but it is even more important to view the integrated assemblage of various crop combination reference to the quandum or diversity of crops in a region in a specified period of time .For a comprehensive and better understanding of agricultural system the study of crop combination is of great significances and is essential for agricultural planning. The present study enlights to the crop combinations in Tamilnadu.

2. Aim and objectives


The aim and objectives of the study is to find out the crop combination regions of Tamilnadu. The important objectives are 1. To study the principal crops and ranking of crops in Tamilnadu. 2. To find out the crop combination regions in Tamilnadu.
---------------------------*Corresponding author (email: gis.ramasundaram@gmail.com) Received on, March 2012; Accepted on May 2012; Published on August, 2012 1

A study on crop combination regions in Tamil Nadu, India using MapInfo and GIS

2.1 Study Area


The study area Tamil Nadu is located in the southern most part of India. It extends between 80 05 and 130 34 N latitude and 760 14 E and 800 21 E longitudes. It is bounded by Andhra, Karnataka on the north, Kerala state on west, Indian Ocean in South and Bay of Bengal in the east. It has an area of 1, 30,058 sq km and consists of 30 districts. The general slope varies from 150m to more than 3000m. The slope decreases from West to East. The important hill ranges of Nilgiris, Anamalai, and Agestia hills are located on Western margin. Next to Western Ghats Konga plateau Dharmapuri and Madurai plateau extents from Western Ghats and has many Undulating plains. The important hills of Eastern Ghats Shervorian, Kalrayan and Jhavad hills are found in Dharmapuri and Salem district. The vast coastal plains found on the east and it extends Shervoraiyan between 50m to more than 100 km wide.

Figure 1: Map showing the study area

3. Methodology
The data regarding the location eastern of Tamilnadu collected from topographic maps. The data on agricultural land use, principal crops soils climate, vegetation, drainage and population of Tamilnadu. Were gathered from the statistical department and from agricultural department located in Chennai and also from state websites. The data collected were processed and analyzed by using simple statistics the results are
M.Ramasundaram et al., Int. Journal of Advances in Remote Sensing and GIS, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2012

A study on crop combination regions in Tamil Nadu, India using MapInfo and GIS

cartographically represented Weavers (1954) crop combinational analysis and Rafiullahs (1956) maximum deviation method of crop combination analysis. Were applied and crop combination regions of Tamilnadu is brought out through using MapInfo, GIS software modules.

3.1 Crop combination regions in Tamilnadu 3.1.1 Introduction


Cropping pattern is closely linked with the stage of agricultural development and is considered as a measure of agricultural development of the area. In the present study an attempt has been made to identity the crop regions in the state to understand the existing cropping pattern. The important crops of food and non-food crops have been used for the analysis. The % area under these crops has been arranged in descending order and using combination analysis identifies the crop regions. The analysis carried out at district level. And Weavers method of combination analysis and Rafiullashs maximum deviation method are employed to identify the existing crop regions of Tamilnadu.

3.1.2 Ranking of crops


For the purpose of analyzing the crop combination ranking of crop on the basis of total cropped area where used t identify the ranking of crops which are dominates in one or more districts of the state. There are 12 crops occupies maximum percentage of total cropped area. Other crops are grown in combination with major crops. The first rank crop may vary from 100% to 40%. The 12 ranking crops are (i) Paddy (ii) Cholam (iii) Cumbu (iv) Pulses (v) Groundnut (vi) Sugarcane (vii) Cotton (viii) Turmeric. These crops have 10 macro crop combination regions. The following table No: 3.1gives the ranking of crops in different districts of Tamilnadu.

3.1.3 Crop combination regions


Application of Weavers method gives 7-crop combination for the state of Tamilnadu. The districts falling into different crop association of given are in table No: 3.2 and Fig No:3.1. According to this classification there are mono crop region and two crop regions in the state of Tamilnadu. The districts of Kanchipuram, Sivagangai, Ramnad and Nilgiris have mono crop region. Where Paddy is a single crop in the entire district except the Nilgiris where tea is cultivated as mono crop. Two crop regions are Thiruvallur, Tiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Madurai and Thirunelvelli, where Paddy, Turmeric and Pulses constitute to form two-crop combination. These two-crop combinations are found in coastal plains. Where irrigation facility are available. The climate and soils are best suited for these crops. These are the crop they are permanent crops and mostly crop rotation is mostly absent in these areas. There are 4 district has three crop combination. The constituent crops are Paddy, Pulses, Cotton, and Coconut. These all the areas falls on the upland and plains of Tamilnadu. The soils found in these areas are red soil and suited for cultivating these crops. Four crop combination is found in 3 districts of Tamilnadu in association of 6 crop of different combinations combined and grouped to make 4 crop combinations. Paddy, Pulses, Cholam, Coconut, Fruit and Vegetables and Sugarcane constitute to form combination. This type of combination is confined only in Eastern part of Tamilnadu. Here red soils with moderate retention capacity resulted diversification of crops. There are 8 districts have 5 crop combination. Crops like Paddy, Sugarcane, Cholam, Pulses, Fruits
M.Ramasundaram et al., Int. Journal of Advances in Remote Sensing and GIS, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2012

A study on crop combination regions in Tamil Nadu, India using MapInfo and GIS

and Vegetables, Cotton, Ragi, Groundnut, made 5-crop combination. The districts fall on this group is found in central upland area except Thanjavur where tank irrigation and rainfall are dominated factors in determining the crop combinations. Only two districts have 6-crop combination Ragi, Paddy, Cholam, Cumbu, Sugarcane, Cotton, and Coconut. Constitute 6-crop combination. These 2 regions found only on Northern part of Tamilnadu. Here variability of rainfall is very high and soil is red. This resulted diversification of crop in this area. 7 crop region is found in 2 districts of Tamilnadu in association of Paddy, Groundnut, Cholam, Cotton, Fruits and Vegetables, Sugarcane, Maize, Turmeric, Ragi, Coconut, Pulses, Cumbu are combined and grouped to make different combination in these two district. These combinations are mainly found in dry areas where deficiency of rainfall is noticed.

3.2 Rafiuallahs crop combination regions


The defect over generalization in Weavers method of crop combination is rectified through the method adopted by Rafiullah (1950). The insignificant crops are avoided from being brought in to crop combination by applying maximum deviations method. 4 crop combination regions in Tamilnadu and are plotted in the following figures and tables. Single crop or monoculture dominance is found in 17 districts out of 28 districts of Tamilnadu.

Figure 1: Weavers Crop Combination


M.Ramasundaram et al., Int. Journal of Advances in Remote Sensing and GIS, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2012

A study on crop combination regions in Tamil Nadu, India using MapInfo and GIS

Figure 2: Crop Combinations

Figure 3: Rafiuollah crop combinations


M.Ramasundaram et al., Int. Journal of Advances in Remote Sensing and GIS, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2012

A study on crop combination regions in Tamil Nadu, India using MapInfo and GIS

Mono culture of Paddy, Groundnut, Pulses, Fruits and Vegetables, Cumbu are found in most of the district out of 17 blocks Paddy is cultivated as single crop. Pulses are dominant in 2 districts and Groundnut, Fruits and Vegetables is grown as mono crop in Theni district. Two crop combinations are found in 8 districts of Tamilnadu and are found in coastal areas and on upland areas of Tamilnadu, where Paddy and Turmeric, Pulses, Ragi, Groundnut, Paddy and Pulses formed in 2 crop combinations Tiruvarur and Madurai. Paddy and Turmeric constituted two-crop combination in Kanchipuram, Thiruvallur and Villupuram. Fruits and Paddy formed in Nilgiris 3 crop Paddy, Cholam, Cotton, Fruits and Vegetables, Pulses grouped to form 3-crop combination region. Paddy Cholam, Cotton constitutes 3 crops in Trichy. Only one district of Tamilnadu, Nagapattinam has 4-crop region. Paddy, Pulses, Sugarcane, Coconut constitute 4 crop combinations. This region experience very high rainfall has well drained alluvial soils. Table 1: Weavers crop combination regions

Crop combination region Mono crop combination

Crops P,F

District name Kanchipuram, Sivaagangai, Ramanathapuram, Nilgiris. Thiruvallur, Thiruvarur, Nagapatinam, Madurai, Thirunelveli Cuddallore, Coimbatore, Tiruchirapalli, Kanniyakumari Thiruvannamalai, Pudukkottai, Villlupuram. Salam, Namakkal, Erode, Karur, Perambalur, Thanjavur, Theni, Thoothukudi. Vellore, Dharmapuri Dindugal, Virudunagar.

2 crop combination

PT,PT,PPu,PPu,PF

3 crop combination 4 crop combination

PuPC,CoCP,PCCo,PCF GPPuS,PGFC,PTCCo PGFPuC,GFPPuC,PGPuFS, CPCoGS, PFGCCo,PCPSF, FPCCoS, CTFPCo GPPuSFC, PRFGPS FCPMPCG, PCPCoChCG

5 crop combination 6 crop combination 7 crop combination

Table 2: Rafiullah Crop Combination Region in Tamilnadu

Crop combination region

Crops

District name Cuddallore,Vellore,Thiruvanamalai, Salem,Namakkal,Coimbatore,Erode, Karur,Perambalur,Thanjavur,Theni,Dindugal, Ramanathapuram,Virudhunagar, Sivagangai,Thoothukudi, Kanniyakumari. Kanchiepuram,Tiruvallur, Villupuram,Dharmapuri,Pudukkottai, Tiruvarur, Madurai, Nilgiris.

Mono crop combination

Pa,G,G,P,G,Co,Pa, Ch,Pa,Pa,F,F,Pa, Pa,Pa,Cu,Pa. Pa,T Pa,T Pa,TP,R Pa,G Pa,P Pa,P F,Pa

2 crop combination

3 crop combination Pa,Ch,C, Pa,F,P Tiruchirapalli, Thirunelveli. 4 crop combination Pa,P,S,Co Nagapattinam. Note: P- Paddy, Ch- Cholam, C-Cumbu, R-Ragi, Pu-Pulses, F-Fruits and vegetables, G-Groundnut, TTurmeric, S-Sugercane, Co-Coconut, M-Maize, T-Tobacco.
M.Ramasundaram et al., Int. Journal of Advances in Remote Sensing and GIS, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2012 6

A study on crop combination regions in Tamil Nadu, India using MapInfo and GIS

4. Summary and conclusion


The change in the cropping pattern and introduction of crop in relation to agro climatic condition can provide high standard of productivity. To determine the region character of crop distribution various method of analyzing cropping pattern is made to bring out the regional dominates of crop. The study area Tamil Nadu located in southern most part of India experiences tropical monsoon climate. The state receives maximum rain fall during North East and South West Monsoon seasons with the availability of fertile soil like alluvial, block cotton and red soil variety of crops are cultivated. Nearly 50% of the total geographical area in Tamil Nadu is under cultivation. Forest occupies about 18% and other use occupies the rest of the area. The principal crops such as paddy, Cholam, ground nut sugarcane and pulses are cultivated. The analysis of area under different crops revealed that the paddy dominates as single crop in most of the district in Tamil Nadu. The ranking of crops data shows that paddy, ground nut, cumbu, cholam, fruits and vegetables cultivated as first crop in most of the districts. Out of 28 districts paddy is the mono crop in 17 districts followed by ground nut in 3 districts fruit and vegetable 3 districts. Turmeric, pulses, ground nut fruit and vegetables constituted to form 2 crop combination and as second crops in most of the district. According to Weavers method of crop combination analysis there are maximum of 7 crop combination region are in Tamil Nadu. To conclude, the analysis of crop combination and their association reveals that there are diversified cropping pattern in Tamilnadu. Mostly 4-5 crop combinations are identified in Tamilnadu. According to Weavers method of analysis there are 4-5 crop combination regions in Tamilnadu where as only 2 crop combination is dominance in Tamilnadu according to Rafiullahs method of crop analysis. By applying Rafiuollah technique crop combination region of Tamil Nadu is brought into 4 combination regions. Mono cultural is dominated in 17th district of Tamilnadu followed by two crop region 8 districts. The analysis shows that there is no diversification of cropping pattern in most if the districts of Tamilnadu expect the centre and eastern part of the state. The crop like paddy and pulses constituted as two crop region in Tamil Nadu.

5. References
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M.Ramasundaram et al., Int. Journal of Advances in Remote Sensing and GIS, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2012

A study on crop combination regions in Tamil Nadu, India using MapInfo and GIS

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M.Ramasundaram et al., Int. Journal of Advances in Remote Sensing and GIS, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2012