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The desire to make large parts, take large reductions, use high-strength materials, work to net shape (precision flashless closed die forging), and use cold forming to obtain certain physical properties all re uire high forming forces. These forces may be larger than the capacity of e!isting machinery. Some possible solutions are" #. $. &. (. *. +. design larger machines, use inertia forces to allow smaller machines to do the %ob, take many small reductions, as in superimposition of ultrasonic 'ibrations, impart locali)ed deformations, use high-energy-rate forming, such as e!plosi'e forming, and use modeling methods to identify the optimal condition to minimi)e forming forces.

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